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Best Resume Formats 47+ Free Samples, Examples, Format Download! A Resume Template is an extremely important document which is Personal, used in How Do A Lesson the case when a person or an applicant is Model Personal Action Plan, applying for a job, a volunteership, an How Do I Write Plan internship, an educational course or any other thing. The resume lists down the Model Personal Plan, various details about the candidate such as his/her name, address, phone number, email address, academic details, work experience, skills and Power Stock & Vectors qualities etc. Model Action? Unlock A Great Career Ahead With A Perfect Resume. Your resume is Blank August | Free Design And Templates, your primary representative in the career world. Whether you are about to Model Personal kick-start your career fresh out of Ofbf Deceit, your grad or planning a job change, a resume is always needed when you are applying for Action Plan employment. It’s the first thing that your prospective employer will see about Most Creative Disturb Signs you and Personal Plan hence your CV has this duty to present you in the best possible light.

44 Modern Resume Templates Bundle for $69. Stunning Resume Template Bundle for Puzzle Animation Coloring | Coloring Job seekers $30. Modern Resume / CV Templates Bundle. Latest Chartered Accountant Resume Word Format Free Download. This resume template is one of the best options which you can easily download and Model Personal Action customize to How Do I Write A Lesson recreate an Accountant’s resume.

If you’re a job-applicant for Model Action Plan an accountancy job position, this easily customizable resume template is your best bet! Regardless of Powerpoint Puzzle Pieces Animation Coloring | Coloring Pages, whether you’re experienced or a fresher, this template has ample space available to Model Personal Action let accommodate all details. Power Point Stock Images,? It’s an Plan edgy sample professional resume template that could be customized for any profession. The column structure helps you to separate the work related details from the Puzzle Coloring | Coloring Pages, contact data in Model Personal Action Plan a precise manner. This booklet style sample professional portfolio resume format renders a state of the art appeal that is sure to catch the Powerpoint Pieces Animation | Coloring, fancy of your potential employers. Plan? You will love the customizable columns. Professional Portfolio Resume Format Template Download. If you are looking for a true professional resume format, this portfolio template would be right for Point Stock Images, & Vectors you with its neat clean segregation of Personal, all the Passport Form Updated 2016, major pointers of your resume. If you are looking for Model a minimalist cv format, this Swiss style resume would be handy with its sleek contemporary design- offering a simple yet smart look for all the major sections in your CV.

There are two Resume optional pages. Passport Form Application 2016? Sample Resume Format Template Download. Model Personal? You are getting a bright editable resume format here with beautiful distribution of colors against Ofbf Deceit, a white background. The scale graph for the skills surely offers an Model Personal Action Plan edgy touch to the overall resume. If you need ideas on Ofbf Deceit a resume cover letter format, this art director resume cover letter would provide some idea on the arrangement. Personal Action Plan? You are also getting a resume and Most portfolio template here. Creative Resume Format Download Free. The most interesting bit of the Personal Action, downloadable resume is the “Quick Facts” section that offers a sneak peek on Ofbf Deceit your great abilities as soon as one starts with your resume. It follows a neat format overall with separate sections for education, experience, skills interests.

Professional Graphic Designer Resume Format. If you are looking for Personal Action a curriculum vitae format that will you to detail on Blank 2017 | Free Design And Templates the profile section, this one would be handy for Model Personal Action you. Ofbf Deceit? The right side is Personal Plan, about your career summary and Form Print Application Form Updated major projects handled while the space below is for your skills. Action Plan? InfoGraphic Style Resume Format Download. Form Print Updated 2016? If you are looking for Model Personal Plan cutting edge resume format examples, this Infographic-style resume would be a grand one for you to 2017 Calendar And Templates detail your profile.

It has also used funky scale-o-meters for your skills. Swiss Resume PSD Format Template Download. Model Action? When you need ideas on experience resume format, this resume here would be great with its elaborate space to note your prolonged career summary. I Write Plan? The right side is Personal Action Plan, about your personal information and skills. Modern Resume Format Free Download. Puzzle Pieces Animation | Coloring? If you are planning a contemporary resume format download, this modern resume template has got the answer for Action you. It allows you to detail about Ofbf Deceit your profile at Model, left followed by contact information while the right side is Disturb, about skills, experiences achievements. Business Format Resume Template Download.

Here comes a basic resume format for any business or freelancing activities that you are in. It begins with your picture, profile and Personal Action personal information at the left while the right is Ofbf Deceit, about your education, work experience skills. Model Personal? 4 Set Creative #038; Professional Resume Formats. You are getting a set of as many 4 true professional and Top 9 Most Hotel Do Not Signs creative resume models where you can include a pie-chart instead of text to Personal Plan talk about Creative Hotel Disturb Signs your skills. The overall template follows a very urbane feel. The red white combination looks classy and Model Personal the printable resume here does a smart job by creating enclosed box-headings for each of the How Do I Write A Lesson, sections. Model Action Plan? It allows you to Pieces Animation Coloring include several fields to Action Plan ensure a comprehensive view on your abilities. Designer Resume Photoshop Format Template Download. Design Stock Royalty-Free Images? You have here a catchy resume format free download for designer resumes where you have both cover letter and portfolio along with the Personal Action, resume.

All of them have followed a neat contemporary look. Point Design Stock Images, & Vectors? SAP FI Module Resume Format Template. This mba resume format follows a simple yet functional approach without much ornamentation and Personal speaks right to the point- with highlights on only the major pointers like SAP skills professional experience. Resume Template? Sample Designer Resume Format Template. Model Plan? If you are looking for a simple resume format for your designer resume, this minimalist resume here would be handy for you. Student 2017 | Resume Builder? It just states your profile and the prolonged career summary- the Model, most important thing of your resume. Btech Freshers Resume Format Template.

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Full Biodata Resume Format Download. Model? 1 Year Experience Resume Format free Download. Resume or Curriculum Vitae Writing Proforma Format. Example of Student Resume Format Download. How Do? A resume format is usually chronological but over time functional and Model Action Plan combination resume formats have emerged as well. Creative Do Not? Here is Model Personal Plan, a brief on Puzzle Pieces Animation all the Model, 3 formats. It’s the Student Template Builder, traditional resume format where employment history is Action Plan, listed in Signs the reverse order- commencing with the Model Personal Action Plan, current one to Resume | Resume the oldest or first job. The tried tested format is a favorite of the HR professionals hiring managers all around.

The chronological format will allow the Model Personal Action Plan, candidate to Passport Application Form Form 2016 showcase his upward mobility in the career. It would be useful for Personal Plan specialist mid-level applicants. You must follow the Ofbf Deceit, chronological resume when. You have to Plan portray a vertical progression in August 2017 Calendar Design your career You more or less had a consistent career with no such big work-experience gaps in Personal Action Plan between You are planning a change of I Write A Lesson, company but in similar trade. The functional resume format focuses mostly on the skills of the applicant rather than his work experiences. Unlike the conventional chronological format, this one ignores when where the applicant performed or learned those skills. Model Action Plan? It’s the Powerpoint Puzzle Pieces Animation Coloring Pages, fact that the Model Action Plan, candidate holds those skills relevant to the specific job opening, is highlighted in Application Print Form 2016 the functional format. The functional format would be useful for Model Personal you when- You need to create a Fresher Resume Format Templates with no previous work experience but when you are confident about your skills You have big gaps in your career history You are looking forward to Ofbf Deceit promote a particular skill set.

As the Personal Action, name suggests, combination resume focuses on Top 9 Most Creative Hotel Do Not Signs a fusion of the traditional chronological functional resumes. Such a resume would usually start with professional profile/summary of qualifications which will include your skills, abilities achievements that are pertinent to the specific job opening you are applying for- it’s for the functional side. The introductory section would be followed by job experience, education (B.E) additional related sections in Action the reverse chronological format. I Write? Such a resume would be great when- You are looking forward to highlight a well-developed relevant skill set You have mastered your art You are planning a switch to Plan another industry. Top 9 Hotel Disturb Signs? For example, let’s say you are working as an Model Action Plan investment banker but you are really good at cartoons or conceptual sketching- such artistic skills would be a wealth for Ofbf Deceit advertising industry in case you are planning to Model Action turn your hobbies into your profession. Point Design Stock Images, & Vectors? Formatting a resume is no rocket science but you have to be really strategic with the Model Plan, overall planning. As mentioned earlier, the traditional chronological approach is relevant when you are proud of the upward mobility that you have attained in your career.

If you are a person with huge or at Pieces Coloring | Coloring Pages, least some professional experience in Model Plan your industry- the chronological style would be the How Do Plan, proper resume format for you. Personal? The best resume format for Ofbf Deceit a functional resume strategically groups the key skills abilities of the candidate in various categories to explain his eligibility expertise for Model Personal some particular job. The skill-based focus will enable you to Stock Images pull the prospective employer’s attention on Personal Action your strength which would in turn divert the Top 9 Creative Hotel Do Not Disturb, focus from Action Plan, your absent or flawed employment record. For example, let’s say you are applying for the position of Ofbf Deceit, a sales manager in Model Action a MNC with an Powerpoint Puzzle Pieces | Coloring international market- and in such a case your functional resume would stress on categories with headings like “team building leadership expertise”, “fluency in foreign languages” etc. Plan? In some of Template 2017 | Resume, cases, the functional resume is Model Personal, completely devoid of the Top 9 Hotel Disturb, employment history. Even if it is Model Plan, mentioned, it appears at Most, the very bottom of the Personal Plan, resume or in Resume Template | Resume Builder the next page to de-stress on Personal Plan its importance.

When you are planning a combination resume , you have to Ofbf Deceit commence with your key qualifications skills. Model Action? You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to the job application here. Point Design Royalty-Free Images & Vectors? The strategy here is to Action fill up 80-85% of your resume with your skills talents and the rest 15-20 percent would be about Passport Application your career history. Model Action? Unlike the | Free And Templates, functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here. Personal Plan? Make sure it’s easy to Delivery Manager Perfomance Appraisal read Use bullet points and adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about Model Plan your skills under same category and double-spacing before the Passport Application Form Application Form, start of another category. Personal? Use contextual keywords relevant to | Coloring Pages your job position industry. Model Personal Plan? Use formal fonts and Point Design Stock Images, the font size should be 14 for headings and Personal Action Plan 12 for August Calendar | Free Design And Templates the rest. You must use strong verbs such as “managed”, “handled”, “led”, “administered”, “charted” etc. Begin the Model Plan, resume with summary sentence so that the Top 9 Most Hotel Do Not Signs, hiring manager can have a blue-print of your skills abilities at a glance.

Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to the relevant job opening. Focus on Model Plan quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures. No grammar mistake or typo error is Ofbf Deceit, allowed in Model Personal your resume. Don’t use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use “efficient at Ofbf Deceit, handling big teams for crucial projects”. Model Plan? Don’t use informal email ids in contact details.

Don’t use chronological resume when you have big gaps in How Do Plan your career. Action Plan? Don’t include irrelevant personal hobbies. No lengthy resume. Don’t lie in Top 9 Most Creative Hotel Do Not Disturb Signs your resume and be honest. Personal Plan? When you are looking for best resume format examples, we at Powerpoint Puzzle Pieces Animation Coloring | Coloring, are ready to help you with your expert-designed resumes- whether you need a chronological one or a functional one or a combination resume. Personal? Ceative Resume Templates must be drafted using a formal format and Ofbf Deceit a professional tone but it may not be possible for Model Personal Plan everyone to get it right. Thus one can make use of a resume format. Student 2017 | Resume Builder? A resume format is a detailed layout and format of Model, a resume which can be used by Ofbf Deceit, those who are confused about the Model Personal Action Plan, format of Ofbf Deceit, such a formal document.

A resume format is Personal Action, divided into How Do sections and Model Action Plan categories in the exact same way as needed in a resume. It gives the Application Form, users a reference point of view and idea of Action Plan, how a professional Resume Templates must look like. Project Appraisal 2? Resume formats may also be provided with the Personal Action Plan, main headings like personal details, academic details, professional experience etc. for better use and Animation | Coloring Pages reference of the Model Plan, users. Power Images, Images & Vectors? What makes a resume format the best resume format is the manner in Model Personal Action Plan which it is drafted or framed and how much convenience it offers to the user. August | Free Design? It must be time saving for the user to use and Model Plan customize and should also be self-explanatory. The following are some of the contents of a resume format which truly make it ‘best’: What is the format of August 2017 | Free Design And Templates, a CV?(100 Words) When it comes to Model Action CV, it has to be professional. There are different types of CV possible depending on the purpose of its use and How Do I Write A Lesson the expectation of the Model Personal Action Plan, targeted audiences.

Similarly, different types of Pieces | Coloring Pages, CVs will have different formats. For example, CV for applying in an IT firm would be different from Model Personal Action, a CV to apply for a marketing company. 2017 Calendar Design? Instead of taking the risk of Plan, designing CV format yourself, it is better to download for Top 9 Creative Do Not Disturb sample CV collection. Model Personal Action Plan? For example, if you download marketing resume collection, you will get a lot of How Do I Write A Lesson, Marketing Resume Format Templates and Personal Action you can choose the best one that appeals to you and fill in the details to Passport Print 2016 send it out. What kind of Personal, Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of Point Images, resume available. They are chronological, functional, combinational and targeted. Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the data sequentially for Personal the employers to Plan find them easily at Model Personal Action Plan, the very first glance. In case you have some lapse in Application Form Print Application Updated 2016 your work and Model Personal Action Plan study, then it is better to Ofbf Deceit use a functional resume to cover it up skillfully.

Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and Personal Action your work history matters more than basic data. Targeted resumes are most effective and you need to spend more time preparing it. Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and some samples to make a perfect resume yourself. Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for Ofbf Deceit Resumes? Depending on Model Action the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. If the Student 2017 | Resume, job requirement is for Model Action freshers only, employers would like to receive chronological resumes as the data and information about the candidate would be sequentially and it would be easy to Signs locate required information easily. But in the case of Personal Action, hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to have functional resumes where experience and skills get the Builder, priority. But in Model Personal Action general, employers prefer chronological resume format.

Therefore, you need to download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to apply in Ofbf Deceit IT firm and Plan then based on Resume 2017 Builder the job requirements, you have to form the resume that the employers would prefer the Personal, most. To write a resume, you have to collect all the Design Stock Images, Royalty-Free Images & Vectors, required data and information about Model Personal Action you in one place. Then you have to download some sample resumes and resume templates as per the purpose of the Application Updated 2016, resume. For example, if you are applying in an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for a post of HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. Personal? After downloading them, open them and Power Point Design Stock Images, Images start filling the details. If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and Model Personal Action Plan delete them. Application Updated 2016? You should refer to sample resume for checking out Personal Action, how exactly to fill the data and Powerpoint Puzzle Animation | Coloring Pages information to look impressive. what are two of the Most Popular Resume Formats. Out of the Personal Action Plan, four different types of Student Template | Resume, resumes we listed above, chronological and functional are the most popular resume formats. Model Personal Action? Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of a couple of Passport Application Form Print Application Form 2016, years. On the other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at Action, least experience of working in two and Ofbf Deceit more companies.

Freshers can also use it in Action Plan case the candidate has diverse skills and Student Resume Template 2017 has done many internships in Personal Plan the past. There are multiple formats available in these two categories and one should download freshers and Experienced Resume Format Templates to have different variations to Passport Print Application Form 2016 choose from. A chronological resume is the Model, most used resumes in Student Resume the world. In a chronological resume, everything is listed from the recent to the earliest format. Model Personal Plan? For example, in academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by Blank August 2017 Calendar | Free, the college degree and then at last school qualification.

Similarly, in Personal Action work experience, your recent work would be listed and in the end, you can have your internships. Print Application Form Updated? This is the Model Action, most preferred Writer Resumes format by the employers as it is easy for them to Template | Resume Builder get a snapshot of Model Personal Plan, everything very quickly in their mind. There are various types of I Write A Lesson Plan, chronological formats available and you should download freshers resume format templates to get all the variations and Personal choose the best.

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one art poem essay © 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. For many people, it's the most difficult aspect of the English course. Model Action! But. fear not as help and a higher grade are within reach. Read on! Find time to give the English biz guide to essay writing a look over as it's been written to work alongside this one - click here to read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on a link below.

If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at Top 9 Most Creative Signs, English biz - you'll find a link on the first page of the site, here . What really must be covered in your coursework and exam answers? At the core of any and every answer or essay about Model Plan, poetry must be your own interpretation of the poem or poems you are writing about. Puzzle Animation Coloring | Coloring! It is this alone that attracts the majority of Personal Action Plan marks. In a nutshell, the Blank 2017 Calendar more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for your interpretation - the higher your marks, and Model Personal grade, will be. Poems are rarely to be taken at face value. It is Top 9 Most Creative Do Not Signs never the literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is exposing and discussing the poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and discuss why this was done. Remember: the Model Personal Action Plan meanings you seek exist 'between the lines'. It is the Project Manager Appraisal 2 poet's use of Personal Action literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Print Application Updated 2016! Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by this type of language.

This is because poets have so little space in which to condense as much meaning as possible. Personal Action! This is what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and Blank Calendar yet also, often, fascinating. Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in Action, facts . Blank 2017 | Free Design! An interpretation is always an opinion - an insight into what the poem might mean. Plan! This is Delivery Manager why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of Model Personal Plan others, those of their teacher or what they've found in Do Not Disturb, a study guide, for example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Examiners will always give the Model Personal Plan most marks to Ofbf Deceit a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and Model Action are supported by close and Passport Application Form Print Form Updated careful reference to the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is invariably easier to uncover the layers of Personal Action meaning in a poem by discussing it with others . Somehow an interaction of minds brings about Point Images, Royalty-Free Images & Vectors, clearer meaning and a moment when the penny drops.

This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the many who feel discussing poetry is not cool. Well, keep in mind that it's your grades that are at stake . The exam is not a practice and you need to get the highest grade you can. So, what to do? For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades. Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and misreading their poem. How can you avoid this and know that your interpretation is on Action Plan the right lines? Here's a very worthwhile tip. How does all this work in Ofbf Deceit, practice?

Below is an example to Action Plan help show you. It is based on a just a couple of lines from the opening of the poem 'Half Caste' by Passport Application Form 2016, John Agard, a very witty poem that many of you will know. Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to apply exactly the same ideas to Model Action Plan any poem you are studying. You will see from this just how much can be 'squeezed' from only two lines of Powerpoint Puzzle Pieces Animation a poem. Personal Action Plan! This is Power Point Design Images a key thing for Personal Plan, you to appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on one leg I’m half-caste. Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. ' Agard opens his poem by creating an obvious contrast between the standard English of the opening line of the Blank August 2017 | Free And Templates poem and the Caribbean dialect of the second. Model Personal Action! This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the reader to the fact that while both kinds of Top 9 Most Creative Hotel Disturb Signs English create perfectly obvious meaning, only one kind is considered to be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles. Ironically, it is the dialect line that creates the more expressive meaning.

In this way, Agard manages to Personal Plan open his poem and introduce a key theme. He wants the reader both to Passport 2016 consider and reflect upon what is thought of as acceptable and what is looked down upon in British society. He shows us that 'half-caste' language is actually very good language and language that is capable of communicating its message well. Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the Personal art of 'saying the unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and emotions that seem well beyond the words on the page. Language can be a very mysterious and wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to Calendar | Free Design enjoy at Model Action, least some of the poems you study at school but, to be realistic, some poems will, initially at least, appear worryingly difficult. One of the Puzzle Pieces Animation Coloring | Coloring Pages difficulties with a poem is connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and this means that poets look for ways to squeeze the maximum meaning and feeling into them. Poems are often dense with meaning and unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and skill.

But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to work out just what the poet is trying to say, how the poem is 'working' and why this is being done - the Personal poet's purpose . Oh, and Power Point Design Stock finally, you'll find out Model Personal Action Plan what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them! Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and here is another! Of course, individuals react differently to such poems but many students seem to Project Perfomance Appraisal enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the subtleties of a complex poem in classroom conditions is far from ideal. This means that it will be necessary to find a quiet place and time at home with mobile phone, MP3 player and TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems. Even better, find a friend to read and discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to understanding a complex poem.

An odd but useful thing about Model Plan, a poem is that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the poem's extra layers of meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the poem again. It's as if the brain has subconsciously 'worked' on the poem in between readings. Reading for Meaning. Quite a useful thing to do when you first begin your work on Delivery Manager Appraisal 2 analysing a poem is to. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is not to dig for hidden meanings but to be sure you've understood the poem's 'story' - that is, what it is generally all about. Model Personal Action! This can be called the poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in your essay that this will be one of things to Hotel Disturb Signs which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it. Model Personal Action! So, when you first read any poem, first of Application Form Application 2016 all, read it for Personal Plan, meaning . Creative Hotel Disturb Signs! These questions will get you on your way: Make a note of who is doing the speaking in the poem - what kind of person and in what kind of Model Personal Action Plan state or mood? By the way, never assume it's the poet: instead, think of Delivery Perfomance Appraisal it as an imagined poetic persona . Poets often like to explore all kinds of aspects of life in their work and this can mean that they try to write from different viewpoints, for example an older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl!

Now work out Model Action who is Project Manager Perfomance Appraisal 2 being spoken to or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Often, you a poem can seem to be spoken thoughts such as in Model Action Plan, a monologue , or it could be one half of an imaginary conversation. Think about Top 9 Hotel Disturb Signs, just what is being spoken about? (What is the subject matter being discussed?). Now - and this is Action crucial to a good understanding - work out Application Form 2016 exactly what tone of voice or manner of the Model speaking voice? (Is the Project Appraisal 2 speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?). Importantly, does the tone of Plan voice change during the poem? Make a note of Top 9 Most Creative Do Not where this occurs. Finally, where do the events of the poem happen and what is the situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of sentences, forgetting the fact that these sentences have been split into lines . At the end of Personal Plan each sentence (i.e. Power Point Stock Royalty-Free Images & Vectors! stop reading at each full stop or, maybe, at each semicolon - ; ), work out what the meaning is so far. Spend time thinking about Model Personal Action Plan, this and perhaps note the idea down on the poem itself at the side of that part of the poem (this is called annotating the text). This is often the easiest and surest way to find out | Coloring Pages what the poet is trying to say.

You can consider the effects of other poetic devices the Personal Action poet has used, such as the way the lines cut up the sentences, the use of rhythm and rhyme , alliteration and so on later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences. If you find this to be the case, try searching for a study guide to your poem by clicking here or here - or, of course, ask your teacher or a friend for help. If you are still struggling to get to grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is not possible). A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Point Stock Images & Vectors! Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend. Model! Put embarrassment to one side for the sake of a higher grade! Reading aloud is a very effective way of Ofbf Deceit getting 'beneath' the poem's surface and finding its more subtle meanings.

But what you have to Personal Plan do is avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to achieve the voice the writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!). Click here to Powerpoint Puzzle Pieces Coloring | Coloring listen to a clip of the GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of his poem, 'Half Caste'. You'll see from this just how much more a dramatic reading of Personal Action some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the poem in an overly stylised way , i.e. in Passport Print Updated, a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in Model Personal Action, a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Do always try to capture this distinctiveness. Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for sure, be there and the poet has created them to guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and messages . Try hard not to be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . This is a classic problem with even the Point Design Stock & Vectors brightest students when reading poems. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the surface', but always 'there'. And they are always consistent with the whole poem. A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to find - and - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an important quality of all literature, poems included.

It means that the meanings in the poem will all be developed and Model Action Plan reinforced logically as the poem progresses . The first line always contributes to Passport Application Print Application Updated 2016 the overall meaning, as do all other lines. If you do think you've found a meaning in a poem and it does not contribute in some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and misreading the poem: a classic way to Model Personal Action lose marks! Click here to listen to John Agard reading a part of his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the slow and Blank August 2017 Design And Templates emphatic nature of his voice. If you take a leaf from his book and Model read your poems slowly and dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an essay about a poem needs the same skills that apply to all essay writing. Ofbf Deceit! The english biz essay writing guide is full of ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to Personal Action Plan do well unless you know your text well . Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from which to create the necessary argument that forms the basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an Project Delivery Manager 2 argument - again, the Englishbiz guide has much more on this.

What is your teacher or examiner actually looking for in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the poem's 'surface' meaning - try to show knowledge of its layers of meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to show you have understood how the poet has used language and poetic devices to help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the Personal whole poem - as each idea is explored and builds up into a coherent whole. How to Ofbf Deceit do this to Model Personal gain high marks. Read the essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to Ofbf Deceit the one asked. Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . There is no better way to Personal Plan familiarise yourself with what is required in the exam and your teacher will be happy to mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the key words of the essay question and be sure you address each of these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't! In an exam question, there will usually be bullet points to Application Form Application Updated guide your response - you MUST cover the points these mention as the Personal Action Plan exam marker gives marks based on these . If it is not clear in the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it. Work out exactly what is Top 9 Most Creative Disturb Signs required of Personal Plan you. Discussing the poet's life and times, i.e. Top 9 Most Do Not Disturb! their context , rarely gains marks. It is often better to get on with your analysis of the poem(s) straight away.

Be aware of any significant changes in emphasis and Personal Action the tone of voice as the story, ideas or images of the poem unfolds. Work out Delivery Manager Perfomance Appraisal 2 how and why these tones and changes in Model Plan, tone have been made to Passport Application Print Application Form occur through particular choices of Model language or form . This is important as it will allow you to Stock Images, & Vectors comment on the structure of the Model Personal Plan poem and this gains many marks. Be especially alert to August 2017 Calendar the use of an ironic tone of Model Personal voice. Irony is an important and frequent poetic device used by poets. Irony is an effective means of engaging the reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and Powerpoint Animation Coloring | Coloring develops layers of Model meaning within the Power Point Stock & Vectors poem.

As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of what is called ' figurative' language . It's very important to Personal notice where figurative language is used, the effect it creates and Delivery Appraisal 2 the purpose intended. Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in the mind's eye. It is the use of Personal description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the poet to create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an emotional response in you, the reader. Figurative language works so well because it creates images in the mind - and as the old saying goes, 'a picture is worth a thousand words. '. Look at Form Application Form, these opening lines and see how the images are created and begin to work: I’ve known rivers: I’ve known rivers ancient as the world and Model Personal Plan older than the. flow of human blood in human veins.

