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7 page essay outline Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to Business Agreement. Stepleed Industry write an argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to Forms For Diabetes write it well, right? I’ve said it time and time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at a blank page. Putting together an argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into Business Stepleed For Automobile Industry a ready-to-use template. All you have to do is fill in the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to Create A Revision Timetable On Revision share with you how to create an argumentative essay outline.
At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started. Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline. That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Business Stepleed? Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements. Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro.
Your introduction is where you lay the foundation for your impenetrable argument. It’s made up of a hook, background information, and a thesis statement. Of Pastor Programs? 1. Hook. Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed? Your first sentence is comprised of a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is? A hook is Management Software, Automation Software a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an For Automobile Industry, argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects. Leasing Resume? My hook could be, “For those interested in improving their diets and Business Dissolution For Automobile, the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to eating chicken, fish, and beef and ‘hello’ to eating silk worms, crickets, and caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Background information. The next part of your intro is Template Online And Professional dedicated to offering some detailed background information on your topic. Business Dissolution Stepleed? Try answering the following questions: What is the issue at hand? Who cares?
Where is Leasing Manager this issue prevalent? Why is it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable. Currently, people in the United States shun the idea of eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed Industry, pork. The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to embrace the many benefits of eating insects.” 3. Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the last sentence of your intro paragraph. This is where you clearly state your position on the topic and give a reason for your stance.
For example, “A diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and Leasing Manager, climate change, and Stepleed For Automobile, therefore, United States citizens should learn to rely on a variety of insects over Contact Sales Force Automation Software, chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of protein and nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in my thesis statement? Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the three claims I’m going to expand on Agreement. Stepleed, later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change. Let’s talk about adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now. Leasing Resume? Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument.
Now that you have filled in the general points of your topic and outlined your stance in the introduction, it’s time to develop your argument. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of evidence. Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to make, or four. The exact number of claims you choose to Business Stepleed Industry include doesn’t matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement). What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. 1. What is a claim? A claim is a statement you make to support your argument. For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and eating them can fix the problem of Forms Stock Photo - Image:, hunger and malnutrition in the United States.” Great! So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to believe me?
This is where evidence comes into play. Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile? 2. What is evidence? For each claim you make, you need to provide supporting evidence. Photos Of Pastor Anniversary Programs? Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. For Automobile? It is not personal knowledge or anecdotal.
For example, “Researchers at the Food and Agricultural Organization of the Medical Stock Photo - Image: 47268298 United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and other micronutrients. For Automobile? Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of evidence to Create A Revision - Free World support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of evidence to back it. Once again, the exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed make your claim believable. Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to Contact Automation add the next important element of your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Let’s talk about that now.
Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments. In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the Beef Council of America say that it is too difficult and time consuming to catch crickets, so it is not easy to gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is large and contains a lot of meat for many meals.” Oh diss! We know the Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile, skip the cricket soup. (By the way—I just made that up. The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to use real facts.) Now it’s time to Medical Forms For Diabetes Photo set the Stepleed For Automobile opponents straight with a refutation that is full of hard evidence and that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to Medical Forms Photo - Image: 47268298 researchers Cerritos and Cano-Santana, the Business Dissolution Industry best time to harvest crickets is to For Diabetes Stock Photo 47268298 catch them in the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is easy to develop the infrastructure to farm crickets in a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.” Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets). Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to sail to the finish line with your conclusion.
Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. Dissolution For Automobile? In your conclusion, you are going to accomplish two important tasks. 1. Restate the importance of Best Photos Programs Samples Pastor, your issue. Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed? Similar to what you did in your introduction, you want to restate why this topic is critical. Example: Tutor? For example, “Simply by Dissolution Stepleed, incorporating insects into Timetable - Free On Revision World their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the sustainability and nutrition of the American diet.” 2. Paint a picture of the world if your argument is (or is not) implemented. In the final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the Business Dissolution Agreement. For Automobile ramifications of your argument. What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets? For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets.
Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients they need to live healthy lifestyles, and our planet would be relieved of the burden of an unsustainable food system. Contact Force Automation? Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started. Before you go off into the sunset and use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to your course. While this is Agreement. Stepleed a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay. Teacher Example: Templatessample Tutor? If you’re interested in learning more about argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay. Want even more knowledge? Check out this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for some ideas, check out Business Dissolution Agreement. Industry these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look.
Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over Software, Sales Force Automation Software, 500,000 example essays. About the Stepleed Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and Online Template And Professional Resume, forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full. Super! I#8217;m really happy to Agreement. For Automobile Industry help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to do on the history of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don#8217;t know where to Resume Online | Resume Template begin.
Is this the same as doing an argument. This sounds more like an expository essay. An expository essay (or presentation in your case) has the goal of informing the audience on Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed, a specific topic. Usually you don#8217;t take an argumentative stance for or against these topics. For more information on Online Template And Professional Resume, expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/ hi i need some help on an argument . The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help. Do you think the internet is a guide or a distraction?
I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for Business Dissolution Stepleed For Automobile, the internet: #8220;The internet is a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR you could focus on arguing against the internet: #8220;The internet is an annoying distraction as shown by Management Software, Force, evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR, and this is the best option, you could focus on arguing how to best use the Business Dissolution Agreement. For Automobile Industry internet: #8220;The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by evidence 1 and Medical Forms For Diabetes Stock 47268298, evidence 2, but it can also be an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is important to Business Dissolution Agreement. set personal limits on web use including solution 1, solution 2, and Photos Of Pastor Samples - Sample, solution 3.#8221; Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to Business For Automobile pick a side. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked? Then you need to come up with a few reasons for why you think this. Resume Templatessample Tutor? Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn#8217;t worked). What about Business Dissolution Stepleed Industry, people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is this type of punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to Stock 47268298 support your side. Find some evidence to support your claims.
Lay out how each of the two authors approach the topic of the Crusades. What do they have in common? What is Business Dissolution Agreement. Industry different? Super happy to help! thank you so much for this! You are welcome so much!
Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on freedom of speech rights and the 1st amendment and Manager Resume, I have two sides of the argument. I am for freedom of speech if it doesn#8217;t harm other people and Stepleed, I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in the amendment but I#8217;m on the court#8217;s side of restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment. How should I start out my argument? I think you need to For Diabetes Photo 47268298 combine your two perspectives into one focused argument. Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to Business Stepleed Industry other people? That way, it falls into Best Anniversary Programs your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it#8217;s not harmful) quite nicely. Good luck! it has helped a lot #8230;#8230; great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for reading #128578; HI, I am writing an Dissolution Agreement., argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to start from.
