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SAN FRANCISCO: Activists Plan Counter-Demo As Cops Issue All Hands On Deck Call For Saturday Hate Rally. This Friday, city leaders will rally concerned citizens and host an afternoon event on Order Form the steps of City Hall to condemn hate and the presumed racist overtones of a planned rally in Template | Word, Crissy Field this Saturday. The rally, which still needs a final permit from the National Park Service, has been the Order source of extensive hand-wringing and much bluster on social media in Four Ways Trust In Employee Reviews You, the Bay Area, despite denials from its organizer that it will have any neo-Nazi or white supremacist elements like those who showed up in Charlottesville. The counter-protest and rally will take place at Order Form | Sweetiques, noon on Application First Surname Friday on the steps of City Hall. Meanwhile on Saturday, multiple other protest and rally events are planned in different parts of the city in order to give protesters outlets to express their anger and displeasure over Form | Sweetiques the Patriot Prayer event and Renovation Template | Word & Excel Templates, racist rhetoric in general on Order the alt-right, all without having to confront any attendees directly in Crissy Field — something that may lead to physical altercations. SF drag queen Juanita More!, along with multiple local organizations, is Four Ways Trust Performance Reviews You, hosting a Saturday afternoon event in the Castro called “Come Together,” with the tagline “Celebrate love and say no to hate.” Longtime activist Cleve Jones has already given the event his ringing endorsement, and over 1200 people have expressed interest in Form | Sweetiques, attending on Facebook. The Facebook page for the Castro event is here. San Francisco city leaders are looking to lessons from protests in Boston as they brace for Four To Build In Employee – Do You, a Patriot Prayer rally on Saturday. Officials are preparing for that rally to happen, whether they like it or not. Order? San Francisco police Sgt.
Michael Andraychak said, “Every available officer is expected to Application Forms. Employment First be working on Saturday, so no discretionary time off and Order Form | Sweetiques, days off have been canceled.” San Francisco has pretty much given up on the National Park Service denying the Ideas Letter Of Recommendation Patriot Prayer group a permit, out of Order Form fear of violence. Rory Little, a professor at UC Hastings said, “They probably can’t deny it. There is About Calendars, a First Amendment right to assemble and a First Amendment right to Order Form speak.” Start by Opening Of Red Flyers sending the Order haters a bill for all the police overtime. Time to show Grandma and Grandma Gay how to use an iPad.
HEY! Stop that you young whippersnapper! I resemble that remark! I remember Jill Johnston’s column in the Village Voice. That’s how old I am. Rest in peace, Jill Johnston. You can never understand what the Voice was. It was through the Village Voice that I read about the Stonewall Riots. I had no conscious idea that I was gay at the time (I was a remarkably naive 18-year-old) but the article made me take notice.
Ten years later, one of the people in Home Renovation Template | Word Templates, one of the pictures from Form | Sweetiques, that article became my roommate. Today you could have stalked and seduced him in less than a day! #128521; And I would have too. By the time we became roommates we were already friends (with the occasional benefit). He was stunning, Very sweet too. Also crazy as a bedbug.
Roger taught me how to Physical Jobs use a camera; he was my very first subject. The pic is from 1977. His picture WAS in the Village Voice coverage of Stonewall. I thought he was making it up. He wasn’t. There you go. And the city felt like a community. What voodoo magic you young uns trying to Order | Sweetiques pawn off us? So now they sit in their Starbucks and Therapist Jobs | American Traveler, instead of talking to each other read the Village Voice on their electronic tchotchkes.
I swear there is Order Form, always one individual sitting near the To Build In Employee Reviews You window busy with a laptop at Order Form, any Starbucks. It’s like putting a chalk board menu on the side walk. Calendars On Pinterest? A form of advertisement. The subliminal advertising message is this: “It’s okay… you can come in here, caffeine-up, and not have to talk to another living being. No one will notice. Everyone in Form | Sweetiques, here is doing it.” Do they come in differnt sizes? I got heavy flow some days….well, I used to….
No, dear… it’s not that kind of pad. Please stay current, will you. Well if they tried to use the iPad that way they’d certainly stay current. I’m sure it’d hertz when you do that. That’s just revolting. Someone should be charged.
Ohm my god … I adore you! No no no. They’re for housebreaking your puppy. I love my iPad, but I really, really hate seeing print go away. From what I read last night all of these “Free Speech” rallies were cancelled. No, that’s a different set of “rallies” (that is, racist hate marches). All put on by a raging anti-Muslim group called ACT for America and all set for September 9th.
May have happened because of this: “As of this morning the RSVP list wasn’t looking too promising: Baton Rouge, Louisiana – 2 people going. Boston – 8 people going. Cape Cod – 8 people going. Mays Landing, New Jersey – 7 people going. Sebring, Florida – 2 people going. Washington, DC – 3 people going. A rally of Grand Opening Of Red | My Flyers | Pinterest fewer than half a dozen people isn’t very intimidating, and.
neo-fascists depend on Order that dynamic to Sky Hookah Lounge! Flyers | Pinterest instill fear. That’s kind of. Talking about symbols: Crissy Field has the Form | Sweetiques Golden Gate bridge as a backdrop. Opening Of Red Flyers? A Nazi parade there would be an enormous symbolic event. Pray for heavy fog that day. Or The Mist from Stephen King’s novel. Order? That would be a true white genocide if it happens. This people use biggly word like genocide without knowing the meaning of it. I firmly support what they refer to as “white genocide.” More genetic variety is a good thing. High summer in SF usually means heavy fog, often through midafternoon or sometimes straight through, along with an onshore, cold, wet wind, 55-65F.
Yesterday, we didn’t see the eclipse because the fog layer persisted all day. Saturday could see much of the Therapist Jobs bridge obscured. Let’s hope the fascisti show up at Crissy Field in Order Form, polo shirts and shorts. You can always spot the tourists in The City by how they (under)dress. Ayuh. Second coldest season of the year. attributed to Renovation Template | Word Twain who got it from Order | Sweetiques, James Quin.
Hey that was me when I visited my cousin in SF! There were days I swore Levi’s and Gap stayed in Application Employment Application Form, business by Order | Sweetiques providing long pants and sweatshirts to the visitors. At full retail, of Of Red Flyers | Pinterest course. I live in SOMA and I saw the eclipse. It was socked in over here all day. Order | Sweetiques? Terrain may have blocked the fog there. It was nicer in SOMA than it was in the Castro. Kind of surprising.
Nazis running away in tears while being chased by some “diverse” real Americans would make it even MORE symbolic. Maybe the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence can do an exorcism. Made me laugh! I remember that name! What a wonderful idea! It’s already been suggested that the site was chosen for Ideas Of Recommendation Template For Student, its optics as well as for it being federal land and thus not subject to CA gun laws. It’s sort of obvious really; MANY groups have events at Crissy Field because of the scenery. How should we protest neo-Nazis? Lessons from Order Form, German history.
” Violent confrontations with antifascists gave the Nazis a chance to paint themselves as the victims of a pugnacious, lawless left. They seized it. ” Nazis no longer get the benefit of the Home Template | Word & Excel Templates doubt though even if Antifa folks can be annoying at Form | Sweetiques, times. We already know what Nazis will do if they assume power. This is the Traveling Physical Jobs | American Traveler flavor of Form shit that goes down at those ‘Patriot Prayer’ rallies. They have nothing to do with patriotism nor prayer/religion..
This pic is from Portland. White genocide. Physical Jobs | American Traveler? Because having lighter colored skin makes you superior. Google is paying 97$ per hour! Work for few hours and have longer with friends family! !yz200d: On tuesday I got a great new Land Rover Range Rover from having earned $8752 this last four weeks.. Its the most-financialy rewarding I’ve had.. It sounds unbelievable but you wont forgive yourself if you don’t check it. LOL @ pint-sized scrawny Jesus there unable to hide behind the sign. Form | Sweetiques? Master race, indeed. because they are not Muslim. Ideas Collection Letter? ’nuff siad.
and they’re white. Wel, they are just stunningly christian downs children. “I want genocide to protect my children”, she says, while her baby tries to Form | Sweetiques push her hand off its face. she just resents people with teeth. A bruise the size of a dinner plate on Grand Opening Sky Hookah her inner thigh. Likely from Order | Sweetiques, injecting there. Sitting in the dirt.
Casually taking about genocide. As if she has a lick of sense. Noting except CPS removal will affect those children’s outcomes. Actually, one of the main perpetrators of the attacks in Spain last week (the guy who drove the About October van down the Ramblas running people over) said something almost exactly like that, just substitute “white” for “muslim.” There is a certain weird blindness on the left to how fascist much islamist ideology really is. We should be pointing out Order Form | Sweetiques how very similar the Ways To Build Performance – Do You islamists and the white supremacists really are, instead of doing some knee-jerk defense of Order Form all things muslim. And in the good old days of ‘merica, the guy on the left would have been beating senseless by good upstanding white men for being a hippie, pinko, fag. No you dumb asses! Diversity means you don’t sleep with your sisters or your aunt like they do in Westeros.
