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biography series Teacher resources and professional development across the curriculum. Teacher professional development and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg classroom resources across the Car Quality - Preferred Services, curriculum. A video instructional series on American history for college and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg high school classrooms and adult learners; 26 half-hour video programs, coordinated books, and Web site. Professor Miller introduces A Biography of Management America and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg its team of historians. The program looks at the beginnings of 5+ New Sample Letterhead American history from west to east, following the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg first Ice Age migrations through the corn civilizations of Middle America, and the explorations of Columbus, DeSoto, and Flyer Template With Polygonal Pattern the Spanish. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? Go to this unit. As the American character begins to An Example For A A Resumeexamples, take shape in the early seventeenth century, English settlements develop in New England and Virginia. Their personalities are dramatically different. Professor Miller explores the origins of values, cultures, and economies that have collided in the North and South throughout the American story. Go to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, this unit.

Benjamin Franklin and Franklin's Philadelphia take center stage in this program. As the merchant class grows in the North, the Write A Behavior Plan: 3 Steps (with Pictures) economies of southern colonies are built on the shoulders of the slave trade. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? Professor Miller brings the American story to 1763 with the Flyer With | Free Peace of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg Paris and English dominance in Car Quality Info Auto Body Services, America. Go to this unit. Professor Maier tells the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg story of how the English-loving colonist transforms into the freedom-loving American rebel. The luminaries of the early days of the Republic -- Washington, Jefferson, Adams -- are featured in this program as they craft the Declaration of Word Label Templates -- and wage the War for -- Independence. Go to this unit.

After the War for Independence, the struggle for a new system of government begins. Professor Maier looks at the creation of the Constitution of the United States. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? The Republic survives a series of threats to its union, and How To Write A Behavior 3 Steps (with Pictures) the program ends with the deaths of John Adams and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg Thomas Jefferson on the Fourth of Template Pattern Vector July, 1826. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? Go to this unit. With Polygonal Vector Download? At the dawn of the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg nineteenth century, the Templates size of the United States doubles with the Louisiana Purchase.

The Appalachians are no longer the barrier to American migration west; the Mississippi River becomes the country's central artery; and Jefferson's vision of an Empire of Liberty begins to take shape. American historian Stephen Ambrose joins Professors Maier and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg Miller in examining the Flyer With Pattern Vector | Free consequences of the Louisiana Purchase -- for the North, the South, and the history of the country. Go to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, this unit. Individual enterprise merges with technological innovation to launch the Commercial Revolution -- the seedbed of American industry. The program features the ideas of Adam Smith, the An Example To Make A Resumeexamples efforts of entrepreneurs in New England and Chicago, the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg Lowell Mills Experiment, and Job How the engineering feats involved in Chicago's early transformation from Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg marsh to metropolis. Go to this unit. Bay Cariflags Compact: Partnership? The Industrial Revolution has its dark side, and the tumultuous events of the period touch off intense and often thrilling reform movements. Professor Masur presents the ideas and characters behind the Great Awakening, the abolitionist movement, the women's movement, and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg a powerful wave of religious fervor.

Go to this unit. Company Profile Sample Letterhead? While the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg North develops an industrial economy and culture, the Flyer Template Polygonal Pattern Vector | Free Download South develops a slave culture and economy, and the great rift between the regions becomes unbreachable. Professor Masur looks at the human side of the history of the mid-1800s by sketching a portrait of the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg lives of slave and master. Flyer Template With Polygonal Pattern | Free Download? Go to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, this unit. Simmering regional differences ignite an all-out crisis in the 1850s. Shower Invitation Templates: Flower Garden? Professor Martin teams with Professor Miller and historian Stephen Ambrose to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, chart the succession of incidents, from 'Bloody Kansas' to the shots on Fort Sumter, that inflame the conflict between North and South to Info - Preferred, the point of civil war. Go to this unit.

As the Civil War rages, all eyes turn to Vicksburg, where limited war becomes total war. Professor Miller looks at the ferocity of the fighting, at Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, and at the bitter legacy of the battle -- and the war. Go to this unit. Professor Miller begins the program by evoking in word and picture the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg battlefield after the battle of Gettysburg. With the With Polygonal | Free assassination of President Lincoln, one sad chapter of American history comes to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, a close. In the fatigue and cynicism of the Compact: A Public-Private To Civil War's aftermath, Reconstructionism becomes a promise unfulfilled.

Go to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, this unit. As America celebrates its centennial, 5 million people descend on Philadelphia to Resume To Make A Resumeexamples, celebrate America's technological achievements, but some of the early principles of the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg Republic remain unrealized. Professor Miller and his team of historians examine where America is in 1876 and discuss the question of Baby Invitation Templates: Flower Garden Whimsy race. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? Go to this unit. Steel and stockyards are featured in this program as the Write mighty engine of industrialism thunders forward at the end of the nineteenth century. Professor Miller continues the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg story of the American Industrial Revolution in New York and Resume To Make A Resumeexamples Chicago, looking at the lives of Andrew Carnegie, Gustavus Swift, and the countless workers in the packinghouse and on the factory floor. Go to this unit. Professor Miller explores the tension between the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg messy vitality of cities that grow on their own and those where orderly growth is planned. Chicago -- with Hull House, the World's Columbian Exposition, the new female workforce, the Bay Cariflags Compact: A Public-Private skyscraper, the department store, and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg unfettered capitalism -- is the place to watch a new world in the making at the turn of the Label Templates century. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? Go to this unit. 5+ New Profile Sample | Company? Professor Scharff continues the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg story of Jefferson's Empire of Liberty.

Railroads and ranchers, rabble-rousers and racists populate America's distant frontiers, and Native Americans are displaced from their homelands. Feminists gain a foothold in their fight for the right to vote, while farmers organize and the Populist Party appears on the American political landscape. Go to this unit. 5+ New Profile Sample | Company Letterhead? The making of money pits laborers against Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, the forces of capital as the twentieth century opens. Professor Miller introduces the miner as the Invitation Templates: Whimsy quintessential laborer of the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg period -- working under grinding conditions, organizing into unions, and making a stand against the reigning money man of the 5+ New Company Sample | Company day, J. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? Pierpont Morgan. Go to How To A Behavior Plan: 3 Steps (with, this unit. Professor Brinkley compares the presidencies of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson -- the Warrior and the Minister -- in Company Profile | Company Letterhead the first decades of the twentieth century. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? Professor Miller discusses American socialism, Eugene Debs, international communism, and Label Templates the roots of the Cold War with Professor Brinkley. Go to this unit. Professor Martin offers a fresh perspective on Progressivism, arguing that its spirit can be best seen in the daily struggles of ordinary people.

In a discussion with Professors Scharff and Miller, the struggles of Native Americans, Asian Americans, and African Americans are placed in the context of the traditional white Progressive movement. Go to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, this unit. The Roaring Twenties take to the road in Henry Ford's landscape-altering invention -- the Model T. Ford's moving assembly line, the emergence of Resume Job How To Make A Resumeexamples a consumer culture, and the culmination of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg forces let loose by these entities in Los Angeles are all explored by Professor Miller. Go to Of A Resume For A To Make A Resumeexamples, this unit. Professor Brinkley continues his story of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg twentieth century presidents with a profile of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

Brinkley paints a picture of America during the Depression and Profile Sample | Company Letterhead chronicles some of Roosevelt's programmatic and personal efforts to help the country through its worst economic crisis. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt is at FDR's side and, in many respects, ahead of him as the decade unfolds. Go to this unit. America is enveloped in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg total war, from mobilization on Templates, the home front to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, a scorching air war in Europe. Professor Miller's view of World War II is a personal essay on the morality of total war, and its effects on Profile | Company, those who fought, died, and survived it, including members of his own family. Go to this unit. World War II is fought to its bitter end in the Pacific and the world lives with the legacy of its final moment: the atomic bomb. Professor Miller continues the story as veterans return from the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg war and Bay Cariflags Compact: Partnership To create new lives for Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, themselves in the '50s. The GI Bill, Levittown, civil rights, the Cold War, and rock 'n' roll are discussed.

Go to this unit. Professor Scharff weaves the story of the Civil Rights movement with stories of the Vietnam War and Watergate to create a portrait of Word Label a decade. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? Lyndon Johnson emerges as a pivotal character, along with Stokely Carmichael, Fanny Lou Hamer, and other luminaries of the era. Go to 5+ New Company, this unit. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? The entire team of historians joins Professor Miller in examining the last quarter of the twentieth century. A montage of Polygonal Vector | Free Download events opens the program and sets the stage for Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, a discussion of the period -- and of the difficulty of examining contemporary history with true historical perspective. Television critic John Leonard offers a footnote about the impact of Invitation Flower Garden television on Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, the way we experience recent events. Go to this unit. Info Auto Services,? Storytelling is a relentless human urge and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg its power forges with memory to become the foundation of Life Insurance Underwriter Resume history.

Novelists Charles Johnson ( Middle Passage ), Arthur Golden ( Memoirs of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg a Geisha ), and Esmeralda Santiago ( America's Dream ) join Professor Miller in discussing the intersection of history and story. Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., closes the Top 8 Life Resume series with a reflection on the power of the human imagination. Go to this unit. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? Annenberg Foundation 2017. All rights reserved.

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lead vocalist resume Meet The Players. HANFORD LEE - Lead Vocalist/Emcee - 2000. A Sacramento, California native, Hanford’s bio is impressive with credits as one of the new Pips with the legendary Gladys Knight as well as a very sucsessful composing career for film and TV with dozens of major credits. His compositions can be heard on Terminator, Bad Boys II, Garfield, Man on Fire to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg only name a few. As well as being a superior front man for With Polygonal AEN, the Charismatic multi talented Lee has also been coordinating talent and producing major Corporate events for AEN since 2000. Hanford can be seen performing and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, featured on Flyer With Polygonal | Free, the new AEN DVD. Durell Coleman is best known to millions of Americans as one of the first $100,000 grand champions to emerge from the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg popular television show Star Search. Not suprisingly, Durell won the Life Underwriter Male Vocalist category. Since exploding on the scene , Durell has opened for Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg Anita Baker, The Temptations and toured the world with members of the legendary Earth, Wind Fire. AEN has produced DVD's for, and Car Quality - Preferred Body Llc, worked with Durell since 1993 as one of the original lead singers in Soulville.

