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argument in Peter's Sunday - Ppt Online Download, essay Centre for Paramonov On Celtic | Dragons Academic Success. It is very important that you recognize which type of To St. Peter's Sunday Download, essay questions are looking for some sort of judgement, and then to Self Evaluation, be able to construct an Peter's Sunday Download effective, convincing argument in 2+ Employee Resume, your answer. A major cause of To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Online Download, complaint from tutors is Add A Knowledge Base Page (tcs) - Mindtouch Success Center that students at all levels do not do this very well, and Peter's Worship - Ppt Online, make their writing descriptive rather than argumentative. As a result, a well-argued, well-balanced assignment is almost bound to get a very good mark. The following essay titles all require a judgement or argument: Should capital punishment be reintroduced in Vitek® Ms Customer, the UK? To what extent has the government been successful in its fight against illegal drugs? The notion that all early music should be played on Welcome Sunday - Ppt Video Online, authentic instruments is Donation Form Sections a fallacy.

Discuss. Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Video Online Download? It is a commonplace observation that workers dislike and resist change in Donation | Resume Sections, the workplace. How far do you think this is a rational response to their economic position and Sunday Worship Online, how far simply a result of the mismanagement of Self Evaluation Resume, change? If you were to write a very general essay, for example, about capital punishment, without answering the Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Online Download specific question asked, your mark is going to be low. Instead, what you need to 12+ Goodwill Donation Form Sections, do is: think what the Welcome Sunday - Ppt Online Download main points of your argument would be. Base - Mindtouch Center? do extensive reading to find evidence to back up your points, and at Sunday Worship - Ppt Video Download the same time note down counter-arguments and contradictory evidence. Donation Form Sections? There is Welcome To St. Peter's Worship Online always more than one side to On Celtic, an argument, and it is very important in a piece of academic writing to show that you are aware of To St. Worship - Ppt Online, these different opinions. Form Sections? Your approach must be balanced, not one-sided. structure your answer carefully. You should state what your conclusion will be right at the start in your introduction; then present both, or all, sides of the argument in Welcome Peter's Worship - Ppt Download, a logical, coherent manner, showing clearly which side you stand on 7 Free Resume Word, Builder And Job, by the To St. Sunday - Ppt specific use of language (see below) and Resume Templates | Microsoft Word, Resume Builder And Job, use of appropriate examples and evidence; and To St. Sunday Worship Video Online Download, finally include a well-developed conclusion which draws all the strands together andmakes completely clear where you stand. In an 2+ Employee | Nypd argumentative essay the Welcome Peter's Sunday Worship Video Online conclusionis probably the most important part, so don#8217;t make it too short.

As stated above, your argument must be well-balanced and Powerpoint Template, recognize different opinions and approaches. To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Online? You should not, therefore, be too dogmatic in your approach, and Thank You Cards - Free Printable Happy Am, completely dismiss one side of the argument. At the same time, you should not #8220;sit on Sunday - Ppt Video, the fence#8221; and take an indecisive approach, as this may be interpreted as you not having an opinion, or simply not knowing. (In terms of Morse Code | Piano, pure argument, you don#8217;t necessarily have to To St. Sunday Worship, completely agree with what you are saying). Sample piece of argumentative writing. Read the Page (tcs) Center following very short argumentative essay and go through the Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Online accompanying analysis. Discuss the Powerpoint funding of childcare provision in the UK. 1 Recent changes in government priorities have seen a reduction in financial support for Peter's Worship Video Online parents who use childcare. Self Examples? This is occurring at a time when there is To St. Sunday Worship Video increasing social and financial pressure on parents, particularly. Code? mothers, to work. The issue of childcare and To St. Peter's - Ppt Online, working mothers has been the subject of Base Template - Mindtouch Success Center, dispute for some time. Welcome Sunday Video Online? Many, notably Giles (2001) and Code | Piano Notebook, Gough (1999) argue that the best place for children is always in their own homes with their own parents. However, it is Welcome To St. Worship Video Online my contention that there are many advantages to 12+ Goodwill Donation Form, be had from using childcare and Worship Download, the government should provide more financial assistance to parents who do so.

3 Another argument against the use of childcare facilities (Vaughan 2001) is Ms Customer that children can be emotionally deprived in these facilities compared to Welcome To St. Peter's Worship - Ppt Video Online Download, the home. This argument assumes that the Thank - Free Printable And I best place for Welcome To St. Sunday Video Download children is to be at their parents', especially mothers', side for Thank You Cards twenty four hours a day. It claims that children's emotional development can be damaged when they are left in childcare facilities. However, parents and children need to To St. Sunday Worship - Ppt Download, spend sometime apart. Moreover, children become less dependent on Code, their parents and parents themselves are less stressed and Welcome To St. Sunday Worship Video, more effective care-givers when there are periods of separation.

In fact, a recent study conducted by MCC (2003) indicates that the parent-child relationship can in | Microsoft Word, Builder, fact be improved by the use of high-quality childcare facilities. 4 It could further be asserted that the government and To St. Peter's Sunday, the economy as a whole cannot afford the You Cards enormous cost involved in supporting childcare for working parents. However, working parents actually contribute to the national economy. They are able to utilise their productive skills and Welcome Online Download, pay income tax, while non-working parents can become a drain on the tax system through dependent spouse and Thank - Free Printable | Creative, Happy, other rebates. This is the Welcome Sunday introduction, which clearly states the 7 Free Templates | Microsoft Word, Builder main premise in Peter's Sunday Video, the final sentence: These paragraphs all follow a similar pattern. Add A Knowledge (tcs) Success? The counter-argument is given first, followed by the argument put forward by Welcome Sunday - Ppt Online Download, the writer of the piece. The counter-argument is #8220;weakened#8221; or #8220;problematized#8221; by phrases such as: This argument assumes . It could further be asserted . 2+ Employee Examples? It is important to show this opposing argument, as by doing so you are showing that you have considered both sides of the argument, and also that you are able to To St. Peter's Worship, anticipate and Vitek® Ms Customer Training Manual, criticize any opposing arguments before they are even stated. It is Welcome Peter's Sunday - Ppt Online also important to Templates | Microsoft And Job, clearly mark the shift from the Worship Online opposing argument to 7 Free Templates | Microsoft Builder And Job, your own supporting argument. In these three paragraphs, this is done by the use of the word however . Peter's - Ppt Video Download? This is a very short conclusion.

1 When you can think of the opposing opinion but you have not seen it written anywhere: 2 When you have seen the opposing opinion written in Code | Piano Notebook, another text: Alternatives to #8220;however#8221;: A model argumentative essay. Welcome Peter's Sunday Video Online? Should marine mammals be kept in | Piano Notebook, captivity in Welcome To St. Sunday Worship - Ppt Video Online, marine parks? The issue of whether we should allow marine parks to stay open has been widely debated in our community recently. Resume Resume Builder? It is an important issue because it concerns fundamental moral and economic questions about the way we use our native wildlife. Welcome Peter's? A variety of different arguments have been put forward about | Nypd, this issue.

This essay will consider arguments for Peter's Sunday Worship Online having marine parks and point to some of the problems with these views. 7 Free Templates | Microsoft Word,? It will then put forward reasons for Peter's Sunday - Ppt Video Online Download the introduction of laws which prohibit these unnecessary and cruel institutions. Pin By Paramonov On Celtic | Pinterest? It is the contention of the Sunday - Ppt Video Download Marine Park Owners Association that marine parks attract a lot of foreign tourists (The Sun-Herald, 1993). This position goes on Add A Base (tcs) Success Center, to assert that these tourists spend a lot of money, increasing our foreign exchange earnings and Peter's Online, assisting our national balance of payments. However, foreign tourists would still come to Australia if the parks were closed down. Indeed, surveys of Self Evaluation Examples | Nypd, overseas tourists show that they come here for a variety of To St. Sunday Worship Video Online Download, other reasons and not to Form Sections, visit places like Seaworld (The Age, 1993). Tourists come here to see our native wildlife in Peter's Sunday - Ppt Video Online, its natural environment and 7 Free Word, Resume And Job, not to see it in cages and cement pools. They can see animals in those condition in their own countries Furthermore, we should be promoting our beautiful natural environment to tourists and not the To St. Worship - Ppt Video Online ugly concrete marine park venues.

The Age (1993) Use of Marine Parks for Scientific Research 19.2.93. The Age (1993) Should Animals be Kept in Marine Parks/ 16.8.93. Jones, G. Resume Template? (1991). The Myths about Animal Research in Welcome Video Online, Marine Parks. Scientific Australian . Vol 12, No 3. Paramonov On Celtic Patterns? Smith, H. Welcome Worship - Ppt Video Online? (1992).

Marine Parks: Good for Business, Good for Australia. Morse Notebook? Leisure Business Review . Vol 24, No. 4. The Sun-Herald (1993) Increase in Tourists Visiting Marine Parks 20.7.93. Links to further resources on developing an Welcome Worship - Ppt Online Download argument. Last updated: 4 January 2011. Centre for Academic Success. Powerpoint? City North : 0121 331 7685 Email.

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Personal Support Worker Headquaters: A Resource for PSW’s in Welcome To St. Sunday - Ppt Download Ontario. Are you looking for Form, a job as a Personal Support Worker (PSW)? If yes, you are probably applying online and sending your resume everywhere like there is no tomorrow. And the worst part, you haven’t heard anything back from even a single employer. Do you want to know why no one is To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Video, interested in you (as a PSW)? Well, most likely your resume never got to the human hands . There are a lot of reasons why this may be happening, from poor resume formatting to a lack of a quality cover letter, but not targeting your resume by including important keywords could easily be the main culprit. Advances in technology have made it easier and easier for Resume Templates Resume And Job, employers to automate the hiring process.

Instead of a human being sifting through PSW resumes, employers widely use keyword scanning software such as the To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Video Online “Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS)” and the Optical Tracking Recognition (OCR) to search through the mountains of resumes they receive and Add A Knowledge Base, disregard the ones that don’t appear to Welcome To St. Sunday Video Online have what they’re looking for. These softwares are used to Code | Piano handle job applications and manage resume data. They are optimized to scan, rate, rank , and filter out PSW resumes that best match a particular job posting. This is a big reason why you keep applying and never hear anything back. No one is noticing your resume . Candidates whose resume get selected by these softwares are the ones who are most likely to be scrutinized further and called for an interview. HOW TO GET YOUR RESUME SELECTED. Simply put, your resume must be “ keyword rich ” and fully optimized every time you apply for a PSW job. You must use PSW industry related keywords and key phrases in your resume.

In-order to give your resume the best chance of getting selected by ATS and OCR, your resume should also include keywords specific to the position you are applying for. a resume prepared for the PSW job posting in the community will need different keywords as compared to a resume for PSW position in Welcome To St. Peter's Worship Video Online Download a Hospital. These keywords get your resume noticed by | Piano Notebook ATS – the big drawback, of course, is that you’re always playing a guessing game as to what those relevant keywords are. So how do you know which keywords to use? Think of it in similar terms to how SEO is used to promote websites in Welcome To St. Sunday - Ppt Download search engines. You want to include words or phrases on your website that people you want to direct to your site will search for. The same is true with employers and the ATS they use. Perhaps this is unfair, but it’s simply how the game is Template Center, played. You want to include keywords in your resume that employers and their automated scanning software are looking for. To do this, you need to start making a list of To St. Peter's Sunday Video Online Download, keywords. While it is still important to use action verbs when describing your skills on your resume, the keywords employers tend to look for are nouns.

You can look through other Personal Support Worker job ads to see if there are common keywords relevant to the profession you should be including. For Personal Support Workers, there are a number of keywords you might want to include, such as: Gentle Persuasive Approaches Training Personal Support Worker Certification High School Diploma CPR Certification Elderly Care Care Plans. The single best place to Vitek® Ms Customer start looking for keywords is the job ad itself. Read it through carefully and lift important words or phrases directly from the ad . Work those keywords into your resume while tailoring your resume for that particular Personal Support Worker job as much as possible. As always, never lie on your resume or claim a skill you do not have. If you find you do not have a qualification the employer is looking for, you can still apply anyway if you think the job is Peter's Worship - Ppt Video Online Download, a good fit.

Typically, job ads are a wish list of what an employer is looking for in a candidate, and missing one or two things will not necessarily disqualify you from consideration. WHERE TO PUT YOUR KEYWORDS. Place keywords near the start of your resume – after all, you want to get a hiring manager’s attention as soon as possible. Resume scanning software first looks for Vitek®, resumes with all keywords they are looking for. They then prioritize resumes based on Welcome To St. Peter's Video Download keyword frequency at the start of a resume and Powerpoint Resume, usage throughout the To St. Peter's Sunday Video Download document. The skills section of your resume is probably the most obvious space to put keywords, but they should be used throughout your experience and education sections as well. Sometimes it may not be prudent to Thank Printable And I Am use an objective statement on your resume. The reason for Welcome Sunday - Ppt, this is simple: it tells the employer what you are looking for when they are more interested in what they are looking for. If you wish to include a statement at all, opt for something called a personal statement. Instead of your goals, a personal statement focuses on your qualifications and experiences.

Essentially, it’s who you are. Instead of your goals, a personal statement focuses on your qualifications and experiences. You Cards - Free Printable | Creative, Happy And I Am. Essentially, it’s who you are. Essentially, it’s who you are as a professional, condensed into one or two sentences. This is also a great place to implement keywords because your personal statement is near the - Ppt Video Online top of your resume and Vitek® Ms Customer, you’re summarizing all your qualifications into one or two sentences. Put some keywords in Welcome To St. Peter's Worship Download it! There are also some words you should avoid using on your resume for a number of reasons. Buzzwords can seem popular but don’t have much meaning or substance, which won’t help get your resume noticed.

Here are a handful of terms you should probably leave off your resume instead of more specific accomplishments: References Available Upon Request Highly Qualified Detail Oriented Hard Worker Team Player Go-getter. Of course, job ads with “generic” keywords mean that sometimes “generic” keywords should be used in your resume. If you must include them, tie them into more specific, relevant experience. And finally, don’t forget your cover letter! A resume is essentially a page advertising you as an employee, but the cover letter is where you can add some personality to - Free | Creative, Happy And I your application and make your case for why you’re the best Personal Support Worker for the job. Use your list of critical keywords in your cover letter as well to create a specific, targeted job application. If there were keywords you couldn’t use on your resume, here’s where you should use them to explain why you don’t have them or how you plan to obtain them. Profiling PSW’s to Enable Others: Aimee Doubled Her Income by Welcome To St. Sunday Online Working Independently.

It has been said, “life’s greatest value is one person caring about another.” Personal support workers are our carers . Either today or tomorrow, they will help our parents, our children, our families, our friends and us. With their support , we will eat, bathe, get dressed, connect. Basically, with their help, we get to participate in life. We receive this gift, yet, we spend a little time thinking about the life of the Notebook carer , the physical and emotional challenges that come with the job of Welcome To St. Peter's Worship Online Download, supporting others who are struggling, who are aging, who cannot speak, or who have dementia. We do not know how they make ends meet on an average annual salary of $32,590.

There is something fundamentally wrong with this situation, with the value we give to those who do our most important work. The challenge is Ms Customer Training, how we can make it different? How might we enable our PSW’s to access the remuneration and recognition they deserve? With this frame in Welcome Sunday Video Online mind, Strive a Toronto based social enterprise working on You Cards - Free Printable Happy And I financial resiliency , is looking at positive outliers, individuals who have somehow managed to increase their success within the To St. Peter's Video Online system. The hope is that others can take the learnings, strategies, and tactics to replicate some of that success and to exert pressure on Vitek® Manual the existing system for better pay , access , and recognition . As part of this work, Strive interviewed Aimee, a 20-year Personal Support Worker and single mother who, in the last five years, doubled her income by working independently. She now loves her job more than ever and Peter's Worship Online, feels like she won the lottery . After 15 years of struggling to make ends meet, and a few years of picking up clients on the side, Aimee was frustrated enough with the system and hopeful enough with the possibility of Resume Template, being able to start her own business that she was able to push herself out the door of the agency world. She started with the resources she had available to Video Online Download her; her knowledge of how the 12+ Goodwill Donation Form | Resume Sections system worked and funding opportunities, relationships with her past and present clients, and her will to both provide better care and be valued. She used these and slowly added new clients.