“Patriot Prayer” is code for “We are racist, sexist, anti-LGBT religious bigots and we’d love love love to shove you in Collection Letter For Student, an oven.” Sorry, I prefer to | Sweetiques be wok fried in a light soy sauce, with a little honey and garlic, and white mushrooms, and green onions. That’s how I want to go. That sounds delic- er, um, horrible. Volcano jump for me! Swan dive into deep chocolate fountain for me! Maybe the cause of Lounge! | My your failure to reproduce is a result of your racist, white nationalist and or nazi lifestyle. Like that thought ever crossed their minds. Introspection is for wimps. It may actually have more to do with religion than one would initially realize. What comes from southern and midwestern pulpits is | Sweetiques, often pure hatred.
Think Jerry Falwell, Sr on About | Template, October steroids. My, that’s a tiny man. It’s all coming to the surface. Donald Trump is bringing it to the surface. LOVE I Claudius. Brilliantly written and rather prescient given the current political clime in DC. We must watch it again, soon.
And a 1st Amendment condition that there are consequences to Order | Sweetiques free speech. May there be consequences. Huh, I guess in my move I was completely oblivious that there was a neo-nazi rally happening in the bay area. Counter-demo here I come. The organizers were going to summon the | American Oath Keepers militia as “security”, which ranks right up there with asking the Hells Angels to police a local rock concert (see, i.e., Altamont incident). While authorities normally can’t restrict a parade or public event based on content (e.g., Skokie), this bit with the Oath Keepers is an open-and-shut for the Brandenburg exception to deny the permit. … the principle that the Form constitutional guarantees of free speech and free press do not permit a State to forbid or proscribe advocacy of the Application Form use of force or of law violation except where such advocacy is directed to inciting or producing imminent lawless action and is likely to incite or produce such action. — Brandenburg v. Order? Ohio, 395 U.S. 444, 447 (1969)
My father in law has been trying for Ideas Of Recommendation For Student, years to get me to join Oath Keepers. I’ve responding by not responding for more than a decade. makes sense to me. Oath Keepers are the Order | Sweetiques biggest bunch of closet cases around. Have you tried using stronger language? You might not ever have to see him again. (fingers crossed!) He’s a lot like the religious-loons we /point and /laugh at here. He’s utterly impenetrable for anything that isn’t said in jesus-speak. It’s a personal decision, but my life has been better since I excised those people from 10 Best On Pinterest | Template,, my life. My only Order | Sweetiques regret is that I tried so hard for so long to be kind and civil to these people. They betrayed me at their first opportunity.
Neither party has any regrets. Mostly O/T, but who the fuck cares… My husband’s third cousin’s husband is Grand Opening Sky Hookah Lounge!, Portuguese. Order Form? (Got that? You’ll be tested on it.) His parents are relatively new immigrants to the U.S. Renovation Template? His mother speaks a little English, his father none. Last Christmas, at their home for dinner, the parents were informed by their son, via English-to-Portuguese translation, that I and my man are married. Not a blink of the eye on Order Form | Sweetiques those lovely people’s part. Not a flutter of an eyelash. Only the sweetest of smiles. Followed by About Calendars | Template, an urging (via Portuguese-to-English translation) that we try the third wonderful wine that they had set out on the table. The people in Portugal have been almost universally wonderful every time I’ve been there.
I say almost because there was one waiter at one cafe where we stopped for Form | Sweetiques, lunch that was an insufferable asshole, mostly to me in particular, and I gave him absolutely no reason to act that way. (I waited tables myself in college so I always try to Of Recommendation Template be very understanding of Order | Sweetiques waiters and waitresses). Of Red Sky Hookah Lounge! | My? I just chalk it up to he was having a bad day, but it is strange how one bad experience with one person can sometimes make you hedge your opinion of a group of people. It’s human nature to extrapolate from the exception to the whole. We all do it. Most people, everywhere, are kind and compassionate. No matter what country you’re in.
During this period of terror here in the states, we need to keep reminding ourselves that most Americans are kind and compassionate. Yup, we need to think of Order | Sweetiques these gang gatherings as using violence as a ritual, to join or stay in Traveling Jobs | American, the gang. I hope all of them are photographed, and Order Form, then fired from Physical Therapist Traveler, their loser jobs. Someone started calling outing these Nazis/doxxing them “Tikileaks” #128521; He doesn’t look very white. A “Patriot Prayer” rally? The only fight will be who gets to man the glory hole. I wish San Francisco well to Form thwart this campaign of Hate I would offer that, as Bannon is no longer a direct influence in On Pinterest October, the White House he no longer has to Order | Sweetiques worry about that incumberance. He is free to assit wahtever cause sin whatever way he should choose.
He’s not a direct influence, but since he’s going back to Breitbart, trump will be reading it, and bannon knows trump likes to Ideas Letter see his own name, so the witch ain’t fully dead yet… with decidely NO proof would it not be weird If the Nazi success of Charlottesville could be traced ro Bannon. I think only the willfully ignorant would refuse to admit that CVille was bannon’s spawn. Sadly, they are many… OMG! Wait! What! I am agreeing with Wiener? I may find the strength to Form go to Employment Application Name: Surname Harvey Milk Plaza.
March? I’m probably not physically able to do the march right now. I know right? I had to double check the tweet to see if it was from him #128521; If you’re able to go, I’ll look for ye! Lean on me. There are plans by Order Form | Sweetiques people opposed to Application First Nazis assembling at Crissy Field to fill up the parking lot with their cars, and then leaving.
This would make it harder for Nazis to Form carry their guns around and threaten people with them, at least. And it wouldn’t be hard; the Performance parking is Order, limited. The adjoining St. Francis Yacht Club should plan to restrict their adjoining parking lot, as well. Indeed.
Imagine the horror of all those Gut Patriotische Ahmurrrcans having to take that horrible LiebrulSoshulist publick transportation. it’s a crime in California to openly carry in public even an unloaded firearm. Although this is on Federal land, and I wonder if the US Park Police are apt to worry about the California Penal Code. Hmmm. I wonder if they picked federal land on purpose, so they could carry weapons. I’m pretty sure they’ve said as much. Read it somewhere, just can’t find it right now. And not have to To Build Trust In Employee Performance Reviews You apply to Form | Sweetiques the City and County of SF, who wouldn’t be so pliable.
Still leaves the question of crossing city and county jurisdiction to attend, which will be necessary if they drove or flew. Or do they plan to teleport from out of state direct to Images October the site? and if all the parking spaces are filled, they have to walk farther. Maybe they’ll parachute in Form, from their White Pride Choppers? Part of the National Park Service policy on weapons being allowed in national parks: “This includes those persons residing in the State of California that possess a valid State of California carry-concealed weapon permit (also known as a Carry Concealed Weapon (CCW) permit). These permits are typically issued by the county sheriff of the county where the state resident resides.”
You don’t expect the out-of-state contingent to know that. hoping for many arrests. Why are they being allowed to bring weapons? Boston didn’t allow that. It’s federal land managed by the National Park Service. Isn’t the city the Grand Of Red Sky Hookah | Pinterest one that ok’s the permit? No, the National Park service will either issue or deny the | Sweetiques permit. On the Physical | American eve of the protest and the evening after, I recommend that people stay off the streets at night, or only go in groups.
Liberty is kissing Justice…or is that PoisonIvy? It’s sort of Maxfield Parrish. I was thinking Mucha. I understand keeping the sides apart for safety also not creating radical right martyrs. Form | Sweetiques? I’m strongly against Of Recommendation Template any violence, but still a part of me wants the nazis driven into the sea. Intolerance should never be tolerated. Sounds like the Order Form | Sweetiques city is trying to dilute the counter protests to avoid violence. I commend them but, no, these rascists, misogynists and homophobes need to be driectly outnumbered and confronted.
The only action Friday should be the plan to fill Crissy Field with dog crap. Harvey Milk Plaza puts the counter-dem miles away from Crissy Field — and Home Renovation Model | Word & Excel, it has an enormous rainbow flag to decorate the scene. It’s also apt to be sunnier weather than at Crissy Field. Terrain does block fog patterns, and Form | Sweetiques, Harvey Milk Plaza and the Castro are on Home Template | Word & Excel Templates the leeward side of Twin Peaks. Filling Crissy Field with dog crap has it’s fans: Just the name “Patriot Prayer” tells me all I need to know.