Adam Aejay'e Jackson is a native of Detroit, Michigan, and now one of LA's top front male vocalist. Along with an impresive rising solo career, Adam is a powerful voice in his church. Adam's major credits include recording or touring with Stevie Wonder, Toni Braxton, Kenny Babyface Edmunds, David Foster, Vesta Williams, Charo, Linda Hopkins, Melissa Manchester, Marilyn McCoo Billy Davis, Jr. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. Carole Bayer Sager, and The bus boys. Flyer Template With Polygonal Pattern Vector | Free Download. Adam can also be seen performing on the new AEN DVD. Hailing from London England, Leroy has been a member of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, world renowned artiste Sade, since 1992 and is a featured singer/guitarist/ flautist and percussionist in her DVD of the Lovers Rock American tour of 2002.

He is also featured in Flyer With Polygonal Pattern Vector | Free Download, Sade video’s “Feel no pain”, “Nothing can come between us”, “Haunt me” and “Paradise”. Other major writing and live performances include George Michael, Tears for fears, Jeff Lorber, Rick Braun, and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, Eric Marienthal. Word Templates. Leroy has been a feature with AEN since 2000 and his dynamic voice and performance is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, featured in many formats on the new AEN DVD. Hailing from Conneticut, Dan is a triple threat. Singing rock, soul, jazz, and blues, Dan does it all. Word Label Templates. Dan's impressive resume includes backing up the legendary Luther Vandross, Bette Midler, REO Speedwagon, Tower of Power, and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, recently the Word American Idol Live shows. He has appeared on VH-1, MTV, and has performed with AEN's American Idol Live shows. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. Dan has also been a front man in a variety of theme show acts from 70's Disco to 80's hair metal/new wave, and U2 tribute acts. Life Underwriter. Dan's astounding versatility as a front man and guitarist are featured in several formats on Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, the new AEN DVD.

Hailing from Chicago, illinoisis Gavin is an incredible RB singer/musician extrodinare who as a teenager joined Chaka Khan and Rufus. Christopher then wrote the A Behavior Management Plan: (with hit song Once You Get Started, recorded by Chaka Khan and hit #10 on the Billboard Hot 100. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. Gavin went on Templates: Flower, to record several records as lead vocalist for Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg Curtis Mayfield, Herbie Hancock and An Example Of A For A Job How, Jeff Lorber. Gavin's own hit record One Step Closer to You hit #22 on Billboards Hot 100 as a solo artist on EMI Records. Gavin later joined Jack Mack and the Heart Attacks as lead vocalist and has been performing for AEN since 1999. Gavin can be seen performing Imagine on the unplugged set of the new AEN DVD.

Recently, Gavin was personally requested by Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, Barry Gordy to perform at his Motown 45th celebration. Hailing from Benton Harbor, Michigan, Diane has been a major force in Soulville since 1999. When Diane is not performing with Soulville she is starring in Wayne Brady’s Variety Show “Makin It Up” at the Venetian resort in Las Vegas, NV. Diane has done major tours singing with Christina Aguilera, Jessica Simpson, Peabo Bryson, George Clinton and Parliament Funkadelic. In addition, she has performed live television shows with Celine Dion, Cher, Christina Aguilera, and Templates, Kelly Clarkson. Diane was also a Star Search finalist. Diane has recently recorded with Neil Young and Rick Springfield. The multi talented Melissa Ann Smith hails from Toronto, Ontario, Canada. By the early age of 18, Melissa was signed with Interscope Records and has been a powerful musical presence ever since. Smith now 27, released her latest single I Believed on Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, iTunes in Car Quality Info Auto Services,, June, 2008.

Melissa has landed some big gigs with the legendary Celine Dion, The Black Eyed Peas, and JC Chasez. Melissa was also a feature on MTV's Making The Band 3 and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, the Celebrity Edition of Exposed. And, 3rd runner up on the reality TV show Pussycat Dolls Present: The Search For the Next Doll and she then hosted auditions for the show The Pussycat Dolls Present: Girlicious for CW 50. Melissa is a model for Miss Fitness, Sports By Brooks, Microsoft, Xbox, Sketcher and Dickies Girls. Hailing from Sydney, Australia, Shelly Sharmin is a beautifully gifted and versatile perofrmer. Car Quality - Preferred Auto Body Services,. Her charisma and stage presence will light up any event. Recently Shelly has been on the Brittney Spears world tour as a singer/dancer. Shelly has also been featured by Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, Universal.

Shelly has firmly established herself in Los Angeles studios as a seriuos vocal talent. Shelly is featured in several formats on the new AEN DVD. A native of A Behavior Management Plan: (with Pictures), Baton Rouge, Louisiana, This incredibly gifted singer/actress recently moved to LA and immediantly gained the attention of several industry leaders who signed her. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. Julie’s voice has a rare quality that stands out and Top 8 Life Insurance, she has received major studio attention. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. Julie’s talents caught the eye of , and landed gigs as a live and studio performer for Prince. Further leading to live performing and recording sessions with Christina Aguilera, Jesse McCartney, Stephanie Mills, Bebe Winans and Silk’s Lil’ G. Julie’s recent acting credits include roles in ABC’s “Commander and Chief” and Micro-Miniseries “Dirty and Car Quality Body Services,, Dirtierer”, NBC’s “Las Vegas”, Lifetime Television’s Strong Medicine and CBS’s “Two and a Half Men” and “N.C.I.S”. Julie has been performing in AEN’s The California Band and wowing our audiences and getting raves every time she performs. DANA WOOD - Drums/Percussion - 1992.

Hailing from Bostan, Massachusetts, Dana is one of the original AEN members of Soulville and the California band. Dana has a bachelor's degree in Music Performance at the University of Massachusetts where he studied Orchestral Percussion and Drum Set. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. Relocating to Los Angeles, he soon found himself playing at Disneyland and doing various studio sessions. Word. Dana's expertise with live corporate events, fundraisers, and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, Hollywood weddings makes him a first call for any major event. Dana has played for countless celebrities and major shows including American Idol live, backing up Jay Leno, Dustin Hoffman, William Shatner, former President Bill Clinton, Brooke Shields and for Oprah Winfrey's Fantasy Wedding TV special.

Dana is featured on Car Quality Info - Preferred Body, the AEN DVD. Hailing from Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg Oklahoma, Russ's resume is An Example Of A Resume For A Job How, amazing. 6 years with Tower of Power, then stints with Madona and Joe Cocker. Russ was voted #1 drummer 5 years in a row from Modern Drummer magazine readers poll. Russ is currently performing with Barry Manilow in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, Las Vegas. When Russ is - Preferred Services,, not performing with Manilow you will find him with AEN's The California Band. Russ is a graduate from North Texas State Uiversity ans has been working for AEN since March of 1999. A native Californian, born in Palm Springs, this Los Angeles based musician has worked with some of the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg best in the business. John is endorsed by DW Drums, Zildjian Cymbals, Pro-Mark Sticks. Hailing from Los Angeles, California, Roland Gajate Garcia is a touring , percussionist and educator.

Roland has toured with Diana Ross, Patti Labelle, Franky Valli and Car Quality - Preferred Auto Body Services,, Tamia. Roland has received his musical education from the prestigious Berklee School of Music and Cal State University Northridge. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. You can also catch Roland in various LA Latin clubs with the How To Plan: 3 Steps Yari More Orchestra, Latin Sol salsa band and Oskar Cartaya Enclave. Roland is also endorsed by Latin Percussion and Sabian cymbals. STEVE LANG - Keyboards - 1999. Hailing from New Jersey, Steve Lang is a very succsesful studio musician and a powerful live performer and has been a first call player on Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, the Los Angeles music scene for years. Graduating from Life Insurance Underwriter Resume Samples Berklee School of Music in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, Boston, Steve's work can be heard on thousands of Template With Polygonal Pattern | Free, film and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, TV sessions from the Baby Shower Invitation Templates: Garden Whimsy Osbournes, Entertainment Tonight, Dr.

Phil, Rachael Ray and the Insider. Steve has been a steady force in Soulville and the California Band holding down the keyboard chair for AEN since 1999. Grammy nominated Carlos Murguia hails from Mexico City, Mexico, where he came to the U.S. permanently in 1982, and became leader of the house band Krash at Disneyland and Walt Disney World for 10 years. That same band today is Luis Miguel's rhythm section. Since then he's become a L.A. studio musician/singer/producer, working with producers and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, artist David Foster, Humberto Gatica, Ariff Mardin, Patrick Leonard, Jorge Calandrelli, Pat Williams, Diane Warren, Luis Miguel, Enrique Iglesias, Billy Preston, Santana, and Tom Scott. Carlos can be heard singing lead and background vocals on the Soundtracks The Flinstones Movie • The Emperor's new Groove• Happy Feet • The Simpsons • Why do fools fall in love. Recently with Blood Sweat Tears (2006-2007), and Ellis Hall the Truth and Chuck Negron, formerly of An Example To Make, Three Dog Night. MARK MEADOWS - Bass - 1999.

Hailing from From KY, Mark Meadows (aka The Bass Cowboy) brings to the stage an incredible funky/rock bass style and impresive resume. For years Mark has played with the legendary Edgar Winter Band. before that Brian Auger's Oblivion Express, The Roseanne Barr show as Musical Director, Dweezil Zappa, Queen Latifa, Steve Lukather, Meredith Brooks and Lisa Loeb. Mark has several Tonight Show and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, The Late Show appearances with various artist. Mark has been laying down the Bass for AEN since 1999, perfoms our American Idol Live shows and Flyer With Pattern, is now a solid fixture in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, LA. (Hat optional) Born in Queens, New York, Adam’s prowess on An Example Of A Resume To Make A Resumeexamples, both the acoustic and 6-string electric bass has found him sharing stage studio with the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg likes of Ray Charles, The New York Voices, David Benoit, Maxine Nightingale, Ernie Watts, MC Lyte, Phil Upchurch, Gregg Karukas, Tim Weisberg, Connie Stevens, Mark Isham, Grant Geissman, and Engelbert Humperdinck. As a recording artist, his playing and composing is showcased on his two albums – 1994’s Gig Bag and his brand new release, Ritual.Adam's versatility makes him such an in demand Bassist. From Big Band Swing to Hip Hop Adam play's it all with the right feel. Hailing from Cleveland Ohio, Derek has been a major presence on the LA music scene. Derek studied at the University of Miami’s music program.

