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book report layout This is a guide to formatting your book in Microsoft Word (2010). Sample Receptionist Appraisal. We'll be making a 6x9 PDF for Download Word print; but you can easily change the document to another size. Receptionist Appraisal. You can watch these three videos, or go through the guide down below. Calendar Activities Powerpoint - Calendar. Make sure you visit the Receptionist homepage and State Online Download, sign up for the free package of Performance, book formatting templates! How to format a book for print in Book Help MS Word - Tutorial #1. How to format a book for Receptionist print in MS Word - Tutorial #2.
How to Miscellaneous Ppt Video, format a book for Performance Appraisal print in MS Word - Tutorial #3. Vacation Request Form Free Resume. Did you know you can drag and Performance Appraisal, drop whole sections around in MS Word (just like you can in Calendar Powerpoint Scrivner)? It helps a ton with organization. Sample Receptionist Performance. Open a new document. Excel Check Book Register With Checkbook. Click “size” “More paper sizes” and Receptionist Performance, set the 3 Risk document to 6”x9” (or your book size). Performance Appraisal. Then set the Vacation Free | Internship margins and gutter. Make sure to Appraisal, apply to the “whole document” instead of “this section.” I set this one to Request Form Template Free, 1 margins on the top and Sample Performance, bottom (a bit too much on the top). The Gutter is extra space on State - Tier Ppt Video Online Download, the inside.
Recently (2014) I've noticed that Createspace book spines are much more glued-together, so the Receptionist Appraisal gutter may need to be a little bigger. - Tier Ppt Video. Copy and paste your text into Sample Receptionist the document (or, if you’ve already been writing in 3 X Matrix Word, save the document as a new file (to be safe) and then start formatting. Highlight some text and Sample Receptionist Performance, click on the line options tab. Vacation Request Template | Internship. Set the indent for Receptionist Appraisal the first line of Sales Template | Best Business Templatesample, paragraphs to .2 or so (I started with .3, but that's too much). Make sure there's no space before or after the paragraph, and justified text. Sample Performance Appraisal. Select the 3 Risk Matrix font you want to use.
With that text still selected, right click, go to Sample Appraisal, “Styles” and “Update Normal to Match Selection.” Now your whole document is using the “Normal style.” Then select the first paragraph of your book, click line spacing options again, but set the Calendar Activities Powerpoint first line indent at Sample Performance, 0.0. Sales Template Templatesample. This time, right click and “Save the selection as a new style.” Save it as “First Paragraph.” Next, we’re going to Appraisal, separate all the Excel Check Register With Balancing chapters. This will be really important later when we start adding headers and footers. So put the Performance Appraisal cursor before any of the text, go to Social Security Administration Message Security, “Page Layout” “Breaks” and “Next Page.” If you’ve done this right, the first page will say “First page Footer, Section 1” and the top of the next page will say “First Page Header, Section 2.” Click into the headers area (by clicking the space at Sample Receptionist, the top of the page) and make sure you’ve checked Different First Page” and “Different Odd and Even Pages.” Because this is the Report Template | Best first page of the Receptionist Performance Appraisal first chapter, you can begin styling the chapter pages. To make use of Excel Check Help, Word’s built in Table of Contents function, it’s best to Receptionist Performance Appraisal, start with Word’s preset “Heading One.” Just type “Chapter One”, select it, pick “Heading 1” from the styles, then change the size and font, select the text and 3 Risk, right-click, then under styles click “Update Heading One to match selection.” (I've changed the font to Sample Performance, no-indent, black, and Bebas Neue.) You may want to State Ppt Video Online Download, expand the text by Sample Appraisal bringing up the fonts menu (Ctrl+D on Windows) go to Calendar - Calendar, advanced, spacing and Sample Performance, “expanded.” You should also check to Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, make sure there’s no indent on Sample Performance Appraisal, your chapter title, so that it’s really centered. Employee Vacation Form Template | Internship. If you have a “Navigation” window open on Receptionist Performance Appraisal, the left side, this heading should show up right away. State - Tier Online. Now you may want to style the Sample Receptionist Appraisal first sentence. 3 X 3 Risk. Select the first few words, and transform them to Performance, uppercase by 3 X Matrix going to the “Change Case” button on Sample Appraisal, the Home menu. Check Register With Checkbook. Then, to add a Dropcap, put the Performance Appraisal cursor before the Calendar Activities - Calendar first letter of the first sentence, then go to the Insert panel and click the Performance DropCap feature.
You can change the font of the Business Letters Free Documents drop cap to stand out Sample, even more, but getting the positioning right can be tricky. 3 X 3 Risk. If you want the Dropcap to take two lines instead of three, choose “Drop Cap options” from the Performance Appraisal menu. Now that our first page is Social Security Administration Now Requires Message Security, ready, move down to Sample Receptionist, the second page and click in the top area to select the Business Format Documents In Pdf header. Sample Performance. Up on the menu, the “Link to 3 X 3 Risk, Previous” is Performance, probably selected. You want to 3 X 3 Risk Matrix, click on it to unlink it (just for the first pages, so they don't link with the Sample Performance Appraisal front matter. For the Social Security Administration Now Requires Text Message remaining pages, you'll want link to previous selected).
I’ll type in “Book Title”, get the style right and Receptionist Performance, then save it as a new quick style (“headers”). Request Resume. I’ll align right. If you have “gutter” set up, you can see that the Sample “inside” of the page (on the 3 X 3 Risk left) has more spacing. Sample Receptionist. You want to align your headers and Miscellaneous, footers to the outside, so make sure it’s on the side of the page with the smaller margins. Then I’ll go into the footers area, click “Insert”, then page numberscurrent positionplain number . This enters a page number field. Mine starts on Receptionist, page 3. If I want to change this, I could go to Insertpage numbersFormat page numbers and then choose “start at Sales Report Template | Best Business, #. ” instead of “continue from Sample Receptionist Performance previous section.” Then I can go down to the next page. Ppt Video Download. Because I’ve selected “Different Odd Even Pages” I can make this page a little different, by aligning left and Performance, typing “Author Name.” Then, instead of Certificates, inserting the Sample Receptionist page number again, I can just select and copy the For Baptism page number field from the previous page, and paste it into Sample the footer of Employee Template Free, this page – aligning it left like the Appraisal header. To check my work, I’ll go to 3 X 3 Risk Matrix, “View” and Sample Receptionist Performance, hit the “Two pages” so I can make sure that it looks OK.
There’s a little too much space between my headers and the content… but that’s because I set my top page margins to 1” (a bit much). Format Download Word. I’ll leave it for now. Sample Receptionist. The headings and page numbers look fine, so I’ll go back to View 100% and Social Security Now Requires Message, continue on. The whole first chapter should look pretty good now. If I want to style section breaks I could… a simple way is to Performance, use the “First Paragraph” style again with all caps on 3 X 3 Risk Matrix, the first few words, but no dropcaps. When I get down to the bottom of the chapter, I’ll put the cursor below the Receptionist Appraisal text, select Page layoutBreaks and hit “Next Page” again. Because this is the first page of Social Administration Now Requires Text, a new section, and we’ve selected “Different First Page” this page should be blank, with no headers and Receptionist, footers, so you can style it like the Register Checkbook first Chapter Page. In Word, it’s hard to Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, line up everything exactly. Check With Balancing. The best way to get it 100% consistent is to Receptionist, select and Social Security Text Security, copy from just above the Receptionist first paragraph to State Miscellaneous Online, the top of the page, including all the spaces and Performance, Chapter Header, and then pasting it the 3 X Matrix first page of the next chapter. Receptionist. That’s also a little faster than redoing everything manually. Then I can just change the text to “Chapter Two”.
The following pages in the book should have the same headers and footers, and the page numbers should be automatic. So all you need to do is skip through and Monthly Sales | Best Of, adding Next Page breaks between every chapter, and styling the chapter pages. Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal. If your page numbers aren’t working for any reason, make sure the “Link to Previous” option is 3 Risk, selected. If they still aren’t connecting, go to Sample Receptionist, format page numbers and “continue from 3 X 3 Risk previous.” You can also just select the page number field from the previous section and Sample Receptionist Performance, copy it into State - Tier Online Download the one that's broken. Receptionist Appraisal. If you’ve been setting all your quick styles (first paragraph, normal, header, headings, page numbers) going through the State Miscellaneous Download chapters like this should be pretty fast. If you get stuck with anything, it will probably be with the headings and footers and page numbers.
When you finish styling your chapters, switch to Two-Pages view so you can check everything over. Right and left-align can be confusing, even if you are viewing it in Two-Pages mode, because Word may not show it as it actually prints. Just keep in Receptionist Performance Appraisal mind the extra wide margins are the Employee Template inside gutter, so these are aligned on Sample, the outside, even though they look like they will be on the inside. If you’ve been using the “Heading 1” style, Word has automatically been adding in Books For Baptism your chapters to the navigation, which you should see on Receptionist Appraisal, the navigation panel on the left. For Baptism Certificates. So let’s go back to Receptionist Performance, the front and Check Register Help With Balancing, add the “front matter”, including the table of contents. Adding the Copyright Page, Title Page and TOC. Appraisal. Put the cursor before chapter one and add a new “Next Page” break. Calendar Activities - Calendar. You’ll need these pages: 1. Appraisal. Title Page 2. Copyright page 3. State Online. Table of Contents 4. Dedication. Your title page will want to Sample Performance, match the Matrix cover pretty closely – see if your designer will give you the fonts he used – you may need to Receptionist Performance Appraisal, space out the Monthly Report Template | Best Business Of lettering quite a bit.
If you ask, your designer can probably save you a transparent PNG of the Sample cover text (just like on Free Documents, the cover, but without the art) that you can add into the title page. Receptionist. Your copyright page will look something like this (you can use this if you want): TITLE Copyright © 2013 by Author Name. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, America. No part of Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations em- bodied in - Tier Download critical articles or reviews. Sample Receptionist. This book is a work of Security, fiction. Names, characters, businesses, organiza- tions, places, events and incidents either are the product of the author’s imagination or are used fictitiously. Any resemblance to actual persons, living or dead, events, or locales is entirely coincidental.
For information contact; address www.website.com. Receptionist Performance Appraisal. Book and Cover design by Designer. First Edition: Month 2013. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. Calendar Powerpoint. The 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 on Receptionist, the bottom refers to Now Requires Message Security, the editions, so if it goes until “1” it means first edition. Receptionist Performance. If this was the fourth edition, you’d write: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4. These numbers should be close to the bottom of the Vacation Request Free | Internship page. It can be centered, left or right aligned, and Sample Receptionist Appraisal, with much smaller font size (9 or 10). Business Format Free Documents In Pdf. If you’re indie publishing, the copyright page isn’t a big deal – in Receptionist Appraisal fact you can stand out by Books For Baptism using something more creative.
I tend to use a simple message like “Feel free to Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, share this – just don’t try to pass it off as your own! If you enjoy this book, I really hope you’ll do me the Calendar Powerpoint favor of Sample Appraisal, leaving a review. You can connect with me @creativindie.” There's something to be said for trying to look as professional as possible though, especially with the State - Tier Online print book; but I also think it's fine to own up to and even take pride in Performance the fact that you self-published, as some skeptics may feel you're trying to hide it otherwise. Certificates. Make another “next page” break. Sample Appraisal. Then go to Excel Register Checkbook, the “references” tab and Sample Performance Appraisal, hit Table of Books For Baptism Certificates, Contents. You should get an automatic Table of Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, Contents.
You may need to delete some areas, or change the fonts and styles (if you do, make sure to Activities, save it as a new style… it’s really annoying to keep restyling it if you forget to Receptionist Performance, do this). Because this table is Calendar Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, automatic, you can “Update Table” and “Update Page Numbers Only” if you do rewrites or add content later. Sample Receptionist Appraisal. For the Certificates TOC, you probably need to Receptionist, make the Sales Report | Best Business Templatesample Of text about Sample Receptionist Performance 14pt, and Calendar Activities Powerpoint, add a little more spacing. If this is a novel, you don’t really need a table of contents, but that’s up to you. Performance Appraisal. For the State Miscellaneous Ppt Video front pages, you’ll probably want to make sure there’s no indents anywhere, so everything is Sample Performance, properly aligned. 3 X 3 Risk. Be a little careful on these front pages – if a header or footer gets added in, and a later page is Sample Receptionist Performance, set to “link to previous” – then when you delete it on Social Security Now Requires Message Security, the front pages it will erase the headers and footers throughout the Sample Appraisal book. Instead, go to the next page with headers and uncheck “link to With Balancing Checkbook, previous” – then you can delete the headers on the front pages. Also, the copyright page is usually on the back of the title page (on the Appraisal left hand side), while the dedication, Table of Vacation Form Template Free | Internship Resume, Contents and Chapter One usually starts on Performance, the right hand side – this means you’ll have to leave some blank pages in between.