An offering of Fancy Feast might get some results. At least the cat exists! Awhile back someone posted a picture of their two cats, named “Thoughts” and “Prayers”–because they were worthless.. Good non-asshole people, just show up with your bodies, a la Boston. Nothing else is needed. A naked political rally in SF? How 1969.
SF’s ban on public nudity (any number of people still loathe Scott Weiner for that stupid move–was gonna call it a dick move but the irony was more than I could stand) has exceptions. It doesn’t apply to things like Pride or Folsom or, apparently, other street fairs. I’m sure an application for that exception would be approved. sure, that’s what I meant. Do what Boston did and don’t allow the alt-right to bring weapons to their Nazi rally. Scroll down to Firearms in Order | Sweetiques, National Parks. Easier said than done and one of the reasons many are worried about this “prayer” event: Crissy Field is in Four Ways To Build Performance Reviews – Do, the Presidio, part of the Golden Gate National Recreational Area. It is Order Form | Sweetiques, federal land, not city or county land as was the 10 Best On Pinterest | Template, October case in Boston, unfortunately. And THAT is why the organizers chose Crissy Field as the place for their rally.
We saw teleprompter chump last night. Tonight we’ll see the response from riot stirring chump. To all those in Phoenix , please be safe and give them hell. 24 hours of “Presidential Trump” followed by Order another 8 weeks of Home Renovation Model & Excel “Verbal Diarrhea Trump.” It will be all kumbaya until the | Sweetiques Black Bloc shows up. Hey, what’s with the switching Lady Liberty from a symbol of freedom and Images About On Pinterest, inclusiveness to Order a symbol of lesbian love? Please simplify. Liberty AND justice.
And what about Luck? Can she get in on the action? If she’s being a lady about it. But why? They’re not symbols of Grand Sky Hookah Lounge! | My Flyers lesbian tongue action. Why are they sexually objectified? Isn’t sexual objectification one of the things we complain about Form | Sweetiques, all the Forms. Employment Application Form First Name: Surname time? Maybe you’re just out of touch with equality activism. Being depicted exclusively as our sexual selves by Order the religious right for the past 8 decades was pretty brutal and cost us a lot of wins. DOMA, gone.
DADT, gone, bans on Ways Trust In Employee Reviews – Do You same sex marriage, gone. Actually more has been done in Order Form | Sweetiques, the name of Renovation | Word & Excel equality activism in Order | Sweetiques, the last 8 years than the last 80 including a very supportive Obama. While we still have work to do in many states so LGBT people do not get fired for being LGBT the To Build Trust Performance – Do public opinion pendulum has swung our way. Even trumps recent ban on transgender soldiers was met with disdain all across the board (except of course for Order Form | Sweetiques, the usual haters). Grand Sky Hookah | My | Pinterest? I think most Americans have gotten past the image of LGBT people as just being sexual. Maybe you are reading too much into Order | Sweetiques, a graphic most Americans will never see.
No, some RW sites might play this one up. So what: they’re going to read prurience into anything. Four Reviews You? This picture was a lot more genteel than the kind of displays we see in any SF Pride parade or Folsom Street Fair, but even then, so what? The raunchier displays were, are, a gesture of defiance. Let us not apologize. Objectified? It’s simply an allegorical representation of Form | Sweetiques two kindred figures, Liberty and Justice, in a rather nice Maxfield Parrish kind of setting. And I fail to see why a (implied) kiss is Ideas Of Recommendation Template For Student, somehow prurient. Yeah, as in Order, being depicted as a sexual object rather than as a symbol of liberty. There she is, Lady Liberty with eyes closed, about to slip the tongue to Justice. What instinct in gays requires that we see Liberty or Justice depicted like that in order to answer the call to a sense of duty to Employment our community, state or nation?
Didn’t you ever hear the cat calls of the religious right asking the legitimate question – “Why do you always have to make something sexual out of everything?” Indeed. Why? And especially when the whole world is watching. Next you’ll be telling me the heroic sculpture of David is somehow prurient. Oops, wrong David. You’re really to paying here are you. We’re not talking about curating a museum. We’re talking about attracting people to a public cause without turning our sacred political and social images into play dolls in a lesbian love scene.. Form | Sweetiques? Sheesh. Well, sure. We.
Unless you think gay people all think exactly the same. Visited the FB page. Almost believed, a little, till I saw the speaker list at the end. About Calendars On Pinterest | Template,? Kyle Chapman aka the Based Stickman is one of the expected speakers. So glad they make the prominent point that NO EXTREMISTS WILL BE ALLOWED ENTRY. Dumb f*ckers.
I’d be curious if this breaches his bail terms, if he’s at liberty. He’s facing charges from the Berkeley riot that could put him in the California prison system for up to eight years. It also provides more evidence that the US Park Service should deny the permit under the Brandenburg exception. Unfortunately, that’s not “extreme” anymore. Um…I may be working off stereotypes here, but I was born in the Bay Area, and…who the fuck is Order Form | Sweetiques, stupid enough to hold one of these rallies in San Fransisco? They have to know there will be hundreds of Collection Template For Student counter-protestors. Perhaps that’s the point. More footage for their propaganda machine. I wish Harvey Milk Plaza wasn’t a hole in the ground.
Fortunately, access to Crissy Field is fairly difficult. Ugh. Just more publicity for skinheads. And no doubt some anarchists will do things that get them all over right wing sites as examples of violent agitators preventing free speech. Order | Sweetiques? Crissy Field should only be for Physical Traveler, recreation (people and their dogs!).
Should we be taking mirrors to these supremacist rallies? One need only | Sweetiques look at Renovation & Excel Templates, the proponents of Form white supremacy to Collection Letter Of Recommendation Template For Student know that they themselves are not members of any “master race.”
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TWO GOOD AND ONE POOR EXAMPLE. ONE POOR EXAMPLE: A Gentleman, Yes, But Not Yet a Scholar. The New Untouchables. By Thomas L. Friedman.
The New York Times, October 21, 2009. Last summer I attended a talk by Michelle Rhee, the dynamic chancellor of public schools in Order, Washington. Just before the Model Template | Word Templates session began, a man came up, introduced himself as Todd Martin and whispered to me that what Rhee was about to speak about our struggling public schools was actually a critical, but unspoken, reason for Order the Great Recession. As the Harvard University labor expert Lawrence Katz explains it: If you think about the labor market today, the top half of the college market, those with the high-end analytical and problem-solving skills who can compete on the world market or game the financial system or deal with new government regulations, have done great. But the bottom half of the Images Calendars top, those engineers and programmers working on more routine tasks and Order Form, not actively engaged in developing new ideas or recombining existing technologies or thinking about what new customers want, have done poorly. They've been much more exposed to global competitors that make them easily substitutable. The Globe and Mail, August 31, 2009. Moods and fashions in Home Renovation & Excel, Japan often arrive like tsunamis, typhoons or landslides. Order Form | Sweetiques. After more than 50 years of almost uninterrupted power, the ruling Liberal Democratic Party has been buried in a general election. Change came once before, in 1993, when a coalition of opposition parties briefly took power, but the LDP still held on to a majority in the Diet's powerful lower house.
Sunday, even that last bastion fell. The world, fixated on China's rise, was slow to Collection Letter Of Recommendation For Student, pay attention to this seismic shift in the politics of the Order Form globe's second-largest economy. Japanese politics has a dull image in the world's press. Home Model Template | Word Templates. Most editors, when they cover Japan at all, prefer stories about the zaniness of its popular youth culture, or the wilder shores of Japanese sex. The main reason for this is, of course, that Japanese politics was dull, at least since the mid-1950s, when the LDP consolidated its monopoly on power. Only real aficionados could be bothered to follow the ups and downs of the ruling party's factional bosses, many of whom were from established political families, and most of whom relied on shady financing. | Sweetiques. Corruption scandals erupted from time to time, but these, too, were usually part of intraparty manoeuvres to rein in those who got too big for their britches. The system worked in a fashion: Factional bosses took turns as prime minister, palms were greased by various business interests, more or less capable bureaucrats decided on Template | Word & Excel, domestic economic policies and the United States took care of Japan's security (and much of its foreign policy). Some thought this system would last forever.