My soul has grown deep like the rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of Rivers' by Langston Hughes. Read your poem through a sufficient number of Passport Application Application Form times for you to feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in mind , work out your response to Personal Action Plan it. This is your own point of view on Point Design Stock Images, Royalty-Free which you will base your essay. An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in any text, but especially in a poem, is to Model Personal Action look for the effects of Top 9 Most Creative Hotel Disturb binary oppositions . Click on the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. It is a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at the level of its binary oppositions , you will have at your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the subtle levels of meaning created in poetry - but this method is sophisticated and requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE.

Some more ways to unlock the meaning of a poem. There is a key aspect to every poem you need to Model Action consider - the one aspect that separates all poems from any other kind of writing: its form . You need to work out why the poet wrote it in lines! Writing in lines means the poem is composed in verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into shorter lines (and sometimes even across the stanzas of the poem). Does it allow a special degree of Blank 2017 emphasis to be placed on parts of the sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. if it had been written as a piece of continuous prose ? See if you can work out Plan how the August Calendar poet's use form helps to emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to shape meaning . Remember that only poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Poets truly enjoy playing with the form of poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to Model Personal Action end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the form of language to add to the meaning: Some lines might seem to Power Point Design Images, & Vectors end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to Model create subtle effects. For example, an Ofbf Deceit end-stopped line can lead to a useful pause occurring before you read on thus creating emphasis (see the technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the next line or even the next stanza. Poets also sometimes create the Action effect of an extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to achieve this effect.

This enforced mini-pause is called a caesura . This is a subtle effect that leads to an emphasis or a pause for thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the repeating of Ofbf Deceit initial sounds as in Action Plan, William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger! T yger! B urning b right!'. This often creates emphasis and, like the use of rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. It can also help to create a different tone - depending on Delivery which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of voice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to Model Personal Action Plan work out the tone of voice within your poem and note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the term used for Powerpoint Puzzle Pieces Animation Coloring | Coloring, the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. '.

Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and can add to the quality of the tone of voice within the poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of mood or romance . A combination of soft consonants and long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone. Rhyme is when the final sounds of words are the same and are repeated either within a line (this is Personal Action Plan called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers ') or at Top 9 Most Creative Hotel Do Not, the end of two lines (this is called end rhyme ). Work our the effect rhyme creates. Does it make the poem more memorable? Does it add to the 'feel', the meaning or the tone in a useful way?

Does it create a happy sense that 'all is well with the world'? Often 'sound effects' created by using the form of words help to suggest a particular tone of voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the s oo n the sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of control or harmony as if 'all is Action well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for harmony or the presence of discord . Repetition of 2017 important words and phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the stanzas (i.e. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in Model Personal Action Plan, line length, size and Project Delivery shape with a repeating, regular rhythm? This is typical of Action Plan older more traditional British poetry and hints at that sense of 'control' and Powerpoint Puzzle Coloring | Coloring 'harmony' that seemed to exist in earlier days before the great loss of religious faith or questioning of values of today. Poems with irregular line lengths and no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and sound very different from traditional poetry.

These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and can be a way of suggesting lack of Action Plan control or lack of harmony . Look at the way the structure or sequence of ideas builds up in the poem (perhaps through a sequence of images ); make a note of the effect of this sequencing of ideas or images and how it adds to the overall effect and Power Point Design Royalty-Free & Vectors meaning of the poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and Model Personal Plan phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way. These words and Point Design Stock Images, Royalty-Free Images & Vectors phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of meaning or create imagery and ideas. Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example. These effects act to draw you deeper into the world of the poem by Model Plan, engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the Top 9 Most Creative Hotel Do Not Disturb poet and ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. What is 'your' poem about generally (e.g. 'war') and in particular (e.g. 'the horror of fighting in Model, trench warfare'). For example, were you trying to help your reader to understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly?

What was your intention or purpose? 3. What motivated you to write about such a subject? Were you affected by your circumstances : the beliefs, values and attitudes you hold to compared to the general beliefs, attitudes and values of your society or its leaders (i.e. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in which you wrote? Why was this? You will frequently be asked to write about more than one poem and Application Print Form Updated 2016 this does add an extra layer of difficulty. Model Personal! However, if you are writing an Top 9 Do Not Signs argument essay , the difficulty is lessened dramatically because you are using the poems to support your own argument rather than writing directly about the poems themselves. Aspects of each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into your essay as you write in support of the various points you are making to Model Personal support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to compare and contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and this is best done as providing support for your own argument. In each paragraph you write, you should aim to discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from Design Images each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the alternative is to write an 'exploring essay'.

In this kind of essay, you analyse and write about your first poem fully before moving on to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the chance frequently to refer back to the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast. N ever forget to compare and contrast! This is a part of the mark scheme in this type of question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. 1. Know your poems well. 2. Model! Analyse closely analysis and develop subtle insights. Only a close analysis of the poem will allow you to develop subtle insights into the poet's reasons and methods. It is the consistency, clarity, depth and Powerpoint Pieces Animation Pages subtlety of your analysis and Model Personal Action Plan insights that will gain the highest marks. 3. Project Manager Perfomance Appraisal 2! Use the Model Personal Plan P.E.E. method of analysis.

4. Perfomance! Never look for and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the deeper levels of a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to be overly ingenious . Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of Model Personal Plan a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. Most Hotel Do Not Disturb! help out the Model Plan meaning of. ) the whole poem - it will never just apply to a single line or phrase. If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in with what you think the poet is trying to say in the whole poem. A more obvious meaning is far more likely than a very obscure meaning. Always make sure that the words of Powerpoint Pieces Coloring | Coloring your poem clearly support whatever points you want to make about it.

Never be afraid to Personal use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to make your essay sound as individual and Ofbf Deceit interesting as you are! Avoid stuffiness and over-formality like the plague.

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all resume submition To: Ira Magaziner (Office of the President) Becky Burr (NTIA) From: Boston Working Group. Date: September 28, 1998. Re: United States Department of Commerce. National Telecommunications and Information Administration. Management of Internet Names and Addresses. Docket Number: 980212036-8146-02. Please accept the following submission as a proposal in response to the document, Management of Model, Internet Names and Addresses , above described. For sake of simplicity we shall refer to that latter document as the Passport Print Application Form Updated 2016, NTIA White Paper. In the spirit of the Internet we are submitting these as a collection of World Wide Web files.

These files are also available online at: Attached are four documents. The first two are our proposed. The second two are a reprise of the first two, except that they also show the differences between our work and that of Model Plan, IANA/NSI: The NTIA White Paper called for the convocation of all interested parties to discuss and formulate an entity to assume management of certain matters involved with the operation of the Internet. In response to Project Delivery 2, this call the International Forum for the White Paper (IFWP) was formed. That body sponsored four meetings: Reston (USA), Geneva (Switzerland), Singapore, and Buenos Aires (Argentina). These were attended by approximately one thousand highly interested people from all walks of Action Plan, life; all kinds of institutions - technical, legal, educational, governmental, and Appraisal 2, business; and with all kinds of Model Plan, backgrounds and points of view.

These meetings were highly focused discussions of the Blank August 2017 Design, NTIA White Paper and the issues therein. Model Action? Mr. Magaziner, one of the persons to whom this submission is addressed, gave the key-note address at the Reston meeting, and, in Geneva, participated in the opening session along with Jon Postel of IANA, Christopher Wilkinson of the EU, Michael Schneider, a German lawyer representing European ISPs, and Dr. Tamar Frankel of Boston University. As you will note, these meetings were open, focused, well attended, and substantive. The meetings were, without doubt, the most broadly based discussion of these matters in terms of both breadth of coverage and August | Free Design, depth of Personal Action Plan, analysis.

In addition to Ofbf Deceit, these meetings, the IFWP sponsored a very lively electronic-mail discussion. From these meetings evolved a set of consensus points. A complete compendium of materials of the IFWP can be found via The IFWP process itself did not result in a specific proposal in response to the NTIA White Paper. Model Action Plan? The reasons for this are complex and involved. Nevertheless, the IFWP process did create a rich body of Top 9 Disturb, thought and of consensus. Model Personal Plan? We, the Boston Group, elected to Powerpoint Animation, build upon that legacy. Our work is based on the consensus points reached in the IFWP meetings and from the debates on the IFWP, Domain Name Policy, and IETF mailing lists. We of the Action Plan, Boston Group are all people who have attended one or more IFWP meetings. Many of Delivery Perfomance 2, us submitted comments to the NTIA Green Paper.

We have all participated in the discussions on the electronic mail discussion lists. We have all read the various proposals made by Model Plan other bodies. And we are all experienced members of the Internet Community. Among us we have started numerous Internet related companies; we have written IETF standards; we have run IETF working groups; we have designed, built, and operated large networks. And many of Creative Do Not, us are attorneys with long experience in matters pertaining to the Internet, business, privacy, and Intellectual Property.

In other words, despite the Action, relatively small size of our working group in Boston, we represent an immense constituency and bring to bear a significant compendium of pertinent knowledge and experience. Our working group includes: Karl Auerbach, Internet technologist since 1974, long time IETF member and IETF Working Group chairman, California attorney, Founder of Epilogue Technology Corporation and Empirical Tools and Technologies Corporation, Chief Technical Officer of InterWorking Labs, also employed as an engineer at Cisco Systems (but does not represent to speak for Cisco) Mikki Barry, President of the Domain Name Rights Coalition. Vice President of Corporate Affairs and Chief Counsel of Matrix Information and Directory Services. Former VP Engineering and founder of InterCon Systems Corporation, first commercial Internet applications on the Macintosh platform. Former Editor in Chief of the Georgeotwn University Journal of Law and Technology.

Peter Dengate Thrush, patent attorney, solicitor barrister, counsel to ISOCNZ (New Zealand) and its subsidiary, the NZ registry, Domainz Patrick O#146;Brien, CEO of Domainz, the NZ registry Milton Mueller, Associate Professor and Director, Graduate Program in Telecommunications and Network Management, Syracuse University School of 2017 | Free Design And Templates, Information Studies, Author of Universal Service (MIT Press, 1997) and numerous other works on Action, telecommunications and Internet policy. Ellen Rony, co-author of The Domain Name Handbook: High Stakes and Strategies in Cyberspace , culminating more than two years of online research. She has been writing about and working in Top 9 Creative Do Not Disturb Signs the computer industry since 1981. She received a B.A. from Pomona College and an M.A. in Communication from Stanford University. Peter Rony, Professor of Model Plan, chemical engineering at Virginia Tech for 27 years.

He is the author of widely used textbooks on digital electronics and microprocessor interfacing and programming. He is the Blank Calendar | Free And Templates, co-author, along with his sister Ellen, of The Domain Name Handbook; High Stakes and Strategies in Cyberspace . David Schutt, CIS for a manufacturer/end-user, interested in access to resources and electronic commerce Eric Weisberg, principal and general counsel for a rural Texas ISP, Internet Texoma. Our scribe was Diane Thilly Cabell, an intellectual property attorney with Fausett, Gaeta Lund, Boston. She was formerly assistant counsel in Plan MIT's Patent, Copyright Licensing Office. Our meeting was hosted by Jorge Contreras, corporate attorney with Hale and Dorr of Passport Form Print 2016, Boston, originally trained in Electrical Engineering at Rice University and now specializing in corporate and Model Personal Plan, computer law. Please note that Mr. Contreras acted as a facilitator and that the statements and documents set forth here do not necessarily reflect his views or those of Hale and Dorr. We gratefully acknowledge his contribution and that of his firm Hale and Dorr. It is our claim that our work represents a real consensus of the Internet Community as arrived at Design Stock, through a broad and Personal Plan, open process, and represents a true response to the NTIA White Paper. On September 19 we met in Ofbf Deceit open session in Boston, Massachusetts. That meeting had a single focus -- to review and critique the most recently proposed IANA/NSI document and report back to the community, IANA/NSI, and the US government within the short time allowed for comments.

The review began with a discussion of expectations for the new entity, including prevention of capture by special interests, stable transition to the new authority, fair access and utilization of the root assets, flexibility for growth and user protection. The group identified the new entity's core responsibilities as the rights to (a) edit the Model Personal Action, root files, (b) assign the address space, and (c) control the operation, assignment and management of Passport Application Form Form 2016, protocol parameters such as port numbers and Model Personal Action Plan, enterprise numbers. Most Do Not? This committee was unanimous in its belief that the beneficiary of the Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Nunbers (ICANN) operations should be the end user and not any intermediary or trade group. Enclosed is the result of that effort. We note in Personal Plan passing that we submitted our proposals to IANA/NSI. August 2017 | Free Design? However, it was, from Personal Plan, our perspective a one-way process with no opportunity for discussion, much less any opportunity for Pieces Coloring a mutually agreed upon result. Personal? It was due to this apparent unwillingness to openly discuss issues that we felt that we had to proceed and submit our own proposal and not to defer to what we consider to be the Project Manager Perfomance Appraisal, inferior NSI/IANA proposal. I might say that I (and I believe I speak for all of the Boston Group participants) believe that the September 28 IANA/NSI draft incorporates very, very few of Personal Action, our comments.

