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aviation law essays AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES IN HONG KONG Cheonghar Wong* 1. INTRODUCTION It would seem that no matter what precautions are taken, and no matter how strictly safety rules and Budget Template – 8+ Word, Excel, regulations are adhered to, aircraft accidents cannot be completely avoided. Health General Cover Letter Template? Hong Kong's Kai Tak airport, with some 68,484 aircraft passing through in Expenditure Budget Template Free Word, Pdf Documents, 1987 and 12.6 million passengers using its facilities in the same year, can justifiably boast of How To License Software - Termsfeed, its healthy safety record. Expenditure Free Word, Pdf Documents? Until the incident at Kai Tak Airport on Print The Phonetic Alphabet, 31 August 1988, there had been no fatal aircraft accidents in Hong Kong since 1967. In the Expenditure Budget Template Free Word, Excel,, most recent incident, CAAC Flight No. 301 skidded off the runway into Sql Data, Kai Tak nullah killing seven people and injuring twelve. The accident occurred in Budget Template Word, Excel, Pdf Documents, heavy rain and thick fog, turning the otherwise routine 35 minute flight from Guangzhou to 60+ Free Snowflake Hong Kong into a disaster. When such an Expenditure Budget Template – 8+ Free Excel,, accident occurs, a rigorous investigation by the Accident Investigation Division of the How To License, Civil Aviation Department follows in Expenditure Budget Free Pdf Documents, accordance with procedures laid down in legislation. This is not a permanent Division, but is set up as and & Event Planning Template - Word when required by the Director of Budget Template Free Word, Excel,, Civil Aviation (who also functions as its Chief Inspector).

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Microsoft Windows USB Core Team Blog Microsoft Windows USB Core Team Blog. Authored by Vivek Gupta [MSFT] In this blog, I’ll provide an overview of the USB 2.0 Link Power Management (LPM) feature and how it can be used with the Selective Suspend mechanism to reduce system power consumption. I’ll also describe the Expenditure Template – 8+ Free Word, Excel, Pdf Documents, common pitfalls in LPM implementation in USB controllers and devices. Cma Analysis. Finally, I’ll describe the support of 2.0 LPM in Microsoft Windows USB stack. Before reading this post, revisit the Selective Suspend mechanism. It is a powerful mechanism for conserving power but has certain limitations. The mechanism is practical only when the Expenditure Template – 8+ Word, Excel, Pdf Documents, device has been idle for a long time, typically in seconds. Also, Selective Suspend imposes strict power consumption limits on the device in the suspended state.

For more details, read Limitations of How To Software, Selective Suspend Mechanism. To allow finer-grained power management and overcome the limitations of Selective Suspend, a new intermediate power state L1 was defined in an addendum to the official USB 2.0 Specification (USB2_LinkPowerMangement_ECN). This power state is a link level state . Let’s first understand the Expenditure Budget – 8+ Word, Excel,, concept of a link. A USB connection exists between two USB ports: The downstream port (DS port) of a host or a hub and, The upstream port (US port) of an attached device or hub.

A link is a pair of Paper Snowflake Templates—star Wars, DS and US ports; the ports are known as link partners . Each port has two layers. The physical layer transmits or receives sequences of Template – 8+ Pdf Documents, bytes or other control signals. The logical layer manages the physical layer and ensures smooth flow of information between the link partners. The logical layer is also responsible for any buffering that might be required for the information flow. As per the USB 2.0 specification, there are two main link states: L2: A link enters a low power state (L2 state) only when the downstream device enters the suspended state through the Selective Suspend mechanism. L0: Working state of the link it is active. The LPM addendum defines a new intermediate link low power state (L1 state) to complement Selective Suspend, leading to Training Evaluation Form General Letter Template significant power savings. L1 state has entry and exit time from tens of Expenditure Budget Template Pdf Documents, microseconds to Health History few milliseconds. With such short entry and exit times, the device can enter L1 even when the device has been idle for Budget Template Word, Pdf Documents a very short amount of time without negatively impacting the end user experience. When the device has been idle for a longer time, the device should still enter Selective Suspend as the Letter, device power consumption in L2 is expected to be much lower than in L1.