His touring credits include: Brian Auger’s Oblivion Express ,Aly AJ, the Dancing With the Stars” tours, Siedah Garrett, Christina Aguilera, Jennifer Paige, Alejandra Guzman, Bonnie McKee, and Rachel Yamagata. - Preferred Body Services,. Derek has endorsement deals with Celinder basses, Lakland basses, Aguilar amplifiers, Seymour Duncan pickups, and DR strings. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. Live Derek's monster grooves can be seen and heard in The California Band ROMEO BRUNE - Guitar/Lead Vocalist- 1992. Hailing from An Example Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Romeo is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, one of the original members of Soulville.

Some of Romeo's credits include musical director with Shanice, Troop on Car Quality Info - Preferred Services, Llc, the Keith Sweat and MC Hammer Tours, Tara Kemp, Vesta William, Brownstone, Howard Hewitt, Gerald Levert- Monica, Jeffrey Osborne and the New Edition. Television apperances on Arsenio Hall Jay Leno, MTV, BET. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. Recording Credits: Jeffrey Osborne, Motown Records, New Edition, LaFace Records, Atlantic Records, Georgio, and Flyer With Polygonal Vector | Free Download, Quincy Jones's Quest Record. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. As a studio musician Romeo's Tv/Movie Credits resume could fill the entire page.

Hailing from Templates St Louis, Mo, Daryl is no stranger to the big stage. Daryl was Albert King’s musical director for 4 years before tours with Lou Rawls, BB King, and Bobby Womack. Daryl is also in the revered “Blues Guitar Hall of Fame” In 2009, Garnering one of the industry’s biggest endorsements, Daryl caught the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg attention of the legendary artist George Benson who enlisted Daryl’s help for his upcoming “The New Standards” CD scheduled for Top 8 Life Insurance Samples release in early 2010. “Daryl is a phenomenal guitarist that the world needs to hear” -George Benson. Daryl performs live regularly with Soulville and the California Band. Daryl is a “Show within a Show” and there is no finer jazz soloist, vocalist, acoustic and flamenco guitarist in LA. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. Daryl is like having George Benson in our band. -Glen Holland.

Growing up in Detroit, Michigan, Terence was exposed to How To Management both “Rock n’ Roll” and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, “R B” music. These early influences culminated into a diversified career. In addition to his many album credits, he has an Top 8 Resume equally long list of Film and Television credits. Terence has toured and recorded with David Foster, Stevie Wonder, Destiny’s Child, Heather Headly, Jody Watley, George Michael, Brandy, Chuck Negron, John Tesh, Hippie Gypsies, Clay Aieken, Elliott Yamin, Blood Sweat Tears, Brenda Russel and James Ingram. Some Television credits include: NBA Basketball theme for NBC, NFL theme for NBC, and The Emmy Awards. AEN'S HOLLYWOOD HORNS. TOM EVANS - All Saxes/Flute - 1996. Tom has been full time with AEN for over a decade and his resume is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, outstanding as a top “in demand” studio musician, as well as a live and solo recording artist. Some of Word Label Templates, Tom’s gig’s include recording and touring with Rod Stewart, Carly Simon, Engelbert Humperdinck, and Wilson Phillips. TV and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, Film: Tom worked with Will Ferrell on Anchorman and did the famous “Jazz Flute Solo” with Will. “Austin Powers” - movie and How To Write Plan: 3 Steps (with, soundtrack (sax solo on “The Look of Love”) “Weird Al” Yankovic - “Poodle Hat” (2003 Grammy winner) The “Entertainment Tonight” and “Extra” Theme songs Dr. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. Phil, Rachael Ray, South Park, Scrubs, Sex and the City Hard Copy, Emmy Awards and Resume A Resumeexamples, The Tonight Show.

Tom is a USC Music Grad. Eric is more then the musicians musician. With two #1 smooth jazz records under his belt and 12 solo records, it is always an Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg honor when Eric plays with the AEN Bands. Word Label Templates. Eric has been a part of Chick Corea’s Elektric band for over 20 years. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. When Eric is not on the road with Chick you can also find him in AEN’s “The California Band” Eric also host the 94.7 Smooth Jazz radio show every Saturday morning. Car Quality Info - Preferred Services, Llc. Eric can be seen performing his #1 hit Blue Water on Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, the new AEN DVD. Hailing from Chicago, Ray has been with AEN since 1992 and was the original Tenor Sax in Soulville.

Ray’s resume includes American Idol concerts with Santana, Chicago, Herbie Hancock, Whitney Houston and An Example Resume Job How, Bob Dylan. Television performances on The Tonight Show, The Late Show, Late Night with Conan O’Brien, The Grammy Awards. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. Just recently with Bryan Adams, Babyface, Johnny Mathis, Kelly Clarkson and Stevie Wonder. Of A For A Job How To Make. Ray has recorded albums with Toto, Dr. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. Dre, Tupac Shakur, Alan Jackson, LeAnn Rimes, Gwen Stefani, Christine Aguilera, and George Benson. Ray has recorded 10 albums with The Brian Setzer Orch and you can hear Ray play the famous saxophone solo on the Grammy award winning “Jump, Jive, and Wail.” Ray has written songs for LeAnn Rimes’ and Christina Aguilera's Back to Basics. Recently, Ray has been on How To Write A Behavior Management (with, tour with the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg supergroup Chicago. Ray has a Masters degree in Music from the University of North Texas.

Ray can be seen on several AEN events. Hailing from Long Beach, Ca, Charlie is also one of the original members in Top 8 Life Insurance Underwriter, Soulville. Recently, Charlie has been playing on Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, the American Idol Show including the 2009 finale. He also backed up Aretha Franklin for the historic inauguration of President Barack Obama. He currently travels with The Brian Setzer Orchestra with whom he performed at The White House in Washington D.C. for President Bush. He has played live shows with performers such as Aretha Franklin, Stevie Wonder, Lionel Richie, Kenny Rogers, Santana, Queen Latipha, Kiss, Cyndi Lauper, The Temptations, The Four Tops, Tony Bennett and Prince.

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He has also performed with the National touring company's of Wicked, South Pacific, The Rat Pack, Dirty Dancin, Dirty Rotten Scoundrels, and A Chorus Line. Currently, when Nick is not filling in for Info - Preferred Body Llc the band Chicago you can find him performing live with AEN. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. As a freelance trombonist in Los Angeles, Lane has recorded on hundreds of Shower Flower Garden, CD's, TV shows and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, movies. he has played thousands of concerts, touring for many years with Rod Stewart, The Who, Tom Petty the Body Llc Heartbreakers, Neil Diamond, Etta James. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. He graduated Boston's Berklee college of music then joining jazz trumpeter Maynard Ferguson, recording 17 of his charts and on four of Maynard's albums beforee moving to L.A. Flyer Template Download. Nick has 3 solo CD's available on itunes. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. For further name dropping visit his website: Jeff Jorgenson hails from Orange County, California. Some of the artists Jeff has performed/ recorded with are Joe Sample, Tom Scott, Peggy Lee,The Temptations, Helen Reddy, Gladys Knight, Al Jarreau, Wayne Newton, Buddy Miles, The Four Tops, Max Bennett and Frankie Valle.

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Kane is An Example Of A Resume Job How A Resumeexamples, featured in several formats in the new AEN DVD. Kane works with our bands as well as solo formats. DJ JEN JEN- DJ Emcee 2004. Hailing from Boston, Mass, DJ Jen Jen has been gaining fans ever since her transition to LA in 2004. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. Spinning and emceeing some of the biggest celebrity events in LA, she is Word Label, quickly becoming and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, inDemand DJ for our clients. Jen Jen is now remixing several up and Top 8 Life Resume Samples, coming new artist in LA. Recent cLients include Magic Johnson and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, Barbra Striesand. DJ RIPP - DJ Emcee - 2001. From Atlanta Georgia, DJ Ripp has been blazzing the Label Templates local night club scene in LA since 2000. Spinning and mixing years before becoming one of the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg most sought after LA/OC live DJ's.

RIPP has remixed several projects for Quincy Jones III and can be heard and countless movie sound tracks including several cartoon shows for nickelodeon. THE AEN GROOVE DANCE TROUP. WES PATTERSON - Live sound Engineer - 1992. Glen Holland and Wes Patterson have a partnership dating back to 1987 while writing songs for Belinda Carlisle. Wes went on to become owner and CEO of Pro Music Exchange in Orange Ca. (with. Pro Music is one of the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg largest music retailers in Orange and LA Counties.

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Why aren't All Songs Recorded at the Same Loudness and What is Wrong With Music Nowadays? If you have a large CD and/or MP3 collection that contains more than just music of a short time period, you may have noticed that not all CDs or MP3s sound equally loud. The differences can be quite large, sometimes you really have to crank the volume and at other times the first few notes of a new song or album may cause you to jump in the air and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg reach for the volume knob as fast as possible. You may also have noticed that you mostly have to turn down the volume with more recent music and turn it up with older music. Or, you may just have a feeling that recent music rubs you the A Behavior Plan: 3 Steps, wrong way but you can't pinpoint the reason.

Why is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, this? I wrote this article around the Baby Shower Invitation Templates: Flower, end of 2008, but I occasionally update it if I discover new interesting facts, so you may want to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, check back from time to time. Baby Invitation Flower Garden Whimsy? I plan to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, add some amplitude histograms if I have the time. The maximum amplitude of recorded sound waves is limited, either by the physical properties of the recording medium or by the digital representation. Label? Digital audio is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, most commonly represented as 16-bit numbers, and these numbers can only Label, represent a limited set of values. So you might be thinking that louder songs just go higher in these numbers, but this is incorrect: every well-mastered song will use (almost) the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, entire range that can be represented by 16-bit numbers. The actual reason why two recordings that employ the Word Label Templates, same range of values on the same medium can differ in perceived loudness, will be explained further on. The dynamic range of a recording medium is defined as the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, highest amplitude it can represent, divided by the smallest amplitude it can (reliably) represent. For 16-bit digital audio (such as the CD or decoded MP3 audio) this is 96dB. A high-quality freshly manufactured vinyl record can exceed 70dB but your average worn-out LP will score quite a bit worse.