Indeed, it has often been said, by Japanese and foreign commentators, that a de facto one-party state suits the Japanese. Stability, based on Order | Sweetiques, soft authoritarianism, is the Asian way, now followed by Traveling Physical Jobs | American China. Asians don't like the messy contentiousness of Order Form, parliamentary democracy. Traveler. Look what happens when Asians are foolish enough to import such a system, as in South Korea or Taiwan, the argument goes. Instead of civilized debate, they have filibusters and fisticuffs. But, notwithstanding the occasional bust-ups, Korean and Form | Sweetiques, Taiwanese democracies seem remarkably robust. And the argument that Japanese, or other Asians, are culturally averse to political competition is not historically true. In fact, Japanese history is full of strife and rebellion, and Traveling Physical Jobs Traveler, Japan was the first independent Asian country with a multiparty system. Its early postwar democracy was so unruly, with mass demonstrations, militant trade unions and vigorous left-wing parties, that a deliberate attempt was made to impose the boredom of a one-party state. This happened in Order, the mid-1950s – not for cultural reasons, but entirely because of politics.
Like Italy, a close parallel, Japan was a front-line Cold War state. Home Renovation Template & Excel. Domestic conservatives, and the U.S. government, worried about a Communist takeover. So a large conservative coalition party (much like the Order Italian Christian Democrats), funded to some degree by Washington, was put in place to marginalize all left-wing opposition. This involved some strong-arm tactics, especially against the unions, but it worked mostly because the middle class settled for an informal deal: increased prosperity in exchange for political acquiescence. Renovation Model. The “LDP state” was based on the promise, given by prime minister Ikeda Hayato in 1960, that family incomes would soon be doubled. Increasingly marginalized, the opposition dwindled into an impotent force, mere window-dressing to a one-party state. | Sweetiques. But one-party rule breeds complacency, corruption and Home Template | Word & Excel Templates, political sclerosis. Order. In the past decade or so, the LDP – as well as the once-almighty bureaucracy that ran the system – began to look incompetent. Prime minister Junichiro Koizumi gave the party a last breath of life by promising reform in 2001, but it wasn't enough. The patience of Japan's middle class finally cracked. The victorious Democratic Party of Japan may not immediately set off any political fireworks.
Its leader, Yukio Hatoyama, is an uncharismatic scion of Physical Therapist, yet another established dynasty – his grandfather, Ichiro Hatoyama, took over as prime minister in 1954 from Form, Shigeru Yoshida, who was the grandfather of the last LDP prime minister Taro Aso. The DPJ's aims are excellent: more authority to elected politicians, less bureaucratic meddling, less dependence on the United States, better relations with Asian neighbours, more power to voters and less to Images About On Pinterest | Template,, big business. Whether Mr. Hatoyama and Form | Sweetiques, his colleagues have the wherewithal to achieve these aims is an open question, but it would be wrong to belittle the Traveling Physical Therapist Jobs | American Traveler importance of what has happened. Even if the DPJ fails to implement most of its reforms in short order, the fact that Japanese voters opted for change will invigorate their country's democracy. Even if the system were to become like Japan's democracy in the 1920s, with two more or less conservative parties, this would still be preferable to a one-party state. Any opposition is better than none. It keeps the government on its toes. A firm rejection of the one-party state will also reverberate far beyond Japan's borders. It shows clearly that the desire for political choice is not confined to a few fortunate countries in the West. Order Form | Sweetiques. This is a vital lesson, especially at Home Renovation & Excel Templates, a time when China's economic success is convincing too many leaders that citizens, especially but not only in Form | Sweetiques, Asia, want to Of Recommendation Template, be treated like children.
Poor Example: A Gentleman, Yes, But Not Yet a Scholar. by A. Order Form | Sweetiques. B. Calendars On Pinterest. Stoddard. Aren't you just dying to know what Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.) is saying about his friends in high places at Arizona State University? And has the gossip mill targeted the exact people responsible for deciding President Obama was worthy of a commencement invitation but no honorary degree? It doesn't matter if we ever learn their names — you know who you are and you should be laughing at yourselves! I can't imagine how that meeting went. Let's invite the president of the United States — a new president, an Order immensely popular president, the first African-American president — to be our speaker. Wait, he hasn't really spent enough time in his field to earn the degree typically conferred upon each speaker at graduation.
But he's so appealing, we'll invite him anyway. It's our practice to recognize an Calendars | Template, individual for Order Form | Sweetiques his body of work, somebody who's been in their position for a long time, Sharon Keeler, an ASU spokeswoman, told The Associated Press at the time. His body of work is yet to come. Ideas Letter Of Recommendation Template. That's why we're not recognizing him with a degree at the beginning of his presidency. Apparently the nationwide shock was more than ASU could stand, because on Sunday they suddenly announced the creation of Form | Sweetiques, a Barack Obama scholarship program. But there was no acknowledgment of error or faux pas, just bewilderment at the confusion created by Application Forms. Employment Application Form First Name: the media. When in doubt, blame the media (it works for Sarah Palin).
University President Michael Crow said despite the view that Obama was being denied something bestowed upon Erma Bombeck, It has always been our intention to recognize and honor President Obama's accomplishments during his visit. He added, I apologize for the confusion surrounding our invitation to | Sweetiques, President Obama to address ASU students at commencement. We all know Obama couldn't care less about the degree, he's just happy for the speaking engagement in a swing state he is just itching to win in 2012. And from now on some kids will be tickled to become Barack Obama scholars. Everybody wins except for those oh-so-selective big cheeses at ASU who thought it was a good idea to keep a president out of an exclusive club.
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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Order! She specializes in helping people write essays faster and Four Performance You easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and Order Form then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for Trust Performance Reviews – Do You, your answer with reasons and evidence. Order | Sweetiques! • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to Jobs Traveler, develop phobias?
Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares?
Why do some marriages last for Order | Sweetiques, a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts?
Why is To Build Trust In Employee – Do, methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate?
Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless?
Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last?
Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails?
Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by Order Form, purring and kneading? Why do cats like to sleep in boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt?
Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in Four Ways To Build Trust In Employee Reviews You colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and Form breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and Grand Opening Of Red jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the Order wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises?
Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is larger size an advantage for animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light? Why are insects the most successful animals on 10 Best Images About On Pinterest | Template, October earth?
Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of | Sweetiques, AIDS transmission higher in Form Name: Surname Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries?
Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the Form | Sweetiques unrest in 10 Best About Calendars the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in Form | Sweetiques the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the 10 Best Calendars | Template, October U.S. government shut down of 2013? Why is Order | Sweetiques, North Korea so closed to Collection Letter, the rest of the world? Or why is Order Form, it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to large cities and away from rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the Forms. First Name: neo-conservative movement developed in American politics?
Why has neo-Nazism been on Order the rise in Germany? Why is China going to ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in Lounge! | My | Pinterest the 2016 election? Why have the Order | Sweetiques police been targeted by Traveling Physical Traveler, gunmen recently in Form | Sweetiques the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the Application Form First Surname medium of choice for Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution? What caused the development of American slavery system?
What caused the settlement of Australia by the English? What caused the colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of Order Form | Sweetiques, French origin? Why is Traveling Physical Therapist, English the main language used around the world in business and Order | Sweetiques science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Physical Therapist Jobs Traveler Middle Ages to stop?
What caused Great Britain to Order Form | Sweetiques, adopt the parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is different from the European system used by 10 Best Images About Calendars On Pinterest, most of the rest of the world? Why, according to Form | Sweetiques, the 2000 U.S. Home Renovation Model Template & Excel! Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and Order Form | Sweetiques African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Traveling | American Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war? Why is it important to Order, study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. 10 Best Images About Calendars On Pinterest | Template,! Title: The causal question makes a great title for Order, your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for the title. Your answer to the question will be the thesis of your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and describing the situation or effect.
See the chart for easy introduction and Forms. Application Name: conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in Form your essay, add a because followed by | Word & Excel, the three reasons you will give in the body of your essay. Body: Be careful to write the reasons in parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an emotional release in watching and talking with other people about the experience, and Order they get a vicarious thrill in seeing the forbidden on the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on one reason if you have several parts of that reason to Four Ways In Employee Performance Reviews You, discuss.) Topic Sentences of | Sweetiques, Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into full sentences.
Those are your topic sentences for Renovation Model, the body paragraphs of your essay. Order Form | Sweetiques! Gather evidence from your own observations and from research. Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to either urge the Collection Template For Student reader to Order Form | Sweetiques, believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the chart below. Easy Introductions and Conclusions. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Application Forms. Employment Name:! Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 6. Form | Sweetiques! 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. Trust Performance Reviews! How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper.
by Laura Writes 40. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from | Sweetiques, United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about writing. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for Application Forms. Application Form First Surname, Research Essays for more topics. Form! Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Traveling Physical Therapist | American Traveler! Thanks a lot for Order Form, posting such a wonderful and helpful post!
It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to Four Ways In Employee Performance Reviews – Do, find the answers. I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on the technology niche. 2. A few exciting ideas about the body like the Form introductory and concluding ideas. If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of others. Hoping to Grand Opening Sky Hookah | My Flyers | Pinterest, have some more great things from you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria.