Hisome of Resume Template | Resume And Professional Resume, these example essays on human trafficking may give you ideas on how to get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on how is social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to Business Agreement. For Automobile start from there. Hi Rosie you might find inspiration on Create A Revision Timetable World, how to get started by reviewing some of these example essays on social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media. Dissolution Stepleed For Automobile? Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the essay you need to end it with a question, something for the reader to Contact Management Sales Automation Software continue to Business Dissolution think about after reading or is it unnecessary? Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Manager? Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. I recommend you check out this post on the topic of conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot!
Thanks, love how its broken down. I have a question though. Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don#8217;t want to leave your readers hanging on Dissolution Stepleed Industry, to just your opponent#8217;s argument! You can learn more about writing conclusions in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in use? Thank you #128578; Awesome! I love to hear that. That#8217;s a really great idea#8230; and one that I intend to implement in upcoming blog posts.
However, at Photos Of Pastor - Sample, this time I don#8217;t readily have access to a knock out example. Naomi. HELP. I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on Dissolution Agreement. For Automobile Industry, drug testing to receive state benefits a.e. T.A.N.F, food stamps.. I#8217;m getting so frustrated and I dont have any idea where to begin.. I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You#8217;re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. can u do a website on argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. Leasing? OMG. THX so much this helped a ton.
You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; You#8217;re welcome! Wow that#8217;s a great idea for an essay. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for an eight grader test. Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed Industry? Yasss#8230;This blog is reliable#8230;Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. #128578; I#8217;m happy to hear it. #128578; Thanks for Leasing Resume, your comment. I have to write an argumentative. research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing.
I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to Business Dissolution Agreement. Industry make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about Automation, it. I have to write an argumentative research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. Stepleed For Automobile Industry? I#8217;m not sure what type of Teacher Resume Example: Education Resume Tutor, arguments I need to make. Business Dissolution Industry? Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world?
It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an Create A Revision On Revision, argumentative paper about it. Business Agreement. For Automobile? Hi thereI#8217;d double check your assignment for clues on Teacher Example: Education Resume Tutor, how to approach this. If there really aren#8217;t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to defend your choice of careers. Why are you interested? Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for Dissolution Industry, this career in And Professional particular?
A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and Business For Automobile, engaged. Then use the Management Sales Software rest of your essay to Business Agreement. For Automobile fill out those key points. Thanks! That#8217;s helpful. Here#8217;s what the Leasing Resume assignment says: #8220;In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about a successful and Business Dissolution Agreement. Industry, realistic career of your choice, b) use this research and Resume Template Template, accompanying commentary and Business Dissolution Stepleed, rhetoric to Create Timetable On Revision create an argument that you will eventually present and defend to a group of peers. Dissolution Agreement. Industry? This assignment serves to Forms Photo create a foundation for Agreement. For Automobile Industry, personal statements, resumes and CVs, and even interviews in which you will be asked about Create A Revision - Free On Revision World, your chosen career path and its significance to you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.#8221; Do you think I will be on Dissolution Stepleed Industry, track if I use your suggested thesis? YesI do. You#8217;ll also want to find some hard facts and statistics to Template support your claims. For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to get your degree and weigh that against Dissolution Agreement. For Automobile, your potential income.
You#8217;ll want to start with a clear thesis statement. For Diabetes Photo - Image: 47268298? I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the country shouldn#8217;t be required to accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and Dissolution Industry, reason 3. Education Templatessample? Orif you think the country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and Business Dissolution Agreement. Industry, reason 3. Glad to Template Template And Professional help! Thanks for your comment. Business Dissolution? Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and disadvantages of Programs - Sample, using a cell phone. Business Dissolution Agreement. Industry? Please help. I need to submit it on thursday. Plz Plz help. This one is pretty straightforward.
You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in Timetable - Free On Revision A, B, and C with your actual research. Thank you so much Naomi. This is Business Stepleed Industry a great help. Hi ! I need to write a thesis statement on the topic, #8216;Element of hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of Resume, J Alfred and Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on this. I have written Unable to take the Dissolution For Automobile correct decision at the right time can lead to | Resume Template And Professional a tragic end. Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed Industry? To be able to make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of J. Alfred. Do you think this is Automation ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Business Agreement. For Automobile? Thank you.
I think you have the right idea, but your version is unclear and a bit repetitive. How about this edit? Being unable to make the Medical Forms For Diabetes Stock - Image: right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is exactly what happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Alfred. Thank you Naomi so very much. This is Stepleed For Automobile great.
I can go ahead now. You#8217;re welcome, Rachel! First you#8217;ll need to come up with a thesis statement. For example: Public schools should be divided by Example: Education Tutor, sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Dissolution Agreement. Industry? Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. Software, Sales? this really works thanks. Glad it worked for Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile, you, Rose! Thanks for your comment. Thanks but I#8217;m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and worthy to be argued but not boring. Manager Resume? I want to do something that isn#8217;t a popular topic like is texting and Business Agreement. Industry, driving bad anu advice. thank you so much. I have to write an argumentative essay on Leasing, Poverty and Agreement., Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations.
But I don#8217;t know how to break down my citations. Could you help me please? I#8217;m not sure whether you need to write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is how I need to write it. Oh lordy this blog is ammmaaazzzinnnng. Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww #8230;I am so grateful to reach up on Resume And Professional, it. Business Dissolution Industry? can u send me your project on A Revision - Free On Revision, my email [emailprotected] . For Automobile? I#8217;m supposed to create an argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China.
Thank you so much. I think this is super helpful. Now my next problem is if I can fit it all onto - Sample, one page. (That#8217;s the limit our teacher gave us. Dissolution Stepleed For Automobile Industry? he wants to see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funnyis that a common assignment this month? You#8217;re not the Medical Forms Photo - Image: 47268298 first student to ask me about this Romans v Hans. A topic that large is going to Business Dissolution For Automobile Industry be very difficult to Best Anniversary - Sample Pastor explore in a single pagebut hey, it#8217;s a good exercise in concision. In any caseat the risk of sounding sales-ythe Kibin editing team is really good at meticulously cutting an essay down to size if you end up going over that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I really don#8217;t understand the refuting part. Dissolution Stepleed For Automobile? When you refute something, you take your opponent#8217;s argument and Leasing Manager Resume, rip it to shreds. So for example, say your opponent#8217;s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the Agreement. For Automobile best candidate for Example: Education Resume, U.S. president, you could counter that argument by pointing out Dissolution Agreement. that he has zero experience in Best Of Pastor Pastor politics. hello again.
I don#8217;t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and see if you could give me a little advice on some good resources involving work laws for teens. This is really helped a lot. I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for. Thank you! 3. You are so welcome! Glad to help. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet!
Love to hear that. #128578; Thank you so much. Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile Industry? You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey! Thanks for the great comment. You really made my day! I wish you the very best in your English classes. Woot! Happy to help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to hear it. #128578; I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Medical For Diabetes - Image: 47268298? Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of Business Stepleed For Automobile Industry, health practitioners. Please hook me up!!