Human hearing ranges from 0dB(A) to 120dB(A), but anything above 100dB(A) is to be avoided because it will cause permanent hearing damage. In practice, any realistic ‘silent’ environment will have a background noise level of about 30dB(A). This explains why the 70dB of vinyl records was adequate. All the CD did was increase the Flyer Template Vector Download, margin, cater for perfectly silent environments, and of course avoid the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, gradual degradation of an analog medium. Flyer Polygonal Pattern | Free Download? Mind that I am mixing dB(A) and dB here, which is not exact science.

Yet, even when taking large error margins into account for this, it is obvious that the 96dB dynamic range of 16-bit audio is plenty for consumer audio. Similarly, the dynamic range of a piece of music can also be defined. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? Evidently it cannot exceed the dynamic range of the medium it was recorded on. Resume Job How A Resumeexamples? It is however far less obvious to provide a strict definition of the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, dynamic range of a recording than for a recording medium. Roughly it is also the loudness of the loudest peaks in Car Quality - Preferred Body Llc the song, divided by the loudness of the most silent parts. This definition is too rough though, because it would assign maximal dynamic range to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, a recording of a non-stop car horn at maximum amplitude with only one second of Write A Behavior Management (with Pictures) pure silence somewhere in the middle. Anyone would agree that this has virtually no range at all. It makes more sense to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, chop up the Top 8 Life Samples, song into short fixed-length parts and average out the dynamic range measured over each part. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? Or better, to obtain statistics sampled densely across the A Behavior Management, entire recording and somehow derive a single dynamic range figure from that.

However, I know of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg no real standard method for this. It is How To 3 Steps (with, perfectly possible to record two versions of the same song that both use the entire range of 16-bit digital audio, but with one sounding much louder than the other. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? The trick is to use dynamic range compression (1) . If all silent parts in a song are boosted up to Info - Preferred Services,, a higher level, the song will sound louder on average. The catch is that by reducing the difference between the lowest and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg highest amplitudes, the song loses part or all of its variations in volume. Its dynamic range will be effectively reduced. Flyer With Polygonal? In practice, the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, techniques used are more refined and often different frequency bands will be compressed separately.

The latter is called “multi-band compression”. The following figures illustrate dynamic range compression. I took part of the intro of Body Llc ‘Money for Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg Nothing’ from Dire Straits from 1985, one of the first songs to demonstrate how much more dynamic range the CD offered compared to records and tapes. The figures show the audio waveform, which depicts differences in air pressure over time. The centre line corresponds to silence and Of A Resume A Resumeexamples the top and bottom of the image correspond to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, the most positive, respectively negative change in sound pressure that can be represented. This waveform is the Polygonal, kind of information stored on Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg a CD or in an MP3 file. As you can see, the waveform covers the entire range and has sharp peaks corresponding to Baby Templates: Flower Garden, the snappy drums, hi-hats and cymbals. Those peaks are there just because the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, instruments themselves produce them. By faithfully reproducing the peaks, the recording sounds ‘live’ as if the musicians are sitting where your loudspeakers are.

Now, the only way to Word Label, make this sound louder without touching the volume knob on the amplifier hooked up to the CD player/iPod/whatever, is to alter the waveform in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg the following way: What I did here is use a fairly aggressive compressor on the sound waves, considerably boosting each silent part whenever it goes below a threshold for more than a few milliseconds. The waveform still occupies the entire range, but spends more time near the maximum values, hence on average it will sound much louder. Now, suppose I had already tuned my amplifier's volume knob such that the first waveform shown above corresponds to How To Write 3 Steps (with, an agreeable loudness. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? My new inflated sound wave will sound way too loud on the same setting, hence I turn down the knob until it sounds more or less as loud as the original. This proved to correspond to a difference of about 8dB: As you can see, the Of A For A Job How To Make A Resumeexamples, waveform looks similar to the first one, with the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, big difference that all sharp peaks have been obliterated . They are gone and Car Quality Body Services, there is no way to get them back without knowing what the original waveform actually looked like.

The area outside the two red lines in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg this image cannot be used anymore, because the Template Pattern | Free Download, area in between them now corresponds to the full 16-bit amplitude range. In audio mastering terms, we say that the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, compressed version of the track has less headroom than its original that could still use this extra amplitude range. Compressing a song is akin to Write A Behavior Management Plan: (with, putting a car into a car crusher. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? Restoring the dynamic range is like trying to reconstruct the original car from Top 8 Insurance Underwriter Resume, that crushed lump of steel. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? Dynamic range compression is an irreversible destruction of any nuances in the music. It is easy to go from the uncompressed waveform to the compressed one, but the inverse is Shower Invitation Flower Garden, extremely hard if not impossible (2) . The compressed version sounds similar to the original but it lacks the punch and liveliness because everything has been brought to the same amplitude.

It is like taking the score for a classical composition and erasing all dynamic indications from “pianissimo” to “fortissimo” . Mind that the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, above was still a reasonable example. How To Management Plan: 3 Steps (with? If this song had been recorded in 2010 and Dire Straits would be as hip as Lady Gaga, the producers would probably have done everything to make every sound-wave splatter against Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, the most extreme levels. In other words, the waveform could look like this: Yes, this is still the same piece of music — at least what's left of it. I have some actual MP3s that look like this and they sound like s**t. This illustrates that aggressive dynamic range compression squeezes all the punch and life out of a song, turning it into a continuous car horn that only Template With Polygonal Vector | Free, changes its tone.

It makes the music less interesting and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg more fatiguing to listen to. Resume Job How To Make? Heavily compressed music often sounds as if it is choking and gasping for breath when all the other instruments are momentarily muted by a loud drum sound. You can either turn up the volume and then the song parts that should have been silent will sound too loud, or you can turn down the volume and the parts that should have been loud will be too silent. In all these examples the compressor was configured to maintain the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, shape of the Templates, sound waves. It is possible to go even louder by distorting the sound waves such that they clip against the maximum levels. So you may be wondering, “why would anyone do such thing? Certainly no professional sound producer would even think of applying such an insane degree of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg compression, right?” Wrong.

There is one appealing aspect to dynamic range compression: actually the only ‘advantage’, as illustrated above, is that compressed music sounds louder if one plays it after a recording with a less aggressive compression without touching the volume knob . Of course, a DJ or electronic limiter on Resume Job How a radio station, or anyone listening on Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg an iPod or Hi-fi installation will just turn down the volume if your song sounds louder than someone else's. This will make your song sound like a silent car horn after a 1985 song which sounded like a live act. So actually there is Car Quality - Preferred Services, Llc, almost no point in aggressively compressing your music except to make it sound boring. So again, you may think: “then certainly nobody compresses music so aggressively, right?” Wrong. Dynamic range compression made sense in the days of low-quality vinyl records and cheap cassettes, because those had such poor dynamic range themselves that the music constantly needed to be at a high volume to mask the background noise. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? When the Top 8 Life Resume Samples, CD became popular, most new albums (like “Brothers In Arms” from Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, Dire Straits) embraced its huge 96dB (theoretical) dynamic range. Of course, a certain degree of compression remained necessary to get a balanced overall sound, but during about a decade music kept on being mastered with an awesome dynamic range and all was good.

The dynamic range of How To Write A Behavior Plan: (with recordings however has started declining steadily since the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, year 1990, and at Car Quality Info Body Services, Llc, the time of this writing some albums are at what I consider the limit of dynamic range compression. “By the Way” from the Red Hot Chili Peppers is an example: I tried if I could squeeze out Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, some more dynamic range out of the song “By the Way” with the most aggressive compressor possible, but I could only remove an additional 1dB, which is barely perceivable. If one would go any further, music will simply start to An Example Resume Job How To Make, sound awful. The increase of perceived loudness at the cost of declining dynamic range is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, often referred to as the “Loudness Wars” . Most producers seem to assume that nobody knows what a volume knob is and don't want their album to sound less ‘loud’ than the competition when played on Life Insurance Underwriter Resume Samples a fixed-volume system, so they will compress it either just as much or more. The result is a death spiral of increasing loudness and decreasing sound quality. I have been able to measure the effect of the Loudness Wars on my own music collection.

I didn't directly measure dynamic range, but I used the ReplayGain values for each song. In short, ReplayGain (RG) computes an ‘ideal’ volume adjustment to make each song sound equally loud at Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, a certain reference level. It's similar to the ‘Sound Check’ feature built into Write 3 Steps (with iTunes, but more refined (it still is not perfect though). When comparing songs that use the entire 16-bit range, a more negative RG value implies less dynamic range, because if a song needs to be attenuated to e.g. −10dB, it can never attain any amplitudes above −10dB (cf. the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, compression example above). A song with a RG value of 0dB (no change) on the other hand has 10dB of 3 Steps (with Pictures) extra headroom to produce interesting volume variations. In other words, when all songs have been normalised such that their waveforms span the entire 16-bit range, their ReplayGain value is a good indication of their dynamic range (up to some fixed offset). It is not a perfect measurement but good enough for what I want to demonstrate. The Loudness Wars are reflected in ever more negative ReplayGain dB values with decreasing age of releases. The graph below shows the average peak-normalised RG gain per release year for a collection of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg about 4000 songs. Flyer Pattern? The songs aren't uniformly distributed, but most are from the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, period 1990-2005, which is the period we're interested in.

To give a frame of - Preferred Body Llc reference, I did some tests with ReplayGain. A 440Hz peak-to-peak square wave, which is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, about the loudest possible ‘sensible’ sound, causes a RG value of An Example For A −18dB . Many current songs are at −12dB, so there's only Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, 6dB distance between current ‘music’ and a car horn . (It is possible to go even louder, the limit seems to Underwriter, be a 3700Hz square wave which will push ReplayGain down to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, −24dB.) The worst song in my collection is ‘Parallel Universe’ (you can guess the artist) at Word Label, −14.1dB . Only 3.9 dB distance! To get really to the limit, I insanely amplified a song until it only contained clipped waveforms, i.e. amplitudes of −1 and 1. The result has a RG gain of −19dB and is painful to listen to even at Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, low volume (3) . Hence, if the above graph would continue its downward trend, music in Resume For A To Make A Resumeexamples the year 2020 would have degenerated to this kind of awful noise . One could be tempted to conclude from the above graph that the dynamic range of songs in 2009 has dropped back to the same level as of hissing and crackling shellac records around 1929. However, even though this could be true, the part of the graph before 1980 is very inaccurate since all songs from before 1983 were digitally remastered from various sources and in various ways. The rightmost part however clearly shows the systematically increasing aggressiveness of dynamic range compression from 1990 on. It is even so bad that if you buy a new compilation of old music, the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, tracks on that compilation are likely to have been compressed too and stripped of Baby Invitation Whimsy their original dynamic range. My advice is not to buy new compilations unless you know they contain unmodified tracks. Buy the original albums instead, if you can still get hold of them. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? The following image shows an example of this: the upper half is the Underwriter Resume Samples, waveform for the original “Michael Woods Ambient Mix” of “Cafe del Mar” by Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, ‘Energy 52’ from 2002. The lower part shows a copy taken from a compilation from 2006.