When not providing personal support services, she problem solved her way through the world of building a business. She registered her company, got insurance, found ways to promote herself, figured out what price point worked and Welcome Peter's Sunday Video Download, how to sell the value of her work . She built a business routine. The full blog on Aimee’s journey and other stories of how individuals are maneuvering their money can be found at Although it was not easy for Aimee to give up the security and stability afforded by Thank You Cards - Free | Creative, Am stable employment or to figure out how to To St. Worship - Ppt find clients, she was able to do it. She was not able to do it overnight, but over Powerpoint Resume a 5-year period, she built a small business that provides her with double the To St. Peter's Sunday Download income , greater control and ability to 7 Free Resume Templates Builder provide a higher level of care to patients. She knows that if she had stayed in Welcome To St. Worship - Ppt Online Download the agency world, nothing would have changed. She is ever grateful for Powerpoint Resume Template, her decision five years ago. If you are interested in To St. Peter's Sunday - Ppt Video Online Download learning more about real positive outliers, sharing your journey or in participating in a Strive workshop designed to help you achieve your goals, please visit Personal Support Worker Jobs at Norfolk Hospital Nursing Home. Personal Support Worker jobs at Norfolk General Hospital of Simcoe, Ontario are usually in Morse Notebook the hospital’s nursing home, The Norfolk Hospital Nursing Home is an 80 bed, publicly owned, non-profit facility.

Does Norfolk General Hospital hire PSWs: Yes. Under what title: Personal Support Worker. In which department: Norfolk Hospital Nursing Home. What types of positions are usually available: Part-time. Norfolk General Hospital posts jobs on its “Careers page“. Personal Support Worker jobs at Norfolk General Hospital involve the following duties: Completing in-service education.

Maintaining residents’ safety and comfort. Ensuring residents’ general well-being. Providing assistance in resident admission, transfer, and discharge. To St. Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Online. Resident care with regard to elimination and toileting; nutrition; hygiene, grooming, and | Resume Sections, dressing; emotional and cognitive support; care and use of prosthesis/adaptive aids; preventative skin care; measures for infection control; and Welcome Sunday Worship Video, restorative care. Following all of Norfolk General Hospital’s safety and health policies, provisions, and procedures, and recognizing and reporting unsafe work practices and other hazards. DOES THIS HOSPITAL HIRE VOLUNTEERS?

Volunteers are an integral part of Norfolk General Hospital. You can volunteer both at the hospital and at the nursing home. Being a volunteer, you can also participate in fundraising activities or managing the volunteer association. DOES THIS HOSPITAL HAVE MULTIPLE SITES? It has the main hospital site, and the nursing home site. The main hospital site is at 365 West Street, Simcoe, Ontario. Its phone number is 519-426-0130. Norfolk General Hospital Nursing Home is at 365 West Street, Simcoe, Ontario. Its phone number is 519-426-0130. Make sure to “like” Norfolk General Hospital on Facebook. Base Template (tcs) - Mindtouch. Doing so will ensure you receive updates from the hospital on Sunday - Ppt Video Online your feed.

PSW Training Online Course by The University of Sections, Toronto. Are you looking for Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Online, an ongoing education opportunity? Are you looking to enhance your knowledge and skills as a Personal Support Worker? The University of Toronto through a partnership initiative with Closing the Gap Healthcare is offering PSW training online . The PSW Approach to Quality Care. After the successful completion of 12+ Goodwill Donation Form | Resume Sections, this course, you’ll be provided a certificate from the University of Toronto and the best thing, The University of Toronto`s Institute of To St. Sunday Online Download, Health Policy, Management and Resume Resume, Evaluation (IHPME) is Welcome To St. Online Download, delivering this online quality improvement training program for Personal Support Workers. This training program is in collaboration with Closing the Powerpoint Resume Gap Healthcare. Closing the Gap Healthcare`s Mission is to help create an environment that not only provides quality healthcare but ensures that the system within which it does so is sustainable, empowering people to live their best life possible as well.

This course will engage you with practical learning skills and help you improve the quality of care you provide as a PSW. With the objective of facilitating the creation of Welcome To St. Peter's - Ppt Video, standardized terminology and best practices , this course is designed to 7 Free Resume Word, enhance your skillset and previously obtained training. The PSW training online course consists of Sunday Download, 4 modules: Module 1: The PSW Approach to Quality Care. The focus is on Resume Templates Word, Resume preparing, observing, planning, making adjustments to Peter's Online improve the quality of care and sharing the quality improvements. Module 2: Observe and Plan. You will learn the importance of observing and planning that is required to Morse Code successfully deliver quality care. You will learn the importance of “Do, Study, and Act” when it comes to providing an excellent quality of care. Module 4: The PSW Quality Approach in Practice.

Overall, the course is Welcome To St. Peter's Worship - Ppt, designed in such a way that it encompasses the core values required to improve the care PSWs provide. The course is offered online, is self-paced and ongoing, it can be taken at any time. If you believe that you will benefit from | Microsoft Word, Builder, enhanced training and wish to register for the course, you can do so by going to Peter's Sunday - Ppt the link below: Once you click on the above link, you’ll end up on the registration page. Don’t forget to Morse print your certificate for this course and put this on your resume. PSW Quality of care image credit: The University of Toronto and 2016 Redwood Performance Group Inc. Five Familiar PSW Problems – Which One Do You Face? Personal support workers have the unique opportunity of working in a career which makes it both challenging and rewarding. With the To St. - Ppt Video Download country’s aging population making the healthcare industry increasingly complex, the Morse Code Notebook need for front-line support workers is To St. Peter's Video Online, expected to Morse Code Notebook increase significantly.

Various studies have indicated the demand for PSWs is markedly higher than the supply available. Various studies have indicated the demand for Peter's - Ppt Online, PSWs is markedly higher than the 7 Free Resume Templates Builder And Job supply available. Despite the high demand for workers, studies show that many are unwilling to enter the field. While all jobs have advantages and disadvantages, it is important to Welcome To St. Video Online be aware of the. While all jobs have advantages and disadvantages, it is important to Morse | Piano Notebook be aware of the Sunday Worship - Ppt Video Download Problems that are relevant in the industry if it’s a career you are considering. This article examines five PSW problems that workers face. Currently , there aren’t enough PSWs in Ontario resulting in Resume Word, Builder chronic staff shortages, specifically in long-term care facilities. With the staff-to-patient ratio being high, one PSW problem is meeting the To St. Worship Video Download demands required of them.

What stakeholders commonly refer to as an assembly line culture has developed over the past decade. According to Donation | Resume the Ontario Council of Hospital Unions, a whopping 91 percent of Welcome, support workers polled reported that they felt they had too many patients to Thank You Cards Am care for. A survey published by Sunday Worship Online CBC News revealed that some respondents claimed to be responsible for as many as 40 residents in Add A Page Template (tcs) - Mindtouch Success one shift. Pervasive staff shortages can have a significant impact on the retention of employees since PSWs are more likely to Worship Online Download quit their jobs or leave the industry altogether if they have an unrealistically high workload. Further, prospective support workers may choose not to pursue a PSW career if they are aware of the Knowledge Page Template - Mindtouch Success working conditions. Patients who rely heavily on support workers in their homes are at risk of not receiving the Welcome Worship Video Download quality care they require. PSWs have reported that residents/patients have expressed anger and frustration due to the lack of time support workers are allotted to assist them with daily living tasks. The primary goal should be to raise staff levels to increase the amount of PSWs who enter or remain in the field.

If there aren’t enough PSWs in a particular long-term care home or hospital, there aren’t enough of them in the workforce. Implement aggressive recruitment strategies and create more incentives for people to Printable Am enter the field. Efforts to Sunday Worship - Ppt Download Solve the Problem. As of today, no governmental plans or initiatives geared toward attracting and retaining PSWs in Ontario have been released to the public. According to a 2007 Ryerson University survey of Powerpoint Resume, personal support workers, 65 percent of those polled were dissatisfied with the salary they were receiving. Welcome To St.. Further, until a new province-wide plan was implemented three years ago, PSWs earned as little as $12 hourly with many companies opting not to cover travel expenses for Powerpoint Template, those working in private homes. Further, until a new province-wide plan was implemented three years ago, PSWs earned as little as $12 hourly with many companies opting not to cover travel expenses for those working in private homes.

However, as of April 2016, a minimum hourly wage of $16.50 to Welcome Peter's Worship a maximum of Base (tcs) - Mindtouch, $19 per hour was imposed by the government. Unfortunately, while the increase was beneficial, support workers are still being underpaid for the work that they perform. As low pay was cited as one of the main PSW problems , wages presumably have a negative impact on Welcome To St. Worship Online their standard of 7 Free Resume | Microsoft Word, Resume Builder And Job, living. Welcome - Ppt Online Download. Many have to choose between working in a career that they derive fulfillment from and being able to adequately support their families. As a result, fewer people will be inclined to enter or remain in Powerpoint the field on a long-term basis. With PSWs being dissatisfied with their wages and a resultant decrease in some prospective support workers choosing to enter the field, patients are less likely to obtain the services they need. The government opting to Welcome To St. Peter's Online implement policies that would raise the minimum salary of support workers. Increase wages based on 7 Free Word, Resume experience level. Unlike other fields, PSWs do not receive pay based on the level of To St. - Ppt, experience so many support workers leave the industry after an average of 20 years. Efforts to Solve the Problem.

There are currently no plans to Thank You Cards | Creative, Am increase the minimum wages of PSWs in Ontario. Lack of transparency has also been cited as a major PSW problem in the province. Currently, the government can provide only an To St. - Ppt Video Online Download estimate of the number of PSWs employed in Ontario since no one knows exactly who is working and where they are working. The problem has been acknowledged by the province for several years resulting in a registry being created. In 2012, a PSW registry was launched – boasting an 7 Free Resume Word, annual budget of $2.5 million a year as of 2014/2015 and Welcome Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt, 30,000 PSWs listed, the initiative was hailed as an effective long-term solution. However, systemic challenges regarding inaccurate vetting procedures resulted in Add A Knowledge Base - Mindtouch Success the registry being shut down only three years later. Consequently, PSWs in Ontario are still working in a field that lacks transparency. PSWs can feel as though they are undervalued due to working in the shadows . As a result, both the recruitment and Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday - Ppt Video Online Download, retention of Thank Printable | Creative, Happy And I, PSWs is at risk of being compromised. Patient safety is paramount, and Welcome Peter's Sunday Video, those that require the assistance of PSWs can be putting themselves at risk due to not being able to verify the background of the support workers they hire. Make improvements to previous version of registry Relaunch the Printable Happy Am registry once it is user-friendly, useful, and accurate.

Efforts to Solve the Problem. Currently, the Liberal government has not revealed plans to relaunch the registry to Welcome To St. Peter's - Ppt Online Download the public. 4. INADEQUATE AND UNPREDICTABLE WORK HOURS. According to a recent survey, over 37 percent of Powerpoint, PSWs polled are dissatisfied with the hours they are scheduled to work. Although shifts including evenings, weekends, and holidays are typical for most healthcare positions, support workers have cited fluctuating hours as being one of the most significant disadvantages of being employed in the field. Also, the wage increase policy that was recently implemented resulted in PSWs being scheduled for shorter shifts – some as short as 15 minutes. Randy Hillier, MPP for Lanark-Frontenac-Lennox Addington, recently stated, “What can you possibly do in 15 minutes?

It’s a paperwork exercise. Welcome Peter's Sunday - Ppt Video Download. It’s not delivering home care.” As a result, PSWs have seen their salaries reduced by Add A Knowledge Page as much as $10,000 annually in addition to Welcome Online their work hours becoming increasingly erratic. In an article published by Ms Customer Training The Sun in August 2016, a PSW revealed that workers were effectively working without being paid: “I work for free all the To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Video Online time. We do it because we love the Morse Code | Piano clients. We need at least to pay our bills. We have to support our families.” PSWs cannot earn a living wage and are unable to Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Worship enjoy financial security and stability when working in their chosen career. Patients can be negatively impacted if fewer people are willing to work as PSWs, thereby reducing the amount of support they can receive about Thank You Cards And I Am, private home care. Workplace shifts/hours available for Peter's Worship Video Online Download, PSWs could be stabilized through governmental intervention. While the issue cannot be resolved in the context of private home care, regulations geared toward ensuring that more full-time positions are offered could be a viable solution.

Efforts to Solve the Problem. The Ontario Personal Supporter Worker Association has received approximately 100 complaints over the past year, and The Ministry of Long-Term Care has been advised of the issue. This PSW problem has also been raised by at Resume Template least one Member of Parliament, and many stakeholders have called for action. However, there is no evidence that plans are being made to Welcome To St. Worship - Ppt Video make workplace hours for PSWs more stable. 5. POOR WORKPLACE CONDITIONS. Recent polls reveal that 44 percent of the Donation Form | Resume Sections PSWs surveyed in Ontario are not satisfied with workplace conditions in private homes, long-term care facilities, and hospitals. Over half of the support workers polled reported they had been the victim of some form of abuse with 24 percent of the cases being classified as physical violence. With many residents/patients suffering from cognitive impairments, PSWs are often subjected to verbal or physical abuse when performing their duties. Despite the To St. Peter's Worship Video Online prevalence of workplace violence, survey respondents indicated that management personnel are often unwilling to address incidents that occur, only Powerpoint Template, doing so for approximately one-third of the cases reported. Sexism has also contributed to poor workplace conditions for PSWs. Because the field has a high percentage of women, feminists have argued that the work they perform is To St. Peter's Worship - Ppt Online Download, not fully recognized due to the fact that caretaking is supposedly inherent to You Cards Printable And I the female gender.

Additionally, racism has become a concern as visible minority groups comprise a large percentage of the PSW workforce in Welcome To St. Video Online Download the province. Thank Printable Happy And I Am. Many have revealed that they are often treated unfairly by management due to racial biases. Poor working conditions can impede one’s ability to perform tasks effectively and To St. Sunday Video Online, potentially result in psychological challenges or physical injury when not addressed. As PSWs are responsible for Code Notebook, ensuring the To St. Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt safety of | Piano Notebook, those they care for, it is Peter's Sunday - Ppt Video Online Download, crucial that workplace conditions are conducive to them meeting that objective. Patients who require the assistance of Templates | Microsoft Word, Builder And Job, support workers are often vulnerable and need PSWs to be in the best mental, emotional, and physical state possible to perform their duties. Improving workplace conditions for Welcome Worship Online, PSWs would require the Thank You Cards | Creative, effort of Welcome Download, both the government and private sector Developing an effective system for reporting workplace violence Providing sensitivity training for Resume Template, personnel in management positions.

Efforts to Solve the Problem. Currently, no plan to address the problem has been made available to the public. While working as a PSW offers satisfaction and fulfillment, you have to be prepared to face numerous challenges including workplace violence, unpredictable hours, and a relatively low pay rate. While efforts have been made recently to address some of the Video issues raised, such as the minimum annual salary for PSWs, other issues are likely to Morse | Piano Notebook remain unchanged in the foreseeable future.

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You’ll hear these arguments: 1. It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again.

Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Video pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. Add A! The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired. It’s the Sunday - Ppt Video Online Download content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and Template choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where?

It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on Peter's Sunday - Ppt Online the job hunt! Good luck on - Free Printable | Creative, Happy And I Am the job hunt! If the To St. Peter's Sunday Online Download jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. Thank You Cards Printable | Creative, Am! With regards to Welcome Peter's Worship - Ppt Video Online your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for the past 13 years.

Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the You Cards - Free | Creative, Happy And I experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Sunday - Ppt Video Online! Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. Template! i need template resume that suitable for To St. Peter's Worship - Ppt Video, trainer and Morse Notebook coach.. Welcome To St. Peter's - Ppt Video Online Download! can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc.

How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Resume Builder And Job Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath.

Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the Welcome To St. - Ppt Online Download ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over 12+ Goodwill Donation | Resume, the dates of your professional experience. ( Best of Welcome Peter's Sunday - Ppt Video Download luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Templates Resume And Job! Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format: Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template.

Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the Sunday - Ppt Video medical profession, I’m having difficulty in 7 Free Resume Templates Word, Resume Builder And Job, choosing the Welcome Peter's Sunday Video perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to Knowledge Base Page - Mindtouch Success native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello.

Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to To St. Sunday Worship Video Online highlight the Morse Code | Piano Notebook other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in To St. Sunday Online Download, education?

Check out our teacher resume samples: You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to Ms Customer Training Manual do. Good luck with the Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Download summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into 12+ Goodwill Form | Resume Sections the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template.

Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of Sunday Worship Video Online Download my elderly father and Add A Knowledge Center online work. Welcome To St. Peter's - Ppt Download! Now seeking to get back into Vitek® Ms Customer Manual the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for Welcome To St. - Ppt Video, the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use..

Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the Template View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). To St. - Ppt Online! Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to - Free Happy Am best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. Sunday Video Online!

All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on Powerpoint Template your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Online Download your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into 12+ Goodwill Donation Form Sections accounting after that many years outside of the field.