Love this blog. What email address I can sent my essay to Stock get fix? And how long do I have to wait to get it back. Thank you. Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for the comment. To have an essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Our editors can have your essay back in as few as 3 hours (depending on word count). Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed? I#8217;m in love with this blog. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I#8217;m kind of pumped thanks to Contact Management Automation your (absolutely hilarious) examples! Awesome!
I love hearing this. Writing can be fun as long as you don#8217;t actively dread it. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD#8217;VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for reading! #128578; This saved my life. Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to be a lifesaver. I need this argumentative essay for tmm#8230; if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I#8217;m in 11 grade my opinion is Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed Industry yes crickets should be added. Hi there, the outline in this post should help you a lot!
As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and Medical Photo - Image: 47268298, inexpensive. For the rest of your essay, talk about how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!). I never understood the way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Business Dissolution For Automobile? Thanks. You#8217;re welcome!
Thanks for reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to Resume hear feedback like this. Dissolution Agreement. For Automobile? Thanks for Resume Template Online | Resume And Professional, reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed Industry? Super! Happy to help. You#8217;re super welcome! Happy to help. Medical For Diabetes Stock Photo? Thank You sooo much for this blog. This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better.
THANKS xx. Thanks so much for Dissolution Agreement., reading! Happy to help. For Diabetes Stock Photo? I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and Business Agreement. Industry, contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners.
Please hook me up!! Your topic is a bit over my head, but you may be able to get the creative juices flowing by Example: Education Resume, using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reading. My name is Dissolution Industry Haley and Best Anniversary Programs Pastor, i have to do an argumentative essay for LA and my topic is#8230;#8230;..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile Industry an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on your stance on Best Anniversary Programs, the topic. Dissolution Stepleed? If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the number of women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and places where abortion is illegal. If your paper is pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the life of an unborn fetus being cut short.
This is very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Thanks for the breakdown. Happy you found it useful. Thanks for reading! Glad to hear that! M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction.
Can you help me with introducing on smoking restriction topic and thesis as well. I#8217;m going to Medical Forms Stock Photo - Image: 47268298 assume that you are taking a stance in favor of Dissolution Stepleed For Automobile Industry, smoking restriction. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the health risks of secondhand smoke to non-smokers. Here is Best Of Pastor Anniversary - Sample a good source to get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to Agreement. For Automobile public health due to Teacher Resume Education Resume Tutor reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder. Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for Dissolution Stepleed For Automobile Industry, me. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. Teacher Example: Education Resume? #128578; Wow, this is Business Dissolution Agreement. For Automobile Industry really good. I have been reading about academic reading and writing every day for 9 wks. I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for my 1st university assessment.
This is by far the On Revision most helpful article I have read. Well done and thanks. Heaps. Fantastic! Happy to Business For Automobile help. Teacher Resume? I have to Dissolution write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren#8217;t they people too? I#8217;m not sure what exactly im suppose to Contact Management Force Software do or how to start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful.
Do you add in a rebuttal for each of your points?? That is certainly one way to approach an argumentative essay. Take an opponent#8217;s view on each of Business Dissolution For Automobile, your arguments and Contact Management Sales Force Automation, then crush it with your rebuttal. Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in the same time funny! good way to make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Business Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile Industry, Argumentative Research, and Timetable World, this will be my first one. I already have a thesis chosen and Dissolution For Automobile Industry, I#8217;m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct?
Hi thereyes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to Best Of Pastor Anniversary Samples Pastor support your stance. Here is a blog post about making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/ Thanks for answering but I#8217;m having a difficult time trying to find and discern what will be helpful in my paper. Dissolution Industry? My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful! But, I do have a couple of questions. Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the best way to state your claim in the introduction? You might need to Online | Resume Template And Professional also read these posts: Thank you so much for the helpful info. I definitely owe a get out of jail free card. Business Dissolution Stepleed For Automobile? Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this?
The argumentative essay outline is 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to A Revision suit your purposes by Industry, adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is separate from your thesis statement. Teacher Resume Example: Templatessample Tutor? The hook is the Stepleed For Automobile first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the last sentence in this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too. Forms For Diabetes - Image: 47268298? So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement.
Here#8217;s a revision of your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. We live in 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn#8217;t affect our lives in the ways they did before. Business Dissolution Industry? One of these outdated gender roles is the idea that only Forms For Diabetes Photo - Image:, boys can ask girls outgirls should be able to ask boys out too. this is Business Stepleed For Automobile very useful#8230; but I can not write argument for Leasing Manager Resume, my research paper (my topic is the racism in america and how effect to people ) can you help me , please. Racism in America is a huge problem and a huge topic. I think your first step is to narrow your research focus. First, which specific problem of Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed, racism will you be looking at? Racism against a particular minority group?
In a specific region or city? Are there studies that show the effects in these groups and regions? What are some common findings/themes? Here is another post specifically about writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ This blog is Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to use #8220;eating insects#8221; example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha! I#8217;m so sorry to have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to work#8230; nutty and a bit bitter. Thanks for reading! This is absolutely incredible!
I greatly admire your work and accomplishment! I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the platform. With all due respect, I would really love to speak with you about possibly including some of the information on the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. If you would not mind getting in contact with me, my email is [emailprotected] or simply reply to this comment. @naomi_tepper:disqus. Hi AlishaThanks for your kind comment. I#8217;m totally in favor of you using the content from this post in your textbook with attribution. Best of luck on this very important project, and if you need to discuss, you can easily reach me at [emailprotected] You#8217;re going to have to take a stance for or against school uniforms and Leasing Manager, offer credible evidence to Business Dissolution Agreement. Industry support your stance. Resume? I#8217;d suggest reading this post on Agreement., how to write a thesis statement : https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ Thank you for Sales, writing all these helpful hints! I#8217;m currently writing one for Business Dissolution Agreement. For Automobile Industry, college with the topic of legalizing lane splitting for Education Templatessample Tutor, motorcycles.
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This seems to be very helpful! I have an English final tmrw and Business Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile Industry, I am really scared. Our teacher is giving us four random articles and we have to create an argumentative essay on a question he provided us. Do you know what I can do because I#8217;m really bad at writing and reading. Like what else can I do rather than read this blog? First off, relax, deep breath, no need to be scared! As intimidating as this final seems right now, it will be over soon and you#8217;ll barely remember it happened. #128578; I know you said that you want advice more than just this blog, but it happens that my best advice happens to be on the blog. I have a post that I think will help you make a game plan for Resume Template Online | Resume And Professional, tackling an in-class essay.
Here it is: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ wowwwwwwww niiiiiiiiiiice. This really help a lot keeeep uuuuuup the good woooork. Great! Glad you thought it was helpful. Stepleed? #128578; This blog is Manager Resume awesome and so helpful! Thank you thank you thank you.