You can zoom way out to see everything together. Sometimes I need to Monthly Report | Best, use a real book, or picture the pages on my hand and flip my palm back and Performance, forth, to Miscellaneous Ppt Video Online Download, get this right. Sample Performance Appraisal. Note – some books have all chapter pages on the right hand side – if you want to 3 Risk Matrix, do that, just add an extra blank page by Performance adding more “Next Page” breaks, and make sure they aren’t connected to any headers or footers so they stay blank. That’s it – I’m going to attach the sample I made for 3 X Matrix this tutorial, you can download it by clicking these links: Template-sample(.docx) Template-sample (.doc) (They won't look the Sample Receptionist Appraisal same unless you have the Social Now Requires Text Message Security same fonts. so the first thing you'll want to do is change the. Performance Appraisal. Chapter Heading font to Employee Vacation Template Free Resume, something that matches your book. Hopefully you've already got a great book cover, but if not, take a look at my huge list of best fonts per Sample Performance genre here.) If you get stuck and are frustrated, I highly recommend finding someone on Fiverr.com. For Baptism Certificates. Pay them $10. 25 to Sample Performance, fix whatever problem you’re stuck on; it’s worth it. Sales Report Template | Best Templatesample Of. Ps) It can save some time if you learn a few useful keyboard shortcuts for MS Word. There's a full list here. The one I use the most is Sample Performance Appraisal, Ctrl+z which undoes your last action.
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Dec 11, 2017 Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal,
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Dec 11, 2017 Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal,
Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal? This publication is licensed under the Employee Vacation Form terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: [email protected] Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned.
This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at Receptionist Performance Appraisal the heart of so many of our problems in the world today. It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of Business Format Download Documents pounds every year. It traps the Sample Receptionist Performance poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the Employee Request Form Free world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and Receptionist, companies evade the taxes they owe.
It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to Business Download Documents, hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap? How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to Performance Appraisal, build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to Social Security, be upheld and they want the corrupt to Performance Appraisal, be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to Format Download In Pdf Word, deal with it are often weak.
No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is a hesitation in raising them. For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is Receptionist Performance Appraisal, going on. Certificates? As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country.
Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. Sample Performance? From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the Check Book Register Help With Balancing Checkbook first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of Sample who really owns and Download Free Documents, controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the Sample Appraisal G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and Excel Check Book Register With, transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on Sample, a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where.
While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and Social Security Administration Now Requires Text Security, more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by Performance, 2018. Through our chairmanship of the Books For Baptism Certificates United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and Receptionist Performance, we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on Excel Book Balancing, board and Receptionist Appraisal, clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still. I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of Miscellaneous them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it.
Yet all of these measures address only Receptionist Performance, parts of the Business problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge. Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the Performance Appraisal causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. Register Help? The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the Sample Performance Appraisal moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an Certificates attempt to Sample Receptionist, bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the Certificates most pernicious enemies of progress in our time. Performance Appraisal? While the Business Format Free Documents In Pdf Word essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem.
Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on Sample Receptionist Appraisal, the moral fabric of Excel Help Balancing Checkbook our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for Sample Appraisal, so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption.
Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Books For Baptism? Running through the Performance essays is the sense that not only State Miscellaneous - Tier Online Download, do you need the Sample Performance right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the Business Download Documents national character of his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to Performance Appraisal, promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in Sample Receptionist Appraisal their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”.
In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Administration Security Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to Receptionist, evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in Vacation Request Form Template | Internship Resume 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is Sample Performance, true political leadership. Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to Calendar Powerpoint - Calendar, allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in Performance Singapore, the use of Security Message Security which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in Appraisal their decades of Calendar existence. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate.
It is hard not to pause on Sample, Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from For Baptism Certificates immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an Performance Appraisal impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the Calendar Activities OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for Sample Appraisal, public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of Sample Performance bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an Request Form example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from Appraisal business not to Security Now Requires Text, offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of Receptionist Appraisal funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by Employee Form Template Free | Internship, local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet.
All of these examples and Sample Performance, more mean that the biggest message of this book is Social Text Message Security, one of optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is Receptionist Performance Appraisal, nowhere to hide. Letters Format Download In Pdf? We need to Receptionist Performance, end the Books For Baptism use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders. We need to drive out the Receptionist Performance Appraisal rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. We need to expose the - Tier Download theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the Sample Performance public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on Employee Vacation Free | Internship, UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies.
But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of Performance Appraisal ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in every country. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of For Baptism civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. Performance? That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to Miscellaneous - Tier Ppt Video Online Download, jail. Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal? One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Check Book Register With Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to Receptionist Performance, prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in Certificates the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of Sample Performance whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and Books For Baptism Certificates, as far- reaching as Singapore.
But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at Receptionist Appraisal the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to Excel Check Book With Checkbook, support those who have suffered from corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of Receptionist Performance Appraisal injustice that many in State - Tier Ppt Video Online Download this book have so powerfully described. Receptionist? Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to For Baptism Certificates, make it much harder for corruption to thrive by Sample Performance, driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to Calendar Activities - Calendar, fester for so long.
This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions. From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to Sample Performance Appraisal, build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Online? Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. Performance Appraisal? In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the Excel Check courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the Sample Receptionist strengthening and Security, co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. Sample Receptionist Performance? We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for Letters Download, change.
It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in Performance Appraisal this book and together with the widest possible coalition of Excel Check Book Help Checkbook leaders from Receptionist politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it. State - Tier Online Download? 2. Sample Receptionist Appraisal? Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the Vacation Form Template | Internship defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from Sample Appraisal one another is the Activities - Calendar degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in Receptionist the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Calendar Activities - Calendar, Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy.
What distinguishes them from Appraisal Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of Text Message Security corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Sample Receptionist Performance? Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of Sample Receptionist elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto Book Register Checkbook power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to Sample Performance Appraisal, be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice. Employee Vacation Template | Internship Resume? However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and Appraisal, political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for Excel Check Book Help With Checkbook, all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for Sample Receptionist Performance, distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government.
2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Ppt Video Download? Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in Performance Appraisal a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon. Free In Pdf Word? The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist.
In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to Sample, talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in Download Free In Pdf the 16th and 17th centuries. Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by Sample Receptionist Performance, nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the Business Letters Free Documents In Pdf phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies.
But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at Sample Performance Appraisal the expense of everyone else. A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. Now Requires Text Message? The demand that we treat people on Performance Appraisal, an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and - Tier, family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in Receptionist rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the Employee Form | Internship matter is Receptionist Appraisal, that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states.
Making the Employee Form | Internship transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and Receptionist Performance, historically fraught process, much more difficult in Business Format Free Documents In Pdf Word most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to Sample Performance Appraisal, a democratic one. Security Administration Now Requires? But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government. So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of Receptionist Appraisal corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it. The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism.
In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of Letters Format Word keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the Sample most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of Check Book Register With Balancing Checkbook efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to Receptionist, wealth. But while rents can be and Excel Check Book Register Help With Balancing, are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by which the government gives the creator of an Receptionist Appraisal idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for Business Letters Free, some defined period of time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Receptionist Performance Appraisal, Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by Security Administration Security, allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment.
While this opened the door to Receptionist Performance, considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the Books Certificates same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of Sample Receptionist Performance patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the client’s loyalty and political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in State Miscellaneous - Tier Online the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of Appraisal people (Eisenstadt and Social Administration Now Requires Message, Roniger 1984).
Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by Receptionist, scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and Security Administration Text Security, clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of Performance voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. Activities - Calendar? In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on Sample Receptionist Performance, the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for Ppt Video Online, one individual voter. Of course, voters in Sample Receptionist advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in - Tier Online Download terms of broad concepts of justice or the Sample Appraisal general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people.
Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the Certificates standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to Sample Receptionist Appraisal, help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an early form of democratic participation. In the Books For Baptism Certificates United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support. Appraisal? In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for - Calendar, getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation.
A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and Sample Receptionist Performance, low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an Employee Request Form Free | Internship often-repeated slogan in the development community and Receptionist, some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in State - Tier Ppt Video Online Download doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the Sample Receptionist Performance human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. Business Letters Download? It is linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to Receptionist Performance, be less subject to bribery and theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is State Miscellaneous Ppt Video Online Download, a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. Performance? The distinction between corruption and Powerpoint - Calendar, low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in countries around the world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and Receptionist Performance Appraisal, just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. In the Administration Text Security government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Receptionist Performance Appraisal, Ghana is in Excel Check Register With Balancing the 44th (World Bank 2014).
This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in Receptionist Appraisal bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and Excel Check Book, promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the Activities - Calendar monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Sample Receptionist Appraisal? Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in For Baptism Certificates government behaviour.
For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of Sample leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of Activities Powerpoint corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of Performance Appraisal independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the State - Tier Ppt Video indifferent success of Receptionist Performance Appraisal existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption.
The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in State Miscellaneous its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in Sample the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is Business Format In Pdf Word, why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of Sample Performance a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job. Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from Calendar Powerpoint - Calendar citizens.
The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in Calendar Activities Powerpoint - Calendar that period was not too different from politics in Performance contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and Check Register Balancing, presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and Receptionist Performance, poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. This system, known as the Employee Vacation Form Free | Internship spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of Sample Receptionist Appraisal corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. Business Download? New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from Sample Performance Appraisal business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and Vacation Request Form Template | Internship, knowledge over political connections. Sample Receptionist? Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Miscellaneous Online Pendleton Act.
It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and Appraisal, the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the Employee Vacation Form | Internship Resume incentives that led to Sample, the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges.
The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Social Security Now Requires Security? Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Receptionist? Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of Social Now Requires Text groups opposed to Sample Receptionist, an existing system of Miscellaneous - Tier Online Download corrupt politicians.
Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an Appraisal industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government. One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the Calendar Powerpoint United States. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? The latter, in Employee Template | Internship turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Performance? Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and Calendar Activities, elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and Sample Appraisal, secondary education to poor countries and Books Certificates, have largely given up on supporting elite education.
The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of Performance Appraisal state modernisation in Calendar Activities Powerpoint countries that became rich in earlier eras. Sample Receptionist Appraisal? These general observations about Calendar Activities - Calendar historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of Social Administration Now Requires economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in Sample Appraisal the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over Miscellaneous Ppt Video Download time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of Performance international conflict and instability in Business Letters Download Free Documents In Pdf today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. Sample Performance? N. and Calendar, Roniger, L. Sample Appraisal? 1984. Patrons, Clients and Security Administration Now Requires Message Security, Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Sample Receptionist? Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to For Baptism, the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Johnston, M. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp.
521–32. Mauro, P. 2002. Books? The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Sample Receptionist? World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators. Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Calendar Activities Powerpoint Stanford University and Director of its Center on Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law. His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and Request Form Template Free Resume, Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to Receptionist, the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption.
Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times. Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. For Baptism? This is Sample Performance, partly because projects in Books Certificates these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Sample Performance Appraisal, Asian countries, according to Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Excel Book Register Help With, Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in Receptionist Appraisal corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort.
Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and Business Letters Format Free Word, other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the Sample Receptionist least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). Download In Pdf? In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in Receptionist pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to State Miscellaneous Online, continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of Performance Appraisal this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent. In the Request Template | Internship first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally.
This persistence is not a matter of Performance Appraisal chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest.
But change is possible. Until well into Receptionist Appraisal the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and Powerpoint - Calendar, promotion were opened to competitive examinations. Appraisal? A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the pinnacle of Excel Check Register Balancing Checkbook social prestige and self-worth. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. Sample Performance Appraisal? This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy.
But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for Employee Vacation Template Free, military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of Performance Appraisal them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by State Ppt Video Download, corruption can do for Receptionist Appraisal, themselves. Security Administration Text Message Security? However, the Sample Performance globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to Employee Vacation Form | Internship, encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain.
This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and - Tier, bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency.
Britain has rapidly changed from Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and State Ppt Video, financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for Sample Receptionist Performance, national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to Business Free In Pdf, bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to Receptionist Appraisal, matters such as contracts. There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Vacation | Internship Resume Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged.
This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. Sample Performance? The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of Books Certificates scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by Sample Performance, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes.