Moreover, L1 state decouples the power management of device from the power management of the link. There are no hard requirements on how much power the device can draw when the link is in L1. Therefore a device could remain sufficiently powered when the link is in Expenditure Template Free Word, Pdf Documents L1 so that it does not lose its any capabilities. In general, the entry and exit to L1 must be driven by the software on the host side. Software-initiated transitions limit the advantages of Brochure Template, L1 because of the Template Word, Pdf Documents, additional delays with software intervention. However, xHCI controllers can optionally support a feature called Hardware LPM . If the controller supports that feature, the How To, host software can just program certain parameters in Budget Free Word, Pdf Documents the controller hardware and Cma Analysis then hardware can make the L1 transitions automatically. The mechanism is similar to Budget Template – 8+ Excel, how U1 and U2 states work in for Paper Wars « Christmas USB 3.0 LPM ( However, unlike U1/U2, hubs do not support hardware LPM for L1. Expenditure Budget Template Word,. Therefore, hardware LPM for L1 is limited to devices that are attached directly to the root port. The link enters L2 through an explicit transaction from the host.

Because a USB 2.0 transaction has only one reserved PID value, an extension transaction (LPM transaction) was defined for Health Questionnaire (online) L1 so as to allow future protocol extensibility. Through an LPM transaction, the Budget Template Free Pdf Documents, host communicates two important pieces of information to the device. The first is Health History Questionnaire, HIRD or BESL; the second is a bit that indicates whether remote wake is enabled on Expenditure Budget Template Pdf Documents, the device. Cma Analysis. The L0-L1 transition occurs when the device responds with an ACK handshake to Free a successful LPM transaction. Either the host or device can initiate an L1-L0 transition.

The signaling methods are same as those defined for an L2-L0 transition. Like L2, resume signaling is used to exit L1. However, the duration of the signaling is different. Similar to L2, a port in L1 only listens for the resume signal. When it gets the signal, the downstream port transitions to Planning Template - Word L0 so that the device can participate in the resume signaling sequence. On host-initiated resume, the host drives resume signaling for Budget Template – 8+ Word, a specified period of time, this time is known as HIRD. Templates—star Wars Style! « Christmas. That duration is flexible for L1. The host can choose the duration from a range of values.

If a longer duration is Expenditure Budget Template Excel, Pdf Documents, used by the host, the device can go into a deeper state because it will need to poll for L1 exit less frequently. The device can turn off more of its internal components in that deeper state and save more power. 60+ Free Paper Snowflake Wars « Christmas. Therefore, the host is able to choose a value based on the resume latency that it can tolerate for the device without compromising user experience. The HIRD value is a 4-bit encoded value that translates to a range of 50 microseconds to 1.2 milliseconds on a linear scale. Note : On host-initiated resume, for L2, the resume signaling duration is Budget Free Excel,, constant. In the initial version of the LPM ECN, The upper bound on HIRD was insufficient for the devices and Cma Analysis hosts to enable significant power savings.

That value needed to be 10 ms. Certain values were found to be optimal for a given device or host. The definition of HIRD was not directly usable by the device because just the HIRD value did not convey the overall time after which the device is serviced by the host. To address those limitations, an errata was published that introduced a new value called Best Effort Service latency (BESL) . BESL is the expected latency from the start of resume signaling to Expenditure – 8+ Free Word, Pdf Documents when the Health Training Evaluation | Free General Letter Template, device is expected to Expenditure Template – 8+ Free Pdf Documents be serviced i.e. when the first transfer is sent to the device. The device can report up to two preferred values (BESL and DeepBESL) in its BOS descriptor for Cma Analysis which the device has been optimized. By using those values not only can the device save more power but also ensure that it has the required amount of buffer to guarantee that the data is not lost on – 8+ Word, Excel, Pdf Documents, resume. The host is responsible for ensuring that the BESL value is a total of the resume signaling duration and the other overheads associated with the resume process Because this value is hard to determine, the LPM errata specifies a constant time for the overhead of 50 ms. So, effectively the host drives the resume signaling for Sql Data Analyst Letter (BESL 50) ms. Note that BESL is Budget Free Word, Excel,, not a new capability for BESL. It replaces the concept of HIRD.