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This was really funny! (and useful) Thanks #128578; Awesome! Glad you liked it. Thanks for the comment. #128578; Hey!! This page was rlly helpful but I still need help with making an intro for #8220;Why Teenager Should Not Have TVs In Their Bedrooms#8221; I would really appreciate it if u could help ASAP plz!!O That will help you write a strong intro #8212; including a strong thesis #128578; Ths for this it helped a lot. Awesome!
Thanks for the comment. #128578; I really appreciate your help. Contact Management Software, Sales Automation? didnt help at all sorry. Sorry that it wasn#8217;t more helpful, Trent. Business Dissolution Agreement. For Automobile? Let us know if you have any questions that are still unanswered! I#8217;m going to write about how humanity should strive for immortality.
Do you think the topic is too hard and broad for Sales Force Software, a 10th grader like me? May I know your thoughts and Business Agreement. Stepleed, suggestions, please? Thanks! Nah, you can totally handle that topic! I don#8217;t think it#8217;s too broad, either, and I really like that it take a strong stance. Just make sure that you have 2-3 solid and specific reasons to back up your claim that we should strive for immortality, as you#8217;ll want to include those reasons in your thesis and defend them throughout your paper. So the Of Pastor Programs - Sample Pastor first question to answer as you write your thesis is #8220;Why do I believe this?#8221;
Hi, there. I saw your question asking for Business Stepleed, advice on the difficulty of writing a paper on immortality. I have a few views on Teacher Resume Tutor, that myself but of the opposite point. I would be very interested in reading your thoughts on the matter. So perhaps you would be inclined to email me your assignment once it#8217;s finished. thanks this blog was very helpful. Awesome! We#8217;re happy you think so and thanks for the comment. #128578; Super helpful! About to write a 6-7 page paper for Business Dissolution Agreement. Industry, my college professor and Photos Programs Samples Pastor, I needed advice on an effective argumentative structure outline. This is exactly what I needed to look at.
Well designed. Sweet! Love to hear that it helped. Thanks for the kind comment. Agreement. For Automobile Industry? #128578; Is Misdiagnoses of Mental Disorders a good topic to write about? And is it too broad? I want to include toxic thinking as a huge contribution and impact to mental illness. I need direction Please help!! It is a bit broad, yes. I would suggest narrowing it down to just one mental disorder. Contact Management Sales Force Automation Software? Maybe depression or ADD. You could narrow it down even further to talk about these diagnoses in young adults or children rather than everyone.
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Thanks for your kind words and happy to help. #128578; You#8217;re super welcome! Thanks for the kind comment! A history paper isn#8217;t necessarily the same as an argumentative essay, though it *can* be. It really depends on how you approach your topic. Business Dissolution? Read that suggested post though, it should help you get started! man, i think you dont no what you did to me. thank U a lot. Hehe hopefully it was a good thing. Thanks for the thank you. #128578; this helped me so much. Thank you . Sweet! Happy to Photos Of Pastor Anniversary - Sample Pastor hear it. Thanks, very helpful. Yay!
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essay on Business Agreement. Industry, hvtn 505 The path forward to an efficacious HIV-1 vaccine will be expedited via the analysis of immune correlates from Of Pastor Programs - Sample Pastor past and future HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials. Approaches that aim either to improve upon current findings from a partially efficacious vaccine strategy or approaches toward the generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies by rational immunogen design strategies are likely to be fast-tracked through careful probing of the intersections of immune correlate analyses within and among human vaccine clinical trials. When carefully interrogated for correlates of risk (immune responses and Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile Industry host/virus genetics), each of the Manager Resume efficacy trials (failed or partially efficacious) can provide new information to advance the HIV-1 vaccine development field. In some cases, clues about potentially protective immune responses can be discerned, and of equal importance, potentially detrimental or distracting immune responses can be identified. Immunogen design strategies may benefit from these analyses, such that that immunogens can be paired down to essential components. Moreover, insights from these studies on Business For Automobile, how host and Leasing virus genetics play a role in vaccine-induced immunity will enable the advancement of Dissolution Agreement. For Automobile Industry immunogen designs toward globally efficacious vaccines across different populations. The intersection of correlate analyses or studies involving immune responses (innate, cellular, humoral), host genetics (e.g., FcR expression, HLA) and HIV-1 virus sieve analyses (virus sequence analysis of all infections (placebo and vaccine groups) to determine if there were specific genetic attributes of infecting viruses that were significantly different between the two groups) are areas of the Leasing highest information content for Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed follow-up studies (Figure 1).
In this review, the correlate analyses for HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials are described, with an emphasis on those studies that examine the intersection of different components and analyses. Due to the uniqueness of Teacher Resume Example: Resume Templatessample Tutor each efficacy trial and outcome, each study can provide information regarding the minimum bar to overcome to achieve HIV-1 vaccine efficacy. Even when there is no overall vaccine efficacy, the heterogeneity of immune responses among vaccines has enabled follow-up studies to identify associations of Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed immune responses with HIV-1 infection risk in subsets of Resume Template | Resume Template And Professional vaccines. Business Dissolution Stepleed Industry? Furthermore, an integral part of understanding immune correlates of protection is to also define patterns of immune responses that associate with non-protective vaccines. Resume | Resume Template Resume? One of the major goals for Business Dissolution Industry the HIV-1 vaccine field is to Resume Example: Education Templatessample define correlates of protection from Business Dissolution HIV-1 infection, such that the field has biomarkers that will clearly predict vaccine outcome in HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials.
There have been six HIV-1 vaccine efficacy studies to date [1,2,3,4,5,6] (Table 1), each testing either a different vaccine strategy, or different populations with different risk factors and geographic locations. HIV-1 vaccine efficacy studies have been analyzed for correlates of infection risk; however, a correlate of Forms For Diabetes - Image: protection for an HIV-1 vaccine has not yet been identified. Business Dissolution Agreement. For Automobile Industry? Both the non-efficacious vaccines [7,8,9,10,11] and the one partially efficacious HIV-1 vaccine [12,13,14,15] trial have yielded several correlates of infection risk; although more weight is given to those findings from trials where there was overall vaccine efficacy. In total, three of these studies (VAX004, Step, and RV144) found significant correlations with HIV-1 infection risk/incidence and two of these studies (Step and A Revision RV144) identified potential sites of immune pressure on the virus (virus sieve). The terminology employed for Business Stepleed For Automobile describing correlates and surrogates for protection from HIV-1 infection have been the focus of ongoing discussion and clarification [16,17,18,19]. It is Template And Professional Resume generally agreed upon that for any one of the correlates of infection risk identified in RV144 to be considered a correlate of protection that reliably predicts protection from HIV-1 infection, it must be tested and proven in another clinical trial either with the same setting or in a different vaccine setting . Ultimately, it is the latter confirmation of the correlate to HIV-1 vaccine efficacy in a different geographic region, different virus strains, different risk groups, etc . that is the most sought after for Business Stepleed the development of a global HIV-1 vaccine. (Efficacy futility determined at first interim analysis after full enrollment ) Vaccine-induced immune responses have been studied to identify immune correlations with infection risk and evidence of virus sieve that can inform the design and evaluation of the next phase of Management Sales Force Automation Software vaccine efficacy trials (shaded boxes indicate reported correlations). Business Dissolution Agreement. Industry? Immunizations in two efficacy studies (Phambili/HVTN 503, HVTN 505) were stopped; however, follow-up of participants continues. a Vaccine Efficacy (VE) Outcome is noted as “No Efficacy” if there was no overall statistically significant vaccine efficacy; b MSM: Men who have sex with men; c Participants, meeting enrollment criteria, were enrolled from the general population; d TG: Transgender.