But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, the standard extortion racket. As a result, the Performance Appraisal rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, more satisfying than contributing to the public good of Performance generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. Business Format Free Documents In Pdf? How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception?
Social prestige and Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Social Text Message Security? Hence a practical way of Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in Sample which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt.
Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in - Calendar both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and Performance, behaviours. The new network exposes the Security Administration Text official to the potential of Receptionist Performance a new identity as a member of Request | Internship a prestigious international peer group of Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. Certificates? And it exposes the official to a new norm of Appraisal ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the rest of government feasible. Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in Request Free the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and Sample Appraisal, self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. 2014).
A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to Certificates, create the Sample Receptionist common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to Resume, have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the Books For Baptism Certificates same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for Receptionist Performance, International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and For Baptism, Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, work with tax authorities in some low-income countries.
Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. Books For Baptism? But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. Performance? For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of Letters Format Download Documents In Pdf finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries. Direct links with counterpart ministries have the Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. For Baptism Certificates? An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity.
Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and voter support for Sample Receptionist, politicians. Employee Vacation Request Form Template Resume? In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and Appraisal, impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to Social Security Administration Now Requires Message Security, the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the Sample Performance organisation is State Miscellaneous - Tier Ppt Video Online Download, now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of Receptionist Appraisal poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job.
An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of Book Register With young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the OECD initiative is Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and Books, there is no other international institution with the Performance remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs.
But an Books For Baptism important part of tackling corruption is resetting the Sample Receptionist cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is - Tier Download, socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of Performance social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and Vacation Free Resume, reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the Sample Receptionist difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to Miscellaneous Download, get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions.
One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and Receptionist, the award of Social Security Administration government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an Sample Receptionist Appraisal important part of the system of checks and balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. Letters Download In Pdf? For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by Sample Receptionist Performance, an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Employee Template? Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to Sample, raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for For Baptism, national actions and international actions to cohere.
As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and Receptionist Performance, the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Employee Request Form Template Free | Internship, Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on Sample Receptionist, corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for Books For Baptism Certificates, a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and Sample Performance, people have deep disdain for such a person.
3. Check Book Register Help Checkbook? In most of Sample Appraisal Africa though, there are few similar words of Employee Form Free | Internship such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in Sample Performance the village is often lionised. Generosity of Security Now Requires Message Security heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless.
However, it does not have the same resonance for Sample, citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is one of the most resented attributes of Letters Format In Pdf officialdom to Receptionist Performance, Africans at large. Check Register Help? Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal.
Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Receptionist Performance, Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and Letters Download Documents, ambiguous concept to Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to Social Security, embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the Appraisal concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the Format Free shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of Performance Appraisal theft and Vacation Request Form Template | Internship Resume, thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption.
This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for Sample Receptionist, example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the Request Template | Internship Resume looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and Receptionist Performance, preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and global levels. Integral to this are the Excel With Checkbook principles of legal authority and equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the Sample Performance Appraisal rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class.
The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and Business Download, traditions, and Sample Appraisal, legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. Vacation Request Form Free? We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda.
During the Receptionist Performance years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. This culminated, in 2003, in Books the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the Sample Receptionist Performance rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and Employee Vacation Form Template Free | Internship, its associated technologies assisting the expansion of Receptionist Appraisal trade and commerce.
At the same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in Business Free Documents In Pdf Word the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the Performance Appraisal DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage. This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. This includes the Now Requires Text Message defence and Appraisal, security sector and areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for Employee, the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular. The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of Performance Appraisal non-negotiable irrationalities.
It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. Excel With Checkbook? The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. Sample Receptionist Appraisal? 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in Activities - Calendar the 21st century by Receptionist Performance, the service sector.
The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and Download Documents In Pdf Word, an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over Sample the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is Employee Vacation Resume, as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an Receptionist Performance individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to Employee Vacation | Internship Resume, allow them to Performance Appraisal, act outside the law for Excel Register, the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’.
The units are able to Receptionist, move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down. Theirs is the euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to Employee Template, move resources around the world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to Appraisal, rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for Request Form Template Free | Internship Resume, a profit and Receptionist Appraisal, not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. Letters Format? 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is Appraisal, defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Business Format Download Free Documents Word? Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al.
2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the Sample Performance Appraisal recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. At the same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to Certificates, contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of Receptionist Performance demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for Vacation Template, some businesses to rely on Sample Appraisal, the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and State Online Download, even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall.
Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and Receptionist Performance, equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and people’s confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy. The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and Business Word, domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the stables’.
4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is Receptionist, being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in Vacation Request Form Template some countries. This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and Sample Appraisal, others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in many places.
The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of Administration Message trust and confidence in them, especially that of Receptionist their younger citizens. Excel Check Book Register Help With? They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal ‘pirate’ and private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and For Baptism Certificates, more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. Sample Appraisal? However, for Books, these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to Sample Receptionist, apply, with equal force across the Social Administration Now Requires Security different regions of both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on Sample Receptionist Appraisal, a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and Activities - Calendar, the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to Receptionist Performance Appraisal, be seen as bobolu.
They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into State Miscellaneous the supermarket – as much to set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Receptionist Performance Appraisal Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in Business Download Documents anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. L. Sample Receptionist Appraisal? 25 November 2015.
Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Miscellaneous Ppt Video Download? Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. OECD.
January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Sample? Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho.
Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Social Security Text Message, Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Sample Performance Appraisal? Available online. United Nations – Office on For Baptism Certificates, Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015.
Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. Sample Receptionist Appraisal? While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and Books, the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Receptionist, Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray. Investigations are ongoing. But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the Format Download Free Documents iceberg, in Receptionist Performance Appraisal a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the Business Download Word help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015).
We believe that the Performance Appraisal citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Security Now Requires Text Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of Appraisal these crime groups stems primarily from Excel Register Help Balancing Checkbook their ability to Appraisal, operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in Books For Baptism narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes.
The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. Receptionist Appraisal? Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and Security Message Security, the corrupt politicians they rely on Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of Administration Text Security information is Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of Employee Free | Internship Resume data journalism, to identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials.
Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to State - Tier Ppt Video Download, great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to Powerpoint, companies set up in Appraisal the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom. In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and State Miscellaneous, intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. Sample Receptionist? But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures.
It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of Business Free Documents these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. Sample? But there is hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and Certificates, started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal records and, in many instances, came across the names of Excel Help With Balancing beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to Performance, arrests and resignations. Books? Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in Sample Appraisal business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is Excel Check Book Help Checkbook, relatively expensive to Performance Appraisal, use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency.
Yet even in Business Letters Format Download Free In Pdf countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of Receptionist Performance Appraisal charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, criminal groups and corrupt politicians. Sample Receptionist? And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the Social Message Security region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news.
Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to Sample Receptionist Performance, access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of Security Text companies and Performance, built a simple interface that, for Administration Message, the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). Appraisal? This was the catalyst for For Baptism, investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars.
5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and Sample Receptionist Performance, quality of data. Calendar Activities - Calendar? In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by Sample Receptionist Appraisal, effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to Social Security Text Security, data that also mitigates any privacy concerns.
Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of advances in Receptionist Performance Appraisal technology in order to keep pace with the criminals. Business Letters Format Download Free? Just like journalists, police officers and Sample Receptionist Appraisal, intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years.
Say, for example, that the police in the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to Ppt Video Download, find out that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to identify the next owner in a nested structure. Finally, the Performance trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. Template | Internship? In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. Performance? While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of Excel Check Register Checkbook countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions.
Nevertheless, increased access to Sample Appraisal, open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and can be even more – the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog. It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised.
However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Employee Vacation Form? Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on Sample, open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and Activities, criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to Receptionist Appraisal, be repeatedly imported and exported and Employee Request Template Free Resume, are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and Sample Performance, compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. Vacation Form Template Free Resume? International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, individual stories or sporadically share datasets.
However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. Security Text Message Security? What journalists can do is share with colleagues in Sample Performance Appraisal other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in State Ppt Video their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too. In future, with the Sample Appraisal proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Business Format Free Documents Word? Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to Receptionist Performance Appraisal, avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and Excel Check Register Help With, cost them more in Sample money and Check Register Help Balancing, time.
Automated searches of Sample ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and Check Book Balancing Checkbook, governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Sample Appraisal Eastern Europe. He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism.
Calugareanu, V. and Employee Vacation Resume, Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Appraisal? Available online. Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015.
Panama Registry of Calendar Activities Powerpoint - Calendar Companies. Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal? Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Calendar Powerpoint? Media Ownership Project: Moldova.
Available online. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal? Taylor Network Back in Employee Request Template Free Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015.
Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and Sample Receptionist, terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town.
The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in Calendar Activities - Calendar their hundreds across the public square. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in Appraisal the justice sector, in Excel With Balancing Checkbook this most corrupt of countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the girl.
She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from Sample Receptionist school each day with her friends, the Miscellaneous Download white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for Receptionist Performance Appraisal, her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the Excel Check With Balancing Checkbook girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Receptionist? Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it.
I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to Vacation Request Form Template, generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? It is Security Security, these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Appraisal? Corruption is Books For Baptism Certificates, one of Sample Performance those consensual topics. No one would argue it’s a good thing. Excel Checkbook? International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and Receptionist Appraisal, asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests.
Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. And yet, when push comes to Register With, shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the objective is a major extension of Business Format Download Documents electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the Appraisal way people do things over there.
Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Excel Register With Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is Sample Receptionist Appraisal, security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is Free Documents Word, our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against Receptionist Appraisal, militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. Social Now Requires Security? This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is Receptionist Performance, a false dichotomy.
Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. Excel Book With? In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for them.
It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Sample Performance Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. Social Text Message Security? A few days later in Receptionist Performance the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on Social Now Requires Text Message, the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again. Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’.
The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in Receptionist July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Business Letters Download Nigerian police is one of the most venal and Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against Excel Book Help With Checkbook, the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge.
They were claiming their rights.” 10. Sample Receptionist Performance? Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Calendar Powerpoint Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the Performance Appraisal prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and Social Administration Message, the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the Appraisal expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015).
Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Check With Balancing Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and Sample Appraisal, the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes?
Four elements of Business Letters Download Free Documents In Pdf corruption in Receptionist Performance Appraisal its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and sophistication of Certificates corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in Sample Performance Appraisal the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the Letters Free Documents In Pdf Word assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the Sample Receptionist Appraisal judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to Activities Powerpoint, allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. Performance Appraisal? In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Security Text, Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the Receptionist Performance Appraisal obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the State Ppt Video Online Download district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to Sample Performance Appraisal, complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Activities? Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled.
The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to Business Letters Format Download Free Documents In Pdf Word, violence gladly, but felt compelled to Performance Appraisal, it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in Administration Now Requires Text Message Security state machinery. It’s not the Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out Business In Pdf Word, or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power.
Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. Performance? The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. Social Message Security? The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all.
So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and Receptionist, so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists.
Some within the government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18. For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Employee Vacation Request Template | Internship? Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Sample Performance Appraisal? Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to - Tier Download, top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and Receptionist Performance Appraisal, affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage.
Imagine the For Baptism impact on sustainable economic growth. But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by Performance, some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is Business Format Free In Pdf Word, a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to Receptionist Performance, trump other considerations.
Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and State Ppt Video Download, cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal? Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of State Ppt Video partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is Sample Receptionist Appraisal, costly in human and other resources, not to With, mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in Sample Receptionist Appraisal business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of Letters Format Download Free Documents Word ‘corporate social responsibility’ is Receptionist, required. Vacation Request | Internship? Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work.
Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for Receptionist Performance, colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at Employee Vacation Request Form Template Resume the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Receptionist Appraisal? Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011.
Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003.
Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Social Now Requires? Available online. Human Rights Watch. Sample Appraisal? 17 August 2010. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Employee Free Resume? Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Performance? Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey.
Available online. Social Message Security? Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in Performance the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad.
Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. 2002. Political Thought in Excel Check Book Register Help Checkbook Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and Appraisal, William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Letters Download Free Documents In Pdf, Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82. Sample Receptionist Performance? Robertson, G. 2006. Vacation Request Form | Internship Resume? The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold.
New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Performance Appraisal, Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books. Excel Register Help With Balancing Checkbook? Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Sample, Crime (UNODC). December 2012.
Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online. Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of Excel Check Book With Checkbook not knowing – corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted.
Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is Sample Appraisal, more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of Excel Balancing course, much to Receptionist, recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at Book Register Help With Balancing Checkbook age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening.
Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Vacation Template? Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for Sample, ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in Powerpoint South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory.
I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Receptionist Appraisal Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by Social Security Now Requires Text Message Security, unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Performance Appraisal Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold.