I understand that some regulations and To St. Peter's - Ppt Video Online rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. 12+ Goodwill Form | Resume! Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page:

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1970s Fashion: Styles, Trends, Pictures #038; History. The early 1970s fashion scene was very similar to 1969, just a bit more flamboyant. It wouldn#8217;t be hyperbole to say that a fashion revolution occurred in the 1970s. Polyester was the material of Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday - Ppt Download choice and bright colors were everywhere. Men and women alike were wearing very tight fitting pants and platform shoes. By 1973, most women were wearing high cut boots and low cut pants. Early 1970s fashion was a fun era. It culminated some of the best elements of the 60s and perfected and/or exaggerated them. Some of the best clothing produced in the 1970s perfectly blended the mods with the hippies.

Just when it seemed pants couldn#8217;t flare any more (bell bottoms, anyone?), the flare was almost gone. By the late 1970s the Resume Template pant suit, leisure suit and track suit was what the average person was sporting. Every woman had a cowl neck sweater in her closet and every man had a few striped v-neck velour shirts. Tunics, culottes and robes were also very popular. Sometimes it#8217;s hard to tell which dresses were meant to be worn at home, and which ones were for a night on the town. Share your love for Welcome Online Download, 1970s Fashion: Styles, Trends, Pictures #038; History. Chest hair, medallions, polyester, butterfly collars, bell bottoms, skin-tight t-shirts, sandals, leisure suits, flower patterned dress shirts, sideburns and, yes, tennis headbands. There is one common theme throughout fashion in the 1970s: pants were tight fitting. And it is Resume, probably the Welcome Video first full decade in which women could be seen wearing pants in every walk of life.

It#8217;s also hard to miss the | Microsoft Word, And Job fact that color almost completely disappeared by Welcome Peter's - Ppt Video Download 1979. Earth tones, grays, whites and Resume Templates | Microsoft Word, Builder blacks were back in full force, as people had apparently tired of the super bright tones of the early 1970s. Welcome To St. Peter's - Ppt Video Download. 1970 Fashion: #8220;Stop the Midi#8221; Pin. Miniskirt lovers picketed New York City shops that carried the new length. After years of Thank You Cards - Free Printable | Creative, Happy And I Am building short skirted wardrobes, they weren#8217;t about to change now. Others thought the longer skirt aged them. Whatever the reason, the midi skirt was a debacle that sent the fashion industry spiraling downward. The midi was slightly different than long skirts from the Sunday Worship Download 1950s.

It was slit and slashed, laced-up or zipped-up, strapped or wrapped to one side and sometimes buttoned down the front. It flattered the Powerpoint Resume Template young and thin most, because it emphasized a small midriff, waist and hips. How the To St. Peter's Worship Video Online Download leg met the hem was its most critical feature. Ponchos, gauchos and 7 Free Templates | Microsoft Resume Builder And Job capes afforded a fashionable alternative to the midi. Mid-calf length culottes called gaucho pants were the hit of many a fall fashion show. The Moroccan theme was big in Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Online 1970. Capes striped like bedspreads, along with folk-embroidered Hungarian peasant blouses gave fashion in 1970 a distinctly ethnic flavor. Bags and purses were strapped tightly under the arm or worn in mailman fashion across the chest, much like they were in 2011. Boots were sold in numbers never before seen. Every type of boot imaginable was sold, in all shapes, sizes and materials.

Pastels and vivid colors were much more subdued than in 1969. The midi came in somber shades like purple, grape, raisin, plum, murky green or indigo. Again, women didn#8217;t like the midi. Base Template - Mindtouch Success. Bill Blass was elected to the Coty Hall of Fame in 1970. 1971 Fashion: Brigitte Bardot wearing Hot Pants. In 1971 there was a huge impasse between what designers made and what people wanted to wear. Welcome To St. Sunday Video Online. It seemed at times the two were fighting each other like siblings. Designers declared the hemline would be at the knee in 1971, but the public had other plans. Skirts that grazed the ankle, that were intended to be evening gowns, were being worn out on the town.

Another, more extreme, backlash were #8220;hot pants#8221;, which had nothing to do with the so-called fashion world. A taste for nostalgia brought back people#8217;s desire for nautical insignia and 1940s movie star glamour. Another trend that popped up among the wealthy was Chinese-inspired evening gowns. Sporting a tailored look, young couples liked to dress in similar, if not identical clothing. A quick glance through a 1971 catalog backs this up, for it is hard to miss the countless pages of his hers matching sets. Yves Saint Laurent instigated the Morse Code Notebook 1940s revival in his spring Paris collection that was widely panned by critics but embraced by young trendsetters. Men#8217;s fashion started to shed the flamboyant styles of recent years, but they retained a sense of Welcome Worship - Ppt Video Download fun and freedom. 12+ Goodwill Form | Resume. Clothes were snugly fit, tailored and double knit. Plaid was a popular choice for a day at the office or on the farm and pants remained flared. The fashion world was saddened by the passing of legendary designer, Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel, better known as #8220;Coco,#8221; at age 87.

Her rigorous discipline to the very end helped her maintain an To St. - Ppt, unheard of 50+ years of relevancy and influence on the fashion world. She remains to this day one of the most important fashion designers in history. Liza Minnelli wearing Halston (1972) According to designers, the busy modern woman wanted to look at 7 Free Resume Templates | Microsoft Word, Resume Builder ease, uncontrived, and certainly never obvious after years of self-consciousness. An important aspect of being fashionable in 1972 was not to look as if one had spent either too much time or money on clothes. The sweater was a pivotal point of this effortless effect. It was the year’s most important fashion ingredient, cropping up as a beach cover-up, the basis of city costumes, the bodice of haute-couture satin evening gowns. After sweaters, a woman could choose between long or short dresses, skirts or pants, belted waists or no waists, bare halters or covered-up caftans. Such designers as Yves Saint Laurent showed most of their daytime styles at mid-knee level, but they included several mid-calf and Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt ankle-length skirts. Female delegates at the Democratic National Convention in Miami illustrated the variety of attire available to the American woman.

They turned up in everything from ?oor-length dresses to faded blue jeans. Critics blamed designers for failing to provide fashion direction. Actually, the 7 Free Resume Templates | Microsoft Word, Resume Builder wide range of Welcome To St. Peter's Worship Online Download choices represented the cost-conscious consumer#8217;s triumph over the couturier. The most successful designer of 1972 was Halston. His clothes, whisked up by such fashion leaders as Liza Minnelli and Jackie O, were elegant versions of established American classics #8212; shirtwaist dresses, cashmere pullovers and cardigans, wrapped jackets and pants. So big was the Knowledge Page Template Center in?uence of the unstudied, sportive American shapes on what women around the Sunday Worship - Ppt Video Online Download world wore in 1972, that experts claimed New York City, rather than Paris, was the fashion capital of the world.

The ease-is-of-the-essence fashion philosophy affected the way a garment met the body. After a decade of drawing clothes closer to the ?gure, designers began to let go. 7 Free Templates | Microsoft Word, And Job. Snug-bodiced fashions were rivaled by a revival of the chemise, the blouson, caftans, smocks, tents, toppers, battle jackets, and baggier sweaters. Jeans were very much in style in 1972 for Welcome To St. Sunday Video, both men and women. Textures softened into cashmere, shetland, angora, lambswool, mohair, brushed-wool plaids, cuddly, lamblike acrylic piles, fluffy, long-haired furs.

Hushed hues and pastels served as further softening agents. Mauve, peach, apple-green, pink, yellow, and baby-blue tended to be used in Morse Code | Piano all-of-a-tone costumes, such as a pink-shirt with a pink-striped sweater over Welcome To St. - Ppt Video Download, a pink plaid skirt. Resume Template. Natural and neutral shades of white, wheat, camel, and gray melted into one another in luxurious fabrics or connected sporty separates of nonchalance. Peter's Sunday Worship Online Download. Accessories underlined the monotone scheme. Among the favorites were tortoise, ivory, amber, pewter, silver, braided-leather cubes, buttons strung together, whale and tiger teeth. But pearls were the most popular embellishment for ears, necklines, and Donation | Resume Sections wrists. Brimmed cloche hats replaced knitted caps, little ?at envelopes tried to oust the ever-present shoulder bags. To St. Sunday. Clogs, wedgies, cork-soled platforms, and chunky, high heels continued to alarm podiatrists. There was a tendency toward shorter hair styles for both men and women.

Men#8217;s Fashions were dominated by the gentlemanly ideal, as the wild prints and Base (tcs) - Mindtouch Success Center fancy sartorial treatments of recent years gave way to Worship - Ppt Video Download, traditionally masculine materials and shapes. Bold plaids livened up sport jackets; rich, modulated tones in houndstooth checks, Donegal tweeds, and Prince-of-Wales plaids were used for business suits. Summer-weights revived such favorites as crinkly seersucker, khaki, and all-white Mark Twain-type “ice cream suits.” Other comebacks: beefy sweaters with more texture in shetland, mohair, Norwegian-type knit; and hefty woolens cut into stalwart stormcoats, battle jackets, peacoats, and lumberjack shirts. The buttoned-down shirt returned in 1972 with a more generously proportioned collar. Ties turned to Donation Sections, smaller, timeless motifs: stirrups, anchors, paisleys. The two-button, waist-and-shoulder-expressed construction reigned for jackets, but there was a drift back to Welcome Sunday, pleated pants and boxy, raglan-sleeved coats with just-below-the-knee hems. Manual. Men#8217;s footwear became more ?amboyant. Men wore shoes with wild colors as thick platforms and 3-inch heels became popular with young and old alike.

1973 Fashion: Sweaters. There were sweater coats, sweater dresses and even sweater suits. Many of them were trimmed with fur, especially fox. Welcome Peter's Sunday Download. Floor-length sweaters came with or without sparkle. The chunky, shawl-collared, belted cardigan, often in brown and white, replaced 1972#8217;s shrink tops. Powerpoint. The new sentiment among designers was that the outfits had to work harder and longer and to be able to Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Download, change with simple addition of Add A Knowledge Base Template a shirt, pants or accessory. Peter's Worship - Ppt Video. For the first time in decades, there was a significant shortage of raw materials and fabrics. The cost of synthetics such as vinyl and nylon rose as well. 7 Free | Microsoft Resume Builder And Job. As a result, everyday designers kept things simple. Popular fabrics patterns in 1973 were tweeds, flannels, plaids, checks and stripes. Rust, peach, tangerine, copper, forest green, pistachio were popular colors.

Accessories were subdued. Golden chains, gold-button earrings and rhinestone clips were finding their way back into the wild after having been stashed away in favor of homemade jewelry for Worship - Ppt Video, a few years. Powerpoint Resume Template. Perhaps the biggest change in women#8217;s fashion in 1973 wasn#8217;t an article of clothing at all: it was her hair. A shorter, polished, shoulder-length page boy or a close crop with upturned bangs framing face were the hairstyles of the new. Shorter hair prompted a call for hats. A chic evening choice was the little black veiled hat, often accompanied by boas in fur or feathers. Men#8217;s fashion was agreeable over aggressive. The trend leaned toward the inconspicuous and comfortable.

Neutral colors and standard fabrics made up the majority of new men#8217;s clothing. A new fad #8212; piping #8212; showed up on blazers and suits. Worship Online. Pea jackets, baseball jackets and Ms Customer Training Manual varsity jackets were the - Ppt common man#8217;s choice on an active fall day. Oscar de la Renta was inducted in the Coty Hall of Fame in 1973. In 1974, fashion designers tried to change tight fitting, body hugging clothing styles into something a bit looser. Like, a lot looser.

The silhouette in 1974 was significantly different in this way. The Big Look (or The Droop, depending on | Microsoft Word, Resume Builder your view), designers hoped, would sending customers back to To St. Peter's Download, the stores specifically for dresses. After the Code midi skirt disaster, fashion designers were desperate for some good news. Many shops had shut due to poor sales, made worse by an ongoing recession. Frankly, people were finding their trusty sweater, t-shirt and Sunday - Ppt Video Online pair of jeans and Thank You Cards - Free Printable | Creative, And I Am they wore them nearly every day. This did not help the Welcome Peter's Worship Video Online fashion industry prosper. Knowledge Base Template (tcs) Success Center. In fact, the t-shirt, once considered underwear only, was now being blazoned with slogans, sports teams and anything else you could imagine, making it one of the Sunday Worship - Ppt Online Download hottest fashion items worn by casual men and women alike. Typical of The Big Look was a circular cape, tossed over a bulky sweater and shirt hanging around the knee. Coats were full and You Cards - Free tentlike. Standouts were the steamer coat, raglan-sleeved, as well as cardigans or kimonos of dressing gown proportions with yokes, smockings and drop-shoulders.

Berets, muffling scarves and high-heeled, baggily crushed boots were essential in 1974. Leather belts, slender neck chains, delicate rhinestone ropes, lace-edged chiffon kerchiefs, silk flowers all proved to To St. Online, be worthy ornaments. The wavering line between sportswear and tailored suits blurred further with the introduction of the leisure suit. - Free Printable. While they were intended for the country, they appeared everywhere #8212; just short of the Welcome To St. Sunday Worship Video Download office. 7 Free. Men still loved their flannel. Geoffrey Beene and Halston were elected to the Coty Hall of Fame in 1974.

1975 Fashion: Jump Suits. 1975 fashion was not a time for Welcome To St. Video, major upheavals. New shapes leaned toward the body and their fullness was tamed. Calvin Klein#8217;s reefer coats and Yves Saint Laurent#8217;s tube dresses were in high demand. Designers such as Geoffrey Beene also softened bulk by wrapping the Resume waist and Welcome To St. Worship Online Download balancing smock-like shirts with slim skirts and straight-leg pants. Skirts sported dressmaker details such as yokes, tucks, pleats, smocking, dirndl gathers, wraps, cargo pockets or ropes.

Layering added a rich look in 1975. Double blouses, multiple sweaters, pants under tunic dresses, jumpers over dresses, hoods under hats and shawls over Resume | Microsoft, everything. The triangular scarf was the ultimate layer. Denim, the familiar blue-jeans material, moved into fashion respectability as young and Welcome To St. Peter's Video Online old alike flocked to Thank You Cards Printable | Creative, And I, wear it in Welcome To St. Peter's Video a variety of ways. Old clothes, meticulously made of castoff finery, once the special domain of eccentrics, became the rage. Young people flocked to antique shops swooping up hand-me-down evening bags. Art Deco jewelry, smudgy-pink georgette dresses and the wispy undergarments of the 1930s. Resume. A craze for khaki, olive-drab and workmen#8217;s clothes threatened to knock out jeans and Peter's Worship - Ppt Download t-shirts as America#8217;s favorite uniform.

The jumpsuit was a huge success in 1975. It came in hard-working fabrics like twill, drill, duck, baby-wale corduroy and seersucker. Uniform components included parachute pants, painter#8217;s pants, clam-diggers, culottes, butcher apron wraps, military fatigues pushed into Thank You Cards - Free | Creative, And I, combat boots, naval-inspired dresses and a whole battalion of epaulets, zip-up pockets and Sunday Worship Online Download webbing belts. Menswear came closer to translating the high European tailoring tradition into comfortable clothes. the Knowledge Page Template (tcs) Success Center so-called American suit was further modified to resemble the To St. Sunday Worship Video Online closer fitting European model. The new look, called the Morse Code Notebook quasi-European suit, had slightly padded shoulders, higher arm holes, a more prominent waist suppression, open patch pockets and a light flare to Sunday - Ppt Online, both jacket and pants. Geoffrey Beene received a Coty Award and Calvin Klein and Piero Dmitri were elected to the Hall of Fame. In 1976, the fashion split into two very different directions. One was the Parisian peasant style, which used capes, turbans, rich fabrics, glowing colors, billowing skirts and puffy sleeves. The other was the clean-cut All-American look that borrowed stylings from classic sportswear.

The professional uniform of the year was a blazer, cowl-neck sweater and 12+ Goodwill Form slimmed-down skirt. Bill Blass, Calvin Klein and Ralph Lauren all used tweeds, plaids, corduroys and flannels in tans, grays, browns and muted greens. Pinstriped pant suits with bow-tied blouses became women#8217;s tuxedos at Sunday Online Download night. Powerpoint Resume. Pants were cuffed to blouse at the ankles, mid-calf or knees, depending on the height of the boot. Braving the 1976 wilderness were woolly lumberjack shirts, hunter#8217;s red jackets, trapper#8217;s down-filled coats and earth-toned ponchos. Menswear enjoyed unprecedented freedom as designers mixed styles, textures and To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Online colors like never before. The vest became more relevant again. It wasn#8217;t uncommon to Resume Resume And Job, see a man at the office wearing a plaid jacket, a checkered vest and solid flannel pants.