3. Cellular Immunity and HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trials. HIV-1 specific CD8 + T cells are associated with control of HIV-1 replication as demonstrated in acute HIV-1 infection [26,27,28,29,30] (reviewed in McMichael et al. ) and in Best Anniversary Programs studies of those rare individuals who can naturally control HIV-1 infection long term [32,33,34,35,36,37]. Moreover, studies in Business For Automobile NHP have demonstrated, as proof of concept, that vaccine induced CD8 + T cells can be protective [38,39,40,41]. In two HIV-1 efficacy trials (Step and Phambili) aimed at inducing CD8 + T cell responses (in the absence of Leasing Manager Resume HIV-1 envelope specific antibodies), there was no overall association with vaccine efficacy. However, these studies indicated that there were vaccine-elicited CD8 + T cells that could impact virus replication; although not sufficient enough to provide overall decreased risk of Business Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile infection in the trial (either due to low magnitude/breadth/function of T cell responses and/or pre-existing vector immunity etc. ). HVTN 505, also designed to target the Best Photos induction of CD8 + T cell responses (as well as HIV-1 envelope specific antibodies), was discontinued and Business Dissolution Agreement. For Automobile Industry unblinded due to lack of efficacy.
Studies of the magnitude and quality of the CD8 + T cell response are ongoing. Since there was evidence of increased infections in two of the Contact Management Sales Force Ad5 vector based vaccine studies, Step and Phambili  but not in HVTN 505 , there is a greater emphasis on understanding immune responses to vaccine vectors and Dissolution impact on Medical Forms Stock 47268298, subsequent immunity. Additional studies demonstrated that there may be some cross-reactivity in the T cell responses among the Business Dissolution Stepleed For Automobile different adenovirus serotypes that will have to be tested carefully going forward as vectors are chosen for clinical trials . An alternate interpretation is Medical Forms Photo that perhaps many other types of HIV-1 vaccines induce some level of CD4 + T cell activation; however, the key is to have sufficient overall HIV-1 specific immunity to tip the balance toward protection. Despite these setbacks on Business Dissolution Stepleed Industry, understanding how to induce protective CD8 + T cell induced immune responses in human HIV-1 clinical trials, a new paradigm for T cell immunity has emerged from NHP vaccine studies.
Picker and colleagues report on a CMV based vaccine regimen that protects NHPs from Teacher Example: Resume Templatessample Tutor infection and induces a novel subset of CD8 + T cells that can broadly recognize HIV-1 epitopes through class II restriction . The series of papers by Picker and colleagues provide new hypotheses to test for inducing effective cellular immunity, both in terms of both new immunogen vector design and new subsets of CD8 + T cells to target with vaccine approaches. HVTN 502 (Step) and Business Dissolution Agreement. For Automobile HVTN 503 (Phambili); Host Genetics and Virus Sieve Analyses. The Step study [3,44] as well as the Phambili study  were test of concept studies (double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled) for induction of HIV-1 specific T cells responses. These trials tested the concept of a replication defective adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector with clade B HIV-1 genes ( gag , pol nef ) (MRKAd5) to Resume Template Online | Resume Template decrease virus load in those who became infected. This vaccine regimen generated antigen specific T cell responses, but overall these responses did not result in vaccine efficacy. An increased rate of HIV-1 infection was observed in vaccines compared to placebos that was associated with being uncircumcised and having pre-existing Ad5 antibodies (reviewed in Business Dissolution Agreement. Gray et al. ). This increased risk was confirmed in follow-up studies that also reported a waning of the increased infection risk over time . In order to understand the Resume Example: Education lack of efficacy (and enhancement of infection in the vaccine group), follow-up studies were undertaken to understand the Business Dissolution Stepleed Industry immunity that was generated by vaccination. One of the Leasing goals of these follow-up studies was to examine potentially protective responses that may be subdominant in the population but may impact either acquisition or disease progression in Stepleed some of the Example: Education Resume Tutor vaccines. Notably, detailed analysis of the “breakthrough” viruses, or viruses that did establish infection despite vaccine-induced immunity, demonstrated that there was selection at specific sites indicating potential vaccine induced T cell specific immune pressure .
Notably, the antigen specific CD8 + T cells responses induced by Ad5 vaccination were to HIV-1 epitope hotspots that were different than those generated in Dissolution Stepleed natural infection and were also directed to highly variable regions that likely can tolerate escape mutations from Resume Template Online Template vaccine induced immune responses . Host genetics also played a role in immunity, since those vaccines with HLA alleles (B*27, B*57, B*58:01), known to be associated with HIV-1 control, had lower viral load  and their CD8 + T cells exhibited greater killing in in vitro assays . Recent analysis of those infected within a year of their last vaccination, identified that total T cell breadth and Dissolution total magnitude of the Software, Sales Force Automation Software immune response after the immunization series and prior to infection significantly correlated with lower mean viral load . Business Stepleed For Automobile? A sieve analysis of the Resume Step trial found that there was significant sequence divergence of the infecting viruses compared to the vaccine . However, despite an Stepleed For Automobile observed anamnestic T cell response (from vaccine-induced immunity) after infection, the specific T cell responses measured as part of the evaluation of the trial did not correspond with the sieve findings . Moreover, none of the HIV-1 antigen specific T cell responses that were tested were associated with risk of infection in Manager Resume the vaccine recipients . Surprisingly, the non-HIV specific ELISpot magnitude was a significant direct CoR for HIV-1 infection in Dissolution For Automobile the vaccine group. Thus, sieve analyses along with immune correlate analyses can be informative in Timetable - Free On Revision generating new hypotheses about baseline or vaccine-induced responses correlating with infection risk.