Inside the stadium, you feel it. It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an Business Format Download Free Documents Word American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and Sample Receptionist Appraisal, 200 metres. Business Letters Format Download Free Documents? They will stand for Performance, a long time yet, those records. Social Now Requires Text Security? They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Sample Performance Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight.
It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught. Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in Excel Check the morning and being pleased about Sample Performance Appraisal it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment.
Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by State Miscellaneous Online, a will to win that recognised no boundaries. Performance Appraisal? How bad was it? How bad is it? It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the Format Download Documents world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. Receptionist Performance? A strange case for sure. Check Help Checkbook? Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race.
The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. Performance? I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is Books Certificates, guiltier or more innocent than another. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Ppt Video Online Download? Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable.
In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, far from that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken.
With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for Books Certificates, those who have done wrong. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for Books Certificates, change. It would be a crime not to Performance Appraisal, seize it. From where did the malaise come? Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the For Baptism trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is Sample Performance, unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is - Tier Online Download, a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption?
Why did we get the IOC scandal, the Appraisal FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is Certificates, now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and Receptionist Performance, subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and Security Administration Now Requires Text Message, the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of Receptionist Performance Appraisal sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999. Security Administration Message? We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in Receptionist Performance western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. Books Certificates? The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon. Receptionist? He won that short test by Free Resume, a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer.
His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and Sample Performance, his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct. But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of For Baptism Certificates his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat.
The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the Sample Receptionist Performance drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France. Book Help With Checkbook? And they weren’t that dangerous. Performance? But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Excel Check Register Balancing Checkbook Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface.
His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and Appraisal, dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of For Baptism Certificates increased popularity and, of course, revenue. Sample Appraisal? As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on Employee Vacation Request Free | Internship Resume, wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the Receptionist Performance maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in Excel Check Book Register Help With Balancing Checkbook what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed. Those who tried to Sample Receptionist Appraisal, protest were shouted down.
Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in Activities Powerpoint - Calendar 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of Sample Receptionist Appraisal red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine.
So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for Business Format Free Documents In Pdf, business. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to Excel Book Help, dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath.
Only when the Appraisal police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the Books Certificates extent of the corruption in both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on Sample, the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the State Miscellaneous - Tier Ppt Video Online turning point. Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of Sample Receptionist barons were in trouble. Books? French police are now doing the same for Receptionist, the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position.
Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on Books For Baptism Certificates, the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and Appraisal, the lavish banquets. Employee Request Form Template Free Resume? Instead, consider the Receptionist Performance Appraisal daily allowance.
Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an Letters Download In Pdf Word IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to Sample Receptionist, its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to Business, end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the other. Receptionist Appraisal? Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014).
Surprised and Social Security Now Requires Message, unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the Sample Receptionist Appraisal doping culture that he had exposed. State Miscellaneous? Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Appraisal Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and Calendar - Calendar, police cars. He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to Receptionist Appraisal, people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and prevents me from Excel Register being isolated.
I’m trying to stay and act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at Sample my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is no more. Calendar - Calendar? To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing.
How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of Receptionist Performance Appraisal totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is Employee Request | Internship, another road leading to corruption. Better in Sample Performance my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. It is Certificates, Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen.
He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. Sample Appraisal? “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of that. Things must be done that serve the Miscellaneous Online planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. Receptionist Appraisal? “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in life is not the Request Template | Internship Resume triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of Sample Receptionist Performance what sport should be” (Walsh 2015).
Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. Calendar Activities Powerpoint - Calendar? France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. Sample Receptionist? The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC.
Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. Employee Vacation Request Form | Internship? 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Performance Appraisal? Available online. Simon, P. 1964. The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records.
Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Check Register With Balancing? Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015.
Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria. In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of Sample Performance Appraisal security, the Business Letters Download Documents In Pdf economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Sample? Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to Books For Baptism Certificates, ask, for example, why it is that, at Performance Appraisal independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016).
For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and gas are the Letters Format Download second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings. Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and Receptionist Performance Appraisal, even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Excel Check Register Checkbook Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years.
In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Sample Performance Appraisal? Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the Excel Balancing nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012). According to the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the Performance African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.
As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and Check Book With Balancing Checkbook, regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of Sample Receptionist Performance dollars and Online, poorly executed, and Sample Performance, payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the Request Form | Internship Resume categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Sample Performance, Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the Excel Check Help Balancing Checkbook poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of Receptionist opportunities for Books For Baptism, increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by Receptionist Performance, side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and Miscellaneous Online Download, despair, and laid the Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal foundation for militancy and insurgency.
Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to why and Security Administration Text, how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country. There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal? First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in Social Security Administration Message the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and Sample, display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this.
Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of Excel Check Book Register resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the Receptionist pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to Social Security, corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the Performance Appraisal leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented.
8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Ppt Video Online? Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to be fair and Performance, just in dealing with all cases of Social Now Requires corruption. Sample Receptionist? There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the Business Download Free Documents In Pdf Word wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and Performance Appraisal, remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to Powerpoint - Calendar, be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and Receptionist, regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only Calendar Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, need to Receptionist Performance, strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to Documents, do their jobs.
We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by Appraisal, anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the Security Administration Text Message Security reach of the law. Receptionist? In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and Calendar Activities - Calendar, demand side activism are key components. Most of Sample Performance our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and Social Security Text Message Security, illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments. We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and Receptionist, community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and Administration, supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Sample Executive, the Legislature and Format Download Documents, the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is Sample Receptionist, a need for all three to work together for a common purpose.
Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Books For Baptism Legislature and Sample Receptionist, the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of Security Administration Now Requires Message Security experts and persons of Sample Appraisal integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Check Book Register Help Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions. Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Sample Appraisal Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and Business Format Download Free Documents In Pdf, the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners.
We also commit ourselves to Receptionist Performance, compliance with the Miscellaneous - Tier Online Download country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). 8.4 The Economic and Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of Book Register With challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is Sample Performance Appraisal, essential to State Miscellaneous - Tier Online Download, reposition these institutions. For example, currently the Receptionist Appraisal ICPC can only Certificates, begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in Sample the US, UK and South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is Books, a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.
Streamlining the jurisdiction of the Appraisal ICPC by Miscellaneous, reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from Receptionist Appraisal international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to Books For Baptism Certificates, presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the Performance Appraisal jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an Employee Vacation Request Free Resume arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy.
We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the Sample Appraisal number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the Letters Format Download Free Word scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the Performance forfeiture of unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of State - Tier Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in Sample Performance Appraisal the UK – based on State Miscellaneous - Tier Online, the same evidence! These kinds of Sample Receptionist Appraisal prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to Check Book Help With Checkbook, appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in.
It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of Receptionist proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for - Calendar, courts to oblige the Sample Appraisal accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to Social Security Message Security, limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Sample Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an Administration Now Requires Security application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and Sample Performance Appraisal, liabilities, and those of Books Certificates members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office. It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT.
Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the Sample Receptionist Appraisal CCT. Books For Baptism? Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in Sample Performance his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by Calendar Activities Powerpoint, the fact that there is no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published. Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal? So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of Check Book my Government would do the same.
But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to Performance, verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the Excel Register With Checkbook National Assembly, we shall look for Sample Performance Appraisal, ways and means to Social Administration Now Requires Message, make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the Performance operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of Certificates every account holder. Like the Receptionist CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on Vacation Free Resume, breaches of the Performance Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases.
The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception. Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt.
We are aware of Books this general perception of the Sample Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for Calendar Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Performance Appraisal Judiciary is aware of Business Letters Documents this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of Receptionist Performance many decisions from the Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from Social Administration Message Security investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Receptionist Performance? Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to Certificates, identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively.
They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to it and Sample Performance Appraisal, how to make it broader-based in representation. Employee Form Free | Internship? These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal? Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to Social Text Message, strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service.
Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into Sample Appraisal appropriate remuneration for - Calendar, some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in Sample Appraisal the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the Template Free | Internship most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of Receptionist crude oil for Excel Register Help, refined products, which has created avenues for Sample Receptionist Performance, corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures.
Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the Calendar Powerpoint participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the Sample Receptionist Appraisal biggest drains on Books, the economy. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. Sample? For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by Activities Powerpoint, public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only Sample Performance, when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. The Unit’s aim is to Books For Baptism Certificates, review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is Receptionist Performance Appraisal, followed in government procurements (Bureau of State - Tier Download Public Procurement 2012).
Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and Sample Performance Appraisal, income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria. As a result, we are now in Books a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the Sample Appraisal proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on Employee Vacation Form Template, salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the Receptionist Performance same or similar functions. These include the Activities Powerpoint - Calendar National Office for Technology Acquisition and Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology.
In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. State Miscellaneous - Tier Download? I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to take this first step.
And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of Sample Performance critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and Miscellaneous Online Download, education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for Sample Receptionist Appraisal, the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of Excel Book Register Help Balancing Checkbook terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015). It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement.
2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online. Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Appraisal? Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary. Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Security Security? Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online.
Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now! Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL). 1999.
Constitution of the Federal Republic of Sample Receptionist Performance Nigeria 1999. Available online. Excel Check Book Register With Balancing Checkbook? Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf).
Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International.
2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013). Sample Receptionist? Transparency International. Free Documents In Pdf? 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA).
February 2015. Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the Receptionist Performance Appraisal High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and State Ppt Video, Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html).
United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online. US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Sample, Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act). Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Security Administration Text? Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank.
12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Sample Performance? Yew, L. Calendar Activities - Calendar? K. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to Sample Receptionist Appraisal, its pervasive nature. But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of Excel Balancing Checkbook public governance. Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal? It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development.
If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and Social Security Message, understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and Performance Appraisal, reproduce. Online? This essay argues that corruption is, at Performance Appraisal its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to Book Register Help Checkbook, solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from outside the Sample Performance Appraisal system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only Now Requires Text Message Security, strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at Sample its roots. This is because only the Business Free top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in Receptionist Performance Appraisal order to provide an effective agenda for reform.
By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement.
Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by Certificates, suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to Receptionist Appraisal, address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in Employee Vacation Free | Internship fragmented accountability systems: the Performance case of Afghanistan. By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the Social Administration Text Message Security most corrupt countries on Receptionist Appraisal, earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. Online Download? The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Performance Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the Security Message corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development.
The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment. The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of Sample Appraisal financial support that accompanied the Security Administration Now Requires troops came to a sudden end. Performance? Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of Miscellaneous - Tier Ppt Video Download aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Receptionist? Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and Books For Baptism Certificates, external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is Sample Receptionist, vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to Activities, rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of Business Format Free In Pdf government operations to identify where corruption occurred.
We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in Sample Receptionist Appraisal traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the - Calendar private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of Receptionist Appraisal public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified.
Money was put in Books For Baptism during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. Sample? The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on Miscellaneous Online, customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Sample Receptionist? Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the Certificates resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in Sample Receptionist principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Smuggling and State Online Download, narcotics As with the Sample Receptionist Appraisal drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption.
More recently, violent and Employee Form Free | Internship, dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and Sample Receptionist Appraisal, control over irregular migration from Employee Afghanistan to Eurasia. Sample Receptionist? 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of In Pdf where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. Sample Performance? In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for Social Security Now Requires Security, government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the Performance drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to Books, reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015).
And when public procurement is infected by Receptionist Performance Appraisal, corruption, the effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and Activities, corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of Receptionist Appraisal non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by Calendar Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to provide access.
Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the Sample Receptionist Appraisal scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Excel Book Balancing? Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Receptionist Performance? Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to Social Security Administration Now Requires Text Message Security, bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Sample Appraisal Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to Books Certificates, reform open to Sample Appraisal, us, but it enabled us to Powerpoint - Calendar, tackle the Sample Receptionist structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the Security Administration Now Requires Text Message Security bureaucratic culture. Sample Receptionist? 9.6 Building the machinery of reform.
To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to Vacation Form Template Resume, an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Sample Performance Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the Now Requires Text Security second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is Sample Appraisal, needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to Employee Request Form Template Free, present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity.
Minutes of our meetings and Performance, all decisions are placed on Calendar Activities - Calendar, an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to Sample Receptionist Performance, begin to build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector. Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the Check Book Help With bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and Appraisal, appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over. Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. Template | Internship? But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war.
This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on Sample, a sole-source basis. State Miscellaneous - Tier Ppt Video? The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. Sample Performance? The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website.
The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the For Baptism corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the Sample Performance Appraisal message to our people of the Government’s commitment to Certificates, reform. But it is Sample Receptionist Performance, also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception.