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Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. | Sweetiques! So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of Traveling Therapist Jobs Traveler, college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to | Sweetiques, come up with good lesson plans and instructions. That is why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for over 20 years.
Hezekiah 3 years ago from 10 Best Images Calendars On Pinterest October, Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and Form | Sweetiques respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is | Pinterest, a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
HubPages and Form | Sweetiques Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on Images About On Pinterest October this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and | Sweetiques respective owners.
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Exit Strategy: In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. 41 Min read time. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. President and Mrs. Kennedy arrive at Order | Sweetiques Love Field, Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. Four Trust In Employee Performance – Do. Photograph by Cecil Stoughton, White House, in the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston. Forty years have passed since November 22, 1963, yet painful mysteries remain. What, at the moment of Order Form | Sweetiques his death, was John F. Kennedy’s policy toward Vietnam?
It’s one of the big questions, alternately evaded and disputed over four decades of Physical Therapist Jobs historical writing. It bears on Kennedy’s reputation, of course, though not in an unambiguous way. And today, larger issues are at stake as the United States faces another indefinite military commitment that might have been avoided and that, perhaps, also cannot be won. The story of Vietnam in 1963 illustrates for us the struggle with policy failure. Form | Sweetiques. More deeply, appreciating those distant events tests our capacity as a country to look the reality of Ideas Letter Of Recommendation Template our own history in the eye. One may usefully introduce the issue by recalling the Order Form furor over Robert McNamara’s 1995 memoir In Retrospect. Images Calendars On Pinterest. Reaction then focused mainly on McNamara’s assumption of personal responsibility for the war, notably his declaration that his own actions as the Secretary of Defense responsible for it were “terribly, terribly wrong.” Reviewers paid little attention to Order Form | Sweetiques the book’s contribution to history.
In an editorial on April 12, 1995, the New York Times delivered a harsh judgment: “Perhaps the only value of “In Retrospect” is to remind us never to forget that these were men who in the full hubristic glow of their power would not listen to logical warning or ethical appeal.” And in the New York Times Book Review four days later, Max Frankel wrote that. David Halberstam, who applied that ironic phrase [The Best and the Brightest] to his rendering of the tale 23 years ago, told it better in many ways than Mr. McNamara does now. So too, did the Pentagon Papers, that huge trove of Renovation Model | Word documents assembled at Mr. McNamara’s behest when he first recognized a debt to history. In view of Order Form | Sweetiques these criticisms, readers who actually pick up McNamara’s book may experience a shock when they scan the table of contents and sees this summary of Chapter 3, titled “The Fateful Fall of 1963: August 24November 22, 1963”: A pivotal period of Forms. Application Form First Name: U.S. involvement in Vietnam, punctuated by three important events: the overthrow and assassination of South Vietnam’s president Ngo Dinh Diem; President Kennedy’s decision on October 2 to begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces ; and his assassination fifty days later. (Emphasis added.) Kennedy’s decision on October 2, 1963, to begin the withdrawal of Order | Sweetiques U.S. forces from South Vietnam? Contrary to Frankel, this is Grand Opening Of Red Flyers | Pinterest, not something you will find in Halberstam. You will not find it in Leslie Gelb’s editorial summary in the Gravel edition of Order Form | Sweetiques The Pentagon Papers, even though several documents that are important to establishing the case for a Kennedy decision to withdraw were published in that edition. Nor, with just three exceptions prior to last spring’s publication of Howard Jones’s Death of a Generationa milestone in the search for difficult, ferociously hidden truthwill you find it elsewhere in 30 years of historical writing on Collection For Student, Vietnam.
Did John F. | Sweetiques. Kennedy give the Employment Form Name: order to withdraw from Form, Vietnam? Certainly, most Vietnam historians have said “no”or would have if they considered the 10 Best About Calendars On Pinterest | Template, October question worth posing. They have asserted continuity between Kennedy’s policy and Lyndon Johnson’s, while usually claiming that neither president liked the war and Form, also that Kennedy especially had expressed to friends his desire to get out sometime after the 1964 election. The view that Kennedy would have done what Johnson didstay in Vietnam and Traveler, gradually escalate the Order war in 1964 and 1965is held by left, center, and right, from Noam Chomsky to Letter Kai Bird to William Gibbons. It was promoted forcefully over Form | Sweetiques the years by the late Walt Rostow, beginning in Renovation & Excel Templates, 1967 with a thick compilation for Johnson himself of Kennedy’s public statements on Vietnam policy and continuing into the 1990s.
Gibbons’s three-volume study states it this way: “On November 26 , Johnson approved NSAM [National Security Action Memorandum] 273, reaffirming the U.S. commitment to Vietnam and the continuation of Order Vietnam programs and policies of the Kennedy administration.” Equally, Stanley Karnow writes in his Vietnam: A History (1983) that Johnson’s pledge “essentially signaled a continuation of Kennedy’s policy.” Patrick Lloyd Hatcher, while writing extensively on the Saigon coup, makes no mention at | Word all of the Washington discussions following Johnson’s accession three weeks later. Gary Hess offers summary judgment on the policy that Johnson inherited: “To Kennedy and his fellow New Frontiersmen, it was a doctrine of faith that the problems of Vietnam lent themselves to an American solution.” Kai Bird’s 1998 biography of McGeorge and William Bundy briefly reviews the discussions of Order Form | Sweetiques withdrawal reported to have occurred in late 1963 but accepts the general verdict that Kennedy did not intend to Traveling Physical Therapist Traveler quit. So does Fredrik Logevall, whose substantial 1999 book steadfastly insists that the choices Kennedy faced were either escalation or negotiation and did not include withdrawal without negotiation. All this (and more) is in spite of evidence to | Sweetiques the contrary, advanced over the years by Of Recommendation For Student a tiny handful of authors. In 1972 Peter Dale Scott first made the case that Johnson’s NSAM 273the document that Gibbons relied on in making the case for continuitywas in fact a departure from Kennedy’s policy; his essay appeared in Gravel’s edition of The Pentagon Papers. Arthur M. Schlesinger’s Robert Kennedy and His Times tells in a few tantalizing pages of the “first application” in October 1963 “of Kennedy’s phased withdrawal plan.” A more thorough treatment appeared in 1992, with the publication of Order | Sweetiques John M. Newman’s JFK and Vietnam.1 Until his retirement in 1994 Newman was a major in the U.S. Army, an intelligence officer last stationed at Fort Meade, headquarters of the National Security Agency. Of Red Sky Hookah Lounge! | Pinterest. As an historian, his specialty is Order Form, deciphering declassified recordsa talent he later applied to the CIA’s long-hidden archives on Lee Harvey Oswald.
Newman’s argument was not a case of “counterfactual historical reasoning,” as Larry Berman described it in an early response.2 It was not about what might have happened had Kennedy lived. Newman’s argument was stronger: Kennedy, he claims, had decided to begin a phased withdrawal from Vietnam, that he had ordered this withdrawal to begin. Grand Of Red Sky Hookah Flyers | Pinterest. Here is the | Sweetiques chronology, according to Templates Newman: (1) On October 2, 1963, Kennedy received the Order Form report of Renovation & Excel Templates a mission to Order Saigon by McNamara and Maxwell Taylor, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). The main recommendations, which appear in Section I(B) of the McNamara-Taylor report, were that a phased withdrawal be completed by Renovation the end of Form | Sweetiques 1965 and that the “Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1,000 out of 17,000 U.S. military personnel stationed in Ways To Build Performance – Do, Vietnam by the end of 1963.” At Kennedy’s instruction, Press Secretary Pierre Salinger made a public announcement that evening of McNamara’s recommended timetable for withdrawal. (2) On October 5, Kennedy made his formal decision.
Newman quotes the minutes of the meeting that day: The President also said that our decision to remove 1,000 U.S. advisors by Order Form | Sweetiques December of this year should not be raised formally with Diem. Instead the action should be carried out Renovation Template | Word & Excel routinely as part of our general posture of withdrawing people when they are no longer needed. (Emphasis added.) The passage illustrates two points: (a) that a decision was in Form, fact made on that day, and (b) that despite the earlier announcement of McNamara’s recommendation, the October 5 decision was not a ruse or pressure tactic to win reforms from Diem (as Richard Reeves, among others, has contended3) but a decision to begin withdrawal irrespective of Diem or his reactions. (3) On October 11, the White House issued NSAM 263, which states: The President approved the military recommendations contained in Home Renovation Template | Word, section I B (1-3) of the report, but directed that no formal announcement be made of the implementation of plans to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963.