According to ReplayGain, the latter is 5.5dB louder. It is obvious that the waveform had to be distorted to How To Write Management Pictures), achieve this (4) . It does not end there: often, remasterings of popular albums are released. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? The goal of a remaster should be to make a better quality version of the Of A For A Job How A Resumeexamples, exact same album by using more modern equipment than was available at the time when the original album was released. It may seem contradictory but a good remaster should be hard to distinguish from the original on Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg anything but high-end audio systems. It should be the exact same recording with perhaps less noise and glitches, and maybe some soundstage tweaking and/or equalising — if really necessary. In other words, less distortion . However, nowadays there is Top 8 Life Resume Samples, a considerable risk that the person responsible for the remaster will succumb to the trendy temptation of making it sound ‘louder’.

This will make the remaster actually contain more distortion than the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, original and it will be more suited for pressing on Word Label Templates a vinyl record or recording on a cassette. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? I guess records and Of A For A To Make cassettes are the next big thing in consumer audio equipment, and will soon replace the outdated CD and MP3 players. Why else would these brilliant sound engineers, who obviously know what they're doing, be remastering albums this way? Of course I am being sarcastic here. It is probably with pain in their hearts that most sound engineers turn the knobs way beyond what they find acceptable, because their superiors demand it. They have spent a lot of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg creativity and sweet time on Flyer Polygonal Download making that greatly improved master and then someone says “OK, now run it over with a steamroller or you're fired” . This makes buying recently remastered albums so frustrating: I know they will indeed sound noticeably better in many aspects but they will also be noticeably worse in other aspects. You can see an Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg example below: it is a fragment from the album “Industrial Silence” by Top 8 Life Insurance, Madrugada.

The stereo waveform from the original 1999 album is shown in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg red, with the waveform of the 2010 remaster overlaid in black, after adjusting the volume for Invitation equal loudness. In this case the difference is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, not very large because the loudness wars were already in full effect in 1999. What happens when the original album was older? Well, if you buy a remaster of an Of A To Make A Resumeexamples eighties album nowadays, you can be pretty certain that it too has been trimmed with the dynamic range lawnmower in an attempt to make it more competitive with current hit chart drivel on Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg the ‘unadjusted volume’ front. The following image shows the same kind of Baby Shower Invitation Flower Garden overlay for Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg a 25 millisecond fragment out of Michael Jackson's “Off the Wall” album. The black waveform is Car Quality Auto Body Llc, from the 2009 remaster, which is about 5dB louder. As you can see they did not even bother to try anything advanced to prevent clipping. The waveform is simply amplified and brick-wall clipped. I have seen this on Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg other albums as well. My guess is that they take the Write A Behavior Management Plan: (with, old master and amplify it such that say 1% of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg all samples are crushed against the brick wall of the digital extremes. I have also seen cases where they tried to be smart by first smashing the waveforms this way and then slightly reducing the amplitude again, to make the album stay under the radar of simple clipping detectors.

Of course in Polygonal Pattern | Free Download practice this makes no difference. If you're lucky, those 1% of samples will all be very sharp peaks and the distortion caused by clipping them will not be audible. If you are less lucky, those samples will be grouped and their clipping will result in an audible crackle that cannot be removed by any tweaking of your sound system. Unlike analog media which have a kind of graceful degradation at their extreme levels, digital clipping is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, instant and hard, and the resulting distortion is therefore maximally unpleasant. Really, I do not understand why people believe old albums can be improved by How To Management 3 Steps, destroying their original dynamic range. It baffles me how producers can still believe in the flawed ideas behind the whole loudness wars but this butchering of ‘classic’ albums puzzles me the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, most. Why would they need to sound louder? The young target group for loud albums does not care about those old albums anyway, they want to hear the Underwriter Samples, latest new stuff. Really the only advantage in terms of remastering quality is that if overall amplitude can be boosted by 6dB — which is about the maximum if the music is not to be maimed too obviously — one bit of digital resolution can be gained.

Which is utterly pointless because nobody except perhaps hardcore audiophiles will notice that one measly extra bit. There is no doubt that aggressive dynamic range compression (DRC) is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, useful in certain situations. Shower Flower? The main question of this whole article is: why don't we just put the DRC in each playback device and make it optional, such that consumers can choose to sacrifice dynamics for signal-to-noise ratio whenever they are in those certain situations? Put otherwise, is there any benefit from remastering albums and steamrollering all dynamics for the sake of ensuring 16-bit resolution at any moment in time? Let's start with those specific situations where DRC is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, desired.

I can only think of three: The consumer wants to listen to music in an environment that has so much background noise that the silent parts are drowned out. The consumer has busted their own ears and has constant tinnitus that is equivalent to How To A Behavior Management Plan: (with Pictures), constant background noise that drowns out silent parts. The consumer wants to turn down the volume such as not to disturb other people nearby, but still wants to hear all parts of the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, music. Now let's consider what happens when we simply boost existing material having less than 16 bit resolution in those cases. The first two cases are equivalent. Essential about them is that there is a lot of background noise , the whole reason why the listener wants to boost the silent parts. Assume the background noise is at 60dB(A) and a part that only Of A Resume Job How, stretches a 13-bit range is being boosted to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, 16-bit range by a compressor in the playback device. This would amplify the quantisation noise as well, by 18dB.

Will this matter? No! If the quantisation noise was unnoticeable at Write Management Plan: 3 Steps, a normal background level of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg 30dB(A), then even after amplification it will still be completely masked by An Example Resume For A To Make, 60dB(A) of noise. In the third case of turning down the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, volume, the DRC will in fact only Car Quality Info Services,, affect the loud parts there, and leave the silent parts untouched. Adding more resolution to the silent parts is futile. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? In other words, the argument of squeezing more bits of resolution out of the limited 16-bit range is With Polygonal Vector | Free, bogus. The DRC belongs in the playback device, not on the album itself. The majority of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg people listen to their music through an MP3 player nowadays. Auto Services,? As soon as music is encoded to a lossy format like MP3 or AAC, those few bits of extra resolution get totally drowned in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg quantisation noise. The whole point of Top 8 Life Samples these formats is to throw away most of the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, resolution in Car Quality Auto Body a way that has minimal audible impact. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? The fact that music can apparently be represented adequately with on average as little as three bits per sample , is another indication that nobody will notice a boost of a few bits.

Only in very silent parts the reduction in noise floor level may be noticeable, but there will be no silent parts because destroying them is the whole point of the loudness wars anyway! The loss of Baby Shower Invitation Whimsy dynamics and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg added distortion will remain noticeable though. Worse, because lossy compression like MP3 has a tendency to cause overshoots (i.e. it makes sound waves extend further in amplitude than the unencoded waveform), there is a risk of Baby Shower Templates: additional clipping and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg therefore distortion. This is also why I am somewhat wary of services like ‘iTunes Match’. It will likely use recent remasters for Template the ‘matched’ songs, so don't be surprised if songs sound differently between your mobile device and your main computer. In the first decade after the CD became mainstream it was heavily frowned upon if an album contained more than just a tiny fraction of samples near the most extreme digital values. Even a single sample at those extremes (i.e. zero or 65535 for 16-bit samples) was considered a recording flaw. There were even electronic devices that one could hook up to a CD player, which alerted when significant ‘clipping’ was detected. On most current releases those detectors would light up like a christmas tree.

The image below shows three waveform fragments from the song “Dani California” by the Red Hot Chili Peppers, and I really didn't need to search long to find them, the track is full of clipping sound-waves. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? Such extreme degree of clipping becomes clearly audible as a kind of Flyer Template | Free Download crackling noise. Buying an album like that, is like buying cookies and noticing that someone in the factory already bit parts off every cookie. Or like buying a vinyl record in 1980 and noticing that it has been pre-scratched with a knife in the factory. Or in my car example, buying a new car that has already been crushed. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? All good recording practices have been thrown out of the window just to get those few extra deciBels on the audio systems of people too lazy to adjust their volume knob. Of course, there must be some reason why music is systematically being destroyed nowadays, and there is. I believe the - Preferred Auto Body Services, Llc, whole drive behind the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, Loudness Wars is the flawed idea that “louder is Pictures), better” . When you're going to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, buy a sound system in Word Label Templates a store and the salespersons ‘helping you out’ know what they are doing, they will play music slightly louder on the system they want to sell you (i.e. probably the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, most expensive one). How To Write 3 Steps? Even if a system produces a slightly poorer sound, it will still sound “better” to an untrained listener if it plays louder and the listener is not given enough time to detect any shortcomings.

The music industry has picked up on this and has applied it to albums, assuming that people will do a cursory comparison on an identical sound system when deciding which album to buy. In the absence of loudness compensation the “hot” music, as it is often called in the industry, does appear to sound ‘better’ the first few seconds you hear it. If a quick and very superficial comparison has to be made between sounds, the loudest will win. By the time you notice that each song sounds drab and boring after its blaring intro, you have probably already bought it. Moreover, if an album is mastered louder, it is possible to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, get more loudness out Polygonal Pattern Download, of the same audio system, if distortion is ignored. Hence teenagers who mostly don't care if stuff starts clipping and crackling, can get more racket out of their cheap audio systems, iPods and tinny cell phone speakers and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg destroy their hearing more effectively.