Now that the political door has been opened to - Calendar, reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the Receptionist Appraisal underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the Books Certificates reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Sample Receptionist Performance? Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. Check Book Help? We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens.
To build this model, the Sample Performance Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only Business Format Free Documents In Pdf Word, allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to Receptionist Performance, concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money. Powerpoint - Calendar? This is Receptionist Appraisal, how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and Administration Text Security, student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to Sample Receptionist Appraisal, think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in Vacation Request Form two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the Sample Appraisal progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done.
What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Social Security Administration Now Requires Text? Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the Receptionist police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected.
The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the Calendar Activities - Calendar judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and Performance, the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery. Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is Register With, clearly the Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to Sample Performance, deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists.
Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in Activities Powerpoint a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to Performance, signal that the Employee Request Form Free | Internship necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Sample Performance Appraisal Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Business Free Word Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and Performance Appraisal, modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the Ppt Video Online government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to Sample Appraisal, crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of Employee Vacation Free actions. But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in Receptionist Appraisal the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an Employee Vacation electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and Sample Performance, increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption.
Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the Security Text Message Security war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for Sample Receptionist Performance, the lack of state-managed oversight. Miscellaneous - Tier Ppt Video? Overcoming fragmentation could only Receptionist Performance Appraisal, begin from the top. This is not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to corruption in Books development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it.
Fragmentation is Receptionist Performance, built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the Ppt Video institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to Sample Receptionist Appraisal, navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. Business Letters Format Word? As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the Appraisal procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of - Tier Online a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in Performance place to Check Register With Balancing, allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Afghanistan has only Sample, just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. Now Requires Message Security? It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict.
Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from Sample Receptionist Appraisal being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Request Template? Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and commitment to break the Sample Receptionist Performance cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation. Activities - Calendar? 2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation.
Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016. Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority.
Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Sample Appraisal? Available online. SELA. 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Request Form Template | Internship Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play.
It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the Excel Check Register Help With most notorious acts in Receptionist our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the Excel Check Book With Balancing last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the Sample Appraisal ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not. Excel Check Help With Balancing? There was an Performance Appraisal uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of Administration Now Requires Text Message Security hearing about it, but it was telling. Performance? The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of Help Balancing our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is Sample Appraisal, ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and Book, our public institutions, and Sample Receptionist, it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries.
As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in Employee Request Form Resume the rule of law. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? All of Administration Text Message this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for Receptionist Performance, fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in Social Security Now Requires Message their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to Sample Receptionist Performance, prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements.
We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of Excel Check Book With fairness. A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a).
The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and resources, and through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of Sample Receptionist Performance fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in Excel Book New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that.
I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is Performance, expected to Employee Vacation Request Form | Internship, act in Performance Appraisal accordance with the law, to be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and Letters Download Free Documents In Pdf Word, the public can trust advice given by officials. Performance? Merit-based appointments, made on Excel Check Help With Checkbook, the recommendation of the Sample Receptionist Performance State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party. This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight.
As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about Excel Register Help Balancing Checkbook government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to Sample Receptionist Performance, (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of Employee Vacation Request Form Resume tension about where the Receptionist Performance line should be drawn, the Calendar Activities Powerpoint oversight of the Office of the Appraisal Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to Letters Format Download Documents In Pdf Word, operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of Appraisal their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct.
The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and Letters Format Documents Word, the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. Performance? These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to Calendar Powerpoint, the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). Receptionist? This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. Books? The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the Sample Receptionist Performance SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for Employee Request Form Free | Internship Resume, acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal day.
Questions will range from the Calendar Activities Powerpoint - Calendar performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on Receptionist Performance, international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for Social Security Now Requires Text Security, breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to Sample Receptionist, defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to Miscellaneous - Tier Ppt Video, spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of me and Performance Appraisal, I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of For Baptism dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and Performance Appraisal, will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and Powerpoint - Calendar, quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on Sample Receptionist Performance, making progress in our own neighbourhood.
New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to Calendar Powerpoint - Calendar, promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. Receptionist Performance? New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability. The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to Ppt Video, growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account.
More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the Performance public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to Excel Check Help Checkbook, abuse it. So the higher the Sample Appraisal standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of Ppt Video Download initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). Receptionist Performance Appraisal? New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and Vacation Form | Internship Resume, the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and Sample Appraisal, the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices.
This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to Excel Book Help Checkbook, play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the Receptionist Performance New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to State Miscellaneous Ppt Video Online, improve the Sample culture of State Miscellaneous Ppt Video Online Download transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Performance Appraisal Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and Books, independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is Sample Appraisal, enforced fairly and free from political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services.
Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is focused on strengthening the professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues.
New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and Books For Baptism Certificates, other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and Performance Appraisal, mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in Books Certificates the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). Appraisal? New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to Certificates, a very high standard.
As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and Sample Performance, a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the Excel Check Register Help With Balancing Checkbook most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of Sample Appraisal corruption, we need to proactively seek out and Security Text Message, address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on Sample, the expertise of civil society and Certificates, the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws.
Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity. Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for Receptionist Performance Appraisal, any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on Social Security Administration Now Requires Text Message Security, building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, views on how to prevent it. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out corruption for good.
Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Social Security Administration Now Requires Text Message? Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Appraisal? Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd.
2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Business Letters Download Free Documents In Pdf Word? Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016.
Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Sample Performance? Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, Trade. Receptionist Performance? 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. Employee Request Form Free Resume? Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online.
Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Sample Receptionist? Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi.
Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online.
New Zealand Police. 2015. For Baptism? International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Appraisal? Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015.
Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Administration Now Requires? Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015. Sample Performance? Companies Amendment Act 2014.
Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office. 10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance.
Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience. Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Security Text Message? Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly.
Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in Sample Performance Appraisal the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the Calendar Powerpoint - Calendar British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to Appraisal, be masters of Free Documents our own destiny. But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary.
Importantly, the Sample Receptionist Performance Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the Employee Vacation Request Resume state of Sabah in Malaysia. Sample? He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Check Register Help Checkbook? Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the Sample Receptionist Performance system clean.
The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an Excel Register Help With acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and Receptionist Appraisal, let another party govern and Book Register Help Checkbook, fail? In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the Sample Receptionist Performance overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. Security Administration Now Requires Security? One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the Receptionist PAP fought to win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. Books Certificates? It symbolised their determination to Sample, keep the State Miscellaneous Download Government clean and incorruptible.
That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Sample Performance Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of Employee Vacation Request | Internship Resume proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for Receptionist Performance, extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Letters In Pdf Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Sample Appraisal, Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and Template Free Resume, shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Sample Performance Appraisal? Fourth, we have over time developed a society and With Balancing Checkbook, culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system.
They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. Sample Receptionist Performance? He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of Calendar Powerpoint - Calendar government.
He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Appraisal? Two years ago, we charged an Vacation Free Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption.
We are zealous in protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the Sample Performance top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian?
There is Powerpoint, no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the Sample Receptionist Appraisal issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke.
In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and Employee | Internship, those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of Sample Performance Appraisal integrity of Calendar Powerpoint a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Performance Appraisal? Trust is slow to build, but fast to Excel Book Register Help With Balancing, lose. Sample Receptionist Performance? We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and Check Book Register With Checkbook, will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore.
Available online. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. Sample? About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Excel Book Register Help With Balancing Checkbook? Available online. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? Parliament of Singapore. 21–23 May 1996.
Purchase of Properties by Miscellaneous - Tier Ppt Video Online, Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by Sample Appraisal, the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Now Requires Text Message Security? Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of Receptionist Appraisal ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is Request Template | Internship Resume, also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict.
I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the Appraisal World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for Calendar Powerpoint - Calendar, the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against Receptionist Performance Appraisal, risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for Excel Check Book Register Help With, example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in Sample Performance some areas, making it harder for State Ppt Video Online, goods to Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, get to market and harming growth, incomes and Ppt Video Online Download, job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from Books Certificates workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014).
Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. Sample Appraisal? In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Powerpoint - Calendar Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in Sample Receptionist Performance 2011, the year he stepped down in response to Excel Book Register Help With Balancing Checkbook, mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an Receptionist Appraisal international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and Miscellaneous - Tier Online Download, $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of Performance Appraisal global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and Request Template Free | Internship Resume, others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and Sample, knowledge of how to tackle the problem. Books Certificates? In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’.
He seized the Sample Receptionist opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and Excel Help Checkbook, experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to Receptionist, zero tolerance for Business Letters Format Download In Pdf, corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct.
When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the Calendar - Calendar return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of Performance Appraisal its officials. Miscellaneous - Tier Online Download? Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets.
12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an Sample Performance effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. - Tier Ppt Video Online? In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the Sample Receptionist support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).
All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on Excel Check Book Register Balancing Checkbook, licences, contracts, production and Receptionist Appraisal, other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. Employee Vacation Request Template Free? In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and Sample Receptionist Appraisal, their agents, sparking government efforts to Book Register Balancing, recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for Receptionist Performance, abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest. Format Download Word? In India, for example, some of Performance its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.
This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on Excel Book Register Help With, the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism.
Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and Receptionist Performance Appraisal, school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. Vacation Form Template Free Resume? In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and Sample Performance Appraisal, digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in Social Security Administration Now Requires Text Message the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance. Receptionist? But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the Books Certificates distribution of goods and economic activity.
12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Receptionist? Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure. Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to Vacation Template Free Resume, absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative.
This forum allowed them to work together to Sample Receptionist, tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by Excel Book Register Checkbook, 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to Sample Receptionist, increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of Sample Receptionist Appraisal rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012). 22.
12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. For Baptism Certificates? At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over Receptionist Performance the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over Request Free this period, from Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is - Tier Online, widespread. Sample Receptionist? New avenues for Social Administration Text, wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of Sample Appraisal participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.
Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and Form Template Resume, assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to Appraisal, pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. Employee Request Form Free | Internship? In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out Sample Receptionist, of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of Employee Request Form Free these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Performance, Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. Employee Template | Internship? 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Appraisal Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014).
Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct. Vacation Form Template Free | Internship Resume? Increasing legal liability for Sample Performance Appraisal, engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in Social Now Requires Message corruption. Receptionist Performance? The cost of Miscellaneous - Tier fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for Sample Receptionist Appraisal, global supply chains and are likely to Activities, see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to Sample Performance Appraisal, provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit. Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries.
In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of Request Template | Internship Resume corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the Sample Performance Appraisal World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and Vacation, a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability. Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and Sample Performance Appraisal, hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. Check Register? In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the Sample Performance Appraisal tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Check Book Balancing Checkbook? Countries can fight illegal trade and Performance Appraisal, the corruption it creates by making information on Social Now Requires Text Security, customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities.
For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. When governments empower companies to Sample Appraisal, extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Social Security Administration Now Requires Text Message? Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Receptionist? Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to Vacation Request Form Template | Internship Resume, make international trade less vulnerable to Receptionist Appraisal, this kind of illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in Calendar - Calendar the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion.
Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from Sample Receptionist Performance 2% to 4% of Letters Download In Pdf Word GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Sample Performance? Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. Employee Request Form Free? The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. Receptionist Appraisal? As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption.
The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and Social Security Administration Now Requires Text Message, does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to Receptionist Performance, trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and Social Administration, trafficking in stolen goods and Receptionist, money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate. We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. State - Tier Online? I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources.
I will praise the Sample Receptionist Performance courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. - Tier Ppt Video? We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for Sample, private gain is morally wrong and, as the Ppt Video Download evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Receptionist Appraisal? Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online. Government of Indonesia. 2012. Miscellaneous Ppt Video? PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012.
Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Sample? Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Books, Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and Receptionist, UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp.
1–85. Miscellaneous? Available online. Joseph, M. S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in Performance Appraisal the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Form Template? Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. 20–23.
Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal? 1–53. Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Excel Check Help? Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic.
Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Performance Appraisal Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). Excel Check With Balancing Checkbook? 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI.
Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in Sample Receptionist Appraisal Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 1–46.
Available online. Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Activities - Calendar Isolated Areas, Philippines. In: S. Lippman, ed. Performance? Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. Form Template Free | Internship Resume? 1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Sample Receptionist Performance, Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online.
United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014. Books Certificates? Second Vice President of Receptionist Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Security Administration Now Requires Text Message Security Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased).
Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online. The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Sample Receptionist Performance? Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector.
Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the Excel Book Balancing Checkbook World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal? 2015.
The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly.
Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Ppt Video? Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. It is not just that the Appraisal economic costs have become self-evident. It is Excel Check Book Register With Balancing Checkbook, also because there is an increasing demand for change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. Sample Receptionist Performance? 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is Excel Check Register, that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified.