We (the Boston Group) do not endorse the September 28 IANA/NSI draft as it does not incorporate matters which we believe to be significant and which continues to reflect an Project Manager Perfomance Appraisal organizational structure that will have vague lines of accountability, limited, if any, means for individual participation, have a high degree of Action Plan, susceptibility to Top 9 Creative, capture by companies and organizations, and finally is not guaranteed to ever have a membership structure. We are, as a consequence, submitting this proposal directly to the United States as an alternative to other proposals that might also be submitted, such as that of IANA/NSI. This document summarizes our broad conclusions, and we have appended our versions of corporate Articles and By-Laws consistent with those conclusions. Personal Action? The changes from the IANA/NSI baseline are relatively few, although the matters are significant, and the overall structure and language has been preserved. We have brought the proposal into alignment with the international consensus. In particular we have streamlined the structure to emphasize transparency, accountability, and fairness, all of which were prime values, not only of the international consensus, but also of the NTIA White Paper itself. Creative Signs? We are prepared to continue this process, and have appointed Diane Thilly Cabell ([email protected]) to be the coordination point for the group.

Comments and amendments are welcome, and in the event that any suggestion is not clear, the participants would be happy to respond with further clarification. Action Plan? We continue to hope that both NSI and IANA will be receptive to our proposals and incorporate these recommended changes into the current NSI/IANA proposal. However, our proposal does stand on its own merits and is submitted as an independent whole. Before providing a summary of review points, we would like to record our support for the general progress that has been made by the contributing parties during this iteration of the Articles and by-laws. It is clear that significant progress has been made in Powerpoint Pieces Animation Pages recent weeks following on the debates and discussions of the Action Plan, IFWP process. Trying to meld the myriad of views, comments and opinions into one consistent set of legal documentation acceptable to all is an almost impossible task. The fact that all parties have drafted such an outcome in short order is a significant achievement and the key participants from both organizations deserve full recognition. Manager Perfomance? Added Preamble and statement of purpose. Removed text that established the Model Personal, purpose of the corporation to Perfomance Appraisal, be solely for lessening the burdens of government. Mandated that the Initial board create a membership structure, without exception. Model Action? Defined fundamental assets expected to be received from the US and added constraints upon what the Ofbf Deceit, corporation can do with those assets.

Removed President from the Model Personal Action Plan, Board of Directors. Re-cast Supporting Organizations to be essentially permanent advisory committees with very strong role in initiating and Ofbf Deceit, defining corporation policies. Personal Plan? Eliminated Supporting Organizations' ability to appoint Directors to either the Initial or the final Board. Clarified that individuals may be members of Supporting Organizations. Added on-the-record, roll-call voting on matters before the Board. Powerpoint | Coloring Pages? Added additional public access. Broadened rights to Board Reconsideration.

Eliminated special and unique recognition of contracts between the US and NSI and Model Personal Plan, between the US and University of Southern California. Delivery Perfomance Appraisal 2? Added a more robust business planning and cost-recovery model. Model Plan? Required that conflict-of-interest statements be made public subject to reasonable privacy limitations. Required that conflict-of-interest provisions be applied to officers as well as to members of the Board. Recommended the reduction in the number of officers to the legal minimum. Delivery? Other minor matters of clarification of language and structure. The Articles currently identify four key functions of the new entity (names, numbers, zones and Personal, protocols). We believe they should also state the principles to be followed in the performance of its functions, perhaps by way of preamble. For instance, to perform its functions so as to foster a fair, open, transparent, and competitive environment for the Internet, assuring equal access to essential resources. We also felt it necessary to more clearly identify the subject matter over which the new enterprise is to exercise its powers and to clarify the degree to which the new enterprise may pass control to others.

The Articles codify the perceived solution to the not-for-profit status - specifically, a company that meets United States Tax Code 501(c) tax status. We believe that the Articles should record WHAT principles that we aim to Powerpoint Pieces Animation | Coloring, achieve (i.e., not-for-profit, no benefits to inure, etc.) as well as HOW this will be achieved. The HOW is currently recorded as a particular way in which it is done in Action California, and may be the most appropriate. As we understand it, the key benefits of a 501(c) company are twofold: tax exemption for Coloring | Coloring the entity, and tax deductions to private donors. Personal Plan? We understand that other sections of the Code, such as 501(c) (6), may be more applicable and provide tax exemption. Passport Print Application? We also believe that gifts and payments to Personal Plan, (c) (6) organizations are generally tax deductible business expenses. We do not offer a legal opinion as to ICANN's qualification for (c) (3) status in light of its stated purposes, though we do have concerns about Ofbf Deceit such qualifications and the requirement in the Articles that it meet such qualification, including whether the current draft may create an unintended legal impediment to ICANN's continued existence or invalidate its actions if it is found not to have been performing functions contemplated under that section.

In addition, it is important to Personal, create a company that is financially viable. It should be able to pay any taxes, and it should not have to Appraisal, rely on being gifted goods in order to survive. This company is Model Plan, a crucial piece of the Internet infrastructure. Ofbf Deceit? Clearly where the Model Personal, company can get additional benefits this makes good business sense, but we believe the principles should be recorded in the Articles, and not derived from an assumed tax status. There is recognition that a membership structure will evolve, although the document recognizes that it is difficult to determine right now exactly how that might be achieved. This gives some confusion to Top 9 Most Creative Hotel Disturb, the reader, as a number of clauses are contingent on whether there is, or whether there is not, a membership structure in place at any particular time. IANA/NSI draft 4 leaves the issues of if and how a membership structure shall be implemented to the Interim board. The White Paper requires, and the IFWP reached unequivocal consensus on Personal Plan, the IF portion -- the entity MUST have a membership structure in order to guarantee fair representation. This is not an Pages open issue. The only Action Plan, questions relate to WHO are members and HOW they shall elect their representatives. We have taken the positive view that a membership structure *will* happen, and Ofbf Deceit, made suggestions accordingly.

Our redrafting has a clear flow as follows: The Initial Board is unequivocally charged with creation of a Membership structure (we did not attempt to Personal Action Plan, resolve the issue of whether there shall be a membership of individuals and/or organizations, etc. as that was not resolved in the IFWP process); We would only allow minimal changes to August Calendar | Free, Articles (by 3/4 majority of the board) until the membership structure is created; Once a membership structure is in place, power to change the Model Personal Action Plan, Articles should transfer to the members (we provided for a 3/4 majority of the members voting to change the by-laws). 4. Role of Supporting Organizations as Policy Advisors. We fully support the creation of Supporting Organizations (SOs) as policy advisory committees to the Board. We see their role as originating proposals and expert advice to the Board in Calendar | Free And Templates their particular functional disciplines. However, we see conflict in their dual role espoused in the draft -- SOs are seen as both creators of Policy and decision makers on the merits of Policy as Board members. Model Personal Action? If the supporting organizations are also the Ofbf Deceit, primary means through which ICANN will obtain a membership, there is a great risk of politicizing the SOs. Model Action? This would lessen the ability of the Ofbf Deceit, SOs to Action Plan, make objective technical and policy recommendations. This real conflict can be avoided by defining the role of Powerpoint Puzzle Pieces Animation Coloring Pages, SO's as that of advisory committees, composed of representatives from new and existing organizations, and Model, we have re-drafted accordingly.

We feel that the SOs must be part of the ICANN structure, created by and responsible to the corporation, rather than independent entities. Making the SOs committees of the entity will assure compliance with ICANN's policies, purposes, and aspirations. We do not believe it appropriate for ICANN to be controlled by and subservient to independent organizations that can appoint members to Images, Royalty-Free Images, the Board of Directors. This results in reduction of the Board by 9 members. Clearly, if felt appropriate, one could lift the number of At large members to some higher number to compensate. 5. Size of the Company, its Officers, and Personal Action Plan, its Staff. Images, & Vectors? We felt uncomfortable with the Model Action, number of officers contemplated by ICANN's by-laws.

In our view, the new enterprise will be a small organization, particularly at the outset. The various registries and other external organizations will do most of the actual work. We believe that the new enterprise should start initially with the minimum set of officers required by law. Of course, there remains the ability to add more if required at future points. We see no major benefit in appointing the President as a Member of the Board. A clear separation between the Board (as policy maker) and the President (who as the CEO executes Board policy) removes potential for conflict and enhances governance within the new company. Furthermore, we foresee that there could be legal difficulties that arise due to the self-extending nature of allowing the board to designate a non-Board member as President who thereby assumes a seat on Most Creative Do Not Disturb Signs, the Board. Model Plan? 6. Conflicts of Interest, particularly in 2 relation to staff. The Articles state how conflicts of interest should be handled for members of the Model Personal Action Plan, Board. Blank? We would like to see similar provisions for Officers and Personal Action, Employees too, as there is real potential for conflicts to arise.

For instance, one current scenario has potential to see an employee of the company being, the delegated manager for August 2017 | Free a country domain a Board member of Model Personal Action, a regional IP registry the creator of protocol parameters. The company needs to constitutionally address these issues to Project Perfomance, protect its interests as well as those of Personal Plan, its employees. 7. Balance between the By-Laws and Top 9 Do Not, the Articles. We were both surprised and troubled by the fact that the by-laws were used to define the basic structure of the corporation rather that the Articles, where we believe the Personal, more basic and immutable principles must be stated and preserved. Clearly we accept there are different ways of Puzzle | Coloring Pages, doing things.

One can argue that so long as all of the key points are recorded somewhere, it does not really matter where that is. Changing Articles involves a modification of the basic agreement by which the membership submits itself to governance by the organization and must require general consensus of the members. The by-laws should only involve the details of such governance (or administrivia) and may be subject to change by the board. We would like the Articles to be strengthened by moving major company issues from the By-laws into the Articles. This means that change to the Articles can be effected by a 3/4 majority of member votes cast. This would leave changes to the By-laws permissible with majority vote of the Board. The IANA/NSI draft 4 does not state how the initial board should be chosen. Such board is charged with completing the IFWP process and must represent the IFWP membership and consensus rather than any other set of concerns or compromises. Otherwise, it can not be trusted to Model Plan, faithfully perform its function.

Furthermore, we believe that the discussion and resolution must be concluded by the people who have been involved in the discussions, understand the issues and our consensus, and are representative of and feel responsible to our diverse membership rather than to some other set of persons or interests. Therefore, we suggest and require that the initial board be elected by the IFWP utilizing a system to foster proportionate representation (called Single Transferable Vote or STV).

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essays models stress November 2003 Issue. Thinking processes, reverse engineering and external representations in the generation and application of stress models. By Dr. Lorraine Cleeton, St.

Bonaventure University, NY. This article traces the progress of students taking a stress management course, in which traditional models of stress were presented and new models developed. The students found that traditional stress models were useful only in specific situations, but not transferable to novel outbreaks of stress. They thought that this was due partly to differences in definitions of stress. The students found it difficult to devise new stress models. An examination was made of thinking processes which had been used for generating successful models, in analogous systems suffering from initial resistance to definition and modeling. Reverse engineering by computer-aided simulation looked to be one promising route towards generating new models of stress. Another was recent research in external representations used for problem solving. It is hoped that this review will encourage the development of transferable models of stress and Personal Action spin off more precise definition of stressors and strains.

Two major difficulties arose in a course on stress management. Firstly, the students were dichotomized between those who, as ‘clients in stress’, had problems themselves and Project Delivery those who, as ‘counselors’, wanted to help other people. Secondly, the solutions to novel problems presented by the ‘clients’ were not always amenable to solutions suggested by Plan the ‘counselors’. To anticipate this polarization of the Project Delivery Manager Appraisal 2 students the initial aim of the course had been generalized to ‘Eliminating, minimizing and controlling stress in ourselves and in Model Personal, other people’. Adding to August 2017 Calendar | Free And Templates, the difficulties, a literature review revealed many researchers maintaining that stress has not been precisely defined (Everly and Rosenfeld 1981). For the second run of the course, an Personal additional aim was added – ‘Gaining skills to transfer to transfer to new and novel outbreaks of stress’. It was hoped that this would facilitate students to counsel people outside those taking the course, but they reported many failures. The aims were screened into a series of objectives against which evaluation was made by assessed tasks following each two-hour session. Although stress has not been precisely defined, assumptions have been made about ‘the effects of Passport Application 2016, a feeling of acute or prolonged anxiety’ or ‘lack of resolution of conflict’. Based on such imprecise definitions, which create more constructs than they eliminate, it was not surprising to find widespread disagreement among the students in acceptance of such concepts as 'stress-related illness'. Students were able to fit appropriate models to the symptoms, but needed tools to Model Personal, develop new models to Pieces Animation | Coloring, understand novel stressors.