In this respect, the Plan: 3 Steps Pictures), loudness restrictions for MP3 players imposed by the European Union and other instances are not helpful, in fact they only contribute to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, the loudness wars. Baby Invitation Templates:? Although those restrictions specify a maximum deciBel value, manufacturers won't do the effort to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, build an accurate loudness meter into Info - Preferred Body Llc their devices. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? They just use a conservative estimate of how loud the worst case signal is and Invitation Templates: Whimsy limit the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, unit's amplifier such that with the volume at maximum, this worst case signal will produce a loudness just below the limit. Of course, properly mastered music is much more silent than this worst case signal for the simple reason that the worst case signal is awful noise . The only way to make the music louder is to make it more like the worst case signal . The whole concept of these restrictions is Templates, completely flawed anyway even if the MP3 player would accurately measure the loudness of the output signal. The loudness depends heavily on the kind of head- or earphones that are plugged in, and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg one can always go louder with an extra headphone amplifier. Of course, the trend towards boring music which constantly has the same volume fits within our disposable society: it may seem great that people will get bored of a song after a few listens so they will want to find new songs. A nasty side effect the record companies do not want to understand is that people do not want to pay much — if anything at all — for music anymore because they know that the new songs will be just as boring and annoying after a few listens. An Example A Resumeexamples? I had no problem shelving the regular CD price for Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg ‘Brothers in Arms’ even 20 years after its release, but I am very hesitant to buy a modern album even from the bargain bin because I might hate it after listening to it only twice. I have long given up on most mainstream music anyway because it all sounds the same, and that's not just because it all has zero dynamic range. An Example Of A Resume Job How A Resumeexamples? Everyone is trying to throw all the same success formulas of the past few decades together, with often an Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg overdose of the Label Templates, horrible ‘AutoTune®’ sauce on top to mask the incompetence of the singer or just to be trendy. All songs go through exactly the same mastering pipeline, meticulously constructed by Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, people who believe it is the ultimate way to produce music.

What comes out of that pipeline is a constipated slurry of non-stop ‘perfection’. Baby Templates: Garden Whimsy? It is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, all so clean, polished, and Word Label similar that it becomes utterly boring very fast, because there is no offset to make that perfection stand out. Maybe Michael Jackson, the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, King of Pop, didn't die because of Body Llc wrong medication but because of the death of Pop itself. The RIAA and friends often distribute preposterous reports in which massive losses due to piracy are claimed. The way in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg which those losses are calculated is naive and simplistic: an estimate for the total number of pirated songs is multiplied by the profits that an average song produces when sold through an RIAA-approved channel.

That's not how it works, folks. Of all copied songs, only With, a very tiny fraction would have actually been sold legally if it were impossible to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, copy music, because an awful lot of people just copy the song because they can, not because they really want it. Moreover, many people learn to Life Insurance Resume, know good music through pirated copies. At some point they either want a better-quality copy and/or decide that the artists deserve to be paid and they buy the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, album anyway. Chances are that for Word the next albums of their newfound favourite band they'll skip the effort of pirating and buy them right away. Those are all profits that would not exist without piracy. By making music more disposable however, the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, risk increases that people will hate the music before coming to Baby Invitation Templates: Flower Garden Whimsy, the stage of wanting to buy a legal copy. So the ever increasing destruction of dynamic range is yet another typical back-firing Music Industry practice, like the ridiculous copy protection ideas that almost killed the CD. When I said “skip the effort of pirating” I assumed that it is easier to obtain and use a legal copy than a pirated one, which is another important fact that the music and movie industries often overlook. For instance, a legally bought movie on DVD or BluRay often forces the consumer to sit through trailers and commercials and insulting copyright warnings that cannot be skipped. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? The consumer is already considered a criminal before even having watched their legally bought movie!

That's one heck of a way to lower the threshold towards actual criminality. A big fat self-fulfilling prophecy waiting to happen. Likewise, DRM on music downloads is Word Templates, transparent at best, but in reality it is often an added hassle. By polluting music with DRM, one increases the inclination for people to obtain a DRM-free pirated copy. Is there any way to encourage record companies to go back to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, making enjoyable music? Maybe. If it would become mandatory to apply something like ReplayGain or Sound Check to Top 8 Life Insurance Resume Samples, each recording as a final mastering step or if each and every audio playback device would be equipped with a similar automatic loudness adjustment, there will be no point at all to over-compress the music. It would only make it more obvious that aggressively compressed music sounds boring. Another enormous advantage would of course be that nobody will have to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, fiddle with the volume knob anymore between albums or songs. Please stop destroying music and start investing in Write A Behavior Management (with Pictures) research for such systems.

I conclude this text with another poignant example of the Loudness Wars. I'm kind of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg a fan of the band Mogwai . They pioneered a unique style of Label Templates music in which silent parts alternate with or gradually build up to a wall of sound of roaring electric guitars. Here are the average ReplayGain values for each of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg their albums I have: As you can see, in nine years Mogwai lost a whopping 8.7dB of dynamic range. That is Insurance Underwriter, worse than I could pull off in my little experiment I started this article with. For a band whose style basically is dynamic range , that's just terrible. If any of you Mogwai guys read this, please punch your producer in the face. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? Unsurprisingly, ‘Mr. Beast’ is my least favourite album of How To Write Management Plan: (with theirs.

Luckily, as their latest album shows — which I liked almost as much as ‘Young Team’ — they seem to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, have seen the Life Samples, error of their ways and went back in the right direction, somewhat. Apparently in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg 2008 they also re-mastered ‘Young Team’ and Baby Invitation Flower Garden Whimsy made it ‘sound louder’ , and we all know what that means. I'm not interested in that re-master: if I want my original copy to sound louder I'll just crank the volume (as always). Dynamic range compression is not all evil. A certain reasonable degree of compression will always be necessary to produce a properly mastered album.

And even the exaggerated kind of compression that is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, so fashionable nowadays can be useful in certain situations . Life Resume Samples? For instance when listening to your iPod in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg a noisy environment, or in a car where the constant rumble of the tyres and engine drowns out silent sounds. Next to the silly “louder is better” idea, the fact that many people now consume music in such poorly conditioned situations has probably also motivated the guys behind the knobs in the recording studio to constantly max out the amplitude. Music devoid of any dynamic range is also more suited as background music, for which being uninteresting is actually a quality . Heavily multi-band compressed music does sound better on the low-quality earbuds and Baby Templates: Flower Whimsy typical worthless bass-deprived tiny portable speakers that many people connect to their iPods. This does not mean however that people with a perfect Hi-Fi system at home or noise-cancelling headphones should be denied the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, dynamic range when they want to enjoy a good album. Dynamic range compression can improve the listening experience on less-than-ideal devices, but it will limit the experience on high-end devices to something lower than the Insurance Samples, system could theoretically render. The overproduced music that roams the charts today is annoying to listen to on Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg a good system or with good headphones. Instead of putting silly things like 20 useless equaliser presets with nonsensical names like “Jazz” in car radios and MP3 players, a dynamic range compressor should be included that can be enabled when desired. Any processing to make tiny speakers sound better should happen inside those speaker sets themselves , not while mastering the album. I once had a cassette Walkman with a kind of compressor built-in, it is not really cutting-edge technology. Remember, it is easy to go from uncompressed to compressed music but the inverse is near impossible.

Therefore it makes much more sense to master albums with the minimum required amount of Top 8 Insurance Resume compression, and allow the consumer to apply additional compression in their playback devices when desired. This also opens up a market for compression algorithms that can be licensed on Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg a per-device-sold basis, which will be much more profitable than charging outrageous prices for those few units that can be sold to recording studios. Likewise, I am not claiming that everyone should go back to producing their albums like in 1990. There are songs for which insanely over-compressed distorted mastering actually works, like “Fresh Blood” by Eels. Baby Shower Flower? That song scores a whopping −12.2dB ReplayGain value and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg its amplitude histogram is almost the same as of For A A Resumeexamples pure noise. It just fits the style of that song, it would not be the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, same with clean mastering. However, it does not make any sense to apply this same style to all but the hardest rocking Red Hot Chili Peppers tracks or music like Mogwai's, and certainly not to ambient music.

From visitor statistics I can see that many people who reach this page search for Top 8 Life Samples things in internet search engines like “why some music sounds better on cheap speakers”, “nowadays music is just noise”, “music sounds louder now”, “overproduced music sounds the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, same”, “how to find pre loudness war cds”, “over compressed music sounds worse as mp3” , and Invitation Templates: Flower Garden Whimsy one of my favourites: “why do the red hot chili peppers songs crackle” . It is funny to see this, and encouraging. To those people who arrived on this page looking for software that can undo dynamic range compression: I am sorry to say that you should now understand that it does not exist. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? Even if anyone would try to make it, it will not work well no matter what. And for the albums that were mastered so poorly that they clip and Word crackle, there is no hope at all. Any method that would attempt to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, repair the Invitation Flower Garden Whimsy, clipping samples will also degrade other parts of the music. It is nonsense anyway to first mutilate something intentionally and then try to repair it. The only proper solution is to correctly master the album, period. The article “What Happened to Dynamic Range” explains all of this in greater detail, this is a highly recommended read. There's an excellent YouTube movie that illustrates how music is destroyed by dynamic range compression. Also, take a look at the Turn Me Up! website. If you're still convinced that over-amplifying your albums to the point that the waveforms start clipping will give you an advantage over properly mastered albums on Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg radio broadcasts, you may want to read this.

(1): Dynamic range compression is not to be confused with ‘lossy compression’ as is used by digital audio codecs like MP3, AAC, and OGG, which is a completely different thing. Dynamic range compression works on the amplitude of sound waves and alters the sound considerably. Lossy compression works on Car Quality - Preferred the digital data that represents the music, and only slightly alters the sound waves to allow a digital representation that requires less storage space. Ideally those small alterations are not noticeable to the listener. (2): I actually tried undoing compression on the Doves song ‘The Outsiders’. My strategy was to do the inverse of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg a multi-band compressor, by splitting up the song into multiple frequency bands and Baby Invitation Templates: Garden Whimsy trying to reconstruct realistic dynamics in each band. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? The latter is pure manual and wet-finger work.

To keep it tractable I only used three bands but even that did not save me from many, many hours sculpting amplitude envelopes. Parts of the - Preferred Auto Body, song did improve a lot, but the inevitable result was still that it sounds like someone is fiddling with the volume knob because three frequency bands is not enough. I would need to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, use more bands to get a better result, and spend even more time on it. Of A Job How? No matter what I would try, the result will always be much worse than if the song would have been properly produced from the start. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg? Nevertheless, the original version now sounds even more flaccid to me because I got used to the extra dynamics.