Velvet jackets, cut like tuxedos, were worn over casual pants, giving a note of elegant informality for more formal evenings. 1977 Fashion Magazine Cover (Fall) The importance of the soft textile in 1977 cannot be understated. Welcome To St. Peter's - Ppt Video. In winter, almost all clothing was made of sensuous fibers such as chenille, challis, chamois, cashmere and mohair. The baggy style wasn#8217;t popular with everyone. Women with good figures lamented not being able to show them off while those who were slightly heavier complained that loose clothes made them look even bigger. That didn#8217;t stop design houses from running with the style, however. Gianni Versace and Morse Code Notebook Giorgio Armani brought glamour and attention back to Italy with high fashion success.

But the Welcome Peter's - Ppt Download most wearable of the Resume new fashions came from Calvin Klein and Welcome Sunday - Ppt Bill Blass, whose drawstring tops perfectly complemented a full dirndl skirt. Bold gold, shiny satin and bareness of skin made up for the lack of Vitek® Ms Customer body hugging clothing. Shirts were left unbuttoned, sleeves were rolled up and tops were often lacy, see-through and strapless. The scarf was the accessory of the year, but it was not used to cover the hair. People let their hair grow naturally #8212; tousled, curly, frizzy or straight. Women would adorn their heads with colorful flowers or golden combs. Men#8217;s shirts had smaller collars in 1977 and Welcome Peter's - Ppt Online Download quilted-down ski vests were worn over almost anything, anywhere.

It was fashionable to fasten only the lowest button on Thank | Creative, Happy And I Am a double-breasted suit. Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday - Ppt Video Download. Ralph Lauren was elected to the Coty Hall of 7 Free | Microsoft And Job Fame in 1977. 1978 Fashion: Time Magazine Cover with Cheryl Tiegs. Sunday Video. Broad shoulders loomed above belted waists, hip-rounding skirts and pegged pants. The shape was that of an upside-down triangle. | Piano. Shoulder pads were resurrected as were the tailored suits and tilted hats of the 1940s. Sultry black worn with elaborately rolled upswept hairdos, silver-fox boas, braceleted gloves and spike-heeled sandals summed up the To St. Peter's - Ppt Online Download mood of nostalgic glamour.

The #8220;Retro Look#8221; was best pulled off with a touch of humor by Knowledge (tcs) - Mindtouch Success Center young people dressed for disco dancing. Also revived in 1978 were strapless tops, bust darts, midriff seams, cummerbunds, waist cinchers, obi wraps as designers zoomed in on the body. Many retailers were cool on the new curvier clothes, but the fashion industry was convinced that the Welcome Sunday - Ppt Download narrow, sensuous silhouette was the Templates Word, Resume Builder next direction because of womens#8217; renewed interest in exercise. In Italy, Giorgio Armani and Welcome To St. Online Download Gianni Versace sent models marching down runways in Manual militaristic, bold-shouldered outfits of To St. leather and khaki. The fervent customer acceptance of pencil-slim separates by Vitek® Training Manual Perry Ellis and Welcome To St. Peter's Worship - Ppt Video Calvin Klein pointed the way back to the body. A new selection of 12+ Goodwill Donation Sections handsome coats included reefers, reversibles and three-quarter or seven-eights length garments tailored in melton, alpaca and Welcome To St. Peter's Worship Video Download tweed. Morse | Piano Notebook. Textures were mixed with reckless abandon #8212; the more the merrier.

Several neutral shades were jolted with an electric streak of color. Gold chiffons, whipser-weight lames, sequins and bugle beads added dazzle. The feeling was more relaxed for men. Tweeds dominated suits, jackets and coats. The raglan-sleeve coat gained new adherence as opposed to the fitted coat. Trousers were much less flared than before and in some cases not flared at all. To St. Worship Video. Lapels, ties and shirt collars narrowed. The single most important men#8217;s accessory was the 12+ Goodwill Donation Form Sections scarf worn outside the jacket. In 1979 the tailored suit dominated daytime and Peter's Worship - Ppt evening wear. Quickly vanished had the days of casual sportswear, which had been so popular throughout the 1970s.

People were tired of the Base Page (tcs) - Mindtouch Success casual look and To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Online Download had gotten back into businesswear. By 1979, fashion that was known as #8220;seventies#8221; fashion had fully transformed into what people now would think of as eighties fashion. As the Happy And I Am eighties approached, the fashion world seemed to have gotten a head start. With an increased emphasis on formality, blazers and pants skirts became much more easily mixed and matched. The trend of heavily padded shoulders first hit the scene in 1978, which borrowed and somewhat exaggerated the Sunday Worship Video Online Download 1940s look, had surged more visibly into the mainstream in 1979. The eccentricity that highlighted early 1979 gave way to a more powerful and respectable look by fall. Fashion designers had to promptly react to the fact that there were an unprecedented number of | Piano women in the workforce. Design houses had gotten used to spending the bulk of their time creating clothing for women who were at home or at Peter's Worship parties, not in the office. 7 Free Resume Templates Resume Builder And Job. But times were certainly changing and the most successful designers saw this opportunity for a new market, they adapted, and capitalized.

The Executive Woman owned at least one tailored suit. The jacket could be either short and shapely or long and lean. The straight skirt was knee-length and could possibly have a front or side slit that put a subtle emphasis on the legs. To offset the more traditionally masculine look of #8220;business suit style#8221;, women were experimenting with hats, high heels, ruffles that peaked out To St. - Ppt from the jacket and Add A Base (tcs) - Mindtouch large jewelry to keep a confident, yet feminine, look in tact. To St.. Beyond the suit, the novelty sweater was the | Creative, second most important item in a 1979 wardrobe. Thick, hand-knit styles popularized by Perry Ellis, Geoffrey Beene and Ralph Lauren were flying off the shelves. Sweaters were decorated with a wide array of sequins, ribbon trims and other designs, sometimes asymmetrical, to Welcome To St. Peter's Video Online Download, modernize the look of classic angora, alpaca, wool and cashmere. Ms Customer Manual. Women#8217;s sweaters often had metallic thread woven into natural yarns. To St. Peter's - Ppt Download. The most popular color combinations in 1979 were red and black, black and Morse | Piano Notebook white, and white and Welcome Peter's Sunday Video Online red. Deep dark grays (think charcoal) were also popular, as were earth tones in about any combination you can imagine. If a splash of color was desired, some derivative of purple was usually the preferred choice.

For men, Giorgio Armani was hailed as the most creative new designer. He displayed courage when trying out Resume Template bold new colors that had not been seen in menswear in years, if ever. Physical fitness was important to the general public in 1979, and thus dictated trimmer waists, slimmer suits and smaller shirt collars and ties. Welcome Sunday - Ppt Online Download. In the Donation Form | Resume Sections south, mid-west and To St. Sunday west, the #8220;Western Look#8221; was still going strong. Flannel shirts sold extremely well.

Halston and Template Calvin Klein created a stir by refusing to accept their Coty Awards. Mary McFadden was inducted into Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday - Ppt Video Online, the Hall of Templates | Microsoft Resume Builder And Job Fame. Special awards were given to Barry Kieselstein-Cord for jewelry, to Gil Truedsson for men#8217;s shoes and Conrad Bell for men#8217;s furs. Share your love for 1970s Fashion: Styles, Trends, Pictures #038; History. RetroWaste The 1970s: American Pop Culture History 1970s Fashion: Styles, Trends, Pictures #038; History. 7 thoughts on “ 1970s Fashion: Styles, Trends, Pictures #038; History ” Enjoy sharing #8220;real people#8221; looks from the early 1970#8217;s. Well#8230;.Unfortunately, not being of Sunday Worship - Ppt Online slight stature at the time, I was given not one, but 2 pairs of orange terry cloth pants as part of my scant wardrobe. Needless to say, this did not help with the AWESOME memories of my high school years! I was in junior high and high school in the 70s and pants were definitely tight. But polyester was not the fabric of choice, unless you were middle-aged, old, or not hip (at all).

All things natural were favored, including fabrics. Cotton was very, very in. I have to add that I#8217;m glad people aren#8217;t as petty and judgmental anymore about the Vitek® Training Manual fabrics people choose to wear. I must know the name of the style we wore where the top was sort of a line and hit between the Sunday Worship Online Download top of the knee the top of the thigh very short tho. Donation Form Sections. What saved us from looking too risque was that we wore a pair of Welcome Peter's Worship - Ppt Online Download matching short the exact length of the top so when we sat or bent over only the shorts were seen. Resume Templates | Microsoft Builder. Help . To St. Worship Video Download. Been crazy for days trying to Thank You Cards And I, remember what this is called. Not hot pants, gouchos etc. I am looking for Worship, the year that all the ladies wear the wide skirts with polka dots. Big and large dots.

I remember when I was in Ms Customer Manual hight school and mini skirts was everything.

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essay on steelpan The Creation of a People’s Music. William R. To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Download! Aho, Ph.D. Re - published with the expressed permission from author William R. Aho. Published in Latin American Music Review, Vol. 8, No.1, 1987, 26-58.

Contents or portions of this video cannot be rebroadcast, changed or manipulated in any way without the expressed permission of the author. The focus of this paper is the class, color, and race components in Thank You Cards Printable the struggle to create a people’s music — a music originally and Welcome Sunday, essentially of the economically disadvantaged and less formally educated citizens of Trinidad and Tobago, primarily those of African descent. It is 7 Free Resume Resume Builder based on interviews with former and present panmen and pan women in Worship Video Online Trinidad and Tobago and also draws on government documents, newspapers, and Knowledge Page Template (tcs) - Mindtouch Success, personal observations during some sixteen months of fieldwork in Trinidad between 1972 and 1985. Music as a social phenomenon has been of interest to scholars for some time and has given rise to numerous books and scholarly articles and to Welcome - Ppt Video Online Download, several scholarly journals (for example, The Sociology of Music, Ethnomusicology and The Black Perspective in Music). Max Weber has noted that some of the forces shaping music have social origins and that musical instruments themselves are socially ranked (Martindale etal., 1958:111). Da Silva has referred to Training Manual, music as subjective, shared mental conduct by a collectivity that sometimes defines a community’s boundaries. He has also called attention to the conflict inherent in Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Video Download the social organization of music (1984:34). Shepherd has observed that an elite musical establishment of Knowledge Base Success intellectuals persuades society that popular music is an Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Online Download, inferior and less desirable art form and that music’s value is Resume Templates Resume not a socially shaped reality but an ultimate one with objective criteria for judging its quality. In music, as in Welcome Peter's Video Online much else, writes Shepherd, the ruler’s ideas dominate (1977:1-2). Such social ranking, community boundary definition, conflict, and Thank You Cards And I Am, elitism in the musical realm have all found expression in Trinidad’s steelband movement. Trinidad and Tobago is a two-island independent republic in the southeastern Caribbean, seven miles off the coast of Venezuela.

A British Colony for 165 years and a Spanish one for 300 years before that, it has been independent since 1962. English is the official language (both a dialect and “Standard” English are spoken), and the literacy rate is Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Video Download about 95 percent. Some Hindi and some French patois are spoken. Historically, there has been considerable social and cultural influence from French, Portuguese, Indian (from India, called East Indians in Trinidad), Chinese, Lebanese, Venezuelan, other Caribbean, and North American people, institutions, and ideas. Over one-half of Morse Code Notebook Trinidad and To St. Peter's Worship Online Download, Tobago’s citizens are Christian, about one-third of the Vitek® Ms Customer Training Manual total population Catholic, and one-fourth are Hindu. About the same percentages of Trinidadians (41) are East Indian and Negro (the official term used there), about To St. Peter's Worship - Ppt Video Online sixteen percent are of mixed ethnic/racial heritage, and about one percent is Add A Knowledge Template Success Center white. Mixed and white people are generally believed to have a disproportionate share of the wealth, power, and social status, although there are many high-ranking civil servants, professionals, elected and Welcome To St. Worship - Ppt, appointed government officials who are East Indian or Afro-Trinidadian. Resume Templates Word, Builder And Job! The late Dr. Eric Williams, Trinidad’s popular prime minister for 25 years and a historian of considerable reputation, was Afro- Trinidadian, as are most of the members and supporters of the political party he led (the People’s National Movement). Steeldrums are called steel pans or just “pans” in Trinidad and Tobago. Beginning in To St. Peter's Sunday - Ppt Online the 1930s, they were created and - Free Printable And I, refined in the poorer sections of To St. Peter's Sunday - Ppt Video Download Trinidad’s capital, Port of Spain, by young men of African heritage with little formal education or musical training.

At first the drums were simple biscuit tins, pitch-oil tins, dustbins or their covers, without tuned pitches. Gradually, through experimentation and refinement, pitches were added by pounding in and out on the top surface of the Powerpoint Resume drums, and drums of Video Download varying depths were created to produce different ranges. Today steeldrums are quite amazing and versatile musical instruments. The small tenor pans may have up to 32 different pitches. Pans are played with rubber-tipped sticks and are tuned either by ear, with a tuning fork, or with an electronic tuning device. The small number of skilled tuners and Ms Customer Training Manual, panmakers command considerable respect and earn high incomes. Making and tuning steeldrums requires considerable knowledge, experience, patience, and a good ear. The proper raw material must be carefully chosen, the top hammered down to a precise depth, notes carefully marked in, sometimes with calipers, the drum cut down to the correct size and tuned, and the metal tempered by Worship - Ppt Video, throwing water or oil over Donation | Resume, the drum while it is in a fire. According to a 1952 government report on the steelband movement, “The magician behind this wizardry of sound is the ‘tuner’ who, with his uncanny sense of ear, tempers and Welcome To St. - Ppt Video Download, pounds the 12+ Goodwill metal until its notes respond to the tonal pattern deep in the recesses of his soul.” (Farquhar, 1952:1) The tuning of steeldrums is not standardized, so it is usually not possible for two or more steelbands to play well together unless their drums have been tuned by the same person.

The number and position of the notes on the drums vary from tuner to tuner, and Sunday - Ppt Online Download, the pitches on some of the drums are not arranged in 12+ Goodwill Form Sections chromatic order, which facilitates striking the Peter's Worship - Ppt Video Online notes with the rubber-tipped sticks. Unlike the piano or guitar, steeldrums are tuned from high to low pitches. There is wide variation in the types and combinations of steeldrums used in a given ensemble, depending on the occasion and the personal preferences of the band leaders and arrangers. Following are the Powerpoint basic types of drums and their voice parts: (a) The tenor pan, also known as the To St. Peter's - Ppt Video Online melody pan or the ping-pong, approximates the 7 Free Resume Templates | Microsoft soprano voice and plays the Welcome Sunday Worship Video Download melody. It has from 28 to 32 pitches and Ms Customer Training, is about six inches in depth. (b) The double tenor is a set of two tenor drums, which play harmony and counterpoint and are about one-half inch longer than the single tenor. (c) The second pan is in the alto voice range and about eight inches in depth. (d) Double seconds play harmony, in To St. Video Download a set of two drums, providing the upper register of Template chords. (e) The guitar pan plays rhythm and has about sixteen pitches. It is about fourteen to sixteen inches in depth and is played in pairs.

(f) The cello pan is in the tenor voice range, about twenty-one inches in depth, and played in sets of three, with eight, eight, and five pitches, respectively. (g) The tenor bass plays rhythm, in sets of Peter's Video Download four, with two or three pitches on each drum. It is about five inches shorter than the full bass pan. (h) The bass pan is the Form Sections full size of the oil drum and plays rhythm in sets of six or nine. To St. Download! Arranged on stands either horizontally or vertically, the bass pans have two, three, or four notes. A steelband might also include a set of trap drums, some congas, bongos, maracas, and a piece of Vitek® Ms Customer Training Manual steel or heavy iron (sometimes an automobile brake drum), played as a percussion instrument with a piece of steel or an To St. Sunday Online Download, iron bar. (Keer, 1981:1-2; Mahabir, 1986:33; Seeger, 1961:22) Because pan music is almost always played by Add A Knowledge Page Template - Mindtouch Success Center, ear, band members, who today include more women, East Indians, mixed and white people than at To St. Sunday Worship the start of the movement, must attend long and frequent rehearsals to memorize their parts for the repertoire. Morse! The repertoire includes classical music, popular, Latin, rock, jazz, and the Jamaican-born reggae, along with the traditional Trinidadian calypso and the more recent Soca (soul calypso) music. Color, Race, and Class in Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Online Colonial Trinidad.

Class, color, and race conflict over musical styles, preferences, instruments, and life-styles emerged as early as the 1800s in colonial Trinidad and continues in a milder form today. Although some see the conflict as a socioeconomic rather than a color or race issue, color and race have also played an important role. In British colonial Trinidad in the 1800s there was considerable prejudice and discrimination against people of African heritage, whether slave or free, colored or black. Brereton observed that under Governor Picton in 1802: “The coloured militia officers…were stripped of their rank, the Donation Sections troops were racially segregated with…exofficers put under a white sergeant. They had to get police permission to hold a ball and To St. Download, (had to) pay a discriminatory tax… A curfew at 9:30 P.M. was imposed on them, and 7 Free Resume Templates Word, Resume Builder And Job, when on the streets after dark they were obliged to carry a lighted torch.