In other words, the withdrawal recommended by McNamara on October 2 was embraced in secret by Order | Sweetiques Kennedy on Home Model | Word & Excel Templates, October 5 and implemented by his order on October 11, also in | Sweetiques, secret. Newman argues that the secrecy after October 2 can be explained by a diplomatic reason. Kennedy did not want Diem or anyone else to interpret the withdrawal as part of any pressure tactic (other steps that were pressure tactics had also been approved). There was also a political reason: JFK had not decided whether he could get away with claiming that the withdrawal was a result of progress toward the goal of a self-sufficient South Vietnam. The alternative would have been to withdraw the troops while acknowledging failure. And this, Newman argues, Kennedy was prepared to do if it became necessary. He saw no reason, however, to take this step before it became necessary. Four Trust In Employee Performance – Do. If the troops could be pulled while the Order Form | Sweetiques South Vietnamese were still standing, so much the better.4 But from October 11 onward the 10 Best Images On Pinterest October CIA’s reporting changed drastically. Official optimism was replaced by a searching and comparatively realistic pessimism. Newman believes this pessimism, which involved rewriting assessments as far back as the | Sweetiques previous July, was a response to NSAM 263. It represented an effort by the CIA to undermine the ostensible rationale of withdrawal with success, and therefore to obstruct implementation of the plan for Opening Sky Hookah Lounge! | Pinterest, withdrawal.
Kennedy, needless to say, did not share his full reasoning with the CIA. (4) On November 1 there came the coup in Saigon and the assassination of Diem and | Sweetiques, Nhu. At a press conference on November 12, Kennedy publicly restated his Vietnam goals. They were “to intensify the struggle” and “to bring Americans out of there.” Victory, which had figured prominently in a similar statement on Letter Of Recommendation, September 12, was no longer on the list. (5) The Honolulu Conference of senior cabinet and military officials on November 2021 was called to review plans in the wake of the | Sweetiques Saigon coup. The military and Images About Calendars On Pinterest, the CIA, however, planned to use that meeting to pull the rug from under the false optimism which some had used to Form | Sweetiques rationalize NSAM 263. However, Kennedy did not himself believe that we were withdrawing with victory. It follows that the changing image of the military situation would not have changed JFK’s decision. (6) In Honolulu, McGeorge Bundy prepared a draft of what would eventually be NSAM 273.
The plan was to Four Ways To Build Trust In Employee Performance Reviews present it to Kennedy after the Order Form | Sweetiques meeting ended. Dated November 21, this draft reflected the change in military reporting. It speaks, for example, of a need to “turn the tide not only of battle but of belief.” Plans to intensify the struggle, however, do not go beyond what Kennedy would have approved: A paragraph calling for actions against the North underscores the Home Renovation | Word & Excel role of Vietnamese forces: 7. With respect to action against Form | Sweetiques North Vietnam, there should be a detailed plan for the development of additional Government of Vietnam resources , especially for sea-going activity, and such planning should indicate the time and investment necessary to achieve a wholly new level of effectiveness in this field of action. (Emphasis added.) (7) At Honolulu, a preliminary plan, known as CINCPAC OPLAN 34-63 and later implemented as OPLAN 34A, was prepared for Images On Pinterest | Template, October, presentation. This plan called for intensified sabotage raids against Form the North, employing Vietnamese commandos under U.S. controla significant escalation.5 While JCS chief Taylor had approved preparation of this plan, it had not been shown to Grand Opening Sky Hookah Flyers McNamara. Tab E of the meeting’s briefing book, also approved by Taylor and also not sent in advance to Order | Sweetiques McNamara, showed that the withdrawal ordered by Kennedy in October was already being gutted, by the device of substituting for the withdrawal of full units that of Home Renovation | Word & Excel Templates individual soldiers who were being rotated out of Vietnam in any event.
(8) The final version of NSAM 273, signed by Order Form | Sweetiques Johnson on November 26, differs from the Employment Application Form Surname draft in several respects. Most are minor changes of wording. The main change is that the draft paragraph 7 has been struck in Form, its entirety (there are two pencil slashes on the November 21 draft), and replaced with the following: Planning should include different levels of possible increased activity, and in each instance there be estimates such factors as: A. Resulting damage to North Vietnam; B. Forms. Employment. The plausibility denial; C. Vietnamese retaliation; D. Order Form. Other international reaction. Plans submitted promptly for approval by authority. The new language is About On Pinterest | Template,, incomplete. Order. It does not begin by declaring outright that the subject is attacks on the North.
But the thrust is unmistakable, and the restrictive reference to “Government of Vietnam resources” is now missing. Newman concludes that this change effectively provided new authority for U.S.directed combat actions against Grand Opening Lounge! North Vietnam. Planning for these actions began therewith, and we now know that an Form, OPLAN 34A raid in August 1964 provoked the North Vietnamese retaliation against the destroyer Maddox, which became the first Gulf of Application Application Name: Tonkin incident. And this in turn led to the confused incident a few nights later aboard the Turner Joy, to Form | Sweetiques reports that it too had been attacked, and to Johnson’s overnight decision to seek congressional support for “retaliation” against North Vietnam. Ideas Letter Of Recommendation Template For Student. From this, of course, the larger war then flowed. A reply to Order Newman’s book appeared very quickly. It came from Noam Chomsky, hardly an apologist for Home Renovation Model Template | Word & Excel Templates, Lyndon Johnson or the war. Chomsky despises the | Sweetiques Kennedy apologists: equally the old insiders and the antiwar nostalgicsArthur Schlesinger and Home Template | Word, Oliver Stoneand the historical memory of “the fallen leader who had escalated the attack against Vietnam from terror to aggression.” He reviles efforts to portray Kennedy’s foreign policy views as different from Johnson’s. On this point he may well be fundamentally correct, though for reasons quite different from those that he offers. Chomsky’s Rethinking Camelot challenges Newman’s main points. First, did Kennedy plan to Order Form | Sweetiques withdraw without victory?
Or, were the plans of NSAM 263 contingent on a continued perception of To Build Reviews You success in battle? Second, did the change in NSAM 273 between the draft (which was prepared for Kennedy but never seen by him) and the final version (signed by Johnson) represent a change in Order Form | Sweetiques, policy? Chomsky is Renovation | Word Templates, categorical on both issues: “Two weeks before Kennedy’s assassination, there is Order Form, not a phrase in the voluminous internal record that even hints at withdrawal without victory.” Elsewhere he notes that “[t]he withdrawal-without-victory thesis rests on the assumption that Kennedy realized that the optimistic military reports were incorrect. . . . Not a trace of Physical Therapist Jobs | American supporting evidence appears in the internal record, or is suggested [by Newman].” And, as for the changes to NSAM 273: “There is Form, no relevant difference between the two documents [draft and final], except that the LBJ version is weaker and more evasive.” Chomsky denies Newman’s claim that the Four Ways To Build Performance Reviews You new version of paragraph 7 in the final draft of NSAM 273 signed by | Sweetiques Johnson on Opening Sky Hookah Lounge! Flyers, November 26 opened the way for OPLAN 34A and the use of U.S.directed forces in covert operations against North Vietnam. Rather, he reads the Johnson version as applying only to Government of Vietnam forces, even though the language restricting action to those forces is no longer there.
Peter Dale Scott, the former diplomat, professor of English at Order the University of California, Berkeley, and author of part of the Pentagon Papers, replied to Chomsky on both points almost immediately. On the Employment Name: first point, withdrawal without victory, Scott writes: Following [Leslie] Gelb, Chomsky alleges that Kennedy’s withdrawal planning was in response to an “optimistic mid-1962 assessment.” . . . But in fact the planning was first ordered by McNamara in Order Form, May 1962. This was one month after ambassador Kenneth Galbraith, disenchanted after a presidentially ordered visit to Forms. First Surname Vietnam, had proposed a “political solution” based in part on a proposal to the Soviets entertaining “phased American withdrawal.” Scott goes on to point out that it cannot be proven that Galbraith’s recommendation was responsible for McNamara’s order. But there is good reason to believe they were linked, that both reflected Kennedy’s long-term strategy on Vietnam.6 As for the proposition that no evidence hinting at | Sweetiques withdrawal without victory exists, Scott argues that Chomsky’s “internal planning record”for the most part the Pentagon Papers“is in fact an edited version of the primary documents.” Moreover, “the documentary record is conspicuously defective” for November 1963. Opening Lounge! | My Flyers. “[I]n all three editions of the Order Form Pentagon Papers there are no complete documents between the five [coup] cables of October 30 and McNamara’s memorandum of December 21; the 600 pages of Four To Build In Employee Performance Reviews – Do You documents from the Kennedy Administration end on | Sweetiques, October 30.” On the second point, concerning NSAM 273, Scott writes that Chomsky reads “Johnson’s NSAM as if it were as contextless as a Dead Sea Scroll,” dismissing its importance and ignoring “early accounts of it as a ‘major decision,’ a ‘pledge’ that determined ‘all that would follow,’ from journalists as diverse as Tom Wicker, Marvin Kalb, and I. Collection Letter Of Recommendation. F. Stone.” Scott writes that Chomsky also ignores Taylor’s memo to President Johnson of January 22, 1964, which cites NSAM 273 as authority to “prepare to escalate operations against North Vietnam.”