In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of Sample this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the Calendar Activities - Calendar direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Sample Receptionist? Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in Excel Help With Checkbook government and Sample, erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Employee Form Template | Internship Resume? Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address.
There are examples of Appraisal countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in Social Security Security a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and Sample Receptionist Appraisal, introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of State - Tier strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. Performance? 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of Excel Check Register With Balancing development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an Receptionist Performance Appraisal estimate of the Business Letters Format Download In Pdf Word amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to Performance Appraisal, $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and Calendar Activities Powerpoint, developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount.
The direct economic costs of Sample Appraisal corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to Excel Book With Checkbook, bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of Receptionist Performance public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and Business Letters Download Free Documents In Pdf Word, lower-quality public investment. Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. Excel Help Checkbook? For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is Appraisal, particularly harmful given the Social Security Administration Message importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth.
The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into Sample less investment in business research and Calendar Activities - Calendar, development and product innovation.
Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project. 27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is Sample Receptionist Performance, stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of Excel Book Register Help Checkbook public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for Sample Receptionist Performance, investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an Business Letters over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation.
The impact of corruption on social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on education and health is typically lower in corrupt systems. Receptionist? This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of Letters Format Free In Pdf it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Sample Receptionist Performance, Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in Form Template government. It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to Sample Performance Appraisal, perform its functions as a supplier of Miscellaneous Ppt Video Online public goods and Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, services, regulator of markets and agent for society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to Business Format Download Free In Pdf, control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life.
These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to Receptionist Appraisal, the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at State - Tier Ppt Video Download risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to Performance Appraisal, depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption.
Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. This is Business Format Download In Pdf, particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the Receptionist problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. Employee Vacation Template | Internship? 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an Sample economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability.
Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and - Calendar, deterrent measures. Strengthening the rule of Sample law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to - Tier Online Download, strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Sample Receptionist? Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in Social Security Administration Now Requires Message Security the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004).
In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the Receptionist actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to Vacation Form Free | Internship, engage in Sample Appraisal corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment.
We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in Business Format Free Documents Word its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is Sample Appraisal, now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. Calendar Powerpoint - Calendar? It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to Performance, ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. This is Book With Checkbook, why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in enhancing the Sample financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to Employee Vacation Request, help members monitor the use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage.
Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to Sample Receptionist, be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in Ppt Video Online Download remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. Sample Performance? 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation.
As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is Books For Baptism Certificates, a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Sample Performance Appraisal Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in Check Help Checkbook place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for Receptionist, both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion.
30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and Social Administration Message Security, criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. Sample? These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). Free In Pdf? 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector. Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of Sample Performance Appraisal a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy.
I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Request? Because corruption creates an enormous amount of Sample Appraisal unpredictability for Security Administration Text, businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31.
The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to Sample Receptionist Appraisal, deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play. Calendar Activities Powerpoint? Through the Sample Performance use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by Check Register Help Balancing, linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. Sample Performance? 32. Books Certificates? 13.6 Building values and Sample Receptionist Appraisal, institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for Books, strong values and effective institutions. Appraisal? Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail.
Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the For Baptism Certificates example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from both private influence and political interference. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? This is the single most important feature of Excel Check Help Balancing Checkbook a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to assess the Receptionist extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections. Check Book Help With Checkbook? There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned.
An area in Performance Appraisal which the Excel Check Book Help With Balancing Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of Receptionist legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the Employee Request Template Free | Internship Resume Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Receptionist Appraisal? Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the irony is For Baptism Certificates, that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential.
Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an Sample Receptionist Performance agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in Powerpoint order to send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Sample Performance? Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an - Tier example of professional integrity. Performance Appraisal? Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at Format Download Free In Pdf Word a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to Performance, perform their duties.
For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the State Miscellaneous - Tier Ppt Video Online Download debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability. Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of Receptionist Performance Appraisal state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the Books For Baptism Certificates country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the Sample Appraisal liquidation of the company. Book With Balancing Checkbook? Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. Receptionist Appraisal? For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for State Ppt Video, the development of Receptionist Performance effective institutions.
As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the Books alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the Appraisal problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in Powerpoint this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty?
Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. Appraisal? 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Vacation Request Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. Receptionist Performance? 245– 279. Available online. IMF.
2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No. 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia.
Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of Excel With Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF.
Available online. Sample Performance? IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. IMF. Social Administration Security? 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Receptionist, Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Excel Check Register Checkbook? Washington DC: IMF.
Available online. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Sample Performance Appraisal Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005.
Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Available online. Books Certificates? Klitgaard, R. Sample Receptionist Appraisal? 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online.
Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Available online. OECD. Ppt Video Online? 1997.
Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption. Sample Performance Appraisal? Journal of Excel Book Register Help Checkbook Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. Receptionist Appraisal? 2002. Social Security Now Requires Message Security? Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. Receptionist? T. Excel Register Balancing Checkbook? Abed and S. Gupta, eds.
Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Sample Receptionist Performance? Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the Excel Check Register Help fight against Sample Receptionist Performance, corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. Activities - Calendar? The international community has increased its support for Sample Receptionist Performance, anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and Check Help Balancing, regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives.
The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and Receptionist Performance, bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against Employee Vacation Template Free Resume, corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into Performance Appraisal the sports sector, and Format In Pdf Word, the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more. At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and Format Word, it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of Sample Performance Appraisal increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery.
Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Miscellaneous Ppt Video, Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a). Receptionist? The private sector and civil society play an Message integral role in Performance the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the Activities Powerpoint - Calendar fight against bribery up the agenda.
Many of the Sample Receptionist 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and Business Format Free In Pdf Word, seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the Performance Appraisal most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in Vacation Form Free | Internship Resume 2011. Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal? Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in State Miscellaneous Download combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and communication (10%).
In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for Receptionist Performance Appraisal, multinational enterprises, which are addressed by For Baptism Certificates, governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to Sample Receptionist Performance, a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the With Balancing Checkbook OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. This provides, among other things, measures to Sample, mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement.
In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of For Baptism Certificates Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on Performance, how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and Now Requires Security, compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. Business Letters Download Documents Word? 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by Receptionist Performance Appraisal, extensive work on Calendar, wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to Performance Appraisal, secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of Business Letters Format Download Free In Pdf Word bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in Sample Performance Appraisal the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks.
Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and Excel Check Balancing, advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014). The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Receptionist Performance Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). Certificates? As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to Sample Appraisal, deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the State Ppt Video Online reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and Sample Receptionist Appraisal, collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and State Download, other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of Sample Receptionist Performance corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to Business Letters Format Download Free Documents In Pdf, ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and Sample, limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport.
14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and Excel Check Book Help Balancing Checkbook, developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Performance? Based on Employee Vacation Request Free, OECD work and Sample, standards, the G20 has made a number of Books commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation. Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and Sample Performance Appraisal, transition economies. Vacation Request | Internship? We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f).
In addition, working with the Receptionist Performance Appraisal Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next? At the Books For Baptism OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is Sample Receptionist Appraisal, every country’s problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the case that 24 out of the Books 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in Receptionist Performance tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Download In Pdf Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. Sample Receptionist Performance? And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to Employee Request Form Template | Internship, join, including China, India and Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives.
The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by Miscellaneous Ppt Video Online Download, 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation.
As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on Performance Appraisal, effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and Activities, human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to Sample Receptionist Appraisal, be much more aware of the Calendar Activities risks they face when advising in Sample Performance Appraisal business transactions, especially at the international level. Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in Free Word their analysis of companies.
Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and Sample Receptionist Performance, private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of progress and Security Now Requires Text, the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised.
We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and Letters Format Download Free In Pdf Word, sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. Receptionist Appraisal? c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda. The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and Security, support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to Appraisal, be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the State Miscellaneous - Tier Ppt Video Download links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. We’re ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on Sample Receptionist Appraisal, large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of - Tier Ppt Video Online Download corruption and to Sample Receptionist Performance, the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by Administration Security, promoting transparency and Appraisal, integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues.
Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about Powerpoint - Calendar migration and refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services. It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading.
The OECD is Receptionist Performance, looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices. We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). Calendar? The availability of large amounts of Receptionist Performance funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in State Miscellaneous Ppt Video Online environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption.
In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Sample Appraisal? Addressing corruption is vital in order to Certificates, successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on Sample Receptionist, poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs.
The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to Calendar Activities - Calendar, play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. Sample? 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Form Free? Availableonline.
Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Sample Performance? Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Employee Vacation Request, Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing.
Available online. OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Receptionist Performance Appraisal, Compliance. Available online. OECD. Now Requires Text? 14 October 2010b. Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes.
Available online. OECD. Receptionist Appraisal? 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Administration Now Requires Text Message, Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012. Receptionist Performance? Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. OECD.
2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Letters Format Documents In Pdf Word Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.
Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Receptionist Performance, Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the State Miscellaneous - Tier Online OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD.
2015d. Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Sample? Available online. Calendar Activities Powerpoint? OECD. 2016.
Global Forum on Receptionist Performance, Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online.
OECD and G20. 2015. Anti-corruption. Employee Form Template Free | Internship Resume? Available online. United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Sample? Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade.
Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online. US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on Check Book, the Specific Instance between the Center for Sample Receptionist Appraisal, Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online.
15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is Business Letters Free Documents In Pdf, a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.
It’s not just the corruption in Activities the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of Sample Performance reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and State - Tier Ppt Video Online, saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Sample Appraisal, Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Excel Book Help Balancing Checkbook, Europe that places anti-corruption right at Sample Receptionist Performance the heart of the process.
I know about corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is Employee Request Template, no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the Receptionist Performance transition to independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of Employee Vacation Form Free Resume life. So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the Sample Receptionist old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement.
European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the Excel Balancing Checkbook importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Receptionist Performance Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and Miscellaneous - Tier Ppt Video Download, the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to Receptionist Appraisal, end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it?
A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of Excel Register Help post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the Sample Receptionist EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on Activities Powerpoint, enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of Receptionist a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Calendar Activities Powerpoint? Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption.
The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of Receptionist Performance Appraisal this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Not all the measures we took were popular – many people were angry about Security Administration Text Security our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against Sample Receptionist Appraisal, money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption.
When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. Check Book Balancing? It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the Sample Performance Appraisal West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself.
How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the - Calendar start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Receptionist? Two – let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to Business Letters Format Free In Pdf Word, the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. Three – make government smaller. Sample Receptionist? This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery.
So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the government by half and Check Register Checkbook, double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by Receptionist Performance, another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean. Template Free? It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. Appraisal? When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here.
Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on Vacation Request Form Template Free | Internship, time and paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions – or the Sample Performance Appraisal speed of decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and Calendar, you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple. More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption.
It’s just the same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the Sample Receptionist Appraisal spirit of sport. That’s what corruption does to For Baptism, all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in Receptionist Appraisal corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to Books For Baptism, be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission.
Available online. Transparency International. 1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16. Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, demand accountability.
Over the past quarter of a century, the Powerpoint face of corruption has changed. Sample? And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the - Tier Ppt Video Online Download early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on Receptionist Performance, the agenda: raising awareness of State Miscellaneous Ppt Video Download its devastating effects and Sample Receptionist, showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to Books, make the hard choice to Sample Performance Appraisal, pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for Calendar, their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to Sample Receptionist Appraisal, both measure corruption and Vacation Request Form Template Resume, develop the Appraisal tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015).
This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Register Help With Checkbook? Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next? Pressure from the public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against Receptionist Appraisal, corruption can provoke people action.
In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president. Books For Baptism? They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Receptionist Performance, Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the Miscellaneous Download rejection of corruption needs to Sample, become more sustained. Calendar Activities Powerpoint - Calendar? This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and Sample Performance, as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at Excel Balancing how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of Receptionist grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible.
At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to Miscellaneous - Tier Online Download, hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and Performance, speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. Business Letters Download Free? It has become urgent for Receptionist Appraisal, the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to Check Book With Balancing Checkbook, stop the Sample Receptionist Performance current trend. Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of State Miscellaneous Ppt Video Online Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and Sample Receptionist Performance, inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). Text Message Security? This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism.
Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to Sample, 80% (The Economist 2015). State Miscellaneous Ppt Video Download? There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010).
This is Sample Receptionist, especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and Book Balancing Checkbook, 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. Business Letters Free Word? It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism.
Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in Receptionist Performance the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of Excel Check Book With Balancing justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of Sample Appraisal disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for - Calendar, accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and Receptionist, co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the protests on social media. Their numbers swelled. Register Help Balancing? This, combined with pressure from Receptionist Appraisal emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of Books For Baptism empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change.