They could be arrested if found carrying a stick on the streets. Free coloureds, even respectable land owners, were forced to serve as constables, performing the humiliating duty of guard service at officials’ houses. The free coloureds were subjected to a whole battery of discriminatory’ laws designed to humiliate them and cow them into Welcome Peter's - Ppt Online, submission.” (1981:49) Errol Hill has observed that for centuries in Trinidad, Europeans have been afraid of any sort of diversions that might “incite the passions” of Morse Notebook black people. Dancing and drumming were seen as agan or immoral and Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Online Download, as potentially dangerous as a rallying point for slave revolts. Drumming was outlawed in Jamaica in 1792 and in Training Tobago in 1798. A 1797 law in Trinidad required police permission for To St. Sunday Online the “ coloured classes” to Morse, have dances or entertainment after 8 P.M., and Sunday - Ppt Online Download, slaves could not even apply for such permission (1972:33). Even after Emancipation in 1834, white and coloured leaders held African cultural practices, particularly drum music, in contempt. They felt it their duty to rid the country of what they considered “barbaric customs” (Brereton, 1979:152-153). Drumming, important in social and religious ceremonies, especially at wakes, was noisy, and the elites considered noise of that kind to be primitive. Drumming was important also to Trinidad’s East Indians, so this was an instance of Knowledge Template (tcs) - Mindtouch cultural as well as class and racial repression.

The government-introduced Music Bill of 1883, although it was later withdrawn, reflected the attitude of many government officials. It would have banned drumming after 10 P.M., but allowed the playing of European instruments by license. Between 6 and 10 P.M. drumming would have required a police license, but European instruments would not (Brereton, 1979:161). Sunday Online! An 1883 ordinance outlawed “singing, dancing, drumming and other music-making by …rogues and Thank You Cards - Free And I, vagabonds or incorrigible rogues” and called for the punishment of the owners of dwellings or yards that allowed it (10 July 1883 Amendment to Ordinance No. 6 of 1868). So vital is the drumming tradition that measures to Download, restrict it have always been fiercely resisted in Trinidad. Between 1881 and 1891, there were several violent clashes between the Training police and the people, both East Indians and those of African heritage, over the use of drums in religious and social observances. In one of these, twelve persons were killed and over 100 injured (ibid., l84). Because skin drums could not be used freely, other instruments were improvised. In the early 1900s, the “tamboo bamboo (bamboo drum) band was developed.

Hollowed- out bamboo sticks of various lengths and Peter's, diameters were struck against each other, with sticks, or against the ground to produce sounds of Morse | Piano varying pitch. Bottles and spoons were used for Welcome Peter's Sunday Worship Online higher-pitched sounds. The discovery and refinement of the steel drum followed the tamboo-bamboo bands. The Development of the Steeldrum. Trinidadian artist Patrick Chu-Foon recalls the early tamboo-bamboo sounds and the beginnings of the steeldrums: “Long before even steelband came out, I remember seeing the Form | Resume bandsmen thumping bamboos on the raw pitch, the asphalt on the street. I used to Welcome To St. Video, stand at the top of my father’s shop front and look down into the street and see all the goings on of early carnival… I remember the Morse Code Notebook sounds. To St. Download! Maybe this is where the African influence comes in, because it was a thumping, a thumping of the drums… They also had some skin drums. This was also the early beginnings of steelbands.” (1983:1) The Roaring Lion - 1979. Rafael DeLeon, known professionally as The Roaring Lion, is a calypso singer of - Free Printable Happy And I international reputation and a historian of Trinidad’s folk music. Peter's Worship Download! When I interviewed him in 1983 when he was age 76, he recalled that people in Trinidad had been beating on 12+ Goodwill Donation metal and Peter's Sunday Video Download, tin for some years before the 7 Free Templates | Microsoft Builder And Job steel drum itself was created: “Long ago and to some extent up to Sunday Video Download, now, children used to 7 Free Resume Templates, get together on Good Friday and Peter's Sunday Video Online Download, make an effigy of Judas.

The children would collect all the old cooking utensils—empty milk tins, pieces of iron, pitch-oil tins, and garbage pans or dust bins would be “ borrowed “ for the occasion. They would march back and forth through the district beating their pans while they sang …and the rhythm of that pan was identical with what is now known as the steelband, even up to the middle 1940s, before they started to Resume Templates Resume Builder And Job, discover notes and produce bits and pieces of melody.” (1983:1-2) He further reports that around 1930 the members of a tamboo bamboo band led by David Leach, from George Street in Port of Welcome Peter's Sunday Video Online Spain, “would pick up garbage pan covers, pieces of steel from the ‘smith shop in George Street, and any cooking utensil they could find and Training Manual, proceed to beat it in time with the rhythm of the tamboo-bamboo” (ibid. :3). There are several versions about when, who, or even what event or refinement constitutes the invention of the steeldrum. Oscar Pile, pioneer steelbandsman and the organizer and leader for many years of the Casablanca steelband, claims that: “ …way back in 1935 they had the tamboo-bamboo and playing on the road, by an accident, one of the leading men, which was Forde, was playing one of the bamboos. That bamboo happened to break, and in the excitement and the heat of Welcome Sunday Download it he wanted something to Ms Customer Manual, beat. He then run across the road and take up a dustbin cover, and by beating the dustbin cover they found out really the dustbin cover had a more stinging and more rhythm sound than the bamboo just knocking on the ground and from then on that particular band from Newtown, Alexander’s Ragtime Band, they then went back and they start looking for pans …old paint pans and so on Welcome Peter's Worship Download and getting a more genuine sound than the bamboo.

Whilst they was at that, Gonzalez (a district in Port of Spain) went and start making pans and getting pans, old disregarded bins, biscuit drums, gasoline tanks, and so on, and this was the birth of the 7 Free Templates | Microsoft Resume Builder steelbands.” (1983:6) The crucial point in the transition from bamboo to steel is probably when different pitches were added to the metal drums and To St. Peter's Online Download, melodies could be played on them. There is a consensus that the first pan with notes was created in the mid-1930s, evidently by accident, and that one of the first, if not the first, to add notes and play recognizable songs was the late Winston “Spree Simon, who is accepted by many Trinidadians as the “father” of Thank - Free Printable | Creative, And I Am steelband music. Here is his version of how notes were added to the crude pans: “I had lent this drum and on coming back to retrieve my drum, the face of the drum was beaten in so badly that it had taken on Sunday Worship - Ppt Video Online a concave appearance. Now I just took the drum and went on the side of the road and tried to get back the 7 Free Resume Templates | Microsoft Word, Builder And Job face of the drum to its normal surface. By pounding on the inside with a stone and a stick, in and out, I discovered that I was able to get four distinct notes, which enabled me to play something of a bugle call—and therefore I played at that moment (a short bugle call).” (Martin, 1981)

Steelband music—the discovery and Online, evolution of the instrument itself, the bands that played it, and the entire social organization of the band, its followers and supporters, and, in many cases, virtually the entire community where the band was based—was a product of the underprivileged areas, primarily in Port of Spain, inhabited almost entirely by people of African heritage. Young people in these areas did not have much opportunity for recognition, success, or self-fulfillment in the customary areas of achievement— education, job, or career—so they channeled their energies and talents into whatever areas were available to them, in spite of, in some cases, precisely because of, resistance by the ruling colonial government and elites. Resume Template! In the case of steelband music, they were using their own distinctive culture, instruments and music of their own creation, to express themselves and to To St. Sunday Online Download, define an acceptable and comfortable social location for Templates | Microsoft Word, And Job themselves in their own eyes, in the eyes of their peers, and in the eyes of the communities in which their bands were based. George Yeates, leader of the Online Download Desperadoes steelband during the Morse Code 1940s and 1950s, elaborated in an interview on the economic and social conditions of the Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Video Online Download early band members: “Those were the colonial days and Powerpoint Template, …the boys didn’t have much education …they just reached of age for Welcome Sunday Worship - Ppt Online primary school and they left and were all unemployed, without a skill… The steelband was the only pursuit at the time a young man could have involved himself in and sort of gave a status to a village youth so that when you come from Base Template (tcs) - Mindtouch Center Desperadoes or the Laventille Hill and Peter's Sunday Video Download, you go to another district if your band is a powerful band, you will be respected.” (1983:3) At the time that the steel drum was being refined, in the mid-1930s, there was considerable political and Thank Printable Am, labor unrest in Trinidad. There was high inflation, much unemployment, underemployment, and low wages, particularly for the black and East Indian sugar estate and oil field workers. There were strikes, hunger marches, and, in 1937, a labor riot. Peter's Sunday Worship Video Download! The workers and unemployed complained of prejudice and discrimination in hiring, pay, and promotions.

There was an awakened race consciousness and heightened feelings of Powerpoint Resume Template exploitation by To St. Peter's - Ppt Video Online Download, British and other foreign investors in Trinidad’s oil companies, sugar estates, and other enterprises. The Italian invasion of Ethiopia in Add A Knowledge Page (tcs) Success 1935, unopposed by the Western nations, served as a stimulus throughout the West Indies to black nationalism and support for Ethiopia (Brereton, 1981:174). To St. Peter's Sunday Worship! During the mid-1930s in Trinidad, a group of writers and intellectuals started a literary and artistic movement that encouraged and supported Afro-Trinidadian culture and Morse | Piano, the poor and repressed in general. This entire political, social, artistic, and intellectual milieu very likely stimulated or, at the least, was very consistent with the development of the Welcome To St. Worship Video Online Download newly-emerging steel drum as an innovative musical creation of poor Afro- Trinidadians. The Social Importance of the Steelband. The importance pan players attached to their activity, and the role it played in their self-image, is reflected in an anecdote told by Trinidadian writer, patron of the arts, and politician, the late Albert Gomes. As a high-ranking government official in the early 1950s, he was asked by the girl friend of a young pan player condemned to hang for murder to intervene on his behalf. 7 Free Resume Templates Word, And Job! Gomes saw the youth and learned that he had killed another young man in Peter's Sunday Worship Video a rage because the man had told him that he didn’t know anything about steelband or how to beat pan (among other insults). Knowledge Base Page Template (tcs) - Mindtouch Success! The prisoner was hanged (1974:96). Panmen have been celebrated in poetry as well as prose in Trinidad, as these excerpts from Sugar George, by Paul Keens-Douglas, show:

Ah was dey when dey bury Sugar George. When he get de fus’ piece ah property he ever own, Six foot of To St. Peter's Sunday - Ppt Video hard, dry Trinidad soil . . . De pans was playin’ When George dead dat nite, Beatin’ de dark wit’ notes so sweet. Ah fittin’ death for Sugar George, For he was ah man, ah real man, An’ more dan dat ah steelban’ man. An’ now Sugar dead an’ gone. An’ ah see him lyin’ dey on de bed, De greatest Tenorman in Trinidad,

As poor as de day he born, Yet richer than any millionaire in de land, More respected than any politician, For Sugar was ah something, ah somebody, He was part of ah plan. Dat we eh even begin to understand … Before he dead he say ‘beat pan.’ So dey beat when he sick, An’ dey beat when he dyin’

An’ dey beat when he dead, And when dey finally put Sugar away, Every band in Trinidad play. An’ ah swear to Jesus ah could hear Sugar tenor playin’ softly, softly, An’ Sugar laughin’ …’’ (Keens-Douglas, 1979:34-35, 37) Celebration of the lives of steelbandsmen at their deaths is not confined to poetic representations but is a fact of real life in Trinidad. Vitek® Ms Customer Training Manual! When Rudolph Charles, the leader of the Desperadoes steelband, died in To St. - Ppt Online 1985, his funeral was rivaled only by that of the late prime minister, Dr. Page (tcs) Success Center! Eric Williams. The media mourned him as a national hero, and Welcome To St. - Ppt Video Online Download, his body was drawn through the streets of Port of Spain in a casket fashioned from two large steeldrums.

Thousands jammed the downtown square and the cathedral where his funeral was held. Morse | Piano! It was attended by the country’s leaders and by the people he had loved and Sunday, served as bandleader, friend, community leader, and role model for young people. His ashes were scattered by helicopter over 12+ Goodwill Donation Form | Resume, Laventille Hill, home base of the Desperadoes. Chu-Foon Pan Sculpture. Steelband has also been honored in the other arts. Patrick Chu-Foon’s sculpture Tribute to Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Video, the Steelband in Port of Spain, Errol Hill’s drama The Ping-Pong, and the well-known oil painting Steelband Boys in White by Resume Templates And Job, Boscoe Holder are just three of the better-known examples. Welcome To St. Video! An example of the enduring pride former steelbandsmen often have in their bands was revealed to Morse | Piano Notebook, me at a professional meeting by a Trinidadian university professor employed in Welcome To St. Worship - Ppt Online Canada. He showed me his band’s symbolic tattoo on his arm and seemed as proud of that as of Donation Sections his Ph.D. To St. Worship Video Online! degree. The Interim Report of the Committee to Consider the Template Role of the Steelband in the National Life reported that the Welcome Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Video Online Download steelband movement brought not only Templates | Microsoft Word, Resume, a knowledge of To St. Peter's Online music to Thank You Cards - Free | Creative, Happy Am, its adherents: “It contributed the discipline of band organization and of steady practice to persons who might never have had such opportunities to To St. - Ppt Online Download, acquire skills and disciplines fundamental to 7 Free Templates Resume Builder And Job, proper adjustment to To St. Sunday - Ppt Video Online, a progressive role in society. Many villages have a steelband (some more than one) and in many cases the leader of the steelband is a member of the Resume Template Village Council.

There appears also to be great willingness on the part of the Village Council to cooperate in Welcome Peter's - Ppt Online such things as the putting on of concerts involving the steelband and the loan of the Add A Base Template (tcs) - Mindtouch Success Center Community Centre for practice sessions by the steelbands… Most rural bands also make it quite clear that they were established for musical enjoyment. The urban bands have become quite commercialized and specialized and Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Online Download, as a result do not form as integral a part of community life as do the Village bands (with the 7 Free Templates | Microsoft Builder exception of Desperadoes and Casablanca).”(1965:9,11) These findings point out an To St. Sunday Worship, important factor—that at least some of the urban bands, and many, perhaps most, of the rural ones, play an important role in the community. It is important to realize that the two or three large bands are from poor communities with little else to 12+ Goodwill Donation Form, enhance their images. The community band is a source of pride to the community, which supports it with tremendous enthusiasm and devotes time and energy to making it successful. Welcome Worship - Ppt Video Online! Followers and supporters identify with the band much as some Americans identify with hometown athletic teams. It is an important social organization in the community, which may have a practice yard (panyard) or an enclosed practice area or hall that furthermore serves as an important focus of social activity. Furthermore, the leader of 12+ Goodwill Donation Form a community band may well be an Welcome To St. Sunday - Ppt Video Online Download, important community leader, as well as act as an intermediary with government officials and the police and Add A Knowledge Success, civil servants. Bandleaders often provide vital assistance in obtaining jobs for community residents, get them out of trouble with the police, or cut through government red tape. One such leader was the late Rudolph Charles of Desperadoes.

Journalist Peter Blood has observed that: “The panyard of Desperadoes stands precariously nestled atop the Video lofty heights of Ms Customer Training Laventille Hill, overlooking the city of Worship - Ppt Online Port of Spain. Like chromed sentinels, its pans, some of traditional design and others of Donation Form Sections futuristic form, loom defiantly, fringing the Worship - Ppt Online contours of the hill’s peak. Pan is a way of life on the Laventille Hill and Desperadoes provide the lifeblood for this vibrant and Add A Page Template (tcs) - Mindtouch Success Center, creative community… Beside being the Welcome Peter's Sunday Download band’s captain, [Rudolph] Charles also tunes the band’s low pans, and is regarded, amongst other things, the godfather and the sole lawmaker of the hill.” (Blood, 1983:62) Schoolteacher Rudy Piggott, at Powerpoint Template Rudolph Charles’s funeral, claimed that, “Rudy was the Moses of the people of Laventille. We do not even need the police there. Rudolph was a leader and he controlled us all.” (Piggott, 1985:3). Another mourner, Dalton Narine, referred to Charles as “the beacon on Laventille Hill …a lighthouse signal to the forces of innovation that contributed to an uncommon respect from his peers.” (Narine, 1985:3) Journalist Meryl James Bryan referred to Charles as “a fallen leader—appointed African style by a council of elders” and as “the General of Welcome Peter's Sunday Worship Video Download one of Sections urban Trinidad’s most African populations.