In the course of this controversy, the ground had narrowed sharply. After Newman’s book, no one seriously disputed that Kennedy was contemplating withdrawal from Vietnam. Instead, the disagreements focused on Order Form, four questions: Did the withdrawal plans depend on the perception of victory? Did Kennedy act on his plans? Were actions he may have taken noisy but cosmetic, a pressure tactic aimed at Diem or a ploy for the American public, or were they for real? And were the OPLAN 34A operations that got under way following Kennedy’s death a sharp departure from previous U.S. policy or merely a “Government of Opening Lounge! | Pinterest Vietnam” activity consonant with intensifying the war in Order Form, the South? The publication of McNamara’s In Retrospect sharpened the terms of debate.
Some key source materials, including the Application Forms. Name: Surname texts of the McNamara-Taylor report and those of NSAM 263 and 273, have been in Order | Sweetiques, the public domain for years. McNamara’s 1995 account of his September 1963 mission to Vietnam makes substantial use of the McNamara-Taylor report and 10 Best About October, the quotations presented are a study in ambiguity. He quotes General Maxwell Taylor’s apparent conviction that the war could be won by the end of 1965, but then he acknowledges that there were “conflicting reports about military progress and political stability” and describes the impressive doubts of those he spoke with that the South Vietnamese government was capable of the effective actions that military victory required: The military campaign has made great progress and continues to progress. . . . There are serious political tensions in Saigon. Order Form. . . . Further repressive actions by Diem and Nhu could change the present favorable military trends. . Grand. . . It is not clear that pressures exerted by the U.S. will move Diem and Nhu toward moderation. . Order Form. . . The prospects that a replacement regime would be an improvement appear to be about 50-50. The drift seems clear enough: the Diem government is failing and there is no reason to think a replacement would be better. Application Employment Application Form Name: Surname. But the references to “great progress” leave room for doubt. Withdrawal with victory or without it? McNamara then reproduces the precise wording of the military recommendations from Section I(B) of the Form | Sweetiques report: We recommend that:  General Harkins review with Diem the military changes necessary to complete the military campaign in the Northern and Central areas by Home Template | Word & Excel Templates the end of Form 1964, and in the Delta by the end of 1965.  A program be established to train Vietnamese so that essential functions now performed by U.S. military personnel can be carried out by Vietnamese by the end of Ideas Template For Student 1965.
It should be possible to Order | Sweetiques withdraw the bulk of U.S. personnel by that time.  In accordance with the program to train progressively Vietnamese to take over military functions, the Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel by the end of Home Renovation | Word & Excel Templates 1963. The report then went on Order | Sweetiques, to make a number of recommendations to “impress upon Diem our disapproval of his political program.” These matters dealt with the Four In Employee Reviews – Do repression of the Buddhists and related issues; the recommendation to announce plans to withdraw 1,000 soldiers is not listed under this heading. The reason for the ambiguity over the military situation, as well as the vague “it should be possible” wording of the second recommendation, becomes clearer when McNamara describes the National Security Council meeting of October 2, 1963, which revealed a “total lack of consensus” over the battlefield situation: One faction believed military progress had been good and Order, training had progressed to the point where we could begin to withdraw. A second faction did not see the war as progressing well and did not see the South Vietnamese showing evidence of successful training.
But they, too, agreed that we should begin to withdraw. . . . The third faction, representing the Physical Therapist Jobs | American majority, considered the South Vietnamese trainable but believed our training had not been in place long enough to achieve results and, therefore, should continue at current levels. As McNamara’s 1986 oral history, on Form | Sweetiques, deposit at the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, makes clear (but his book does not), he was himself in Employment Application Form Name:, the second group, who favored withdrawal without victorynot necessarily admitting or even predicting defeat, but accepting uncertainty as to Form | Sweetiques what would follow. The denouement came shortly thereafter: After much debate, the president endorsed our recommendation to In Employee Performance Reviews – Do withdraw 1,000 men by December 31, 1963. He did so, I recall, without indicating his reasoning. In any event, because objections had been so intense and because I suspected others might try to Order Form | Sweetiques get him to reverse the decision, I urged him to announce it publicly. That would set it in concrete. . . . The president finally agreed, and the announcement was released by Pierre Salinger after the meeting. Before a large audience at the LBJ Library on May 1, 1995, McNamara restated his account of this meeting and stressed its importance. 10 Best Images Calendars On Pinterest. He confirmed that President Kennedy’s action had three elements: (1) complete withdrawal “by December 31, 1965,” (2) the first 1,000 out by the end of 1963, and Form, (3) a public announcement, to set these decisions “in concrete,” which was made. Home Model Template | Word. McNamara also added the critical information that there exists a tape of Form | Sweetiques this meeting, in the John F. Kennedy Library in Therapist Jobs, Boston, to Form | Sweetiques which he had access and on which his account is Four To Build In Employee Reviews – Do, based. The existence of a taping system in JFK’s oval office had become known over the years, particularly through the release of partial transcripts of the historic meeting of the “ExComm” during the Form Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962.
But the full extent of Kennedy’s taping was not known. And, according to Physical Therapist Jobs Traveler McNamara, access to particular tapes was tightly controlled by representatives of the Kennedy family. When McNamara spoke in Order | Sweetiques, Austin, only he and his coauthor, Brian VanDeMark, had been granted the privilege of 10 Best | Template, listening to the actual tape recordings of Kennedy’s White House meetings on Vietnam. In 1997, however, this situation changed. The Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB), an independent civilian body established under the Order | Sweetiques 1992 JFK Records Act that has already been responsible for the release of millions of 10 Best Images About On Pinterest October pages of official records deemed relevant to Kennedy’s assassination, ruled that his tapes relating to Vietnam decision-making should be released.
In July the JFK Library began releasing key tapes, including those of the withdrawal meetings on October 2 and 5, 1963.7. A careful review of the October 2 meeting makes clear that McNamara’s account is essentially accurate and even to Form | Sweetiques some degree understated. One can hear McNamarathe voice is unmistakablearguing for a firm timetable to withdraw all U.S. forces from Vietnam, whether the war can be won in 1964, which he doubts, or not. Four To Build Trust In Employee You. McNamara is emphatic: “We need a way to get out of Vietnam, and this is a way of Order | Sweetiques doing it.” In Retrospect’s discussion of Kennedy’s decision to withdraw ends at this point.
McNamara makes no mention of NSAM 263. However, on Physical Jobs | American Traveler, the tape of the meeting of October 5, 1963, one can clearly hear a voiceit may be Robert McNamara or McGeorge Bundyasking President John F. Kennedy for Order Form | Sweetiques, “formal approval” of “items one, two, and three” on a paper evidently in front of Physical Jobs | American Traveler them. Form | Sweetiques. It is clear that one of these items is the recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by the end of 1963, the rationale being that they are no longer needed. 10 Best Images Calendars | Template,. This short exchange is thus unmistakably a request for | Sweetiques, a formal presidential decision concerning the McNamara-Taylor recommendations. After a short discussion of the possible political effect in Vietnam of Forms. Employment Form Name: Surname announcing this decision, the voice of JFK can be clearly heard: “Let’s go on ahead and do it,” followed by a few words deciphered by historian George Eliades as “without making a public statement about it.” Unfortunately, the last White House tape from the Kennedy administration is dated November 7, 1963.
The archivists at the JFK Library have no information on why the tapings either ended or are unavailable for later dates. McNamara states that he has “no specific memory” of the | Sweetiques Honolulu Conference that he was sent to chair on Application Employment Form First, November 20, 1963. The President of the United States does not make decisions in a vacuum. Agencies have to be notified, plans have to be made, actions have to be taken. Part of the enduring doubt over Kennedy’s decision to | Sweetiques withdraw U.S. forces from Vietnam surely stems from the failure of this decision to cast a shadow in the primary record, and particularly in the Pentagon Papers, on which so many historians have relied for so many years. Application Forms. First Name:. Furthermore, a persistent skeptic can still point to the “it should be possible” language of the McNamara-Taylor Report with respect to the final date of Order Form 1965 as leaving an “out” for the case where the military situation might turn sour. In two years and two months, much can happen, as events would prove. But as Scott already pointed out to Chomsky in 1993, the Forms. Employment Application Form primary record available to | Sweetiques date has been heavily edited. Documents from November 1, 1963, through early December are conspicuously missing.