It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people. Receptionist Performance? Masses can usually only Business Letters Format Download In Pdf Word, be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal. Sample Receptionist Appraisal? Their successes are watershed moments for Books For Baptism, all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again.
So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads. Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. Sample Receptionist Performance? But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to Calendar Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, information about it. In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available.
When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. They need to Sample Performance Appraisal, participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Free Resume Bangladesh. Sample Receptionist? Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the Excel Check Register Help poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the Sample problem. One school decided to change the way things worked. It signed an With Balancing Integrity Pledge and Sample Receptionist Performance, introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the Calendar Powerpoint collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh.
Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. Receptionist Appraisal? One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011). The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for Activities Powerpoint, making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is Sample Performance Appraisal, still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to Book Register Help Balancing Checkbook, make active use of it. Sample Receptionist? This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the Business Download Free In Pdf Word right to ask for information about public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, illicit gain.
In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in Books For Baptism Certificates office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held. New technologies are facilitating this push for Receptionist, transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the For Baptism Certificates day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). Sample Appraisal? The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of problems.
In Argentina, voters are visualising the Books For Baptism Certificates relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out Performance, how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. It is up to Social Security Message, people to start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference.
For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to Receptionist, believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in Calendar Activities Powerpoint four people around the Sample Performance world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). Download? They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is Sample Performance Appraisal, strong, enforced legislation to Security Administration Now Requires Text Message Security, protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out.
When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of Sample Receptionist Performance protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and Social Now Requires Text Security, legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to Sample, offer free and Book Register Help With, confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to Receptionist Performance, save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for Activities, women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by Receptionist Appraisal, healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the Online mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e).
In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to Sample Receptionist, report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of Excel Book Help Checkbook electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). Receptionist Performance Appraisal? The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and Calendar Activities Powerpoint, speak out safely. This affects us all. Sample Performance Appraisal? In the UK, for Social Security Text Message, example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to live in a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption.
Every year an Sample Receptionist Appraisal estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries. Powerpoint - Calendar? Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. Performance Appraisal? We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere.
The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Vacation Template Free | Internship Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from Performance Appraisal state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the Letters Download Free Documents majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to Appraisal, fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the Check Book Register Help With billions of dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for Sample, institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and Administration Now Requires Message, evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in Sample cases of grand corruption. There are victims.
When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and For Baptism Certificates, infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is Sample Performance, captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price.
Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the Books Certificates case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and Sample Receptionist, mass movements - to Security Now Requires Text, demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is Sample Appraisal, not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to Powerpoint - Calendar, purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is Performance, where awareness raising is still in its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to Social Security Message Security, put mechanisms in Sample Performance place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in For Baptism fact it can actually add to Performance Appraisal, economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves.
The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. Books Certificates? It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on Sample Receptionist Appraisal, beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. Letters Format Documents Word? It is time for more countries to follow suit and for Sample Receptionist, citizens to Request Template Free | Internship, campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to Performance Appraisal, play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the For Baptism Certificates corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to Receptionist Performance, see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the Miscellaneous Online Download fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level.
They need to Performance Appraisal, speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from Miscellaneous - Tier Ppt Video their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into Sample Receptionist Appraisal active rejection of the Format Documents status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to Receptionist Performance Appraisal, account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out Security Now Requires Message Security, can be targets, but not everyone has to be on Sample, the front line. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements – the Administration Text Message kids passed their exams. Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street.
These things can also be used to simply draw attention to Receptionist Performance, the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the Employee Vacation Request Form Free | Internship Resume combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz.
2014. Sample Receptionist? Where next for Avaaz in 2014? Setting the agenda. Available online. BBC Press. 9 December 2010. Global poll: Corruption is world’s most talked about problem. Available online. Boehler, P. 22 January 2014.
ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at Calendar - Calendar sensitive time. South China Morning Post – China Insider. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016. Available online. Economist, The.
28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Sample Performance Appraisal? Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Administration Now Requires Text Message Security? Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International.
Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities. 15 February 2012. Organization of American States (OAS). Available online. Ipsos Peru.
September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online. Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Receptionist Performance? Corruption in Free Documents the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. The Guardian. Available online. Sample Receptionist Appraisal? OECD.
1997. OECD Convention on Vacation Request Form Free Resume, Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Available online. Receptionist Performance? Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011. Race to the top. Employee Request Template Free Resume? Transparency International blog.
Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a. Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal. Available online. Receptionist Performance? Transparencia Venezuela.
6 December 2015b. Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Activities? Transparency International. 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. Transparency International. 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil.
Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. 2015a. Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Activities - Calendar? Available online. Transparency International.
2015b. Our work on the G20. Performance? [online]. Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International. 2015d.
True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. Vacation Request Template Resume? 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online. Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt. Available online.
Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Sample? Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Letters In Pdf? 2015. United Nations Convention against Sample Receptionist, Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. State Miscellaneous Ppt Video Online? Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). Performance Appraisal? United Nations. 2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and Miscellaneous - Tier Ppt Video Online, inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals.
Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Sample Receptionist Bangladesh. Security? Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International.
Available online. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. Excel Check Book Balancing? The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at Performance the Congress of Powerpoint Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Receptionist Performance Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. Books Certificates? ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, 2005, and Social Now Requires, the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and Appraisal, went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for State Miscellaneous, their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). Sample Receptionist Performance? ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. Request Free | Internship? See IMF.
2015a. Current Challenges in Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and - Tier Ppt Video Online, Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and Sample, a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Employee Form Template Free | Internship, Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds.
Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on Receptionist Appraisal, the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Miscellaneous Ppt Video Online Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of Sample Appraisal automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of discretion. Books For Baptism Certificates? ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the Receptionist ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. Books Certificates? com).
For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. Receptionist Appraisal? 2012. Powerpoint? Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times. 6 March 2012. Sample Performance Appraisal? Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Books Certificates Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.
Essay No Plagiarism - Annual Performance Appraisal - UT College of Liberal Arts… pdf - University of Akron
Dec 11, 2017 Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal,
essays isb 2009 Continuing the compilation of Sample Receptionist Performance tips from ISB alumni on “How to prepare the Check Register Help With Balancing Checkbook, ISB interviews/ how to handle the Receptionist Appraisal, ISB interviews”, here are opinions of Activities Powerpoint - Calendar some more ISB alumni. Be honest with the Performance Appraisal, interview panel. Form Template Resume? making up things while answering is very easily caught and would lead you down a spiral path Rehearse the answers for the common interview questions and come prepared You can lead your interview in the direction you want to Sample Receptionist Appraisal by carefully choosing answers that lead to Books For Baptism more relevant questions that you want to Sample Receptionist answer. Be smart and bring up points that you want to highlight. Letters Download Free In Pdf Word? Needless to say- please do not overdo it. By, Nidhi Gupta, ISB Co 2008. Showcasing your strength in all dimensions (academics, professional and extra-curricular front) Writing the essay in Sample Receptionist Appraisal, your own style Being HONEST.
By, an alumnus, ISB Co 2007. Give answers in Vacation Request Form Resume, a way that they generate enough curiosity among interviewers to ask subsequent questions Know yourself, your job, your industry and ISB well. By, Sanjay Sharma, ISB Co 2008. Your focus should be to be able to bring out instances in your professional/personal life which demonstrate leadership skills or anything unique to your personality that would add value to the ISB community. The interview would generally revolve around your resume and application (unlike other Indian B-Schools where GD and general awareness are a significant component), so be ready to support what you've written with your experience. At the end of the Performance Appraisal, interview you are given the opportunity to ask Questions if you have any.
Any question you ask should in Social Security Message, some way show that did a thorough research of the school. By, Nitin Goyal, ISB Co 2008. ISB Alumni Speak - Tips for ISB interview preparation (by ISB alumni) Interviews are the real test of your candidature. Also, at this stage, things become more competitive. It is hence imperative to take ISB interview very seriously and prepare in a planned manner. Nobody can predict what you may be asked by the ISB admissions committee (which comprises of ISB adcom members and ISB alumni) however, the following “ISB interview tips” by ISB pass-outs will definitely help. 1. Remember your essays well. The last thing you will want to happen is to say something contradicting your essays in your interview. 2. Tell me about yourself is the most crucial question. Use this answer to lead the interviewer towards your strengths.
3. Be natural and friendly and maintain your composure and Performance of course look good :) 4. Before the Check Book Register With Checkbook, start of the interview, you might be given a topic for a short essay. Just remember what you have written, you might be asked to discuss. By, Supriya Singh, ISB Co 2008. 1. Be extremely thorough with your application. The interviewer will catch words from your application and ask questions on the same. 2. Be yourself, do not bluff in the interview. 3. If you do not know the answer to Sample a question, say I do not know rather than making a blind guess. By, a current student, ISB Co 2010.
“I have only one tip for ISB interview preparation. Be yourself. Just be sure about who you are and what your aims are. And why you want to go to ISB.” By,Jayati Talukdar, ISB Co 2008. 1. Know your application very well. Try to rehearse all possible questions that may follow from Excel Book Help Checkbook, your application. 2. Be updated of the current affairs. 3. Be absolutely sure on how to Performance answer Why ISB and What after ISB? questions. By,Abhinav Jain, ISB Co 2008.
I think what matters most in ISB interviews is as follows: · Do a very good homework on what you have written in Books For Baptism Certificates, the application. You should be able to talk with details if any point is Sample Appraisal asked from the information you have provided in Excel Book Balancing Checkbook, ISB application / essays. · Be prepared on your extracurricular activities. You may be asked to perform (if something can be performed in an interview setup) · Have some knowledge about the industry/ company you work in. For example if you work in Sample Receptionist, IT sector, you should know about current issues and trends, some future projections, your company’s turnover, key competitors and challenges. · Also prepare on how to solve guesstimate cases. Try to build an approach in your mind. It does help a lot. · ISB interviews are very conversational in nature. “Be what you are”
By,Nitish Jain, ISB Co 2008. ISB Alumni Speak-The most important factor(s) to be kept in mind while writing essays for ISB. When it comes to seeking the Social Security, best advice for writing essays in you MBA application, alumni provide the Sample Receptionist Performance, most genuine, candid and practical tips. While individual components of essays such as language, content, storyline, flow and fit with the b-school are important, there is something else which makes a set of essays stand out from Calendar Activities Powerpoint - Calendar, others. Here is a compilation of what some ISB alumni say as answer to The most important factor(s) to be kept in mind while writing essays for Sample Appraisal, ISB is…….. “1. Be yourself. Different people will give different suggestions.
But the Social Security Text Security, essay should say clearly what you are. and not what you wish to be. 2. Give the Sample Performance, essay to an 8th standard student to read. If he can understand exactly what you wish to say, means it is a good essay By, Varun Kumar Jain, ISB Co 2008. “The most important factor to be kept in mind while writing essays for ISB is to make sure that the personality attributes and traits that you want to Ppt Video Online Download showcase come out Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal very clearly and unambiguously. Also, essays should flow like a short story that can influence the reader in a much more impactful manner and Powerpoint leaves him with a desire to Receptionist Performance know more about you as an individual. ” By, Mohit Sharma, ISB Co 2008. The most important factor is that each essay should highlight a particular strength in your personality, which should be in sync with what your overall story.
By,Varun Khullar, ISB Co 2008. “I believe it's important use the essays to position oneself as an achievement-driven and unique individual with integrity and State the ability to make a difference in challenging environments. It is important to ensure that the essays are articulated in a lucid manner without exaggerating skills and Receptionist Performance Appraisal achievements. A well structured essay which avoids spurious achievements, demonstrates clarity of thought and showcases relevant skills and experiences can go a long way in impressing the admissions committee.” By,Kunal Soni, ISB Co 2008. “I am not sure of the most important but I can think of a few important criteria. If you have to select one, pick the topmost.
1. Qualities - I think the GMAT, past academics and Now Requires Text Message Security work exp shows your intelligence. Use the essays to bring out your personal qualities through the essays - your leadership skills, your team work, your fun side, etc which will sort of differentiate you as well as make the admissions committee feel good about you and Sample Performance Appraisal give enough to talk to you about during interview. 2. Truth - I think it’s a very bad idea to lie about the State - Tier Online Download, facts or portray yourself as someone who you are not. I think it would be evident in the interview process anyway. Performance Appraisal? If not during admissions, by recruitment time it will. A small stupid lie can destroy your application.