Finally, it was hoped to answer the question, ‘Does understanding stress through modeling go a long way towards alleviating it? ‘ Information overload (‘Tap and Jug’) model. Many people have visions of stress and visions of what would cure it, for example, 'If I didn't have so much work to Personal Action, do', 'If my students were well behaved' or 'If my boss would leave'. Most of the students brought along with them the naive model of Creative Disturb, stress caused by information or emotional overload. Personal Plan? This assumes that the organism has just so much to give and that problems arise when that limit is exceeded. Powell and Enright (1990) called this the 'Tap and Passport Form Print Application Jug' model - Tap and Jug model. The strength of this model lies in simplicity, but its weakness in the variety of capacities of Model Action, individuals for overload and the variability of their reactions to stimuli (Eysenck 1989). For example, prisoners able to Ofbf Deceit, tolerate confinement and torture may still have a fear of spiders in their cells. In early assignments the students most frequently applied this model as a default, sometimes used legitimately, but more often to fall back on in desperation when other models had failed. Capacity - Demand model. The Tap and Jug model can be made more useful by upgrading it to a Capacity-Demand model, as described by Wycherley (1987).

The aim is not only to increase capacity, but also potential for increased demand, by increasing the Personal Plan stamina or robustness of the person. To increase capacity, optimum challenge should be applied, according to the Yerkes-Dodson (1908) Law - This law states that there is a optimum level of challenge - sufficient to stimulate and Ofbf Deceit maintain interest, but not sufficient to cause undue stress. Capacity – Demand model. Many people feel stressed when the size of their workload approaches their perceived capacity for work. Stress increases as more work is added, eventually to exceed the perceived capacity. Ideally one hopes that the workload will decrease, but sometimes as a result of the stress we are scarred and our capacity is Model Personal Plan reduced.

If you come to Ofbf Deceit, terms with it or receive counseling, it is Personal hoped that the workload might once again just fill the capacity. A better solution would be to Form Print Application Updated 2016, achieve more stamina so that there is increased capacity, i.e. the ability to withstand a greater workload in the future - keeping the load within the boundaries of the increased capacity. In the depths of our own stress we all know colleagues we admired who never seemed ruffled by increased workload, or by sudden life changes, and who seemed to have infinite capacity. Against the background of imprecise definition of stress, the concepts of 'stressors' and 'strains' were discriminated and offered to Personal Action, the students in Delivery Manager Perfomance Appraisal 2, a cause-effect model. Model Personal Action? A 'stressor' might be work overload , causing the 'strain' of fatigue. This is illustrated by the. Weight-on-a-Spring model, the Weight representing the stressor and the extension the strain (Russell 1953).

This model was useful when first presented, but the students soon noticed that a strain could switch to being a stressor, leading to a chaining effect. Powerpoint Pieces Animation | Coloring? For example, the Model Action Plan strain of fatigue could become the stressor causing the strain of a weakening family relationship . Powerpoint Puzzle | Coloring? A stress counselor should enter the chain by Personal Action Plan defining the stressor and strain at point of entry. Blank 2017 | Free Design? There is cost to a client, and difficulties for Model Action a counselor, who fails to find the break-point of Powerpoint Pieces Pages, entry to a closed loop stressor-strain cycle. The students were given local, national and global suicide and mortality figures, with their relationships to variables such as socioeconomic background and marital status . This led to listings of stress-related illnesses. The students showed wide variation in their beliefs about discrimination and generalization of this concept, which was not surprising given the background of an imprecise definition of ‘stress’ itself. The students understood and accepted the Three-Systems Model of behavioral , emotional and physical interaction as described by Powell and Model Personal Action Enright (1990), but they barely mentioned it in discussion, counseling or essays. Perhaps the students felt the model to be too nave, obvious or inappropriate, even in conditions where its originators saw its relevance. Perhaps being a textual model it was easily forgotten. However when students failed to observe behavioral, emotional and Ofbf Deceit physical changes at an early stage in a counseling situation, there were cumulative difficulties in reducing client anxiety.

Type A and Action Plan B Personalities model. The students realized that their problems could not only be blamed on the environment but on their own reactions and interactions with it. Passport Print? The Type A and B model of behavior traits (Friedman and Model Plan Rosenan 1959; Glass 1977; Matthews 1982) was introduced. Its categorization was clear, but although the Images, methods for ameliorating excessive bias towards either trait were highly successful with a few students, the model failed with the rest. A new model was proposed for targeting a desirable but hypothetical middle-road Type ‘C’ behavior and developed by role-play to even more satisfying Types D, E, F - - - and Model subsequent behaviors, where for Manager Perfomance Appraisal 2 example reaction to a novel, unexpected event, shock or emergency situation could be controlled to Action, prevent disablement of thought or action. Assuming attitudes are difficult to Top 9 Most Creative Hotel Signs, change quickly by conventional methods (except by unfortunate negative shock events), the Action students found that much practice was needed to reach the ‘higher’ levels of C, D, E - - - behavior, beyond the traditional Types A and B. For example, at first, great control is needed to speak slowly when every set instinct tells you to use quick and aggressive response. Teachers are well trained in this technique when faced with challenging students. Ofbf Deceit? Ways of affecting more rapid change would need to control or cope with instinctive reactions. Students trained in using suggestion in hypnosis achieved the most rapid results in changing destructive attitudes. Life-Change Units (LCU’s) Shock events like bereavement can effect rapid temporary or permanent change.

Illness or accident can trigger a person to initiate a worthy cause to help similar victims. The students completed the Holmes and Rahe (1967) Life-Change Inventory, but found that their reactions to a life-change event were dependent on their hardiness, mental stamina and parental or vocational training - This model suggests that life changes or job changes cause the stress. Life changes have been placed in a hierarchy. At the top of the list is Model Action 'death of a spouse'. 'Christmas' and 'holidays' appear in the list as causing some people stress, even though they are supposed to provide relaxation. Ofbf Deceit? Each life-change item in the list is allocated a score. You add your scores and the total indicates your stress level. Perhaps each profession should develop its own LCU’s. For example, teachers are subject to their own list of internal life changes - sudden changes in collaborative teams, the curriculum or family problems. Compilation of a complete scored list focused on Model Personal Plan teaching would be a fruitful piece of Print 2016, research. Test Your Stress Level - Read through this list of life events and write down the Life Change Units (LCUs) value for Personal Action Plan each that has occurred in the last 12-18 months.

Total your Life Change Units (LCUs). If your score is 150 LCUs or less, your level of stress based on life changes is low. Powerpoint Pieces Coloring | Coloring? If your score is 150-300 LCUs, your stress levels are borderline - you should minimize changes in your life if possible at this time. If your score is more than 300 LCUs your stress levels are high. You should minimize other changes in your life if possible and Model Plan work at instituting some stress intervention techniques. Ranking of Life event. 1. Death of Spouse. 3. Marital Separation. 5. Death of close family member. 6. Personal injury or illness.

8. Fired from job. 9. Marital reconciliation. 11. Form Application Updated 2016? Change in health of family member. 13. Sex Difficulties. 14. Gain of new family member. 15. Business readjustment. 16.

Change in financial state. 17. Death of close friend. 18. Change to different line of work. 19. Change in number of arguments with spouse. 20. Mortgage/loan for major purchases. 21. Foreclosure of Model Action Plan, mortgage or loan.

22. Change in responsibilities at work. 23. Son or daughter leaving home. 24. Trouble with in-laws. 25. Outstanding personal achievement. 26. Spouse begins or stops work. 27.

Begin or end school. 28. Change in Top 9 Hotel Do Not Signs, living conditions. 29. Revision of personal habits. 30. Model Action? Trouble with boss. 31. Powerpoint Coloring | Coloring Pages? Change in work hours or conditions. 32. Change in residence. 33. Change in Model Personal Action Plan, schools. 34. Point Images, Images & Vectors? Change in recreation. 35. Change in church activates. 36. Change in social activities. 37. Mortgage, or loan for lesser purchase (car etc.) 38.

Change in sleeping habits. 39. Change in number of family. 40. Change in eating habits. 43. Minor violation of the Model Personal Plan law. S tress is the body's non-specific response to any demand placed upon it. Point? It is not caused only by negative or adverse influences. Stress increases the rate of Model Plan, wear and tear the body experiences.

Americans spend over nine billion dollars a year to deal with stress. The ritualistic model is related to the load capacity model and to the life change model. It is based on a feeling that things are out of control unless rituals are observed. Eventually this blocks creativity and innovation. The rituals are not confined to working hours. They start in the morning before work, where events ‘have’ to take place in a habitual order, or stress is experienced. In the Do Not Signs stress management course, students were weaned from rituals by setting them a homework assignment to Model, break at first just one ritual. They said it was the most difficult assignment of the course.

Teachers know that a slight change in routine can upset the discipline of a class. It might be a snowfall starting or a bird settling outside the Delivery Manager Perfomance 2 classroom window. Perhaps the education system should devote itself in the affective domain to Model Personal Action Plan, teaching children to react appropriately to novel situations, essential for Application Form encouraging creativity. Moving animal model. A simple ‘moving animal’ model was found to be very effective. A tiger was drawn on one overhead projector slide and Model Personal Action jungle camouflage on another. The two slides were placed on top of each other on an overhead projector. The animal is only noticed when the overlapping slides are moved relative to Top 9 Most Do Not, each other. The analogy in stress management is Model Action Plan that many people are happy to preserve the status quo and only experience stress when changes are made in Ofbf Deceit, their working life.

This model helped to exercise the Action Plan ‘detector function’ described later in Kuhn’s model (1974). To complement the life change inventory, the effects of cumulative small stressors were examined. Research articles have started to appear showing for example some evidence of a link between these 'microstressors' and depression ( McLean 1976). The students were encouraged to Application Form Print Application Form Updated, keep a record of these microstressors and the strains which appeared temporally close to them. Many of the students asked to be taught Assertiveness. In its mid-ground between passivity and aggression, or between reactive and proactive response, Assertiveness asks for Personal Action students to move between these attitudes. Like switching between Type A and B, it was difficult to Power Images, break lifelong habitual responses to situations. Relaxation techniques were the ameliorating catalyst to change, but some students still found it paradoxical to combine assertiveness with relaxation.

Relaxation was therefore practised both in preparation for being more assertive when rights were infringed and Personal Action also for defusing the Most Creative Hotel Disturb aggression of other people. For most students extensive role-play and feedback from Action Plan, external situations effected the desirable responses. Learning curves model. When students realized that stress management would often involve simultaneous changes to themselves and to Power Images & Vectors, their environment a return to the first principles of learning was needed. They had to learn how to learn new responses to stressors. Model Personal Action Plan? This was difficult because of their ritualizations. Cleeton (1991) profiled learning barriers, not only in the cognitive domain, but also in the functional and experiential domains. Functional learning barriers to stress management may be lack of confidence, lack of assertiveness, family problems or conflict between work and home. Ofbf Deceit? Experiential learning barriers may be lack of Model Action, experience in dealing with problems normally arising at work or home. The students were shown examples of learning curves - Curve showing a linear rate of learning.

Curve showing linear learning, but starting from Blank August 2017 Calendar | Free Design And Templates, some previous knowledge. More realistically, the following curve shows how many of us learn. It is called the ‘stepped-change model’. For example, when we learn how to play a musical instrument, we achieve an elementary level quite rapidly, and then seem to ‘stick’ at that level and think we will never rise above it. After a number of steps, we may reach a ‘plateau’ where we either give up the practice and learning, or realize that we have reached the limit of our persistence or. Curve showing stepped learning. The following curve reproduces an actual performance by an adult learner. At first the Personal learning was ‘ideal’, accelerating as knowledge accumulated along an Power Point Stock & Vectors exponential curve – a ‘knowledge explosion’.

Then the learner discovered a barrier and fell into a discouraging ‘ditch’ of learning. Recovering, but lacking confidence, the learner could not achieve accelerated learning, but only linear learning. A second fall into a ditch leaves the learner so discouraged that some previous learning could not remembered (a learning ‘block’), but eventually recovery took place to reach a plateau of Action, ability and persistence. Learning Curve showing actual performance of an adult learner. accelerated (‘ideal’) learning. The following curve shows ‘ideal’ learning, usually produced by material which is challenging but not anxiety-producing. It shows ‘accelerated learning’ – an exponential rise in achievement with time, knowledge cumulatively capitalizing on previous knowledge, setting off a knowledge explosion.

‘Ideal’ Learning Curve. Relating these curves to stress management, students need to strive for ‘ideal’ exponential learning and avoid ‘ditches’ and ‘plateau’. Stress management involves lifelong learning because novel stressors are always presenting themselves with changes to the individual, the environment and with local, national and global change. Perception and Reality model. The author (Cleeton G., 1996) developed terminology to describe learning barriers. Have you ever heard adults or children say, ‘I can’t do Math’? They are expressing a perceived learning barrier. In practice the barrier may be real or illusory . Sometimes a child will say they can’t do Math, but be able to Power Point Design Images, Images & Vectors, manipulate and tell you the statistics of all their team’s baseball games. In that case the barrier must be to some extent illusory . When adults return to the classroom after a gap of many years, they are often scarred with memories of failure in school, sometimes from Personal Action, bad teaching, for example from teaching abstract before concrete operations.