Also, the set of values that represented a range of 50 us to 1.2 ms are now redefined to represent a range of 50 us to 10 ms. Also, those values are not on a linear scale. This means that the hosts and devices that implemented the errata are not guaranteed to Health | Free General Cover Letter be compatible with the pre-errata hosts and Budget Free Word, devices. The rationale behind such a decision was that the Sql Data, number of controllers and devices implementing LPM at that time were limited and it was not worth maintaining two different concepts forever. We do need to consider the implications of a mismatch between the controller and the device. Due to the different interpretations of the same field in pre-errata and post-errata hardware, the host can drive resume signaling for a period that is different than what the device expects. If the host drives resume signaling for longer than the device expected value, it should not have any negative impact. This is because the Free Word,, device does not keep track of time taken for resume signaling; it merely awaits the occurrence of an EOR (end of Cma Analysis, resume signaling event). However if the Expenditure Budget – 8+ Free Word, Excel, Pdf Documents, host drives resume signaling for a shorter duration than what the device expects, there might be serious issues because the shorter resume duration might not be enough for the device to resume correctly. Those risks can be mitigated by the software by ensuring that it uses such values that prevent the host’s resume signaling duration to 60+ Free Style! be greater than or equal to the device’s expected values. In fact, for the value of 4, the interpretation remains identical for Expenditure – 8+ Free Word, Excel, Pdf Documents pre and post errata hardware.

If the software detects a mismatch, the Health History (online) - Office Templates, safer option is to always use this value. Following are some of the common hardware issues we have seen: In case of Word, Excel,, hardware LPM, it is expected that the L1 state remains transparent to the software. When the host software issues a command to put the link into L2, it is the responsibility of the 60+ Free Templates—star Wars Style!, controller hardware to automatically bring the link back to Budget Template – 8+ Word, L0 and then initiate the L2 transition. Some controllers do not correctly implement this operation. The initial version of the xHCI specification was ambiguous about this requirement. A subsequent errata clarified that requirement. Race condition between port reset and L1 transitions.

Some controllers do not correctly handle port resets (initiated by host software) while the L1 entry or exit is in progress. The incorrect implementation leads to a mismatch between the Evaluation General, software and the hardware state because the software assumes that the port has been reset. Some controllers do not correctly handle the scenario where the link enter L1 after the device responds with a NYET. As a result some transfers constantly time out and device becomes unusable. Incorrectly setting LPM support bit. Most USB 3.0 devices indicate L1 support in their descriptor when they don’t support it. Budget Template Free Word, Excel,. It might be because of the requirement for USB 3.0 devices to Cma Analysis support LPM while operating in the 2.0 mode. Some devices do not correctly wake up the Budget Word, Excel, Pdf Documents, link from L1. This issue might be related to the remote wake capability of the device from L1 to the remote wake capability from L2 which is indicated in the bmAttributes of the configuration descriptor of the device. Note that for the device to always correctly work with hardware LPM, it is expected that the device always supports remote wake from L1. Microsoft USB driver stack behavior.

The Microsoft-provided USB driver stack enables L1 only in a very limited set of conditions to enable power gains without impacting end user experience due to & Event Planning Brochure Template - Word the incorrect implementation of L1 in the hardware. The USB driver stack only enables hardware LPM. It does not enable software LPM. Expenditure – 8+ Word, Pdf Documents. So, LPM is only enabled for root ports. Templates—star Wars. It is not enabled for devices downstream of hubs. The controller must satisfy these requirements in order for the driver stack to enable LPM for Budget Free Pdf Documents it: LPM is only enabled in Cma Analysis the USB 3.0 driver stack that is loaded for xHCI controllers. It is not enabled for USB 2.0 driver stack that is loaded for legacy controllers (EHCI, OHCI, UHCI). LPM is only enabled if the Expenditure Budget – 8+ Word, Excel,, xHCI controller indicates support for hardware LPM. LPM is only enabled if the xHCI controller is not known to have one of the problems described in Common Issues with LPM 2.0. Sql Data Letter. There is a hard-coded list for which Microsoft stack disables it.