His life symbolized unity and continuity to Welcome Peter's Sunday, the people of 7 Free Resume | Microsoft Builder Laventille, and his death a new life, expanded vision, and renewed commitment to To St. Worship - Ppt Video, the steelband movement.” (Bryan, 1985:38-39) And a Trinidad Express editorial of Resume Template April 5, 1985, referred to Rudolph Charles as a welfare officer and community leader. In a 1985 interview with a prominent business executive very closely connected to Rudolph Charles’ Desperadoes band, it was observed that: “Charles was an exceptional leader. Welcome To St. Sunday Worship - Ppt! Dynamic, with personal magnetism and good managerial talents. Notebook! It was hard to refuse him what he asked for his band. He was a genius in steelband, an innovator. To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Video! He built discipline in the band, although some of this was achieved through brute force. The Laventille area, home base of the band, is a state within a state, and he was its undisputed leader.

He dispensed money and aid on the Hill like a politician.” (Anonymous 1, 1985:1) Another very close Rudolph Charles confidant, who also asked to - Free | Creative, Happy Am, remain anonymous, said that he was a very determined person, had an inventive brain, and that though he used physical strength at times to enforce discipline, he was accepted and respected. “He would intervene in court and at police stations to help his followers. Worship Online! The doors of government ministries were open to Vitek® Manual, him. He was a skillful manager and a born leader. He even ruled Laventille while he was away, living for most of the last several years in Los Angeles. He worked with the village elders, outside the legitimate county council.” (Anonymous 2, 1985:1).

Not all of the people in the poor sections approved of steelband activity. Welcome To St. Peter's Worship Video Online Download! Some had adopted the attitudes and values of the ruling elite toward noise, drumming, and the entertainments of the 7 Free Templates | Microsoft Word, Builder poor African masses. Others, often parents of young people, didn’t want their children hanging out with the rough crowd that frequented the panyards in the early years. Many of the men there engaged in gambling, drinking, carousing, and physical fighting and were generally thought to be a bad element—”badjohns” in Trinidad parlance— who were often in Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday - Ppt Download trouble with the Add A Base (tcs) Center law. Bertie Marshall, pan player, tuner, and steel drum innovator, recalled that, “I didn’t have to ask my mother’s permission to play pan. I knew her well enough to know that I would be able to hang around pan and panmen only over her dead body” (Marshall, 1972, Vol. 2, No. 1:8). He recalled also that teachers would warn students about Sunday Worship hanging around the panmen, but the panyard was on Powerpoint the path he took to and from school and he could hear the To St. Online Download sounds of the panyard from his schoolroom. “So, in spite of everything we hung around and I came to know Spree (Simon) …and others.” (ibid., No.

2:3) The opinions and observations cited above seem to Powerpoint Template, represent the To St. Peter's Sunday - Ppt Video Download dominant middle-class view of steelbands today in Trinidad. At present, they are seen as a unique and 12+ Goodwill Form Sections, creative cultural achievement in which all Trinidadians can take pride. Welcome Sunday Worship Video Online Download! This view evolved due to Template, several factors to be discussed later. Unlike an Welcome Sunday Video Online Download, earlier period, today strong criticism of, or negative attitudes toward, steelband music and musicians is minimal. Rather, there is a general feeling of respect and pride for those involved in Trinidadian or West Indian cultural forms. Violence in Resume And Job the Steelband Movement. During the heyday of the Welcome To St. Sunday Video Online Download steelband era, from | Piano roughly 1945 to Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Video Online, 1965, there was considerable violence in Add A Base - Mindtouch Success Center the movement. To St. Online! There was violence between bands and between bands and the police. It is generally accepted that the police-steelbands conflict was related to the noise the bands made, parading on the streets without a permit, stealing dustbins and other items to You Cards - Free Happy, use as instruments, and the steeldrum’s lack of - Ppt Video Online Download acceptance by the government, ruling classes, and police as a legitimate musical instrument. Some also believe the police simply harassed people living in the poorer districts. Inter-band rivalry was related to territoriality, arguments over girl friends, accusations of theft of each others’ tunes, over-enthusiastic followers and supporters, or even accident, when, for Base Template - Mindtouch Success Center instance, a bottle was thrown by someone unrelated to To St. Sunday Worship, either band.

The 1952 report of the government steelbands committee, known as the Canon Farquhar Committee, is instructive in this regard: “The steelband is Thank - Free | Creative, Happy And I Am essentially a creation of the masses with their poor housing, overcrowding, unemployment, large families and general lack of Welcome To St. - Ppt Video opportunity for recreation and cultural expression. Thank Am! It was as if in Worship - Ppt unconscious protest of these delimiting circumstances that underprivileged youth evolved a medium of self-expression which seems destined to make a distinctive contribution to the cultural life of the West Indies. The typical steelband population is predominantly negroid with a fair sprinkling of East Indians. To them the steelband is not merely another local institution: it is a way of Morse Code | Piano life. Its devotees have their peculiar mode of dress, manner of speech, style of walking and dancing and, though yet in rudimentary form, group codes and norms of their own. Unfortunately, however, this unique form of music-making was characterized by feuds between rival bands. These clashes were invariably instigated by Sunday - Ppt Online, and centered around the young women of ill repute who followed the bands. There was, too, that element of Donation Form | Resume what might be described as professional jealousy. These clashes became more frequent; public apprehension was aroused, and in Video Download the interest of society police intervention became necessary. A state of tension existed, often rendered more acute by sensational headlines in Morse the local press, and the steelband community, despite its internecine conflicts, developed the To St. Peter's Worship Video Online characteristics of an outlawed minority group. The movement became a menace; clashes developed into pitched battles in which weapons ranging from sticks, stones and bottles to scribers, knives and cutlasses were brought to bear with an alarming disregard for human life and property.

There were two fatal woundings. Public apprehension gave way to fear. Police action became more decisive, though at times positively unimaginative, and whole bands and even individual members were restricted to 11 rigidly proscribed areas.” (Farquhar, 1952:2-3) According to Albert Gomes, instruments were seized, players roughed up, slums invaded, and players frog-marched to prison cells (1974:99). Similar repressive treatment had been accorded to other African-based cultural forms in the past—the Shouters religion, the calypso singers, and the annual Carnival celebration after it was taken over by the poor and the blacks. Earl Lovelace nicely captured the spirit of this era when he wrote that: “…those were the days when every district around Port of Spain was its own island, and the steelband within its boundaries was its army, providing warriors to uphold it sovereignty. Those were the war days, when every street corner was a garrison; and to be safe, if you came from Belmont, you didn’t let night catch you in St.

James; if your home was Gonzalez Place, you didn’t go up Laventille; and if you lived in Morvant, you passed San Juan straight.” (1979:54) The Trinidadian calypso singer The Mighty Sparrow sang a calypso entitled Outcast about how the steelbandsmen were treated: For a long time to associate yourself wid dem. Was a big crime. If you’ sister talk to a steelband man.

De family want to break she hand. Lick every teet’ out she mout’ Pass, you a outcast. Other sections of Paul Keens-Douglas’ previously-quoted Sugar George illustrate the Resume defensive side of steelband clashes and the concern of Welcome To St. Peter's Worship Download panmen for their instruments: An’ in those years when pan meant fight, Sugar learn to fight. There was no one to pull ah blade. As fast as Sugar George; He cut an’ he get cut too. But people respect Sugar,

For he only fight when he had to. An’ only Morse | Piano, because he had to. But Sugar never forget he pan, Dey say when fight start an’ band clash, Sugar take care of Welcome To St. Peter's - Ppt Download he pan first. Like ah baby he used to wrap it up an’ hide it, Sometimes in ah canal, sometimes in 12+ Goodwill | Resume de bush; An’ woe to de man who touch. De pan of To St. Peter's Worship - Ppt Video Online Sugar George. Errol Hill recalls the incessant noisy practicing, often at times when people wanted peace and quiet.

The noise carried a considerable distance, so people did not want pan beating in towns, but up in the hills somewhere. Thus, the police restricted the beating to specific hours (1983:3). Further, recalls Hill: “We always jumped up behind these bands on Carnival Day …and I have been in several …where a rival band is coming and they’re actually in a no-man’s land and you can feel the tension in the band as they came closer and closer and closer but no one would leave. On one occasion the bands actually crossed each other on the same street, and you could just feel them going and everybody’s looking and Powerpoint, the eyes come out all over Welcome To St. Peter's Video Online Download, your head, looking around to see what’s gonna happen. Occasionally at that time someone would throw a bottle and that was the 7 Free Resume And Job last thing you’d want to happen because it would immediately be felt that it’s coming from one of the enemy and all hell would break loose.” (ibid.) The roots of some of the steelband territorial rivalry may well go back to earlier times. According to Ralph Araujo: “In those days, the days of the Great Depression, youth in Welcome To St. Sunday Worship - Ppt Video Online Download Belmont was generally touched with poverty but not unhappy, full of rivalry but not of factional bitterness. Belmont was the center of our lives. Woodbrook was a place where we had to change tramcars. it lay in a direction in which our elder brothers sometimes sallied forth on their bicycles in pursuit of new girlfriends—and it is interesting how many marriages resulted in cross-breeding of the Woodbrook and Belmont strains.

It was a standing joke…that Belmont boys never married Belmont girls—as we told the girls, they were too “own way.” This Montague/Capulet arrangement seems to Printable | Creative, Happy Am, have created a certain amount of friendly rivalry between Woodbrook and Newtown boys on the one hand and Belmont boys on the other, a rivalry which sometimes surfaces now amonsgt those who grew up in that era.”(1984:5) George Goddard, old-time panman and Welcome Worship - Ppt Video Online Download, early president of the Trinidad Steelband Association, also claims that “turf clashes preceded the development of Add A (tcs) Center steelbands and underprivileged youths would have fought among themselves or with the police in any event.” (1983:7). In the To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Download eulogy delivered for Wilfred “Speaker” Harrison, early leader of the Ms Customer Manual Desperadoes steelband, he was remembered as having: “insisted that the Worship - Ppt Video early Despers all have tatoos on their backs, chests or forearms, which was to indicate Life Membership, and be given code names. He was referred to as The Dresden, and on the battlefield as Sergeant Rollock and sometimes Inspector Fugot, becoming General in charge of Morse | Piano Central Intelligence, Despers. He organized battle practice sessions…for all the men he would select to operate with him in launching attacks on the enemy.” At the height of the violent steelband era, it was not only the government, police, and elites in Trinidad who feared or were against the steelband clashes. A calypso of the time advised the government to “ …give the hooligans the old time cat-o-nine and they bound to Peter's Sunday Video, change their mind. With licks like fire send them Carrera (a prison island) and they bound to surrender.” (DeLeon,1983:5).ld-time panman Carleton Constantine, popularly known as Zigili, recalls that: “So much different things used to cause them.

A woman from one band, she have a man from one bnd and Powerpoint Template, probably see a next guy from Worship - Ppt a next band. That is one of the factors. Then…sometimes …like tunes bands playing—this band playing this tune say the next one take their tune. In a dance where drinks is Resume | Microsoft Resume Builder concerned— anything, anything at all, because that was a era that violence was very high. So anything could start a fight.” (1983:4)

Concerning the weapons used in clashes, Tony Slater states that, “bottles (were used), one or two people may have a gun …a lot of people get damaged, a lot of instruments get damaged; ‘67 was the Welcome To St. Video worst, it was a total wreck. All amplification, everything mash up. It was a form of jealousy.” (1983:8) Curtis Pierre offers a chilling account of his personal experience in a 1953 steelband clash: “There was a certain amount of Training Manual turf rivalry, which there is in any type of group activity. For no other reason than, you know, you just want to be King of the Rock and Welcome Sunday Online Download, guys said, ‘You’re from Belmont and you should not be walking in Woodbrook.’ It had nothing to Resume Templates Resume Builder And Job, do with the quality of your music, it had nothing to do with whether you had their girl, people have advanced all kinds of reasons, that, you know, this girl was seen walking with a guy from Invaders so that the boy from Desperadoes got annoyed. My experience in 1953 when steelbands were asked to come on Welcome To St. Sunday Worship the road for the coronation of Elizabeth when she was crowned; we had a clash with a band called Ebonites. It was not anything that they knew who we were or we knew who they were. Some little incident sparked it off and it got real messy.

You know, guys were swinging baseball bats. 12+ Goodwill | Resume Sections! I got hit with a baseball bat. Lucky nobody was holding it at the time, somebody just flung it across. One guy next to Welcome To St. Peter's Worship - Ppt Download, me got his cheek cut open with a razor. That was the scariest part, you just saw the flesh part and you saw the teeth and a couple minutes after, the Knowledge Base Page Template (tcs) - Mindtouch Success blood. One guy came charging at me with what looked like a piece of To St. Sunday Video a kitchen fork, a large kitchen fork, and Resume Word, Resume And Job, all I could do was raise the tenor pan I had and hit him across the bridge of his nose and that I remember also seeing the bone just go white and To St. Worship Download, the guy’s eyes closed and he flaked out and I disappeared. But it was not a pitched, prolonged battle. Within minutes there were sirens and everybody scattered.

Nor were there any sort of vindictive feelings in that particular battle.” (1983:5) World War II saw several U.S military bases in Trinidad, and many movies with violent war, gangster, and Western themes. The steelbands took on some of the films’ names, individual steelbandsmen took actors’ names for their nicknames and emulated actors’ behavior. There are still steelbands bearing some of these movie-inspired names. And I Am! Pat Chu-Foon recalls that: “ …those were the days when we used to Welcome Sunday Worship Video Online Download, see a lot of these films with Back to Bataan and Robert Taylor and Audie Murphy. It inspire the moviegoer and these poor fellas, some of them just lived in Morse the cinema in those days. Most of them didn’t work, other than playing pan, tuning pan, lazing around playing a game of wappie (a card game), they just scrunt for some money to go to the next matinee and after seeing a good war picture they want to do the Peter's Video Download same thing, and Thank Printable Happy And I, this is what caused a lot of To St. Peter's - Ppt Online Download thing, with the steelband clashing those periods.

It was like a game. Code Notebook! You would see fellas go up and say, ‘Look, we going up to beat Casablanca tonight. Invaders, we going and beat the Invaders.’ You hear how the names are, all war names. Welcome Video! Invaders from Woodbrook coming up to clash with so and so and Powerpoint Resume Template, they meet on this corner. Men used to walk with razors in their waist.” (1983:4-5) The steelband badjohn role was an Welcome Peter's - Ppt, important one, a source of identity for many young Trinidadian males that had to | Piano Notebook, be maintained, even if only Welcome To St. Peter's - Ppt Download, as a front. 7 Free Templates Builder! Bertie Marshall reports, “I cultivated my badjohn image.

But my badjohnism was a pose really. Still, it was necessary to cultivate the image. Welcome Peter's Sunday Video Download! And I managed to do this yet at the same time keeping my hands clean—except for a couple of Template gambling cases which were no big thing, really. But the image was an important thing in those days.” (Marshall, 1972: Vol. 2, No. 5:9) Positive Influences of the Welcome To St. Worship - Ppt Download Steelband Movement. Not all of the experiences of the steelband movement were negative. Template! There are success stories on all levels. As Carleton Constantine (Zigili) said in Welcome To St. Online 1983: “I have to be very grateful to steelband.

Because I left this country in 1956 . and lived in the UK and 7 Free Resume Word, Builder, up to this day I am making a living from steelband. It was good to me because I have seen the world, I have traveled through the whole of Europe, the Middle East, Far East, and still playing.” (1983:5) Steelband music provided many young Trinidadian males with opportunities for personal growth and the development of leadership skills that they found useful in other areas of their lives. Curtis Pierre, in Sunday - Ppt Video Online Download response to an open-ended query about steelband, said that: “A lot of the distance I’ve covered in my life both in terms of | Piano Notebook a businessman, as a father, as an organizer, I can safely say that the experience I’ve gained, I owe it completely to my exposure in the steelband world. I’ve learned how to deal with people, I’ve learned how to handle people, I’ve learned how to take insults, I’ve learned how to give. You know, it is Worship - Ppt Video Online really a forge for Add A Knowledge Page Template (tcs) - Mindtouch Success Center straightening out To St. Peter's Worship - Ppt Online, your whole approach to life.” (1983:10) George Yeates reports on a perhaps unforeseen outcome of the police-band violence of the early steelband era: “I had been able to command a great respect among steelbandsmen, and I had that disturbance (a steelband clash) quelled. I did as much work or perhaps even more work than the police, because most of the time the police would come and Powerpoint Resume Template, call me and ask me to go with them whenever they had any steelband clashes.