(3): If you want to know what this sounds like, you can download a ZIP file with part of this sound. I reduced the volume to Baby Shower Templates:, a normal level to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, avoid that you would blow up your speakers and ears. If you do believe this sounds awesome, put it on Of A For A A Resumeexamples repeat and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg play it for five minutes. Then play some normal music and see what sounds better. (4): You can download a sound fragment to hear how the music was massacred. It contains a fragment of the original version, followed by the same fragment from the 2006 compilation. Invitation Whimsy? Of course I normalised the volumes such that they sound equally loud.

Even on tinny laptop speakers you will notice that the 2006 version sounds jittery and distorted, especially around the ‘beat’.

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A Cup of Tea by Katherine Mansfield. In A Cup of Tea by Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, Katherine Mansfield we have the theme of Body, jealousy, insecurity, materialism and class. Taken from her The Doves’ Nest and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, Other Stories collection the story is narrated in Of A Resume For A the third person by an unnamed narrator and after reading the story the reader realises that Mansfield may be exploring the theme of class or rather the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, differences between social classes. By telling the reader that ‘they were rich, really rich, not just comfortably well off’ Mansfield succeeds in not only highlighting to the reader how wealthy Rosemary and Philip are but more importantly she manages to highlight how different Rosemary is from Label Templates others. Something that is a little clearer when Mansfield also tells the reader ‘if Rosemary wanted to shop she would go to Paris as you and I would go to Bond Street.’ Though it may appear to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, be insignificant the fact that Rosemary has a car may also be important as by introducing the car into Write A Behavior Management (with, the story it is possible that Mansfield is further highlighting the class difference that exists between Rosemary and those around her. At the time the story was written only the very wealthy (mostly upper class) would have had the resources to buy a car. The fact that Rosemary is surprised when Miss Smith first speaks to her also suggests that Rosemary may be different to others. It would have been uncommon (at the time the story was written) for those considered to be of a lower class (Miss Smith) to engage with those considered to be upper class (Rosemary).

It is also interesting that Rosemary thinks it is ‘extraordinary’ that Miss Smith has no money. This would again suggest that Rosemary is different from other people. She can#8217;t imagine that somebody would have no money. By describing Miss Smith as the #8216;other#8217; when Rosemary leads Miss Smith into the hall of her home and Rosemary as being like #8216;the rich little girl in her nursery#8217; Mansfield may be further highlighting the difference in class between both Miss Smith and Rosemary. It is also interesting that Rosemary, while Miss Smith is in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg her bedroom having tea, leaves Miss Smith#8217;s hat and coat on the floor. By doing so Mansfield may be suggesting that in Rosemary#8217;s eyes, Miss Smith is Insurance Resume, not her equal. This would further highlight the difference in class (in Rosemary#8217;s eyes) between Miss Smith and Rosemary. The reader also doubts that Rosemary would take the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, same course of Label, action (leave a hat and coat on the floor) should one of her upper class friends visit her home.

At no stage in the story does the reader feel that Rosemary, by taking Miss Smith home with her, is doing so for the benefit of Miss Smith rather it serves to boost Rosemary#8217;s perception of herself. She does after all consider the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, taking of Miss Smith home with her to Word Label, be an adventure, something she will be able to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, boast about to her friends. There is Life Underwriter Resume Samples, also some symbolism in the story which may be important. The little box that Rosemary sees in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg the antique shop, by telling the reader that Rosemary ‘must have it’, Mansfield may be highlighting the importance of material things to Rosemary. How To Write Management Plan: (with Pictures). Mansfield also appears to be using the setting, after Rosemary leaves the antique shop, to highlight Rosemary’s mood after she is unable to buy the little box. Mansfield tells the reader that the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, ‘rain was falling, and with the rain it seemed the dark came too, spinning down like ashes. Car Quality Info - Preferred Body Services, Llc. There was a cold bitter taste in the air, and the new-lighted lamps looked sad.’ In many ways this setting mirrors how Rosemary may feel about Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, having to leave the shop without purchasing the little box.

The flowers that Rosemary buys may also have some symbolic importance. By telling the reader that Rosemary wanted ‘those and those and those. Give me four bunches of those,’ Mansfield may be further highlighting how different Rosemary is from other people (due to her wealth) and how extravagant she is. Rather than just purchasing one bunch of flowers, as most people would and could only afford to Write A Behavior Plan: (with, do, Rosemary ends up with several. Rosemary#8217;s change of attitude towards Miss Smith after Philip tells her that he thinks Miss Smith is pretty is also interesting. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. It is from Philip#8217;s remark that the reader realises not only is Label, Rosemary jealous of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, Miss Smith (because she is pretty) but she also appears to be insecure about her own physical appearance. It may also be a case that Philip is attempting to manipulate or control Rosemary, just as she has Miss Smith. By telling Rosemary that Miss Smith is pretty Philip is aware that it will result in Rosemary not only Of A Resume For A Job How A Resumeexamples feeling jealous but it will also ensure that Miss Smith leaves their home, just as Philip wants her to. If anything Philip appears to want to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, disassociate himself (and Rosemary) from Miss Smith.

Which would again play on the theme of class. Philip does not want to associate himself with those (Miss Smith) he considers to be of a lower class. How insecure Rosemary may feel about her physical appearance is further noticeable by the fact that after Miss Smith leaves Rosemary#8217;s home, Mansfield tells the reader that Rosemary #8216;done her hair, darkened her eyes a little and Of A Job How A Resumeexamples, put on her pearls.#8217; This action is important as it suggests that Rosemary is attempting to make herself pretty, at least in Philips eyes. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. The fact that Rosemary asks Philip for Word Label Templates, the money to buy the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, little box may also be significant as it would again highlight the importance of material things to Rosemary. Also by ending the story with Rosemary asking Philip #8216;am I pretty?#8217; Mansfield may be further highlighting how insecure Rosemary feels about her physical appearance. Shower Invitation Whimsy. Despite being wealthy and living a life that the majority of people at the time the story was written were unable to live, Rosemary is insecure.

very crispy and informative. Thanks for the comment Suji. I#8217;m glad you found the post helpful. Why was Katherine Mansfield regarded as a modern writer? Thanks for the comment KD.

Mansfield may be considered a modernist writer because she tackled issues that were not largely seen in literature at the time. Issues like social status and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, class. wow its really a very powerful story#8230;#8230;. Thanks for the comment Dinesh. It is a powerful story. Please explain the meaning of #8216;if you took her to pieces#8230;but why be so cruel as to take anyone to pieces.#8217; Thanks for the comment Can. The line is an unfavourable view of Rosemary. A Behavior Management 3 Steps. What the narrator is suggesting is that if you broke down each part of Rosemary#8217;s personality (and appearance) you might not like what you find.

And it would be cruel to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, do so. Nobody would like to be completely under a microscope. I am poor in English sentence understanding so please explain things in a simple way. Don#8217;t mistake me but like l love to study. Word Label Templates. If u took her to pieces#8230;but why be so cruel as to take anyone to pieces. Please explain in simple way? Thanks for the comment Mahendran. Jealousy might be one reason why an individual might take another individual to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, pieces. For A Job How To Make. Not liking someone too.

Often people who dislike another person will talk unkindly of that person. It was very useful. Thanks for the comment Iftikhar. I#8217;m glad you found the post helpful. Please tell me who is Peter—Michael in the story? Thanks for the comment Mahendran. Peter and Michael may have been two of Rosemary#8217;s old boyfriends. It#8217;s a very nice story. Today I have a clearer concept about this story. Its our syllabus related story..

Thanks for the comment Gautom. I#8217;m glad you found the post helpful. Do u have analysis of other stories like the blind man . Thanks for the comment Mrs Bilal. I don#8217;t have a copy of The Blind Man. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. But if I come across a copy, I#8217;ll post a review.

What does materialism here mean and who is materialistic Rosemary or her husband? Thanks for the comment Maqsood. When I refer to Flyer Template Vector Download, materialism in the story I am making reference to Rosemary. How she is more interested in possessions (small box in shop) than she is in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg the well-being of the individual. Though she brings Miss Smith home with her Rosemary is not necessarily concerned about her. Rather she considers bringing Miss Smith home to be similar to an adventure she can tell her friends about. Rosemary#8217;s main focus throughout the story is on herself. How she will have a story to tell her friends which will make her the centre of attention. It might also be important that though Philip doesn#8217;t appear to be materialistic. He is Word Label, nonetheless extremely class conscious. Something that is noticeable when he makes sure that Miss Smith will leave the house.

He also acts as Rosemary#8217;s enabler, assisting her by giving her the money to buy the small box at the end of the story. Thanks so much for replying to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, me. I found it very useful and interesting. If you could also point out some of the figurative language in the story. Word Templates. Hi Maqsood.

There is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, some figurative language in the story some of which includes Mansfield telling the reader that Rosemary #8216;had a duck of a boy#8217; when describing Philip. Also when Mansfield describes Rosemary#8217;s wealth she makes a comparison to an individual#8217;s grandparents #8216;not just comfortably well off, which is odious and stuffy and sounds like one#8217;s grandparents.#8217; There are further examples of Info - Preferred Body Services, Llc, figurative language. The flowers, when the young girl is carrying them out of the shop, are described as #8216;an immense white paper armful that looked like a baby in long clothes#8230;.#8217; The little enamel box box is also described as looking as #8216;though it had been baked in cream.#8217; Further on Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, in the story Mansfield describes the rain as #8216;spinning down like ashes.#8217; Also when Rosemary first meets Miss Smith she #8216;shivered as though she had just come out of the water.#8217; Also when both Rosemary and Miss Smith are driving to Rosemary#8217;s home Mansfield describes the scene as though Rosemary and Miss Smith #8216;were skimming through the dusk.#8217; When Rosemary arrives home with Miss Smith she is described as being #8216;like the rich little girl in Baby Shower Invitation Flower Whimsy her nursery with all the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, cupboards to open, all the boxes to unpack.#8217; Then near the end of the story Mansfield describes Rosemary#8217;s heart as beating #8216;like a heavy bell.#8217; Have you any material about the Thomas Hardy short story The Withered Arm? Also what genre is A Cup of Tea? I don#8217;t have The Withered Arm Maqsood but if I come across it I#8217;ll post a review.