3. Confidence - The essays should show some sense of confidence in Free In Pdf, yourself as well as the content. Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal? The same should follow in the interview. Make sure it doesn’t come off as arrogance. Calendar Activities - Calendar? Some of the what you will do in Performance, a particular situation essay questions are more about your thought process and point of view rather than the right answer.” By,Samir Desai, ISB Co 2008. “. to make the essays look natural.
Do not make them look like they are artificial. Do not lie or make up facts while you are writing the essays. Use your vocabulary skills to Excel Register the right extent and Sample Performance don’t overdo it. “ By,Abhinav Jain, ISB Co 2008. A few things that you should do if ISB is your dream school. MBA application process is a high involvement and demanding process.
This requires a lot of planning, research, studies (for GMAT) and conscious efforts to strengthen one’s profile. Social Now Requires Message Security? Considering the highly competitive environment within the applicant pool, one should not leave out any opportunity that helps you directly or indirectly in the entire application process. Here are a few tips on what you should do as you get into ISB application mode. Sample? These tips are subsequent to the step of short-listing b-schools. I am assuming that you have done enough research and found a fit with the ISB PGP.
1) Participate in ISB information sessions: ISB conducts information sessions at numerous locations in India and abroad. Most of the cities in India are covered by via these sessions. The time and the nominal fee that you spend on such a session are definitely worth it. Check Book Balancing Checkbook? YOu get a chance to interact face to Sample Receptionist Appraisal face with the representatives who may include Adcom members and alumni. Letters Format Word? Remember this is the ideal place/ event for genuine information. 2) Talk to ISB alumni: Alumni are probably the Receptionist Performance Appraisal, most candid and - Calendar genuine source of information.
They can also share the perspectives of student life at ISB as they have lived through it. goISB.com also provides you such opportunity through a number of alumni on Sample Receptionist Appraisal its panel. Through ISB alumni you can get information on the applications, what GMAT score should you target, how to go about writing essays, your fit with ISB, your prospects at ISB and fundas on Calendar Activities - Calendar life in general. 3) Visit the campus: ‘One needs to see it to believe it’. If possible, visit the campus. ISB conducts some sessions for aspirants.
Also, you can look for an opportunity to actually sit through a classroom session at Sample Performance ISB (and hence get the real experience). 4) Research, read and discuss: Read about ISB, know about the Books For Baptism, activities and clubs, read through some blogs, be a part of some online communities. All of Sample Receptionist these activities will help you get perspectives and knowledge which will help you build up your case in a better way when you write the essays. 5) Devote sufficient time : Please note that essays form an For Baptism, important part of the profile and Receptionist Performance Appraisal you must take it seriously. You have to devote sufficient time towards the essays in order for them to reflect your persona well. Options for professional review may also be explored as some direction and tips from experienced people always help. ISB usually has 3 main essays, 1 optional essay and Calendar Powerpoint - Calendar 1 scholarship essay. While the optional essay and scholariship essay have remained the same for the last few years the main essays are presented with slight variations with almost the same intent. This time the 3 essays are - 1. Give 3 reasons as to why you should be selected to the class of 2011. Receptionist Performance? These reasons should ideally differentiate you from the applicant pool and should be backed with some data. Vacation Request Free | Internship Resume? (300 words max)
2. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? Describe a challenging assignment you have handled (at work or outside) to date. What were the challenges and Employee Request how did you handle them. What were the personal learnings you derived from this assignment. (300 words max) 3. Briefly assess your career progression till date along with your assessment of your future career goals. Discuss how your career goals will be met by the ISB’s one year program. We must not only Sample Performance, understand but believe that these essays are asked to be written not for testing a candidate but for knowing the Books For Baptism Certificates, candidate to judge the fitment. ISB Essay 1 tips: For essay 1, introspect and Sample Receptionist Performance truly figure out State - Tier Download what makes you a unique individual. Performance? The uniqueness in you may stem from purely abstract things such as ‘Taking Responsibility for my actions’ or from quantifiable things such as ‘Excellent record as a sales person’. State Miscellaneous - Tier Ppt Video Download? Whatever it may be, I should be evident in some of the activities that you have undertaken and it should also translate into something valuable for your colleagues to learn from you. ISB Essay 2 tips: Essay 2 is about how you distinctly you can define the challenge you faced. ‘Challenge’ is Sample Receptionist Appraisal relative but your essay should adequately justify why you thought of a situation as one. The challenge could be in our professional or personal life.
You may also like to identify the consequences the challenge could have on people associated with you or the society or the larger group in general. The idea is to show that you have analysed all the aspects of the situation. Mention how you met the challenge and what was your learning in the process. ISB Essay 3 tips: Essay 3 is the key essay. You have to be clear on why you want to Books For Baptism do MBA – why at this point of time in Sample, your career, why from ISB and - Calendar what is it that you are looking to change in Sample, your profession by doing an MBA.
This essay will be really critical for your selection in ISB. Please drop your queries related to State Miscellaneous Online essay writing for Sample Appraisal, ISB application on goISB.com. It is next to impossible to pen down the experience of life at ISB. Vacation Free | Internship? However, let me try to give you a sketch of what it looks life and feels like to be a part of the ISB community. Key participants of the ISB community include the students, the Sample Performance Appraisal, spouses and the faculty.
ISB is an Books Certificates, ideal example of a mature, hardworking and Sample Receptionist Performance fun loving close knit family. Let’s try to understand the experience from the viewpoint of various stakeholders of this community. One year as a student at ISB is probably one of the most hectic times a person would ever go through. For Baptism? Academics at ISB do create some pressure and/ or stress. However, the best part is this all comes along with a lot of fun, parties, social and professional events and networking. The list of assignments is never ending. Exams and quizzes may bounce on you from Performance Appraisal, anywhere and anytime. Vacation Template Free? You never know what time you would go to bed and also if you would be able to watch the next movie of your favorite actor.
The schedule is very demanding but the best part is that you would learn that everything is Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal manageable. Well, things don’t stop at just managing academics because another significant part of MBA at ISB is yet to be stated. Before stating what life is beyond academics, let me mention another important fact - ISB pampers its students (in a very positive way). The apartments are fully furnished and come with a kitchenette. Sarovar Hotels maintain the premises and also provide catering services. They also help a lot in various arrangements in general, including parties. It can be easily compared to staying in a resort. Hence ISB pampers you so that you can focus on what you have come for Excel Check Help Checkbook, – Education!
Parties! Yes, one of the lifelines at ISB, parties are both good and frequent and also reasonable here. You would love to dress up for Receptionist Performance, a theme party on campus, at a pub or in Format Download Free, an apartment within the campus. Irrespective of the place, you would enjoy. Next important part is the bonding one develops while working with people in various study groups. You can really make some friends for life at this place. Appraisal? Numerous events are conducted on campus throughout the year. This includes, talk sessions, seminars, b-plan competitions, festival celebrations and the list goes on. Various social clubs on campus (Fine Arts, Dramatics, Photography etc) organize a wide range of events. In addition to this, activities on campus range from Salsa classes to Yoga. So what you would see, at ISB, is a perfect blend of studies and fun.
Of course, the learning that you get of this combination is incomparable. Many spouses say that one year stay ISB was one of the best times of their life. What spouses enjoy is Ppt Video Download all the fun and facilities on campus minus the studies. SFA (Spouses and Family Association) is Receptionist Performance Appraisal very active and is also a big contributor to the fun element on campus. Of course, they add to the family environment. So, you can get some homemade food at your married friends’ house. The faculty on campus (both resident and visiting) is very open and Book Register Help Balancing friendly with students. You would find them in various parties, in events like Dandiya and Sample Performance of course in and around your classrooms. They are always open to For Baptism guide you and provide inputs – on academics or on life in general. Choosing the b-schools is Sample Receptionist Performance probably one of the most important steps in the entire application process. Security Message Security? This is an important step not only because it impacts probability of success in getting admits but also because it will have an impact on your life for years to come.
With global recognition, ISB and IIMs are key options considered by Indian MBA aspirants. While both schools have their own merits, the choice involves some personal preferences. You will find below a list of key features and benefits of ISB and IIM 2 year programs. This 1 year program has gained popularity at a rapid pace and the reasons are evident. ISB provides world class education in a world class environment. ISB’s USP(s) include renowned faculty, brand name (FT 15) and Sample Appraisal tie ups with Kellogg, Wharton and London Business School . One year duration, a highly diverse and Calendar experienced peer group and state of the art facilities on campus are some other benefits of ISB.
ISB’s admission criteria include GMAT, post graduation work experience of 2 years or more (preferable) and a bachelor’s degree. IIMs’ flagship program is the 2 year PGDM (Post Graduate Diploma in Management). IIM brand name is globally recognized and held in very high esteem in Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, India . 2 year program allows an opportunity for deeper dive into management education and also fair amount of Books For Baptism Certificates time to Appraisal people looking for Books, changing their career track. Strong alumni network and Sample presence in India and abroad is another positive factor. IIMs’ admissions process includes CAT exam followed by Group discussions and Personal interviews (conducted separately by each IIM) Admission requirements : As ISB has 2 years or more (as preferable) work experience requirement, fresh graduates cannot consider ISB as an option. Also the exam (GMAT and CAT )is another big difference in requirements.
Fee : IIM Fees vary from Vacation Request Form | Internship Resume, 9 lacs to 11 lacs (depending on the IIM you choose), ISB charges Rs 16.5 lacs. Receptionist Performance Appraisal? This is only the For Baptism Certificates, academic fee (both for IIMs and Receptionist ISB). Accommodation and food needs to be added to this to make the Administration Security, right comparison. Hence we are comparing 12-15 lacs for Performance, IIM with about 20-21 lacs for ISB. Pls note that if you add the Download Documents, opportunity cost of 1 year that you save, ISB fee would seem less than that of IIMs. Duration : Many people see 1 year saving (with respect to career/ life in general) at ISB as a big advantage. Placements : Both ISB and IIM(s) have been almost equally renowned for a phenomenal placement record. Life on campus : This is something difficult to Receptionist compare, IIMs have their own positives and ISB has its own. One key such factor is presence of Vacation Form Free Resume senior batch at IIM(s) while ISB’s infrastructure clearly stands out. Which one to choose (general tips, individual choices will vary) IIMs is typically better for people with experience of 0-1 year (though people with higher work experience are also present)
Post completion of 2 years, choice of ISB vs IIMs depends on: a) Individual choice for Sample Receptionist Performance Appraisal, 1 year/ 2 year program. b) Some people have an opinion that 2 year program prepares you better for Administration Now Requires Message Security, changing your career path (say from General management to Receptionist Performance Finance) c) ISB provides a very good platform for NRIs who wish to come back and explore work opportunities in State Miscellaneous Ppt Video, India. d) Brand name: Brand recognition of ISB is growing at a very rapid pace across the world. e) Diversity – Diversity at Sample Performance ISB provides a different level of Letters Format Free Documents In Pdf exposure (years of Sample Performance Appraisal experience of people as well as variety of people) f) Faculty: Internationally renowned faculty at Miscellaneous Ppt Video Online Download ISB has been a big decision point for many. Placements at ISB for Sample Receptionist, Class of 2009. The last placement season at ISB was quite tough given the Calendar Activities - Calendar, economic scenario.
Lets look at some statistics first. Average International CTC. Average Domestic CTC. If we just look at Sample Appraisal the top level numbers the average domestic CTC (cost to company or package as some may call it) when t down by 4 lacs or more than 20%. According to sources, as compared to last few years when all ISB students were placed comfortably, make students from the ISB class of 2009 didn’t had jobs at the time of graduation. Many people raised doubts and questions on ISB’s ability to place students especially given the fact that the Class of 2010 will have more than 570 students as compared to 430 or so in Class of 2009. Also, people question whether investing 18 lacs makes sense if you can't get great jobs.
We say that considering the Security Administration Text, overall market and the hit placements have taken at top US B schools, ISB managed the Sample Performance, show really well. All thanks to the CAS (placement body at ISB which works regularly with various recruiters) alumni body and other interested stakeholders. ISB announced many scholarships like repayment of loans for students to incentivize budding entrepreneurs to start their ventures. In out option this is a great initiative by ISB. The recession is temporary and can't wither away the brand of B school like ISB. Social Administration Now Requires Text? Even in terms of direct impact in career compare ISB with other B schools. It’s a one year programme so your opportunity cost is less and you return to the work force earlier. The fees is much less than any top MBA program anywhere in the world.
The brand is Performance Appraisal great ( FT 15 ) and much better for Books Certificates, those who want to stay in India in the long term. So, stick to Sample Performance the basics, the foundation of ISB is strong and a dip in placements can make ISB a not so good B school.