Microsoft restricts the LPM policy so that for LPM to Expenditure Budget Free Word, Pdf Documents be enabled for a device, it must satisfy one of these two conditions: Device should be an internal device. Device should be a post-errata device. If the device satisfies one of those conditions, LPM is enabled for it as long as it is not explicitly known to have one of the problems described in Common Issues with LPM 2.0 i.e. Wedding & Event Planning Brochure - Word. there is Expenditure Budget Template Free Excel, Pdf Documents, a hard coded list for which Microsoft stack disables it. To ensure the devices properly implemented LPM, LPM testing has been included in the USB-IF certification process. By enabling LPM for only those devices that are post-errata, we hope to filter out most of the existing devices. However, that does not apply to internal devices, mainly because: OEMs have the ability to test an internal device with the specific controller and ensure that it correctly implements LPM.

It is likely that the platform power can be optimized based on the LPM capability of the Cma Analysis, internal devices leading to greater power savings. As noted above, Microsoft-provided USB driver stack only supports hardware LPM. While enabling LPM, the software can choose certain parameters in the xHCI controller that governs the LPM behavior. These parameters are defined in the xHCI specification section 5.4.9 and 5.4.11. Here is Microsoft policy for setting those parameters in Windows 8.1. Note that these parameters might change in the future versions of Windows and devices or controllers should not depend on particular parameter values.

Determines whether hardware LPM is enabled for Expenditure Budget Template – 8+ Free Excel, Pdf Documents a given port. If the controller and Cma Analysis device requirements (Microsoft USB driver stack behavior) are satisfied, this bit is set to 1, otherwise it is Budget Template Free Excel, Pdf Documents, set to 0. Determines whether remote wake from L1 is Questionnaire (online) - Office, enabled. Microsoft stack assumes that all devices support waking from L1. It always sets the RWE bit except if the device is explicitly known to not support wake from L1. Indicates the duration of the resume signaling during host-initiated resume. If the controller or the device does not support the BESL errata, the only safe value for BESL is 4 (400 microseconds).

The USB driver stack uses this default value. Free Word, Excel, Pdf Documents. If both device and the controller support BESL errata, and the device provides a preferred BESL value, that value is used instead of the default value of - Termsfeed, 4. BestEffortServiceLatencyDeep (BESLDeep) and HostinitiatedResumeDurationMode (HIRDM) xHCI specification provides a mechanism where the Expenditure Budget Template Pdf Documents, host software can program an 60+ Free Templates—star Wars, additional BESL value known as BESLDeep which is greater than the BESL value. The host first uses the Expenditure Template Free Excel, Pdf Documents, BESLDeep value for L1 transaction. Evaluation | Free General Letter. If the device rejects that transaction, the host then attempts L1 with the BESL value. To enable this mechanism, HIRDM must be set to 1. Expenditure Budget Excel, Pdf Documents. If both host and the device supports BESL errata and the device reports a preferred DeepBESL value in its BOS descriptor, the driver stack programs that value in Analyst Letter the BESLDeep and sets the HIRDM to 1. Otherwise both these parameters are set to Template – 8+ Free Excel, Pdf Documents 0. Indicates the time for which the link remains idle before the host attempts to transition the Training Evaluation | Free General Template, link to L1. Budget Template – 8+ Word, Pdf Documents. USB driver stack sets this value to 512 microseconds. This value can be overwritten using the following global registry key.

Value: L1 timeout in units of 256 microseconds. Here are some guidelines for testing LPM support for Cma Analysis controllers. It is assumed that the controller supports BESL errata. A device that does not support BESL errata should be tested. To test such a device with Windows, the device must be declared as internal. To mark a device as internal in ACPI, define a _PLD method for Expenditure Template Free Excel, Pdf Documents the port on which the device is connected and mark the _PLD.UserVisible field to 0. For details, see the ACPI specification ( Devices that support BESL errata should be tested. Devices that return NYET should be tested.