These scars caused ditches in their learning curves. Gentle teaching to remove the scars and getting them to realize that it was not their fault can relegate their perceived barriers into illusory barriers. Sometimes perceived barriers will be expressed in more serious terms or at specific levels. A child might say, ‘I can’t do Math, and what’s more I never will be able to do it’. This suggests that there is a hierarchy of learning barriers. An older learner might say, ‘I can’t do complex numbers, and what’s more I never will be able to’. Before a course starts, a potential student may scan the syllabus and express anticipated learning barriers for the whole or part of Most Hotel Disturb Signs, it, for example - ‘I anticipate difficulties with genetics’. This can cause a damaging mindset. Piaget and Action Plan Inhelder (1971) said, ‘That which is anticipated is Ofbf Deceit more likely to occur’ - an example of ‘negative’ or pejorative visualisation. In stress management the tutor needs to demonstrate that many anticipated and perceived barriers can be illusory , and Model Personal Plan also teach how to Blank August | Free And Templates, overcome real barriers.

In preparing lessons we tend to concentrate on motivation to make lessons interesting, but we should also forecast, acknowledge and aim to Model Personal Plan, surmount learning barriers. Learning barriers will be encountered in the Substantive (subject matter) domain, for example caused by faulty sequencing of the material. They can also be in the Functional domain, for example caused by disability or family problems. They can be in the Experiential domain, for Ofbf Deceit example caused by lack of practical experience in needed skills. There are several models of Model Action Plan, learning barriers. Early models by Powerpoint Puzzle | Coloring Pages Lewin (1935) showed barriers as obstructing goals, in an environment which was to a greater or less degree permeable. As teachers our role is to set the goal and make the teaching environment as permeable and flexible as possible to surmount the learning barriers. An insidious learning barrier is the Personal Action discovered barrier. This is neither anticipated before the course starts, nor perceived by the student when the course starts, but is unexpectedly discovered by student and teacher as the course proceeds. Delivery Appraisal? Not even the best pre-course syllabus can forewarn potential students about discovered barriers.

Such barriers can approach the learner at high or low speeds, can have fast or slow attacks and fast or slow decays. Their profiles will resemble those generated by Personal Action music synthesizers – Learning barrier with fast attack and slow decay. Learning barrier with slow attack and fast decay. Learners are not particularly realistic about their learning potential. Blank August 2017 Calendar And Templates? The author (Cleeton, G., 1996) found that they were notorious in their discrepancies between perception and Model Personal reality. Passport Form Print Updated? Mostly they were pessimistic, sometimes optimistic. Skilled teaching can bring them into reality without discouragement. Weaknesses were apparent in students' decision-making skills. They tended to Model Personal Action Plan, act either in a stereotyped way when faced with novel outbreaks of Ofbf Deceit, stress, or at the other extreme would vacillate between trial of different solutions. They also experienced dissonance - avoiding alternatives when a decision had been made and brooding with regret, so salience of their dissonance was not resolved (Festinger 1993). Models of learning strategies, decision-making and Model Action risk-taking were studied in the context of innovation theory.

The Reality-Perception of Reality model became accepted and Application was used with success in reducing the discrepancy index (Fisher 1986) between perception and reality. Students also noted discrepancy between perception and reality in conflicts between the conscious and subconscious minds. A client might say, consciously and conventionally, ‘I love my sister’, but subconsciously, in regression, say, ‘I hate my sister’. Instances of emergence of the ‘child within’ were sensitized by Model Personal Action Plan regression. Ofbf Deceit? Problems were reported of Model Personal, ‘childish adults’ and indeed ‘adult children’.

Reluctantly some of these effects began to be recognized by the students as lying within themselves and Ofbf Deceit led to their determination to remove the ‘bugs’ from their systems before practising stress management on other people. Time management model. The stressors of learning and Personal Plan of meeting targets were approached through time management and just-in-time management, keeping long-term diaries of activities, relaxation and thinking. Form? Reorientation of waking and sleeping patterns were accepted by some students but strongly resisted by others. The possibilities of instant sleeping and waking by suggestion in hypnosis were explored, in conjunction with subliminal learning.

Marionette on Strings model. The human being is a delicate instrument, partly controlled by ‘strings’ to the different people in his/her life. When one of Model Personal Action, these people pulls a string that attached to the human being too tightly, the string or the human being can ‘snap’ and be either mentally, physically or both mentally and physically destroyed. Top 9 Hotel Disturb Signs? Other people pulling the strings might be able to Personal, compensate for this loss, but in some cases the person may have to 2017 | Free Design And Templates, completely break ties with the stressor. For example, if the stressor is an employer, the Personal Plan person might have to resign to save mental and physical health. Shifting the Goal Posts model. The person is told to complete a task. When near completion, the controlling person changes the path and targets of the task.

This causes intense stress because everything done up to this point has to be altered to suit the new instructions. Mountain out of a Molehill model. You have to teach simple material that should only take a few minutes to explain, but fill one hour in time to do it. This is Point Design Images, a stressor for teachers, professors, or anyone lecturing. Sometimes you are given a topic to Action Plan, talk about which in common sense terms can be stated in a few minutes to almost any audience.

You have to Stock Images, stretch this to an hour. You have to inject stories, personal experiences, etc., but as you listen to yourself (if you could) you are restating the original premise over and over until you are completely burnt out. Plan? This can make you mentally and physically ill and Point Design Royalty-Free Images does not serve as a benefit to your audience either. It is making something more important than it is. Contagion of stress model. Most of us have experience of the ‘weak link in the chain’ when working as a team, for example the person who holds up the work by not meeting deadlines. When prolonged this behavior can be contagious.

Contagion of Model Plan, stress called for a model based on Ofbf Deceit the two-way spillover of strain between occupation and home (Cooper and Marshall 1976, French and Caplan 1972). This necessitated assembly and modeling of Model Personal, family relationship stressors and occupational stressors, and the interaction between them. Power, Role, Task and Person model. Occupational stress was modeled through analysis of the Powerpoint Puzzle Pieces Power, Role, Task and Person structures of Model Action Plan, organizations ( Harrison 1972). Their structural strengths and weaknesses were assessed in terms of Ofbf Deceit, (i) their stability, (ii) their resistance to change, development or recessional crises and (iii) how individuals of different personality might fare in Model Plan, them, or be matched to a structure by choice. The following descriptions of the structures are due to Harrison (1972) - The power culture is Point Design Stock Images, most often found in small entrepreneurial organizations. Its structure can be pictured as a web. The power culture depends on a central power source with rays of power and influence spreading out from that central figure. The rays may be connected by functional or specialist strings but the power rings are the centers of power and influences. This organization works on precedent and by anticipating the wishes and decisions of the central power sources.

There are few rules and procedures and little bureaucracy. Personal Plan? Control is exercised from the center. It is a political organization in that decisions are taken largely based on the balance of influence rather than on Calendar Design And Templates logical or procedural grounds. A power culture can move very quickly and react rapidly to threats or opportunities. Model Action Plan? These cultures put a lot of faith in Ofbf Deceit, the individual, little in Model Plan, committees. They judge by results and care very little about the means used to obtain results. Powerpoint Puzzle Animation | Coloring Pages? Size is a problem for power cultures; when they get large or when they seek to take on too many activities, they can collapse. The role culture is called a bureaucracy. The structure for a role culture can be pictured as a Greek temple.

The role culture works by logic and rationality. Personal Plan? Its strength in its its pillars or functional specialties, e.g. the finance department, the technical services department, the public services department. The work of the functional departments is Powerpoint Coloring contro lled by: The functional departments are controlled at the top by a small group of senior managers (the pediment of the Personal Action Plan temple). It is assumed that these folks are the only co-ordinators required if the separate departments do their job as laid down by the rules and procedures and Powerpoint Puzzle Animation Pages the overall plan. In the role culture, the job description is often more important than the Personal Action Plan individual who fills it. Individuals are selected for satisfactory performance of a role and Pieces Coloring | Coloring the role is usually so described that a range of individuals can fill it.

Performance above and beyond the role prescription is not required and can even be regarded as disruptive. Position power is the major power source; personal power is Model Personal frowned upon and expert power limited to its proper place. The efficiency of Powerpoint Puzzle Pages, this culture depends o n the rationality of the allocation of Model Plan, work and Form Form Updated 2016 responsibility rather than on individuals. The role organization will succeed very well in stable environments where little changes from year to year and predictions can be made far in advance. Where the organization can control its environment, where its markets are stable, predictable or controllable, the rules and procedures and the programmed approach to Personal Plan, work will be successful. Role cultures are slow to perceive the need for change and Ofbf Deceit slow to change even when the need is seen. If the market, the product/service needs, or the environment changes, the role culture is likely to continue without change until it collapses or until the top management is replaced.

Role cultures offer security and Model Action Plan predictability to the individual -- a steady rate of Power Royalty-Free Images, ascent up the career ladder. They offer the chance to acquire specialist expertise without risk. They tend to reward those wanted to do their job to a standard. A role culture is Plan frustrating for the individual who is power-oriented or who wants control over his/her work. Those who are ambitious or more interested in results than method may be discontented, except in top management. The role culture is 2017 | Free Design And Templates found where economies of scale are more important than flexibility and where technical expertise and Model depth of specialization are more important than product innovation or product cost.

The task culture is job or product oriented or focused on Project 2 service delivery. Its accompanying structure can be represented as a net. Notice some of the strands of the net are thicker and Model Action stronger than the others. The power and influence in a task culture lies at the intersections. A matrix organization is one form of the task culture. The task culture seeks to bring together the appropriate resources, the right people at the right level of the organization, and then to let them get on with it. Influence is based more on expert power than on position or personal power, although these power sources have an effect. Influence is more widely dispersed than in other cultures and each individual in the culture tends to think he/she has influence.

The task culture is a team culture where the outcome, the result, the product of the team's work tends to be the common goal overcoming individual objectives and most status and style differences. The task culture uses the unifying power of the group to improve efficiency and to identify the individual with the objective of the organization. The task culture is highly adaptable. Groups, project teams, or task forces are formed for Print Application Form Updated a specific purpose and can be reformed, abandoned or continued. The net organization works quickly since each group ideally contains within it all the decision-making powers required. Individuals have a high degree of Model Action, control over Most Creative Hotel Disturb Signs, their work in this culture.

Judgment is by results. There are generally easy working relationships within the group with mutual respect based upon Model Personal Action Plan, capacity rather than age or status. The task culture is appropriate where flexibility and sensitivity to the market or environment are important. The task culture fits where the market is competitive, where the product life is short, where speed of Hotel Disturb Signs, reaction is important. The task culture finds it hard to Model Personal, produce economies of scale or great depth of expertise. Large scale systems are difficult to organize as flexible groups. The technical expert in a task culture will find him/herself working on various problems and in various groups and thus will be less specialized than his/her counterpart working in a role cultures. Control in a task culture is difficult. Control is retained by top management through the allocation of projects, people and resources. Project Perfomance 2? But little day-to-day control can be exerted over the methods of working or the procedures without violating the norms of the culture. Task cultures flourish when the climate is agreeable, when the product is all-important, when the Personal customer is always right, and when resources are available for all who can justify using them. ( ‘for example putting a Man on the Moon by 1970’ – Ed.)

When resources of money and people have to be rationed, top management may wish to Point Design Stock Royalty-Free Images, control methods as well as results. When this happens, team leaders begin to compete for Personal Action Plan resources using political influence. Morale will decline and Top 9 Creative Hotel Do Not the job becomes less satisfying as individuals begin to reveal their individual objectives. When this happens the task culture tends to change to a role or power culture. The task culture is usually the one preferred as a personal choice to work in by most managers especially those at junior and middle levels. It is the culture which most of the behavioral theories of organizations point towards with their emphasis on groups, expert power, rewards for results, merging individual and Model Personal group objectives. It is the Ofbf Deceit culture most in tune with current ideologies of Model Plan, change and adaptation, individual freedom and Puzzle | Coloring low status differentials. The person culture is an unusual one and Personal Action won't be found in many organizations but many individuals cling to some of its values.

In this culture the individual is the central point. If there is a structure or an organization it exists only to serve and assist the individuals within it. Ofbf Deceit? If a group of individuals decide that it is in their own interests to Action Plan, band together in order to do their own thing more successfully and that an office, a space, some equipment, some clerical support would help, then the resulting organization will have a person culture. Architectural partnerships, real estate firms, some research organizations, perhaps information brokers often have this person orientation. Its structure is minimal, a cluster or galaxy of individual stars may be the Passport Application Form Print Form Updated best picture. As most organizations tend to have goals and objectives over and above the set of collective objectives of their members, there are few organizations with person cultures. Control mechanisms or even management hierarchies are impossible in their cultures except by mutual consent. The organization is subordinate to the individual and depends on the individual for its existence. Model Action? The individual can leave the organization but the organization seldom has the power to evict an Form Form individual. Plan? Influence is shared and the power base is usually expert.

The kibbutz, the commune, the co-operative, are strivers for the personal culture in organizational form. Rarely does it succeed beyond the Blank August 2017 Calendar Design original creators. Model Action? Very quickly the organization achieves its own identify and begins to impose it on its individuals. It becomes a task culture at best, but often a power or role culture. Although there are few organizations with person cultures, many individuals with a personal preference for this type of culture operate in other kinds of Power Point Images, Royalty-Free & Vectors, organization. Specialists in organization often feel little allegiance to the organization but regard it rather as a place to do their thing with some benefit accruing to Model Plan, their employer. Individuals with this orientation are not easy to manage. As specialists employment elsewhere is often easy to obtain so resource power has less potency.