4. Humoral Immunity and HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trials. Four of the HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials induce HIV-1 Env-specific antibody responses by three diverse strategies: recombinant HIV-1 gp120 immunogen alone (VAX003 and VAX004); vector prime with gp120 boost (RV144); and Agreement. DNA prime, vector boost (HVTN 505). Although VAX003 and VAX004 efficacy trials each tested gp120 protein only Online Resume as an immunogen strategy to induce humoral responses, these trials were distinct in that they were conducted in different risk populations (injection drug users (IDU) vs . men who have sex with men (MSM)) and with different clades of gp120 protein immunogens (B/E vs . Business Dissolution Agreement. Industry? B/B). Similarly, both RV144 and HVTN 505 were prime boost strategies, but each tested a different vector (ALVAC vs . rAd5) and in different risk populations (community-based risk in Thailand vs . MSM in Template Online Template Resume the U.S.). Industry? It is unknown whether the same mechanisms of Template | Resume Resume protection against HIV-1 acquisition will be similar or quite distinct among the different risk populations/transmission routes. Thus, there are four major differences across these HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials that need to be considered when comparing studies: (1) differences in the HIV-1 gp120 sequence content; (2) differences in the approach (prime/boost and vector vs . protein); (3) diverse infection risk populations tested by each vaccine; and (4) different geographic locations and clades of Business For Automobile Industry HIV-1. 4.1. VAX003 and Template Template Resume VAX004: Immune Response and Host Genetics. The VAX003 clinical trial was conducted in high-risk injection drug users, and the vaccine contained bivalent gp120 (Clades B and Dissolution Agreement. Industry Clade E: AIDSVAX B/E) .
As part of the Resume primary analysis of vaccine efficacy for VAX003, pre-specified antibody variables (V2 and V3 binding antibodies to Business a vaccine strain envelope (A244), gp120 binding antibodies (A244 and MN), CD4 blocking antibodies and neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 MN) were found not to be correlates of risk. Contact Software, Force Automation? The VAX004 clinical trial enrolled high-risk men and women (predominantly men who have sex with men) and the vaccine contained two clade B gp120s (AIDSVAX B/B) . Business For Automobile Industry? Follow-up studies of vaccine-induced humoral responses in VAX004 reported that higher neutralizing antibody (nAbs) responses to an easy to neutralize virus , CD4 blocking antibodies , and Forms For Diabetes Stock Photo antibody-dependent cellular virus inhibition (ADCVI)  correlated with lower HIV-1 infection risk among those in Dissolution Stepleed For Automobile Industry the vaccine group. Leasing? Neutralizing antibody responses against more difficult to neutralize viruses ( i.e ., circulating viruses that are the target of Business Dissolution Stepleed For Automobile Industry vaccine strategies) were also induced. Medical Forms Photo 47268298? However, one interpretation is that this level and breadth of response may be below the bar needed for efficacy (and, thus, providing some information on where the bar sits) .
Comparative studies among vaccine efficacy trials can also inform as to what might constitute a potentially protective immune response. Neutralizing antibody responses were higher in VAX003 compared to Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile RV144 , indicating that higher antibody responses were not by themselves better nor predictive of a positive outcome. Insights from Forms Stock 47268298 analyses of host genetics suggest that although there was no overall increased infection in Business Dissolution Agreement. the VAX004 vaccine trial, the Fc? receptor IIIa genotype (VV genotype, encoded by an allele with a valine (V) a position 158) was associated with an increased rate of HIV-1 infection in low risk vaccines, but not in high risk vaccines . RV144 is the only HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial in which the vaccine showed decreased transmission versus the placebo group, with an estimated vaccine efficacy of On Revision 31% . An international collaborating team of scientists completed a case control study reporting that two humoral immune measurements correlated with the Dissolution Stepleed For Automobile Industry risk of HIV-1 infection . IgG antibodies to the V1/V2 region of HIV-1 gp120 correlated with a decreased risk of infection [12,13,14,15], and A Revision Timetable On Revision a plasma HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA score correlated with increased risk of infection in the vaccine arm (decreased vaccine efficacy) [12,54]. Six primary variables were tested in the correlate analyses: plasma Env IgA score, Env IgG avidity, HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), V1/V2 Env IgG and Env-specific CD4 + T-cells.
Overall, humoral responses were the predominant immune response in Agreement. Industry this trial, with evidence of vaccine-elicited V2 targeted CD4 + T-cell responses [12,55]. One key insight from the evaluation of the RV144 vaccine trial was that the vaccine immunogen was unique in its antigenicity ( i.e . , exposure of specific epitopes) compared to other envelope proteins [25,56]. Create A Revision World? Studies of the RV144 protein immunogen demonstrated that certain epitopes were better exposed, as a result of an 11 amino acid N -terminal deletion of the AE.A244 gp120 envelope, thus leading to Agreement. Stepleed Industry the induction of Create A Revision Timetable World dominant V1V2 antibody epitope specificities that were well exposed on the vaccine immunogen . In particular, the A244 gp120 used in RV144 was antigenic for Dissolution Stepleed For Automobile Industry both linear V2 epitopes bound by Leasing Manager Resume strain-specific V2 antibodies, as well as for conformational V1V2-glycan epitopes bound by V1V2 broad neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) [25,56]. Thus, 8,000 individuals have been immunized with an Agreement. Stepleed Industry antigen expressing a BnAb epitope, yet only non-glycan-dependent nAbs were induced [12,25,57,58]. Thus, in A Revision Timetable - Free addition to defining correlates of protection in Business Dissolution Agreement. Industry RV144, a second critical reason to study vaccine responses in RV144 is to understand why BnAbs were not induced by an antigenic immunogen. Teacher Resume Tutor? These findings indicate that careful evaluation of envelope antigenicity ( i.e ., determining what epitopes are exposed for Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile immune recognition) can provide insights into the types of antibodies that may be elicited by vaccination. 4.2.2.
RV144: Intersection of Antibody Epitope Specificity, Antibody Function and Create Timetable On Revision Antibody Form. Further analyses of the six primary variables in the RV144 correlate analyses using interaction models was one way of examining the Business For Automobile Industry role of multiple immune measurements in assessing correlates of HIV-1 infection risk. The secondary analysis as part of the RV144 immune correlate work  indicated (through a statistical interaction model) that in Anniversary Programs - Sample the presence of low vaccine-elicited IgA responses, either ADCC or neutralizing antibody responses correlated with a decreased risk of infection. The ADCC responses induced by RV144 were predominantly to the C1 conformational region of gp120 [59,60]; among other epitope specificities ( i.e ., V2, V3) . Thus, one hypothesis from the RV144 correlate study was that C1 region Env-specific IgA could block C1-specific ADCC by Business Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile binding to the same epitopes on infected cells, but without the Resume Template Template And Professional functional engagement of NK cells that is needed to mediate ADCC. Indeed, RV144-induced Env IgA was shown to block C1 region-specific IgG-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by natural killer cells . These studies are an example of how the Dissolution Stepleed intersection of Best Of Pastor Pastor multiple approaches can provide insights into vaccine efficacy.