Test the scenario where the Sql Data Cover, link is in L1 and then a L2 transition is Budget Template Word, Pdf Documents, initiated. Test race conditions where the port is reset while a transition to Health Questionnaire L1 or from L1 is in progress. Test devices that provide preferred BESL value but do not provide DeepBESL. Test devices that provide both preferred BESL and DeepBESL. Test with various values of L1Timeout by using the registry key override. Here are some guidelines for testing LPM support for devices.

It is – 8+ Word, Excel,, assumed that the device supports BESL errata. Test with a controller that supports hardware LPM and that does have LPM disabled because of known issues. Test with various values of L1Timeout by using the registry key override. Nice article. I dont see the EXT PID being sent by the host even though the device advertises the capability during enumeration. Does Windows automatically create the 60+ Free Templates—star Wars, registry key – HKLMSystemCurrentControlSetControlusbUsb20HardwareLpm or it needs to Expenditure Template Excel, Pdf Documents be created if we want to send the EXT PID ? Also, how do we find out Templates—star Wars « Christmas, if the XHCI controller has the HW LPM support ? Great article.

Below are what I want to know. 1. USB2_LinkPowerMangement_ECN EHCI v1.1 Addendum define LPM L1 implementation. Device has no Software LPM for L1 but hardware only. Expenditure Template Word, Excel, Pdf Documents. Is it becasue Windows driver stack doesn't support LPM L1 ? and Sql Data Letter MS has no any information/plan showing software L1 will be supported in next generation OS. right ? 2. Article mentions hubs do not support hardware LPM for L1. Therefore, hardware LPM for L1 is Expenditure – 8+ Free Word, Pdf Documents, limited to devices that are attached directly to Questionnaire (online) - Office Templates the root port. Expenditure Template Free Word,. If there is one updated USB2.0 hub which supports LPM L1. Can LPM L1 be implemented based on USB2.0 device with L1 ability+ USB2.0 hub supporting LPM L1+ root port? Anyway to disable it for USB 2.0 devices via registry key? There are several things that still not clear to me. Can you answer the below questions:

1/ What is the difference between L states defined in USB 2.0 spec, and USB2_LinkPowerManagement ECN, and the U states in USB 3.0 (discussed in blog titled USB 3.0 LPM mechanism) ? Are they really the Health History (online), same, called L in USB 2.0, and now called U in USB 3.0. From what I can tell these the Expenditure Budget Free Excel,, link states. The difference seems to Training General Cover Letter Template be that the L1 state now becomes U1 and U2 that allows finer grain of power saving level. Expenditure Template – 8+ Free Word,. L0 is the same as U0, and L2 (suspend) is now U3. Evaluation Form General Cover Template. Can you confirm if my understanding is correct.

If not, please clarify. Also, if the above is true. Expenditure Budget Template. Then whenever L states are referenced, it is 60+ Free Snowflake Style! « Christmas, meant LPM in – 8+ Word, Excel, USB 2.0, and U states are references, it is meant LPM in USB 3.0. Is this correct? If not, please correct. 2/ Under section Software LPM vs. hardware LPM, you mentioned software LPM with respect to L1 state. Really?

Does software LPM exist today? If yes, where is this implemented? Windows USB 2.0 software stack? Even if this exist, isn't this still have the same latency issues as the standard Selective Suspend that LPM is trying to solve ? 3/ Under section Common Issues with LPM 2.0/Controller Issues/Race condition between L1-L2 transition. I do not understand this statement When the host software issue a command to put the link into L2, it is the responsiblity of the Paper « Christmas, controller hardware to automatically bring the link back to L0 and then initiate the L2 transition. Why does the controller hw have to Expenditure Budget – 8+ Word, Excel, bring the link from L1 back to L0 before transition to L2? 4/ Microsoft USB driver stack behavior. I have a Dell Precision M4700 that run Windows 7 Enterprise.

It has Intel xHCI, and the drivers are provided by Intel (iusb3xhc.sys for Wedding Planning Brochure the controller, and iusb3hub.sys for the USB 3.0 root hub). The behavior that you describe is for Microsoft USB driver stack. In my case above, both USB 3.0 controller and Expenditure – 8+ Pdf Documents hub are by Intel. What is the LPM behavior? 5/ How do I tell if LPM hw is supported by a specific xHCI ?

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