They rarely acknowledge other people's expert power. Coercive power is not usually available which leaves only personal power and such individuals are not easily impressed by personality. Within an large organization different types of cultures may be found as shown in the diagram below: The second diagram (due to Blank And Templates, Harrison 1972) below points out some of the organization design policies variables that need to Personal, be considered when considering the nature of an Point Stock Images & Vectors organization and its fit with its environment. Detector, Selector, Effector model.

Students had by now realized that that success in stress management would not only involve changes in the environment but also changes in themselves, with feedback between these two systems. The most sophisticated model introduced to the students was that due to Kuhn (1974). It proposes the organism has Detector, Selector and Personal Defector functions, is set within its environment and has feedback between these three functions through the environment - A closed system is one where interactions occur only among the system components and not with the environment. Ofbf Deceit? An open system is one that receives input from the environment and/or releases output to the environment. The basic characteristics of an open system is the dynamic interaction of its components, while the basis of Action, a cybernetic model is the feedback cycle. Creative Hotel Do Not Disturb Signs? Open systems can tend toward higher levels of organization (negative entropy), while closed systems can only maintain or decrease in organization. Kuhn suggested that strain arises from neglect, damage or insensitivity in Plan, one or more of the three functions - Detector, Selector and Project Delivery Perfomance Appraisal 2 Effector - so the students practised exercises of each function.

Some students preferred textual rather than image presentation of the model. Model Action Plan? Having applied the Kuhn model, some students were able to inject a fine structure proposed by Puzzle Animation Coloring Kuhn, where each of the Model Action Plan three functions has its own Detector, Selector and Defector. Although comprehensive, students felt that the model was only a step towards presentation of a simple ‘magic-key’ model, similar to the ‘moving animal’ model, which would be applicable to most situations and spin off a universal definition of stress. Overview of the stress models. Inadequate, makes false assumptions. Inadequate, too specific. Weight on a spring. Defines stressors and strains.

Chaining of stressors and strains. Observation of early warning signs. Difficult to remember, too textual for Imagers. Difficult to practise necessary changes. Inconsistent - ignores microstressors. Life change units. Insufficient detail for specific occupations.

Benefits of gaining flexibility. Difficult to break rituals in a short time. Vivid presentation -immediately useful, also later in complex. Useful relationships emerging for depression. Tedious to record Microstressors and their subsequent strains. Confidence-building, overcomes fear of innovation. Student preference to retain destructive status-quo.

Perception and reality. Challenges cherished assumptions. Too textual for Imagers. Recognizes suppressed events. Unpopular for those who must see causal strain-stressor connection. Connects time management with personality.

Needs long-term record-keeping. Marionette on Strings. Involves personal relationships. Tends to absolve individual from change. Shifting the Goal Posts. Useful for meeting deadlines. Mountain out of Ofbf Deceit, a Molehill.

Issues warning signs of stress accumulation. Difficult to disentangle connections. Power, Role, Task and Action Plan Person. Understanding structure in which one works. Ignores personality clashes within structures. Detector, Selector, Effector. Comprehensive, open to expansion. Complex, suggesting need for simplification. Many stress management courses have had to follow the pattern of counseling based upon Powerpoint Puzzle Animation Coloring | Coloring, vague definitions of stress, which leads to loss of focus. Personal Plan? In this course a list of stressors was assembled and existing stress models progressively presented to fit new situations of strain. Diverse models had to be remembered and fitted to diverse problems.

Students leaving the course felt that the necessary transfer to novel outbreaks of stress had not been achieved. Where there was contagion of stress, for example from workplace to home and back to workplace, students often failed to enter or break the vicious circle. As seen by present students the Perception-Reality and Child-Within models offer greatest promise. They cope with variations in life goals. In amelioration of strains they open a way to philosophical and metaphysical discussion of life purpose. They are complementary to regression for examination of suppressed childhood experiences. They bridge traditional and alternative healing. In the fundamental problem of Point Design Images, Images, finding the cause rather than treating the problem, frequently the default has to be that of Model Action, giving coping strategies for the strain when inability or incompetence has failed to Point Design Stock Images, & Vectors, reveal the Personal Action Plan stressor. Many students felt that previous counseling proposed too close a binding between cause and effect, for example – ‘Your fear of water is because you lived near a canal when you were a child’. It may be prudent to consider the possibility that sometimes there may be no such binding - that there is an | Free element of chance whether an unfortunate child event causes adult anxiety, depression or phobia.

If the focal causal event is exposed, for example in hypnotic regression, the strain may be eliminated without there being obvious cause-effect connection. Similarly in the human variation of response to events, there may be no relationship between the severity of a problem and the severity of the cause (and therefore severity or duration of Personal, treatment). Proposals for new modeling of stress. In the absence of explicit definition of stress, new models will constantly been needed. This situation is paralleled by Hotel Do Not Disturb other systems in their infancy of stubborn resistance to definition. It may be profitable to Model Personal, step outside the situation to look at a different philosophical or material database. When searching for the text string ‘model plus generation’ in Social Science databases, only Ofbf Deceit a few matches were recorded. In contrast, Pure Science databases yielded numerous responses, revealing familiarity with analogous situations, where complex models could mirror mixtures of thin slices of quantitative data with large slices of qualitative information.

For example, the ‘state space framework’ was used by Model Personal Action Patterson (1995) to Powerpoint Pieces Coloring | Coloring, apply a model integrating data generation process with data measurement. Methodologies of kinetic modeling and mechanistic studies of Action, complex catalytic chemical reactions have been analyzed by Passport Application Form Updated 2016 Gabrielle, Denoroy and Reau (1995). They showed the rationality of a methodology based on Personal Plan advancement and discrimination of hypotheses and gave a review of techniques for hypothesis generation. A combinatorial algorithm and a library of chemical reactions were used. Potthof, Holahan and Joiner (1995) examined a mechanism through which interpersonal vulnerability factors may be linked with depressive symptoms by integrating the stress-generation model with an interpersonal theory of depression. Initial depressive symptoms and initial reassurance-seeking style were positively associated with the occurrence of microstressors.

The results support our students’ perceived usefulness of the model of accumulation of microstressors. Landis (1994) launched a new series of metropolitan simulation models which replicated urban growth patterns and impacts of development policy. The rationality of the model and the way it has been built in terms of its formal structure, its databases and its decision rules is explained. Our students often failed to disentangle the multiplicity of perceived strains which they experienced and some of them could not weight the importance of multiple macro-strains and microstressors leading to their present anxiety states. This indicates the potential for multifactorial modeling, such as used by Rosenheck and Print Form 2016 Fontana (1994). They used structural equation modeling to Model, explore risk factors for homelessness among war veterans, whose vulnerability was found to be most likely to to a multiplicity of psychiatric and Creative Hotel non-psychiatric factors. This would confirm that alleviation of a broad range of stressors needs a broad range of adjustments. Since the strains defined by student-counselors in their clients may be wrongly attributed to stressors, the top-down approach to modeling may be the way forward. The techniques of Plan, reverse engineering might be adopted. Puntambekar, Jablowlov and Sommer (1994) presented a review of the techniques available for reverse engineering, with particular emphasis on three-dimensional model generation.

It could be a promising way to introduce programming of the computer to strain-stress simulation and Project Appraisal 2 modeling. Reverse engineering is a methodology for Model Plan constructing computer-aided design models of physical parts, in circumstances where the drawings of those parts are not available by the normal methods of (i) digitizing an existing prototype, (ii) creating a computer model and (iii) using it to Top 9 Most Creative Hotel Do Not, manufacture the component. An analogy can be seen with strain-stressor relationships in absence of precise definition of Action Plan, stress. The criteria for a good model of Form, stress would be simplicity, adequacy to facilitate counseling in known categories and flexibility to cope with new strains. At the base level, models are icons for images to Model Plan, hold a problem in Creative Hotel Do Not, view and remember the Model Personal Action Plan connections. Glenberg and Project Delivery Manager Perfomance Langston (1992) investigated the building of mental models by using pictures in text, suggesting that a picture might provide relatively easy maintenance of some other representational elements corresponding to parts in the picture, freeing up capacity for inference generation. Perhaps stress models should perform a similar function as a ‘holding and stacking area’, ready for landing the stress management and coping skills when the problem has been analyzed. The proliferation of models by brainstorming may be the only path to Personal, a definition of stress. However Kometsky and Most Hotel Do Not Markowitz (1978) drew attention to Model Personal Action Plan, the danger of superficial resemblances when evaluating the problem of goodness of Ofbf Deceit, fit of a model. Holyoak and Thagard (1995) have acknowledged the usefulness of analogy in Model Personal, generating creative insights, but drew attention to examples of Powerpoint Pieces Animation Pages, dangerous errors which can arise.

Mental models have been studied by Rhees (1983), Craik (1973) and Johnson-Laird (1991), who maintained that the mind constructs ‘small-scale models of reality that it uses to anticipate events, to reason and to underlie explanation. The models are constructed in Model Personal Plan, working memory (the mind actively interpreting newly presented information and Ofbf Deceit integrating previously stored information) as a result of perception, the comprehension of Model, discourse or imagination. Their structure represents something about the world and can best be described in terms of ‘problem solving’. In problem solving the task of constructing a mental model involves making assumptions about the problem and understanding the meaning of terms in August Calendar | Free And Templates, the problem in order to reach a conclusion (solve the problem). However, an alternative model which is consistent with the statement of the problem might be possible. The Theory of Mental Models (Johnson, Laird and Byrne, 1991) predicts that a problem is more difficult to solve if more than one model has to Personal Action, be considered. Powerpoint Pieces Animation? Additional models impose a load on limited working memory.

External representations (colloquially the ‘rough work’ we do to make models or solve problems) are in the world as physical symbols (e.g. written symbols, beads of abacuses, etc) or as external rules, constraints or relations embedded in physical configurations (e.g. spatial relations of written digits, visual and spatial layouts of diagrams, physical constraints in abacuses, etc.). Internal representations are in the mind as propositions, production schemas, mental images and other forms. According to Travers (1993) when one begins a problem-solving task one mentally visualizes and arranges the givens, so all representation commences as internal. Cox and Brna (1995) maintained that concerning the nature of internal representations, popularly debated within cognitive science, advocates can be found for the position that internal imagery is merely epiphenomenal (concomitant to it). External representations (Ers) are short lived or idiosyncratic. Studies in literacy show the important functions of Personal Action, Ers. The classical view on Ofbf Deceit writing, originally developed by Aristotle and presently restated by Bloomfield (1993) and Model Action Sassure (1983) is that writing merely transcribes or re-represents speech from one Er in Power Point & Vectors, auditory form to another Er in visual form. Pemberton and Sharples (1996) supported the view that Ers are the markings that writers make, singly, or in collaboration, on some external medium such as a computer screen.

They include notes, topic lists, written plans, idea maps, outlines, or tables, concept maps, argument structures and annotations on Model Personal Action Plan the draft document in all its stages. An example of an Er is a simple ad-hoc sketch (or even a shape described in the air or via a trace with a finger on a desktop) indicating intentions that are too amorphous to express easily in Top 9 Do Not Disturb Signs, words. Wood (1992), in his studies of Model Personal, pairs of collaborating authors, pointed the authors to draw a large funnel shape to represent the overall structure of the Pieces Coloring | Coloring paper, and later both authors cited different places in Plan, this shape when talking about the same parts of the paper. Blank August 2017 | Free Design And Templates? Pemberton and Sharples suggested the Ers could in some instances be too ambiguous and could be resolved by writing down a more precise form of words. When a sample of Model, people is asked to describe their stress by placing it within a stress model, they give different answers to what the stress model meant to them as an individual. Student-tutor experiences with stress modeling suggests the need for re-examination of the Powerpoint Puzzle Pieces | Coloring thinking processes by which subject-independent models are generated both inside and outside this specific field. Promising directions seem to be those of reverse engineering and computer-simulation of strain-stressor relationships, and Personal Plan teaching enhanced skills in external representation. These will be the Puzzle Pieces Coloring | Coloring immediate directions of future research in constructing stress models. Bloomfield L. Plan? (1993) Language.

New York : Holt, Rhinehart and Winston. Cleeton G.(1991). Development and Power Design Stock Images, & Vectors application of a new theory of learning barriers . Ph.D. Model Plan? thesis, University of Keele . Cleeton G. (1996). Perception and Reality of Learning Barriers. Perceptual and Motor Skills , 1996, 82, 339 – 348. Cooper C.L. and Marshall J. (1976) Occupational sources of stress a review of. the literature relating to coronary heart disease and mental ill health. Journal.

of Occupational Psychology , 49, 11-28. Cox, R. and Brna P. (1995) Supporting the use of external representations in Top 9 Most Disturb Signs, problem solving; The Journal of Model Personal, Artificial Intelligence In Education, 6(2/3), 239-302. Craik F. (1973) “Levels of Analysis” view of memory. IN P.PLINER et al. (Eds.), Communicattion and affect: language and thought. New York : Academic Press. Eysenck, M. H. (1989). Top 9 Creative Hotel Disturb Signs? Personality, Stress Arousal and Cognitive Processes in Plan, Stress transactions. In Neufeld R W J (Ed) Advances in the Investigation of.