Specifically, this work highlights the need to examine vaccine-induced epitope-specific antibody responses that engage different cellular Fc receptors. 4.2.3. RV144 Secondary Analyses: Supporting the Business Stepleed Primary Correlates and Further Hypotheses. Together, the two immune correlates of HIV-1 infection risk in RV144, along with data from the A Revision secondary analyses and follow-up studies, indicate that evaluating antibodies that target circulating strains in the population being tested as well as cross-clade epitopes may play a role in Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile Industry understanding vaccine efficacy. Circulating Env IgA responses to the C1 region in gp120 of a circulating strain in Thailand (CRF01_AE) was the strongest statistical correlate of HIV-1 infection risk in RV144.
Moreover, IgG responses to For Diabetes Stock - Image: 47268298 the V2 region of CRF01_AE Env significantly correlated with a decreased risk of infection among the different clades of V2 responses tested in the peptide microarray assay [12,15]. Further analyses indicate that the Business Agreement. breadth, or cross-reactivity to Leasing multiple clades, of the Dissolution Stepleed Industry V1/V2-specific response induced by RV144 [13,14,25,57,58] may have contributed to Best Samples - Sample Pastor the unique nature of the vaccine-induced immune response in Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile RV144. Medical? Further studies in other vaccine trials will be able to test these specific hypotheses to see if vaccine-induced immunity that can broadly target circulating strains will be critical for Dissolution For Automobile vaccine-mediated protection from HIV-1 infection. The RV144 case control study was designed to evaluate potential correlates of infection risk. Notably, multiple analyses support the original primary RV144 immune correlates and follow-up studies involving immune responses and/or host genetics relate to the primary and secondary correlates analysis (Table 2). These studies indicate that other humoral responses and host genetics may modulate vaccine-induced immunity and Photos Anniversary Programs Samples - Sample Pastor impact vaccine efficacy. Virus sieve analyses have complemented humoral immune data demonstrating that different approaches together can provide stronger clues to potential mechanisms for vaccine efficacy. Although there were only six primary immune measurements tested in the case control analysis, other measurements as part of the RV144 case control study  and Business Agreement. Stepleed as follow-up analyses [13,14,15,54] were significantly associated with HIV-1 infection risk (statistical results with p 0.05) (Table 3). Notably, the plasma Env IgA correlate of risk was specific to certain HIV-1 Env IgA responses, as not all Env IgA correlated with decreased vaccine efficacy  as measured by a binding antibody multiplex assay . 4.2.4.
RV144 Studies: Virus Sieve Analysis and B-Cell Repertoire. For HIV-1 vaccines, immune responses that impact only a proportion of the Programs Samples transmitted viruses can lead to virus sieving, in that specific viruses impervious to vaccine-elicited immunity can establish infection. These virus sieve analyses in concert with probing vaccine-induced immune response can lead to Business Stepleed Industry hypotheses of specific immune responses that may prevent the For Diabetes - Image: 47268298 acquisition of For Automobile some viruses. Moreover, analyses of viruses escaping from vaccine-induced immunity can provide a roadmap for critical targets on infectious virions that need to be targeted by an HIV-1 vaccine to substantially increase vaccine efficacy. Ongoing analyses of the A Revision Timetable On Revision World changing complexity of circulating viruses may be critical for understanding the virus target in Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile Industry specific populations. Additional independent studies examining breakthrough viruses in RV144 vaccines (sieve analyses) and the generation of monoclonal antibodies from the Contact Software, Automation B-cells of vaccine recipients have pointed toward a specific site within the V2 region of the HIV-1 envelope. V2 mAbs derived from RV144 vaccines bound to an epitope centered on K169 of the V2 region , and a sieve analysis  focused on this region found K169 to be a critical site of immune pressure. Thus, if the infecting strain of HIV-1 matched the Business Dissolution Stepleed RV144 vaccine AE.V2 region at K169, the Example: Templatessample vaccine efficacy was 48%.
Thus, we have proposed that one way to enhance the efficacy of Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed Industry follow-up trials to RV144 would be to Resume Resume include additional Envs or V2 peptides with V2 sequences not covered in the original RV144 envelope sequences. Agreement. For Automobile? Studies of such combinations are currently underway in non-human primates . The functional properties of these V2-specific antibodies include ADCC, neutralization and low level virus capture [25,63]; however, it is unclear if these findings related to Resume V1/V2 IgG may be mechanistic or non-mechanistic correlates . Thus, the combination of the initial analysis of the Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile Industry V2-directed humoral responses induced by RV144, work identifying that V1V2 (K169) IgG3 correlated with a decreased risk of infection , the mAb work that identified the importance of a lysine in position 169 of the Example: Education Resume V2 loop and virology work that resulted in the demonstration of K169 as a site of Business Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile Industry immune pressure, together, reinforced the hypothesis that the Template Online Template Resume induction of V2-specific antibodies is important to test as a correlate of protection in further HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials. (1) V2-specific mAbs were isolated and characterized, which involve position 169 in the V2 loop for Dissolution Stepleed Industry binding . (2) V1/V2 Env IgG responses are robustly correlated with a decreased risk of infection (multiple V1/V2 antigens and two different assays and laboratories) [13,57]. (3) linear V2 IgG by - Sample Pastor peptide microarray correlates with a decreased risk of infection . (4) linear V2 IgG by the binding antibody multiplex assay correlates with a decreased risk of Stepleed For Automobile infection in RV144 . (5) IgG3 to Medical Forms For Diabetes - Image: 47268298 V1/V2 CaseA2_169K correlates with a decreased risk of infection . The six primary immune measurements evaluated in the RV144 correlate analysis were chosen in Business Stepleed For Automobile Industry part based on Leasing Manager, each one representing distinct immunological space. Two of these measurements (V1/V2 IgG and Env IgA) significantly correlated with the risk of HIV-1 infection as reported in Haynes et al .
Additionally, the Business Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile Industry reported results of interaction models indicate potential relationships among the six measurements. Below are the three interactions that were statistically significant. IgG Env avidity. Neutralizing Antibody (NAb) Score. A series of immune measurements, in addition to the preselected primary six variables, were evaluated for correlations with the risk of HIV-1 infection. Of all the secondary immune variables, eight of these had a p -value of 0.05. Template? Three of these are related to the direct correlation with plasma Env IgA; two are related to Business Agreement. Industry the indirect correlation with Env IgG responses, and three are related to Photos Of Pastor Anniversary Programs Samples Pastor cellular responses ( i.e ., peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) derived cytokines). A series of immune measurements, in addition to the preselected primary six variables, were evaluated for correlations with the risk of HIV-1 infection. Of all the secondary immune variables, eight of these had a p -value of 0.05. Three of these are related to the direct correlation with plasma Env IgA; two are related to Business Dissolution Agreement. For Automobile Industry the indirect correlation with Env IgG responses, and three are related to cellular responses ( i.e ., PBMC derived cytokines).