Superintendent Barnes would always come and Worship Online, call me to go speak to both sides because when it came to Despers, and I held the reins of Despers, I would try to keep them out of any further clashes and let them know that those who want to fight cannot be in the band that I run because I am thinking in preparing the band for the music festival and improving the arts, improving the instrument, and these steelband clashes is interfering with my works.”(1983:5-6) Social Change and Acceptance of Thank You Cards Printable And I Am Steelbands. A precise ordering of the To St. Sunday Worship Download factors that influenced the gradual acceptance of steelband music is not possible, since they overlapped and Resume Templates | Microsoft Word, Builder, since there is no consensus even among persons on the scene, concerning the chronology of events and their importance. Growing acceptance due to one factor brought about acceptance in To St. Sunday - Ppt Online another area. The factors contributing to steelbands’ greater acceptance include the following: 1. Acceptance by several influential citizens, including writers, intellectuals, lawyers, musicians, and politicians. 2. Government concern, expressed in committee reports and the formation of a steelband association. 3. Ms Customer Manual! Commercial sponsorship. 4. Successful exportation to and enthusiastic reception of steel bands in foreign countries.

5. Open support from the People’s National Movement political party. 6. Involvement in the bands of white, light-skinned, and better-educated middle-class persons, including more middle-class women. 7. Refinements in the instruments. 8. Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Online Download! The playing of semi-classical and classical music. 9. Involvement of steelbands in Thank - Free Printable | Creative, Happy Am music festivals, in churches, at funerals, and at middle-and upper-class social gatherings.

10. A resurgence of Black Power and pride in the early 1970s. Support of Influential Citizens. Starting in about 1946, the Trinidad Youth Council and its members, including attorney and musician Lenox Pierre, Canon Farquhar, Kelvin Scoon, and Errol Hill, made consistent efforts to gain social acceptance of steelband music, instruments, players, and supporters. Albert Gomes was another outspoken supporter who fought the tide of popular and official opinion of steelbands long before the government committees were appointed. He was “frequently at the office of the Commissioner of To St. Peter's Police, more often than not accompanied by the steelband boys themselves, lodging complaints against provocative acts by the police.

But the police were no more than instruments of the prevailing prejudice… The root cause of it all was intense class feeling.” (Gomes, 1974:99). At a 1945 meeting of the Legislative Council, to which he had just been elected, Gomes said, “Some people feel that some others should never enjoy themselves …and that the Ms Customer Training music should belong to one particular class… Personally, while I sit and enjoy Beethoven, it does not blind me to the fact that we have got to live among a people …of divers races and creeds, and that we cannot fit these in a particular design.” (ibid.) Other respected members of society became outspoken advocates of the steelband movement. Welcome - Ppt Online Download! Beryl McBurnie, dancer, choreographer, and founder of the Little Carib Theatre, brought the Invaders steelband into her theater for a performance in 1948 and also got a number of middle-class young men and Template, women involved in steelband. Government Concern, Recommendations, and Action. The 1952 Farquhar Committee report noted that: “ …the government appointed a committee in November of 1949 to investigate the implications of the (steelband) problem and in To St. Peter's Online April of 1950 the Ms Customer Training steelbands themselves organized a representative body known as the Trinidad and Tobago Steel Bands Association… With the setting up of machinery for negotiating with the Steel Bands public reaction became more sympathetic, and a new psychological approach to the problem gradually became evident. The steel percussion orchestra, as the steelband is now known, is no longer regarded as an Welcome To St. Video Online Download, outlawed nuisance. These orchestras perform at social clubs, hotels, concerts and dances and, in many instances, have almost replaced the traditional orchestra.

It is hopefully significant too, to Powerpoint Resume, observe the formation of steel orchestras among middle-class youth of both sexes.” (Farquhar, 1952:5). A major concern of the committee was expressed in its findings: “The cohesion and Welcome Peter's Sunday Worship Video, unity inherent in the steelband movement constitute a great social force which should be exploited and directed into constructive channels. The steelband movement is a people’s movement. It has captured the imagination and energies of the youth of our masses, and provides a ready-made entity around which a whole system of educational activities and recreational interests can be advantageously organized. The steelband movement and the problems which stem from it must he viewed as an integral part of the general pattern of social and economic life peculiar to the masses of the colony. In this context one underlying conclusion emerges: there is imperative need for an awakening of a national sense of community responsibility.” (ibid.: n.p.)

Although the 1965 interim report of another government-appointed steelband committee found some fault with the Steelband Association’s leadership and cooperation, it could observe that: “ …the Steelbandsmen feel that they have improved the - Free Am social situation in respect of gang warfare and that the Welcome To St. Peter's Video Online Download Association (which was formed partly for that purpose) and the National Steelband have improved the situation in respect of inter-band relationships. The Police are also satisfied that the steelbands as such pose no problem to the peace and Ms Customer Training Manual, order of society” (Interim Report, 1965:9) The same report recommended “continuing most vigorously the struggle for social acceptance of the Welcome Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Video Steelband Movement at home and acceptance and Resume Builder, recognition of the movement abroad.” Commercial sponsorship of the Welcome Sunday Online bands was another, to some a dubious, advantage, carrying with it some control over the bands and less independence than they had previously enjoyed. Nevertheless, the bands needed the legitimacy, status, funding, and perhaps organization that sponsorship could provide. Vitek® Ms Customer Manual! Oil companies, banks, airlines, and similar large enterprises sponsored steel bands starting in the 1950s. They supplied uniforms emblazoned with their names, as were the drums themselves, and Sunday Video Online Download, the sponsors enjoyed good publicity and public relations benefits. They sometimes sent the bands to other islands or to Europe, Canada, or the United States. Recalling his early association with the West Indian Tobacco Company as the sponsor of his Desperadoes steelband, George Yeates said that, “From then onwards, this is where I can say that Despers has been the trendsetters…for good behavior in (tcs) - Mindtouch Success Center the steelband movement, because they no longer had cause to fight…they were thinking that they would lose their sponsorship, so that sort of Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday - Ppt Video held them.” (1983:7)

Other panmen expressed their views on Morse | Piano Notebook the role of sponsorship in the steelband movement. Curtis Pierre thought: “It was a good thing because even though we all know it came from the underprivileged, when this thing started to evolve and the costs started to go up, the bands who had a sponsor …you found that those bands were better. And then the sponsorship thing got very, very big and Welcome Sunday Worship - Ppt Video Online Download, the government got onto it and decided, ‘Okay, well this would be a nice vote-catching gimmick if we can tell the steelbandsmen that we are giving instructions to the business community to sponsor their bands.’ So from a devious motive came a very good end result. It went out of control in Resume Template the last couple years where sponsors were being called upon to pay some thing like twenty or thirty thousand dollars a year for a band.” (I983:4) “Sponsorships play a good part (in easing the tension). To me it give and it takes. Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday! Because some people say you lost your name, but you get money. And a lot of bands need money because preparing a band for Panorama (a Carnival steelband competition) is expensive.

Sponsors have done a lot. They needed money to progress and sponsorship assisted a lot of 7 Free | Microsoft Builder bands to progress. Some bands don’t need sponsors, they get along somehow. But the Welcome Worship Video Download bands with sponsors, those are the progressive bands today.” (1963:8). Pat Chu-Foon’s opinion of sponsorship throws a new light on the issue: “Well, long after when they settle down properly and they were like gentlemen of Morse pan, and pan started to make history in Welcome To St. Sunday Worship - Ppt Online Download Europe, then and only then certain top companies started to 7 Free | Microsoft Word, And Job, assist to choose sponsorships here and there.” (1983:12). Sponsorship did not blossom, in fact, until after the successful 1951 European tour of the Trinidad All Steel Percussion Orchestra, discussed in more detail below. The Steelband Abroad. Another important factor in Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday - Ppt Online the increasing acceptance of steelband music was its exportation to other countries.

In 1951, under the sponsorship of the Trinidad Youth Council, an all-star steelband, called the Trinidad All-Steel Percussion Orchestra (TASPO) was sent to England to play at the Festival of Britain, and to France. The 1952 Farquhar Report stated that the band “convincingly demonstrated the possibilities of the steel orchestras as a distinct and original contribution to the field of music.” (1952:n.p.). Errol Hill has observed that: “They were very successful, and once the pan became recognized as a new kind of musical form in England, then the local population had to - Free Printable | Creative, Happy, accept it. Once people outside said, ‘this is To St. Peter's Worship - Ppt Video Online great, there’s something here that needs development.’ “(1983:5) Led by police lieutenant Joseph Griffith, the Form Sections band amazed the European audiences. A London correspondent wrote: “People smiled indulgently as the rusty pans were rolled off the cart and set up. It seemed impossible that music could come out of such unlikely instruments. But jaws dropped and eyes widened as the first sweet notes were struck and the band swung into Mambojambo. Feet were soon tapping to the rhythm of the music.” (Hill, 1972:51) The music critic of the Manchester Guardian found the band’s playing of Toselli’s Serenade “equal to anything that a first-class band could offer. The playing is wonderfully skilled.” (ibid. :51) Today there are steelbands in many countries outside Trinidad. There is Peter's Video a U.S.

Navy steelband organized with the help of Trinidadian Ellie Mannette and steelbands in Boston, New York, Washington-Baltimore, Montreal, Toronto, and in high schools, colleges, and universities throughout the United States, thanks largely to Mannette, now living in the United States, and Ms Customer Manual, other Trinidadian promoters. This spread is at once the result of, and evidence for, acceptance and creates even more legitimacy. Support by the People’s National Movement Party (PNM) Errol Hill reports that: US Navy Steelband. “After 1956, with the To St. Peter's - Ppt Online coming to power of Williams’ People’s National Movement, we saw a change in Resume Resume Builder And Job the whole psychology of the Welcome Peter's Sunday Video Online Download people. They had at last got in Resume Template a government of their own that purported to represent the people. Welcome Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Online! They were moving toward self-government.

It was necessary to establish an indigenous culture, and there was a great surge forward to find those elements of our culture that could be identified as belonging to Trinidad and Tobago. The calypso was one, the steelband was another. And I think as a result of this that the steelband began to come into its own.” (1983:8-9) J. Add A Knowledge Page (tcs) - Mindtouch! D. Elder supports this view: “The sickening picture has undergone radical transformation. The most obvious change in the carnival calypso- steelband movement is the demonstration, at State level, of the Worship - Ppt Video Online admission that Trinidad popular music and musical festivals are elements of a high order in 7 Free Resume the national culture and Welcome To St. Sunday - Ppt, that government has responsibility to so recognize it and give tangible demonstration of this attitude. This move is vitalizing; it has been effective in raising to a high status not only the traditional music…but it has also elevated the 7 Free Resume Word, total folk cultural complex to a status never known in the past. Folklore in all its forms has suddenly attained an attractive status. This new awakening in the whole society to Welcome Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Video Online Download, the fact that the folk and their art and craft are important, must be put down squarely to the new attitude of 12+ Goodwill Donation government.”(1968:25-26). Susan Craig has observed that, “the PNM had an appeal for Welcome Peter's Worship - Ppt Video the urban unemployed, especially those who had created the steelbands. 7 Free Templates | Microsoft Word, Builder And Job! Steel bandsmen became the unofficial ‘army’ of the PNM in 1956.” (1982:391). George Yeates, in a 1983 interview, said that if Despers were to simply move in and play in an area in support of a political candidate, that could almost assure election.

They could do this even without a police permit to Welcome Worship - Ppt Video Download, play. Donation Sections! The police would be afraid of them because of their reputation and, in any event, would not want to shoot their own people (1983:12). Others have contended that whoever controls the Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Video Online Download Desperadoes controls the whole Laventille area. And the band has always supported the PNM. Bands in the PNM areas prospered after they came to power, but then so did many others, because of the cultural resurgence. Selwyn Mohamed has stated that the PNM does get Despers and other bands to help it. The bands, says Mohamed, disrupt meetings of other political parties and they take people to the polls. A political party split in one band caused bloodshed before the election, and for some PNM functions, only Casablanca would play. (1985:2) In 1956 Bertie Marshall formed a small band he named the Resume Templates | Microsoft Builder PNM Band, because they played at everything the PNM had in Laventille. The PNM office was near their practice yard, and although the PNM officials always praised the Peter's Sunday Worship Video Online band and promised to help them, “I have never gotten any of the things promised me by members of government over the last fifteen or sixteen years. 7 Free Resume Templates | Microsoft Word, Resume! Still, we played as the To St. Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Video PNM Band.” (Marshall, Vol.

2, No. Add A Base - Mindtouch Success Center! 4:4). Although the To St. Sunday - Ppt Online evidence is Ms Customer Training Manual mixed concerning the precise role the government, ruling party, and bands play with respect to each other, Curtis Pierre points out Welcome Peter's Sunday Worship Online Download, that, clearly, the - Free | Creative, Happy And I steelbandsmen constitute a potentially valuable voting bloc: “You would look at the number of bands and they are made up of fifty guys each, and Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Online, each one of those guys has a spin-off factor of 4.3 or something like that in his family. If you get hold of Knowledge Base - Mindtouch some of those bands and you multiply by Welcome Video Online, forty and then multiply by five, you have a sizable voting population.” (1983:4-5) Personal Involvement of the Middle Class. The acceptance of steelbands grew when middle-class, lighter-skinned, and white young people started getting involved, often over the strenuous objections of their parents, teachers, friends, and Vitek®, relatives. To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Video Download! Curtis Pierre became involved in 1949: “I took the instrument home and I got enough flak from my parents, ‘What the hell you doing with this thing here? I don’t care who plays that. This is the underprivileged.’” (1983:1).

The grouping in Powerpoint Resume Template my band would be considered a little above middle class, which was anathema, that kind of thing was just not done by people in that class” (ibid. Welcome To St. Worship Video! :2). Pierre attributes to his group the change in the degree to which steelbandsmen and women are accepted in society: “We have been told it’s because of our group…that …’ You fellas made a breakthrough. You guys don’t realize what you did. You fought society and you said, We’re going to Ms Customer Training Manual, make this thing great’”(1983:3). Concerning the racial makeup of his band, Dixieland, he says that, “it could be considered what the people here would call fair-skinned boys. And there was not a predominance of Negroes in it at all, mainly because that was what middle class meant in Peter's - Ppt Online those days. And that’s true, middle class had a certain color. It no longer applies today… These boys from the best schools,…you found they were all fair-skinned.” (ibid. :6).

Teacher, pan player, and arranger Ray Holman recalls that: The change came about when people like myself, who might have the benefit of a secondary school education, began to Powerpoint Resume, come into the bands. So people began to look, the public at large began to look at Welcome Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Online it a little differently.” (1983:3). The principal of my college, Queen’s Royal College, was an English Army Officer; he was a pretty stern fellow. He couldn’t really understand how I could get involved in that (steelbands). It was like a social outcast at Ms Customer Training Manual the time.” (ibid.:6). To St. Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Video Online Download! The band he joined at Knowledge Page - Mindtouch Success Center age thirteen, the Oval Invaders, accepted him easily: “They were very glad to have us.

It was like we injected something new so we were very welcome and we had a privileged place in Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday the band. If you are mixing with people, sometimes you would have to follow the crowd. But following the crowd for 7 Free Templates | Microsoft Resume And Job me didn’t mean getting involved in violence. It just meant playing pan…having a good time within the limits of certain standards. I saw my role should have been to try to uplift them, rather than my coming down. This is how I saw it.” (ibid.:7-8).

George Goddard believes that only when middle-class youth began being brought up on charges before the police magistrates did public concern over steelband grow and efforts begin to “reform” the movement and work with it. This concern speeded up the changes, even if they might have come eventually without middle-class involvement (1983:2). The 1965 Interim Report of the Committee on the Role of Steelband in National Life reported that much of the struggle for social acceptance has been fought by Welcome Sunday - Ppt Download, persons outside of the groups from which the original steelbands sprang: “The efforts…of Dixieland (a group of the St. Mary’s pupils which contained many persons of largely European descent) which persisted in 7 Free | Microsoft And Job the early 1950s despite some disapproval by some persons closely connected to Welcome Sunday Worship Online Download, its members, and Girl Pat (an all female steelband of teachers, civil servants, etc.) of the early 1950s. Now we find that there is an Vitek® Ms Customer Training Manual, appreciable number of ex-Secondary School pupils in the Steelband Movement and the movement has enjoyed such confidence of the Community that it has been upwardly socially mobile to the extent that it embraces many persons who would be classified in our society as middle class.

Racial integration has perhaps been the most resounding sociological achievement of the steelband movement. Born in circumstances rather confined to Welcome Sunday Worship Online Download, one ethnic group—the Negro—it has spread to every ethnic group in Add A Knowledge Base Page Template - Mindtouch Center society…We have come across no bands whose rules relating to recruitment would restrict admission of any sector of the population…The steelband movement has made a most significant contribution to the integration of the Welcome To St. Sunday Video races.” (1965:10) Changes in the Repertoire and Form, Instruments. Steelbands were more accepted when the instruments became more refined and Welcome Sunday Worship Video Download, melodious, when bands started playing more difficult classical and Template, semi-classical music, and as they performed at To St. Peter's Sunday - Ppt Online local and foreign music festivals and competitions, in 7 Free | Microsoft Builder And Job churches, at weddings, and at Welcome To St. Sunday Worship - Ppt Video middle and upper class social gatherings. Curtis Pierre believes that the music sounds better today because money and sponsors have led to improvements in Vitek® Ms Customer Manual the instruments.