Psychological Stress , 133-157. Everly G. S. and Rosenfeld R. (1981). The Nature and Treatment of the Stress Response , Plenum, New York , p4. Festinger L. (1993). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance . Stanford University Press. French J.P.R. and Caplan R D (1972). Organizational Stress and Individual Strain. In Marrow A J (Ed), ‘ The Failure of Delivery Manager Perfomance Appraisal, Success ’. Model Action? Amacom , New York , 30-66.

Friedman M. and August Design Rosenman R.H. Model Personal Action? (1959). Association of specific overt behavior pattern with increases in blood cholesterol, blood-clotting time, incidence of Blank August Design, arcus senilis and clinical coronary artery disease. Journal of the American Medical Association 169,1286 -- 1296. Gabrielle B, Denoroy, P. and Reau R. (1985) Nitrogen dynamics in a colza planatation-modelling ecological impact. Plan? OCL-Oleagineux Corps Gras Lipides, 2. 1,8-10.

Glass D.C. (1977). Behavior patterns, stress and coronary disease . Hillsdale , N.J. :Erlbaum. Glenberg A.M. and | Coloring Pages Langston W.E. (1992). Comprehension of illustrated text: Pictures help to Model Personal Plan, build mental models. Journal of Memory and Language, 31, 2,129 -- 150. Holyoak K. J. and Thagard P. (1995). Mental leaps: Analogy in Creative Thought. Bradford Books, U.S.

Holmes T.H. and Rahe R. H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal l of Psychosomatic Research, 11,213 --218. Johnson-Laird P. and Byrne R. (1991) Deduction. Hillsdale , New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Kometsky C. and Markowitz R. 1978. Animal models of schizophrenia. In Lipton M.A., DiMascio A., Killiam K.F. (eds).

Abio-informational theory of emotional imagery. Psychophysiology, 16:495-2512. Kuhn A. (1974) The Logic of Social Systems. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Landis J. D. 1994. The California Urban Futures Model - Anew generation of metropolitan simulation models. Environments and planning, 21, 4,399 -- 420. Lolas F. (1979). The pertinence of animal investigation for clinical stress research.

Neurobiologia., 42: 185 -- 192. Matthews (1982). Psychological perspectives on Ofbf Deceit the type - A behavior pattern. Psychological Bulletin, 91,293-2333. McLean (1976). Model Personal Action Plan? Depression as a specific response to Powerpoint Puzzle Pieces Animation, stress. In Sarason IG and Spielberger CD (Eds.), Stress and Anxiety , Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, pp 297-2321. Patterson (1995).

An integrated model of the data measurements and data generation processes within application to consumers’ expenditure. Economic Jouirnal, 105, full to Model Personal, wait, 54 -- 76. Pemberton L. and Power Stock Images, Images Sharples R. (1996) External Representations in the Writing Process and How to Support Them. Model Personal Action Plan? AIEd 96 External Representations. Potthoff J.G., Holahan C.J. and Joiner T.E. (1995) Reassurance seeking, stress generation and Powerpoint Puzzle Pieces Animation Coloring | Coloring Pages depressive symptoms -- an Model Personal Action Plan integrative model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68, 4,664 -- 670. Puntambekar N.V., Jablokow A.G. and Delivery Manager Perfomance Appraisal 2 Sommer, H.J. (1994) Unified review of 3D model generation for reverse engineering. Plan? Computer integrated Manufacturing Systems, 7, 4, 259-268. Powell T. J. and Enright S. (1990) . Anxiety and Stress Management.

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Essay on City Life vs. Personal Action Plan? Village Life (2465 words) Essay on City Life vs. Village Life! One of the most striking features of industrial age is the growth of city life. In ancient times the people mostly lived in villages being engaged in agriculture.

Cities arose here and there as centres of trade or seats of Powerpoint Puzzle Pieces, government. Action Plan? Today in all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed. Blank August Design And Templates? The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of transport and Model Personal Action, communication have brought thousands of people nearer to each other and made it convenient for them to live together in large aggregations. The growth of cities is a special feature of modern age and as the city grows the whole character of society undergoes a change. There is a sharp difference between the city and village life though with the expansion of urban influence on the village this difference is becoming more and more a matter of degree.

However, in spite of the recent trends of urbanisation the villages still retain many of their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the urban life. In rural community the force of traditional mores and the bonds of family solidarity are more dominant than in the urban community. Form Print? According to Model Personal Action Plan Biesanz and August, Biesanz, “In the rural community custom is the king, the folkways and Personal, mores control most of behaviour,” The sense of group responsibility which tends to be more and more dissolved in the growth of the city prevails in village life. The type of village family is generally patriarchal in which the status of the individual is the status of his family. There is less individual questioning and rebellion. The family determines as to whether and Powerpoint Coloring, whom the individual should marry for the maintenance of family name. There is lesser freedom in the selection of life partner.

There are few love-marriages. Not only marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions. Any deviation from the Model establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and hardly tolerated. The life of all men and women is merged in family life. In short, family dominates individual’s life in village community. Moreover, the village community is too small to support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. The family is the only organisation which performs the task of aid and protection. For such functions there is Passport Form, no formal organisation with a president and Model Personal Action Plan, secretary. On the other hand, in Powerpoint Puzzle Coloring | Coloring the city community life is Model Personal Action Plan, conspicuous by the absence of family life. The anonymous character of the city frees the urban dweller from close moral control. Social control becomes the activity of specialized agencies.

Family control is lessened. Police and courts, teachers and social workers take over the regulatory functions of the family circle. A “free lance” detached from family bonds is looked askance at in the village while such a person, even his norms of conduct, sexual and otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to those places where high class gentry goes. If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by the urban community, an impersonalized world. According to Davis, “He can escape the Most oppressive control of any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of strangers.” It may also be noted that the urban life is more regulated by the State than the rural life is regulated. Even minor matters like disposal of garbage and refuse cannot be left to voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of which are community housekeeping duties. Model Plan? Thus, in a city as opposed to the village the mores and folkways are least counted on to handle the August 2017 Calendar | Free situation. In other words, the larger the city, the greater becomes the problem of control and the more complex the agencies of secondary control.

Secondly, a village community is marked by immediate contacts between its members. There is a strong ‘we-feeling’ in the rural community. We find members in a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and sorrows of each other. In the village everybody is known to everybody. Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted. Action Plan? From such contacts each person knows a great deal about his neighbours, their activities, preferences and attitudes. Status of each one in the village community is 2017 Calendar, well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour. Crime in village community is rare.

Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of. Things are done by mutual understanding. In city life, on Plan, the other hand, nearness counts much less. The inhabitants of a city hardly know each other. Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to speak of influencing their activities. In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the people living in Pieces | Coloring the third or fourth storey. There is an Model Personal Plan, atmosphere of Most Creative Do Not Disturb, indifference and callousness in a city. In a city like Calcutta, an inhabitant may spend a whole day in the street and never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of thousands of people. Even friend are likely to Personal be known only in a particular context and in a particular segment of life. In the words of Gist and Halbert, ‘The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships.” Most of the relations are indirect. Competition has a far greater velocity in the city than in the village.

Life in a village community is simple and uniform. There are few ambitious men and fewer excitements. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and rearing animals. Project Delivery Manager Perfomance 2? Their standard of Model Personal Action Plan, living is lower than that of the town because the means of earning money are limited. They view land as the most substantial of all heritages. Agriculture is their major occupation. When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the urban people is Hotel Do Not Signs, higher. They are more prodigal than the village people.

Country life suggests ‘save’, City life suggests ‘spend’. The poor turning rich overnight or the Personal Plan rich being reduced to beggary in one day are cases unknown in Passport Application 2016 the village. The man of enterprise and adventurous spirit has no place in rural community. The city dweller becomes indifferent to extremes of all kinds. Indeed the distinction between public and private, between what is shown and what is concealed, is much sharper in the city. It is the public behaviour that the city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and urban community is concerning the modes of production. In the village as a rule, only a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and Model Action, does its own washing, for all the environment, physical as well as social, is the same. The city, on the other hand, is the place for Manager Perfomance Appraisal 2, all, the semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the Personal Action Plan “paper-expert”, the Top 9 Creative technician, the artist, the banker, the teacher, the social reformer and many others.

It is Model, a heterogeneous group of people engaged in various pursuits. The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to such an extreme that even the work of Top 9 Most, unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in the urban world is clearly in the direction of a larger percentage of specialized work leading to a multiplicity of organisations, economic and Model Personal Action Plan, social. The residents of Point Design Images, a city become affiliated with a number of organisations. Their social relations are mostly indirect and Action, secondary. Members of a single family frequently belong to different organisations. Since these various organisations have different customs and procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and lack of understanding. The process of selection for the specialized work is keener.

The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the competitive standard. Blank August 2017 Calendar Design? The owner of special ability has greater chances of quick promotion. The individual is rated more in terms of Model, accomplishments than he is August 2017 Design, rated in Model Personal Action the rural community. The city sifts and 2017 Calendar Design, segregates all of the members according to their ability and finds a fit place for each. It provides public schools for the wealthy and private schools for the poor. It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and Action, professional education. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Deaf and Dumb school. The city requires and promotes great social mobility. It lays emphasis on achievement rather than the ascription of status. The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time.

The caste element in Passport Form 2016 social stratification is minimized. Status centres on the occupation, on the nature and competence of the Model Action Plan activity, rather than on the accident of birth. As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, “The rural community is similar to calm waters in a pool and the urban community to boiling water in a kettle. Stability is the typical trait for the one mobility is the typical trait for the other.” Specialization is also seen in the physical structure of the city. Distinctive areas are marked for different activities.

Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab State, has been divided into different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities. In the western world specialization of areas has been carried to August 2017 Calendar a greater extent than in India. The structure varies from Personal Action Plan city to Ofbf Deceit city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in the western world there is a clear division of space into zones of business activity, of Personal Plan, low rentals and residential congestion, of transitory abode, of “middle-class” residence, of industrial concentration, and so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the life of women. If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the drudges in the household. Industrialization and specialization have brought women to workshop and factory. They have entered into Ofbf Deceit, the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and liberated them from the exclusiveness of domesticity. As MacIver observes, ‘The individualization of women has been fostered by urban life and the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and women, as individuals, is Model, exercising and will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of society.” The city community evokes in man the Blank | Free qualities which stand in sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community. The village calls for persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to the way of life.

He is fatalistic and is in constant contact with nature. Personal? He sees nature as the practical worker who must wrest a living from the soil. He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the ripened of crops and sender of rains. The forces of nature are beyond his control and reckoning. He is attached to- rituals and becomes superstitious and religious. Ofbf Deceit? The city requires alertness and quicker responses to changing situations. The city dweller is more tolerant in matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and opinions. According to Bogardus, “Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the Personal Action artificiality or many phases of city life.”

The city is ruled by impersonality of law and the caprice of fashion. In a rural community the rural moral codes are fixed and strict. Any violation of them leads to bitter estrangements and Puzzle Pieces Animation | Coloring, sometimes to personal tragedies. In a rural community there is much mutual aid. Model Personal Action? If a house is to be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the neighbours come in to help. There is an atmosphere of kindliness. There is a good deal of visiting, several times daily, between the people.

In an urban community there is Powerpoint Puzzle Animation, no strong ‘we feeling’. The absence of a common mode of occupation and the great impersonality of city life narrow the urbanite’s attachments and detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community. The secondary and voluntary character of Model Personal Plan, urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and the social mobility all force the Manager Appraisal individual to Personal Action Plan make his own decisions and to plan his life as a career. The city instead of suppressing the Power Design Stock Images, Royalty-Free individuality emphasizes it. The competitiveness of the Personal Action city places the individual over against everyone else he is not inexorably tied to any particular relationship or cause. He leaves one city to live in another city and does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from his village surroundings sheds tears from his eyes. Economic advancement and abundance of opportunities are common incentives of the city. Images, & Vectors? The young men and women leave the rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for Model Personal Action, employment and profits. But sometimes the men coming from the village may have to face disappointment and despair in the city.

So one should leave the village for city after a deep and careful thought. The above are then the features that distinguish rural from urban life. In the 2017 Calendar | Free Design city “opposite conditions are found”, aggregation ; instead of Personal Action Plan, physical isolation; associations of many kind’s supplementing or supplanting the functions of family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of economic classes and specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in ways often unknown in the country; limited and intensified work, with its endless varieties and disparities of opportunity and of fortune creating an intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to the rural sense.” It may, however, be pointed out that urbanization of the rural population has reduced the Top 9 Most Creative Hotel Disturb Signs differences between rural and urban community. The urban influence on the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the rural way of life has been withering away. The more the villages are linked with the city through modes of transport and Model Personal Action, communication, the faster will be the urban influence on the rural life. This may lead to assimilation of the Most Do Not rural people into the urban way of life thereby eliminating the attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and countrymen. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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