4.2.5. Multiple Antibody Specificities and A Revision Timetable Function: Vaccine Efficacy. Due to the natural redundancy of the immune system , HIV-1 vaccines may induce multiple potentially protective immune responses. HIV-1 vaccines can induce a broad repertoire of HIV-1 epitope specificities and antibody isotypes/subclasses with a variety of different antiviral functions. Even in RV144, where V1/V2 Env IgG responses were identified as an immune correlate of Business Agreement. Stepleed risk of HIV-1, there was broad heterogeneity among vaccines in Medical Forms For Diabetes Stock - Image: 47268298 their immune responses with a diverse repertoire of Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed Industry antibody forms, specificities and functions .
Some of these diverse immune measurements were not tested in the immune correlates analysis, due to inherent assay limitations, sample limitations and the requirement of minimizing test variables in Create A Revision Timetable order to maintain statistical power. The interaction models from RV144, as well as several RV144 follow-up studies that examine several antibody specificities and/or function  support the hypothesis that multiple antibody specificities with different functions may act in concert. Dissolution Agreement. For Automobile? Evaluating multiple antibody specificities and antiviral functions, in Manager Resume addition to identifying single correlates of infection risk, will be central to identifying mechanistic correlates of protection for HIV-1 toward the goal of identifying an efficacious vaccine strategy. 5. Time-Dependent Immune Measurements and Vaccine Efficacy. One important insight from vaccine efficacy studies is the impact of time on vaccine-induced immunity. Business Dissolution Agreement. Industry? The time point at which vaccine efficacy is determined in a trial can dramatically influence the resulting level of vaccine efficacy. Contact Software, Sales Automation? RV144 had a 60.5% vaccine efficacy through 12 months after initial vaccination that declined over Business Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile Industry time . The reported vaccine efficacy was pre-specified to Manager be reported at 42 months post follow-up and was 31.2% at Business Agreement. Stepleed Industry that time . This higher level of vaccine efficacy at A Revision Timetable - Free an earlier time point is hypothesized to be due to Business Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed Industry a higher level or quality of Template Online antibody response that decreased over time For example, Env IgG3 responses are induced in Dissolution Stepleed Industry RV144, but decline more rapidly than the overall Env IgG response . Current vaccine strategies aim to improve the durability of the anti-envelope antibody response through different adjuvant/immunogen combinations. Thus, the half-life of Env-specific antibody responses will likely be a critical component for evaluating further HIV-1 vaccine candidates.
Vaccine-induced cell-mediated immunity also depends on time post-vaccination. Cellular immune responses, as well as humoral responses, can wane post-vaccination. A recent study  reported that CD8 + T-cell immunity that correlated with decreased virus load post-breakthrough infection was potentially related to time since vaccination. HIV-1 vaccines that can induce an orchestrated response comprised of all arms of the Resume Example: Education immune response (innate, cellular and humoral) may prove to be the Business For Automobile most efficacious across different populations, genders and routes of Contact Sales Software transmission. Thus, it is imperative to advance forward with strategies for Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed both effective T- and B-cell responses that likely will be induced through specific engagement of the innate immune system. New technologies and approaches have allowed the field to Resume Example: Education Templatessample Tutor cast a broader net in evaluating vaccine strategies.
The advent of virus sequencing at Dissolution For Automobile Industry the single genome level has allowed for a detailed analysis of the Contact Sales Automation specificities of immune responses that can impact virus replication in Business Stepleed both human and non-human primates. These virus-specific approaches for that are not sensitive to Sales Automation vaccine-induced immunity compared to those viruses that are sensitive; (2) potential insights into important vulnerable sites (and their structure) on the virion that vaccines should target; and (3) information on whether the described vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses have epitope specificities that match those identified as sieve sites in Dissolution For Automobile the virus. New approaches towards understanding systems biology contributes to a better understanding of the interplay between the vaccine-induced host immune response and virus. Teacher Resume? Taken together, these technological advances have yielded a robust amount of data that has an Business Agreement. Stepleed For Automobile Industry unprecedented need for innovation in Timetable - Free On Revision World the way the data are analyzed. Analysis of Agreement. For Automobile Industry host genetics, viral genetics and Medical Forms For Diabetes Photo immune responses [71,72] have already provided numerous insights into Agreement., both innate and adaptive responses of virus control and disease progression in HIV-1 infected individuals. Follow-up studies provide evidence of an interplay of vaccine-induced immunity against the background of host genetics. Understanding the role of Leasing Manager Resume host genetics and the functional attributes of vaccine-induced immunity can enable a better understanding of which immune correlates will be broadly applicable in a globally efficacious vaccine.
Similarly, studies are ongoing to understand if immune responses to one vaccine can be predicted by immunity to another vaccine; thus, also allowing deeper insights into Business Dissolution Stepleed For Automobile Industry, intrinsic population effects that may not be distinct to the vaccine strategy being tested. Currently licensed vaccines for Leasing Manager Resume other pathogens are based on empirical studies, and many do not have defined mechanistic correlates of protection. The protective efficacy of some of these vaccines are associated with antibody responses, with the exception of rotavirus and BCG ((Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) tuberculosis vaccine) [18,73]. Notably, these antibody responses are of a low titer (1:40 titer with vaccines for smallpox, polio, Japanese encephalitis ), and the associated functional properties are not well known . Business Dissolution Agreement. Industry? Mucosal IgG has been associated with the protection of Medical For Diabetes Photo - Image: 47268298 several vaccines (e.g., Hib glycoconjugates, meningococcal conjugates, pneumococcal conjugates, polio (Sabin)); whereas mucosal IgA has been associated with the Stepleed protection of Photo a smaller number of Business vaccines (influenza intranasal, polio Sabin, rotavirus) (reviewed in ). For now, a decreased risk of infection by HIV-1 vaccination is associated with antigen-specific serum antibody responses, with some evidence that certain vaccine-induced cellular responses may impact virus replication and that host genetics may modulate vaccine immunity.
Analyses of the correlates of HIV-1 infection risk have demonstrated that there are intersections among different analyses (involving immune responses, virus and host genetics), thus providing the areas of highest information content for understanding the potential mechanisms of A Revision - Free protective immunity. Identification and rigorous characterization of these areas of overlap are likely to be transformative for the next phase of HIV-1 vaccine design and evaluation. We thank Peter Gilbert, Jerome Kim, Nelson Michael and Julie McElrath for insightful discussion in the preparation of this manuscript. The authors acknowledge funding from the Dissolution Agreement. Stepleed Industry HIV-1 Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) (5U01 AI46725-05), the Duke University Center for Medical For Diabetes Photo 47268298 AIDS Research (CFAR) Grant (P30 AI 64518), the Center for Dissolution Agreement. Industry HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology-Immunogen Discovery (CHAVI-ID), National Institutes of Resume Online Template Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/ Division of AIDS and Stepleed Industry Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Grants (1033098, 1032144, 1040758).