As far as I can work out A Cup of Tea would be part of the modernist tradition. Thank you so much it was really helpful. I would like to know the meaning of #8216;She had a duck of a boy. Auto Body. No not Peter—Michael. Thanks for the comment Jyoti.

I#8217;m glad you found the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, post helpful. The term duck (or ducky) would mean pleasant or excellent. So Mansfield is most likely suggesting that Rosemary has a good man in Philip. The hyphen between Peter—Michael is An Example Of A For A A Resumeexamples, also confusing as the reader doesn#8217;t know if Mansfield is listing two men#8217;s names who may have previously courted Rosemary before she married Philip or if Peter—Michael is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, one individual#8217;s name. Either way though the sentence refers to Word Label, Philip. I would like to know the meaning of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, #8220;Rosemary Fell was not exactly beautiful #8220; Thanks for the comment Rajdip. Mansfield is possibly suggesting that Rosemary is a plain looking women.

That is how I would interpret the line. Thank you so much for Car Quality Info - Preferred Llc, replying to me. It is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, very helpful with understanding the story. No problem Rajdip. Management 3 Steps (with Pictures). I#8217;m glad I was able to help you. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. This story was on our syllabus of English in India. Being an English literature student I have read all of Katherine Mansfield#8217;s short stories on free ebooks published by the University of Adelaide. Anyone wishing to How To A Behavior Management (with, read Mansfield#8217;s stories can do so there. Thanks for the comment Anuradha and thank you for the information. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. Thank you very much for Baby Templates:, your analysis.

I am studying Modern English literature and this week I have an Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg assignment with this. Have you ever thought about Ms. Smith#8217;s feeling in this story? I saw many people emphasis Rosemary but don#8217;t mention Ms. Smith much. Thanks for the comment Fu. Mansfield may have deliberately not given Miss Smith a voice and by Templates: Flower Garden Whimsy, doing so may be suggesting that the lower classes themselves do not have a voice, unlike Rosemary who is the main focus for most if not all of the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, story. Throughout the story I found Miss Smith to be submissive to Rosemary which might be the point that Mansfield was trying to make. Car Quality Services,. To suggest to the reader the control that the upper classes had over the lower classes. One incident that stuck out for me is when Rosemary leaves Miss Smith#8217;s hat and coat on the floor and Miss Smith says nothing. It is as if Miss Smith is not Rosemary#8217;s equal though as you suggest we never get any insight into how Miss Smith may feel.

It may also be a case that Miss Smith because of her class looks highly upon Rosemary as many people from the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, lower classes would have done at the time when it came to someone from the upper classes. They would not have questioned them or engaged with them in Car Quality Body any way. Which may in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg some way explain Miss Smith#8217;s relative silence throughout the story. Thank you so much for replying to me. My assignment is Baby Shower Invitation Flower Whimsy, about retelling the story with first-person, Ms. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. Smith.

I have to imagine Smith#8217;s feeling and How To A Behavior Management 3 Steps (with, opinion when treated like that. I think when Rosemary decides to take Smith to her house, Smith#8217;s very surprised and confused. Afterward, when she#8217;s in Rosemary#8217;s house it can be scary. But there are two things I can#8217;t make clear. First is the reason why Smith initially asks Rosemary for the cost for a cup of tea and whether Smith knows the conversation between Rosemary and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, Phillip is Top 8 Underwriter Resume, about her, because she doesn#8217;t enjoy any tea and has to go out.

Btw, your information helped me solve some problems in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg my complicated assignment, thank you so much. Of A Job How A Resumeexamples. I would agree with you that Miss Smith is somewhat surprised and confused when Rosemary asks her to visit her home. I think Miss Smith#8217;s reaction is due to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, the fact that it was uncommon at the time the story was written for the lower classes to mix with the upper classes. It is also an environment in Flyer Template With Vector | Free Download which Miss Smith is not accustomed to which as you suggest makes her feel somewhat afraid. I think Miss Smith asked Rosemary for Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, the price of Polygonal Vector | Free Download, a cup of tea because she knew that Rosemary could afford it. Though it is also possible that Miss Smith may have asked everybody who passed by Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, her for the price of Baby Shower Templates: Flower Garden Whimsy, a cup of tea. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. I also don#8217;t think that Miss Smith is Flyer With Polygonal Download, aware that Rosemary and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, Philip are talking about her. I think the reason she may not enjoy the tea is because of the Shower Invitation Templates: Flower Garden, environment around her. She would not be used to the comforts that come with upper class homes. If anything I felt that Miss Smith herself was out of her comfort zone.

Unsure of how to Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, react to Rosemary and as such may have wished to leave the home. Please I need to Of A Resume To Make, know if Oscar Wilde#8217;s short stories are representative of the Victorian era? Also the theme of feminism in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg A Cup of Tea. Thanks for the comment Rabia. I#8217;ve not read Oscar Wilde so I#8217;m unable to answer that part of An Example Of A For A To Make, your comment. When it comes to feminism as a theme in the story it is possible that Mansfield is highlighting the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, divisions that exist within feminism.

Rather than being there for Miss Smith Rosemary through her insecurity and jealousy (of Miss Smith) ends up giving Miss Smith some money rather than bonding or connecting with her in An Example Of A Resume Job How To Make A Resumeexamples any particular way. Miss Smith is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, more a plaything for An Example A Resumeexamples, Rosemary rather than being someone that Rosemary would view upon as being her equal or someone she can understand and connect with. Why isn#8217;t the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, poor girl#8217;s first name mentioned in Write Management Plan: Pictures) the story? why is it just miss Smith? Thanks for the comment Arbaz. Mansfield probably withheld Miss Smith#8217;s first name to highlight the fact that Miss Smith is different to Rosemary. One person is upper class (Rosemary) and is given a first name while Miss Smith as a working class person has her name withheld. Mansfield is probably attempting to differentiate between the classes by withholding Miss Smith#8217;s first name.

Could you please give us the themes and analysis for the following poems? a) The Question by Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, Adrian Mitchell. b) Hawk Roosting by Top 8 Life Underwriter Samples, Ted Hughes. Also, could you explain #8216;The Dead#8217; by James Joyce? Thank you so much! Thanks for the comment Piku. I only review short stories and know very little about poetry.

I have an analysis on The Dead on the blog. You can find it here. This story is in our syllabus thank you so much it is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, helpful. Thanks for Write Management Plan: 3 Steps (with Pictures), the comment Paraminder. It#8217;s great knowing you found the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, post helpful. Good luck with your studies. Hi, there are a few questions could you please answer the following questions. Word Label. 1- What did Rosemary decide to do with the girl and what was the latter#8217;s reaction to the proposal? Did she have any suspicion about the offer? 2- Why Rosemary didn#8217;t buy that box ? She is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, rich enough to Baby Shower Whimsy, buy it then why she didn#8217;t. Rosemary brought Miss Smith to her home and when Philip triggered Rosemary#8217;s jealousies; Rosemary gave Miss Smith some money and Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, sent her on her way.

It is Top 8 Insurance Resume Samples, possible that Miss Smith was suspicious of Rosemary as it would not have been the norm at the time (and possibly still today) for upper class people to associate with those of the lower classes. This could have aroused suspicion in Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg Miss Smith. Word. Rosemary may not have bought the box as she is being funded by Philip. Philip would have become aware of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, how much Rosemary spent and as such may have scorned her. Rosemary is under the control, financially (and otherwise), of Philip. She is not independent of him and as such feels as though she is answerable to Philip. Thank you so much. Who is Rosemary married to and how long was she married?

Thanks for Car Quality Info Auto Body, the comment Subrata. Rosemary is Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, married to Phillip. Of A A Resumeexamples. As readers we do not know how long she has been married. What was thought of Rosemary#8217;s married life? Rosemary lives a very comfortable upper class life and may actually be spoilt by Philip.

Who wanted the Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, price of a cup of tea from Rosemary? Miss Smith is the character who asks Rosemary for Invitation Templates: Whimsy, the price of a cup of tea. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. What was in the little box? Thanks for the comment Igor. Mansfield never lets the reader know if there was anything in the box. Is there any isolation and loneliness in Of A Job How To Make A Resumeexamples this story. Thanks for the comment Ezhar. I suppose you could suggest that Rosemary is lonely and isolates herself. Lonely because she is so reliant on Philip to provide for Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, her.

The marriage may be based on convenience Philip has money and isolated because she doesn#8217;t mix with people of all classes (Miss Smith). Is rosemary insecure? Thanks for the comment Sudipa. Rosemary is insecure. An example of which is when Philip tells her that Miss Smith is An Example For A Job How To Make A Resumeexamples, attractive. Rosemary feels threatened by Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, the remark and as such changes her opinion of Of A Job How A Resumeexamples, Miss Smith. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. As to why Rosemay may be inseure is probably due to her dependency on Philip. She is not a strong independent woman. I am kindly asking you to explain the meaning of the Life Underwriter Resume, first two paragraphs line by line. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. Beginning with the first paragraph. The narrator has an opportunity to be cruel towards Rosemary but decides against it.

Knowing that it would be unfair. Instead the narrator compliments many of the Shower Invitation Templates: Garden, good things that Rosemary has going for her. Good character traits. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. In the Write Management 3 Steps, second paragraph the reader learns that Rosemary is married to a good man (a good catch). We also learn that Rosemary and Philip (Rosemary#8217;s husband)are rich and do not need for anything. In fact Rosemary can be flamboyant when it comes to spending money. Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg. Buying more than she needs.

Thanks for your help. No problem Mahendran. I#8217;m glad you found the Template Polygonal | Free, post helpful. She had a duck of boy. Please tell me this sentence meaning. Thanks for the comment Mahe. The term duck (or ducky) would mean pleasant or excellent. So Philip is a pleasant or excellent man (or boy). She had a duck of Holiday-Greetings-Mesaage-Friends.jpg, a boy please see this sentence once again. I thought that her husband had a son. Duck means darling so darling mean husband?

Rosemary and Philip have no children. None that are mentioned in the story at least. Darling can mean husband but usually it#8217;s a term of affection towards someone. High and fine literature is wine, and mine is only water; but everybody likes water.

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