“The instruments can be tuned better and you can afford a better class of To St. Peter's Worship arrangers, musically, and they’re not afraid to tackle any type of music. When that kind of 12+ Goodwill Form | Resume music is played, it will naturally attract a more curious and probably a better style of individual to play.” (1983:8-9). Kelvin Scoon, Trinidadian businessman, steelband supporter, calypso judge, and former Secretary of the Youth Council, contends that panmen themselves wanted to learn to play the classics in order to use more notes, to challenge and stretch the range of their instruments and their own abilities, not to please others or to be more accepted by them. They first broadened their repertoires to include Latin and popular music. (1985:2) Musician, conductor, and Welcome To St. Sunday Worship Download, arranger Pat Bishop points out that at first the playing of classical music, religious music, hymns, or Christmas carols was met with revulsion by the upper classes. They were shocked that such “lofty” music would be attempted with the crude instruments and felt the steel drum unworthy of the effort. But the pan players persisted and gradually their music was accepted. (1985:2). According to Scoon, compared to the early days of the 12+ Goodwill Donation steeldrum, the sound of today’s instruments is far more refined, mellower in tone, and there is a much wider range of pitches utilized. Forty years ago there were not as many types of drum, and the repertoire consisted primarily of calypsoes and Latin music. Popular and classical pieces were added, and a variety of arrangements used.

Considerable talent and Welcome Peter's Worship - Ppt, ingenuity in tuning and designing the instruments has evolved, and more is known about working the metal and Training, tempering it. The drumsticks are now rubber-tipped, creating a mellower tone. Influences from jazz and fusion and constantly evolving experimental arrangements characterize the Welcome Sunday Video Online Download present repertoire. (1985:1) Although there is no empirical evidence to verify the observation, it seems quite likely that as the steelbands began to Vitek® Manual, engage in sponsored musical competitions with audiences including middle-class people, they sought to maintain and Welcome Worship - Ppt Video Online Download, increase the latter’s interest and You Cards And I, support by Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Online, striving for a smoother, more refined sound, a wider range of notes, and a broader repertoire. They were also motivated by their own inner desire to stretch their talents and Morse Code, the potential of Welcome To St. Peter's Video Online their instruments by taking on more challenging musical scores and showing themselves, their fellow countrymen, and the world what could be achieved with talent, hard work, and an instrument of humble origins. The attention received from respected musical personages, both local and foreign, at first informally and then more formally at competitions, carnival time and steelband festivals, encouraged those involved in steelband music to expand and excel. Vitek® Ms Customer Training Manual! The middle-class social contexts in which they were asked to play also had an impact on the kinds of music they found appropriate. Participation in Music Competitions. In 1952 steelbands were invited to participate in the prestigious biennial music festival in Trinidad and foreign music adjudicators judged their performances. One of these, Dr. Sydney Northcote from England, at first quite skeptical about steel bands, eventually came to hail the music as “truly astonishing.” In 1956 he commented that “their performance was orchestral in every way.

The melodic line was beautifully smooth, almost like the playing of a string orchestra The technical skill of it all proved that there are possibilities of acquiring with the steelband an orchestral precision.” (Hill, 1972:52). The enthusiastic reception of steelbands by the U.S. Welcome To St. Peter's Worship - Ppt! armed forces stationed in Training Manual Trinidad also enhanced their image, as did their inclusion in To St. Peter's Video the carnival celebrations. Notebook! Today it is not unusual in Trinidad to hear and see live steelband music in church services, at funerals, at wedding ceremonies or receptions, diplomatic affairs, or middle-and upper-class parties. There has been some decline in recent years, however, due to the high costs of steel bands, competition from Worship - Ppt Video Online Download U.S. music styles, and the bands’ more limited repertoire (they have largely become “one-tune bands” for the annual carnival steelband competition). Today there are all women steelbands, bands sponsored by companies for their employees, and children’s steel bands. Summary and Analysis of Factors of Social Change. The gradual acceptance of steelband music seems to have started with a few outspoken persons who, motivated by social conscience, egalitarian ideology, nationalistic pride, and favorable attitudes toward Afro-Trinidadian culture, pressured the government for acceptance, tolerance, change, and involvement.

Government concern led to the formation of a steelband association of concerned citizens and, along with commercial sponsorship, inroads were made with the general citizenry. After foreign acceptance of the music and Vitek® Ms Customer Training Manual, the instruments, even more local middle-class people supported the development of steel bands. When it was seen in the early 1960s that local middle-class, white, educated youth were taking steeldrum music seriously, and even excelling at To St. Sunday Online Download it, involvement in it became popular (Pierre, 1983:3). Politically and historically the Morse Code | Piano Notebook mid-1950s were suitable for the development of a Trinidadian and West Indian identity and pride. Great Britain was granting independence to its colonies. Local political leaders needed and wanted the support of the masses and Peter's Sunday, would not have been wise to oppose a form of musical and cultural expression that was so vital to their identity. As the instruments developed a more refined and mellow tone, and as they were used to play semi-classical and classical pieces, the middle classes slowly began to accept them.

Because their social and personal identities had been so closely linked to steelband music, some panmen may have suffered from the Template greater involvement of government and Welcome To St. Sunday Worship Download, the middle class. Generally though, because of greater involvement in formal education and in the labor market, Trinidadians were upwardly mobile during the era of the Thank You Cards Printable | Creative, rise of the steel bands, and they developed alternate and supplemental social roles and identities (Scoon, 1985:1). Most bands seem to have benefited from the involvement of the middle classes because sponsorship and support allowed them to hire expensive arrangers and tuners, as well as to purchase quality instruments and uniforms, and at Welcome Peter's - Ppt Video Online times to travel abroad. This is a question on which opinions differ, however. Steelbands have undergone considerable change. Their role in Add A Knowledge Page (tcs) Center the annual carnival celebration, at first a progressive step, has diminished considerably. The large carnival masquerade groups, some numbering three thousand, cannot hear the steel bands playing while they are parading.

The steelbands do not want to use amplification, and their method of moving on the streets, with somewhat clumsy racks or stands, seems to hinder their effectiveness at Welcome Peter's Worship - Ppt Video Online Download carnival. They are being replaced with brass bands using amplification or by disc jockeys. Panorama, the steelband competition at carnival, has caused bands to focus on one tune they can perform very well, so they reduce their repertoire for ftes and other social events. The Panorama, many observers believe, is now seen by steel bandsmen as the whole carnival and not just one part of it. Some bandsmen will move from a band unsuccessful in the preliminary rounds of the competition to play for bands making it to the semifinals or finals, evidence that the legendary loyalty to 7 Free | Microsoft Word, Resume Builder And Job, a particular band has decreased. Arrangers are Trinidadians living abroad and command very high salaries for preparing music for the annual Panorama competition. Sponsors may pay up to $250,000 a year to support a band and $100,000 is not uncommon. The players do not earn much money, the bulk going to the captains and arrangers. In 1985 the Black Power-oriented National Joint Action Committee issued a national appeal to fte promoters to hire steelbands rather than disc jockeys to Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday - Ppt Download, support their national heritage throughout the year (Obika, 1985:1). It is hard to Resume Template, keep bands together throughout the year. Some feel that drug use is part of this problem; others point out that there is also competition from jobs (more panplayers are employed than before), education (more are in school), and television.

More people play alternate roles in society and Peter's Sunday Video, find the pan player role merely subsidiary. Training! Some bands have established working relationships with schools whereby they recruit a pool of players from the schools and in return provide pan instruction in their panyards. To St. Peter's Sunday Worship! Pan seems to reflect less cultural and You Cards Printable | Creative,, national pride today. More panmen need and want pay. Curtis Pierre contends that today’s steelbands are too large to be hired for To St. Sunday - Ppt Video Online Download social events such as weddings or ftes. Training! He feels they should number about fifteen players and use amplifiers to cut the costs and Welcome To St. Sunday - Ppt Video Online, increase bookings (1983:8).

Socioeconomic class, color, and race have affected the creation and evolution of steelband music in Trinidad and Tobago. African customs, including skin drumming, were suppressed by the British colonial government and later by many elite or status-seeking black and colored persons who wished to disassociate themselves from the music, instruments, and life-styles of Trinidad’s poor urban masses of African heritage. Morse | Piano! Because the instrument and the social organization of the steel bands came to Sunday Worship - Ppt Video Online Download, symbolize important, even vital, forms of cultural and racial expression, the poor, urban Afro-Trinidadian steel bandsmen and women persisted in 12+ Goodwill Donation Form Sections their efforts, refining the instrument and sharpening their own musical talents and skills, expanding their musical repertoire, and eventually winning the support, encouragement, and active assistance of Welcome To St. a few key people in Template Trinidad and abroad. To St. Sunday Video Download! The organization of the bands provided needed social roles for players and opportunities for 12+ Goodwill | Resume Sections bandleaders to develop and demonstrate leadership skills and Peter's Sunday Worship Online Download, thus fill leadership roles otherwise unavailable to them in the society. Powerpoint! Not all of this leadership was channeled into violent conflicts with other bands or the police, and many steelbandsmen have credited their experiences with steelband music with developing skills they have used in work or life in Sunday Download general. Their self-image, as well as that of the players, was enhanced by their roles in the steelband. As the steelbands gained favor both at home and abroad, they were viewed as symbols of individual, racial, community, and national pride and 7 Free Templates | Microsoft Word, Resume And Job, as a unique creative accomplishment. As recognition from Worship - Ppt abroad grew so too did support at home from higher-status persons. The several factors that contributed to the gradually increased acceptance of the bands, the players, their instruments, and music indicate that this acceptance was achieved at Base Page Template (tcs) Success the expense of the bands’ independence and that it came about only after the musical repertoire had changed, business had exercised some control over the bands’ behavior (lighter-skinned, white, and higher-status people had joined the Welcome To St. Peter's Worship Video movement and the government openly supported it.) In short, it was not accepted on its own merits, but was changed by those who could confer legitimacy and higher status on it. Template! Paget Henry, writing on decolonization and neocolonialism, has observed that there is a locally rooted demand for Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Video foreign culture, persisting even after decolonization. As a result of colonial domination, the Thank - Free Printable | Creative, Happy colonized ceased to have an easy, creative, and self-reflexive relationship with their cultural environment.

Elements of it had now been systematically imposed from without. (Henry and Welcome To St. Worship - Ppt Video Download, Stone, 1983:115) Colonial domination further inhibited the demand for the words, songs, ideas, and other products of the local cultural system. There was a greater demand for Form | Resume Sections foreign cultural products. Welcome To St. Peter's Video Online Download! Decolonization only partially uprooted the set of social and psychological processes that generated the demand for imported culture. The demand for Powerpoint Template foreign culture shows no signs of abating, writes Henry (ibid.: 1l6), and the major dynamic in the foreign sector of the Welcome Peter's Worship cultural system is the institutionalization of Powerpoint Resume Template a growing American presence (ibid.:117). This helps explain why many Trinidadian intellectuals, artists, and musicians blame the lack of To St. - Ppt Video what they consider sufficient local support for the steelband on the influx of American music and lifestyle in general, which they feel many Trinidadians are adopting too readily, trying to 12+ Goodwill Sections, “live like Yankees” at the expense of their own culture’s contributions. Although steelband music has become much more accepted in Trinidad and Tobago and abroad, it still faces competition from foreign musical tastes and difficulties caused by technology, costs, and a lingering and deeply-rooted self-denigration on the part of many Trinidadians. I am deeply grateful for the invaluable assistance of Anthony and Avril Bryan, Mackie Burnette, Deborah Cabral, Rhode Island College Dean of Arts and Sciences David Greene, Professor Errol Hill of Dartmouth College, Yvonne James of Providence, RI , and Arima, Trinidad and Tobago, Cynthia Mahabir of Peter's Online Download Suffolk University, Boston, Ancil McLean, Judith Philip, Everald Philip, Charles Price, Kelvin Scoon, Daniel Segal, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Rhode Island College Faculty Research Committee and the talented and dedicated steelbandsmen and 12+ Goodwill Form | Resume Sections, women of Trinidad and Tobago. 1. Anonymous 1, 1985, personal interview, Port of Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Worship Download Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 2. 12+ Goodwill Form Sections! Anonymous 2, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

3. Araujo, Ralph, 1984, Memoirs of Welcome To St. Peter's Worship Video a Belmont Boy, Port of Morse Notebook Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 4. Bishop, Patricia, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 5. Peter's Sunday Worship - Ppt Video Online Download! Blood, Peter, 1983, People in Carnival , Port of 12+ Goodwill Form | Resume Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 6. Brereton, Bridget, 1979, Race Relations in Colonial Trinidad, 1870-1900, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 7. Brereton, Bridget, 1981, A History of Modern Trinidad, 1783-1962, Kingston, Jamaica: Heinemann University Press. 8. Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday Worship! Cho-Foon, Patrick, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Thank - Free Printable | Creative, Happy And I, Tobago. 9. Constantine, Carleton, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 10.

Craig, Susan, 1982, Contemporary Caribbean: A Sociological Reader. Vol. 2., Maracas, Trinidad and Welcome To St. Sunday Worship Download, Tobago, College Press 11. Da Silva, Fabio B., 1984, The Sociology of Thank Printable And I Am Music, Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. 12. DeLeon, Rafael, 1983, personal interview, Mt.

Lambert, Trinidad and Tobago. 13. Elder, J. D., 1968, Social Development of the Traditional Calypso of Trinidad and Tobago, Mimeographed, St. Welcome To St. Peter's Worship - Ppt Video! Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: University of the Morse Notebook West Indies. 14. Farquhar, M. E., 1952, Report of the Government Steel Bands Committee, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 15. Welcome Worship Online! Goddard, George, 1983, personal interview, Diego Martin, Trinidad and Tobago.

16. Gomes, Albert, 1974, Through a Maze of Colour, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Key Caribbean Publications. 17. Henry, Paget, and Carl Stone, editors, 1983, The Newer Caribbean: Decolonization, Democracy, and Resume Templates Resume Builder And Job, Development, Philadelphia: Institute for Welcome To St. Peter's Sunday - Ppt Video Download the Study of Human Issues. 18. Hill, Errol, 1972, The Trinidad Carnival, Austin: University of Texas Press. 19. Hill, Errol, 1983 , personal interview, Hanover, N.H. 20. Holman, Raymond, 1983, personal interview, Woodbrook, Trinidad and Tobago. 21.

Interim Report of the Committee Appointed to Consider the Role of the Steelband in the National Life, 1965, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 22. Keens-Douglas, Paul, 1979, When Moon Shine, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, College Press. 23. Keer, D. F., 1981, Music of the Pans, Information Bulletin Series F, 91, No. 4., Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Trinidad and Tobago Tourist Board. 24. Lovelace, Earl, 1979, The Dragon Can’t Dance, Essex, England: Longman Group. 25.

Mahabir, Cynthia, 1986, “Steeldrums,” Faces: The Magazine about People (Sept.):33-35. 26. Marshall, Bertie, 1972, “The Bertie Marshall Story,” Tapia, Vols. 1, 2, 4, 5. 27. Martin, Von, 1981, Audio tape on the Trinidad steelband movement, Washington, D.C. 28. Mohamed, Selwyn, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

29. Obika, Nyahuma, 1985, personal interview, Port of Vitek® Ms Customer Training Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 30. Pierre, Curtis, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 31. Pierre, Curtis, n.d., “History of the Drum” Script for slide/tape program, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 32. Pile, Oscar, 1983, personal interview, Barataria, Trinidad and Peter's Worship - Ppt Download, Tobago. 33. Word, Resume And Job! Scoon, Kelvin, 1985, personal interview, Bay Shore, Trinidad and Tobago. 34.

Seeger, Peter, 1961, The Steeldrums of Kim Loy Wong, New York: Oak Publications. 35. Shepherd, John C., 1979, “Music and Social Control: An Essay on the Sociology of Musical Knowledge,” Catalyst, 13:1-54. 36. Slater, Tony, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Welcome Peter's Worship Online, Tobago. 37. Morse Code Notebook! Warner, Keith Q., 1982, Kaiso!

The Trinidad Calypso, Washington, D.C.: Three Continents Press. 38. Weber, Max, 1958, The Rational and Social Foundations of Music, edited and Peter's Sunday Worship Video Online, translated by Resume Template, Don Martindale, Johannes Reidel, and Gertrude Neuwirth, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. 39. Yeates, George, 1983, personal interview, Belmont, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.