So, we now learn, are many others. In January 1998, again under the supervision of the ARRB, about Physical Therapist, 900 pages of Order Form | Sweetiques new materials were declassified and released from the Therapist Jobs Traveler JCS archives. These include important records from May 1963, from October, and from the period immediately following Kennedy’s death; many had been reviewed for declassification in 1989 but were not declassified at that time. They clarify considerably the nature of the “presently prepared plans” referred to in the McNamara-Taylor third recommendation, and they give the military leadership’s interpretation of the direction they were getting from JFK. Since it is Order Form | Sweetiques, well known that the Pentagon did not favor withdrawal, it is fair to assume that if wiggle room existed in the President’s instructions it would surface in these documents. Many of the new documents relate to the Eighth Secretary of Defense Conference, held in Honolulu on May 6, 1963. Here one gets a taste of McNamara’s skepticism and the replies of the brass. Grand Flyers. For instance, at one point the secretary extracts a concession that “50-60 percent of VC weapons were of U.S. origin.” A bit later, we read: “GEN HARKINS stated that for effective control the border should be defined, marked and cleared similar to the Greek boundary with Albania and Bulgaria. Order | Sweetiques. However, this cannot be done in the foreseeable future.”
Turning to the development of Application First Name: Surname a “comprehensive plan,” the documents immediately reflect discussions of a phase-down in the U.S. presence. For instance: “SEC MCNAMARA stated that our efforts should be directed toward turning over Form | Sweetiques equipment now in U.S. units supporting the Vietnamese as rapidly as possible. He added that we must avoid creating a situation that now obtains in Korea where we are presently spending almost half a billion dollars per year in foreign aid.” A little later, we find a decision noted: “1. Draw up training plans for Home Renovation Model Template & Excel Templates, the RVNAF that will permit us to Form start an earlier withdrawal of U.S. Physical Jobs | American. personnel than proposed under the plans presented.” And: “d. Plan to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel from Order Form | Sweetiques, RVN by December 1963.” Further discussion of the 1,000 man withdrawal is Home & Excel, recorded shortly: GEN HARKINS emphasized that he did not want to gather up 1,000 U.S. personnel and have them depart with bands playing, flags flying etc. This would have a bad effect on the Vietnamese, to Order be pulling out Employment Name: just when it appears they are winning.
SEC MCNAMARA stated that this would have to be handled carefully due to the psychological impact. | Sweetiques. However, there should be an intensive training program of RVNAF to allow removal of U.S. units rather than individuals. There follows considerable discussion of proposals to launch raids on Calendars October, North Vietnam. For Geneva convention reasons, it is agreed that these must be covert. Use of Laos is Order Form, not feasible; there are no land entries through the demilitarized zone. As for sea entry, available boats are susceptible to weather and too slow.
Sea is the only means of exfiltration. However, for any major operation the Home Renovation Model Template Templates RVN naval craft are not qualified to tangle with DRV craft. . . Order. . Grand | Pinterest. Build-up in CIA resources by end CY 1963 includes 40 teams in addition to 9 in country. New high speed armed boats will be available for Order | Sweetiques, infiltration and exfiltration in September, providing a year-round, all-weather capability. Thus emerges an answer to one of the critical questions separating Newman and Scott from Chomsky. OPLAN 34A, when it emerged in November, would be a CIA operation. It could not be otherwise, for Grand Of Red Sky Hookah Lounge! Flyers | Pinterest, the Government of Vietnam did not possess the Order Form | Sweetiques boats.8. Eventually, discussion turns to projected force structures, and a table titled “CPSVNFORECAST OF PHASE-OUT OF US FORCES” gives precise estimates, by major unit, of the projected American commitment through 1968. McNamara’s reaction to this timetable is recorded clearly: In connection with this presentation, made by COMUSMACV (attached hereto), the Secretary of Defense stated that the phase-out appears too slow. He directed that training plans be developed for the GVN by CINCPAC which will permit a more rapid phase-out of Template U.S. forces, stating specifically that we should review our plans for pilot training with the view to Form accelerating it materially. He made particular point of the desirability of speeding up training of helicopter pilots, so that we may give the Images Calendars On Pinterest Vietnamese our copters and thus be able to move our own forces out.
ACTION: Joint Staff (J-3); message directive to CINCPAC, info COMUSMACV. (Emphasis added.) The May conference thus fills in the primary record: plans were under development for the complete withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam. On October 2, 1963, as we have previously seen, President Kennedy made clear his determination to Order | Sweetiques implement those plansto withdraw 1,000 troops by the end of 1963, and to get almost all the rest out by Collection Letter the end of 1965. There followed, on October 4, a memorandum titled “South Vietnam Actions” from General Maxwell Taylor to | Sweetiques his fellow Joint Chiefs of Staff, Generals May, Wheeler, Shoup, and Admiral McDonald, that reads: b. The program currently in progress to Ideas Of Recommendation Template For Student train Vietnamese forces will be reviewed and accelerated as necessary to insure that all essential functions visualized to be required for the projected operational environment, to include those now performed by U.S. military units and personnel, can be assumed properly by the Vietnamese by the end of calendar year 1965. Form | Sweetiques. All planning will be directed towards preparing RVN forces for the withdrawal of all U.S. special assistance units and Ideas Letter Template, personnel by the end of calendar year 1965. (Emphasis added.) “All planning” is an unconditional phrase. Order Form. There is no contingency here, or elsewhere in this memorandum. The next paragraph reads: c. Execute the plan to Letter For Student withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963 per Form | Sweetiques, your DTG 212201Z July, and as approved for planning by JCS DTG 062042Z September. Previous guidance on Trust Reviews – Do You, the public affairs annex is altered to the extent that the action will now be treated in low key, as the initial increment of U.S. forces whose presence is no longer required because (a) Vietnamese forces have been trained to assume the Order function involved; or (b) the function for which they came to Of Red Sky Hookah Flyers | Pinterest Vietnam has been completed. (Emphasis added.) This resolves the question of how the initial withdrawal was to be carried out. It was not to be a noisy or cosmetic affair, designed to please either U.S. opinion or to change policies in Saigon. It was rather to be a low-key, matter-of-fact beginning to a process that would play out over the following two years.
The final paragraph of Taylor’s memorandum underlines this point by directing that “specific checkpoints will be established now against which progress can be evaluated on a quarterly basis.” There is much more in the JCS documents to show that Kennedy was well aware of the evidence that South Vietnam was, in | Sweetiques, fact, losing the war. But it hardly matters. The withdrawal decided on was unconditional, and did not depend on Home Model Templates, military progress or lack of it. Four days after Kennedy was killed, NSAM 273 incorporated the new president’s directives into policy. It made clear that the objectives of Johnson’s policy remained the Form same as Kennedy’s: “to assist the people and About October, government of South Vietnam to win their contest against Order the externally directed and supported Communist conspiracy” through training support and without the application of overt U.S. military force. But Johnson had also approved intensified planning for covert action against North Vietnam by CIA-supported South Vietnamese forces. With this, McNamara confirms one of Newman’s central claims: NSAM 273 changed policy. Yes, the “central objectives” remained the same: a Vietnamese war with no “overt U.S. military force.” But covert force is still “U.S. military force.” And that was introduced or at Traveling Therapist | American Traveler least first approved, as McNamara writes, by NSAM 273 within four days of Kennedy’s assassination.Moreover, McNamara effectively supports Newman on the meaning of NSAM 273’s seventh paragraph, which was inserted in the draft (as we have seen) sometime between November 21 and 26after the Honolulu meeting had adjourned and probably after Kennedy died.
A final military document is relevant here. Dated December 11, 1963, it is titled “Department of Defense Actions to Implement NSAM No. 273, 26 November 1963.” This document was prepared by Marine Lieutenant Colonel M. C. Dalby; it is from CINCPAC files and is labeled “Group 1Excluded from Automatic Downgrading and Declassification.” The document begins coldly: “After reviewing the recent discussions of South Vietnam which occurred in | Sweetiques, Honolulu and after discussing the matter further with Ambassador Lodge, the President directed that certain guidance be issued to various Government Agencies. This was promulgated in Model Template | Word & Excel Templates, the form of National Security Action Memorandum 273, 26 November 1963.” There is no reference to the change of commander in chief, which had occurred within the Order time frame indicated by Employment Form First Name: the opening sentence. The particular importance of this document is its reference to Order Form paragraph 7 of NSAM 273. Planning for intensified action against North Vietnam was directed following the Honolulu Conference (JCS 3697, 26 Nov 1963) in the form of Ways Trust In Employee Reviews You a 12-month program. . . . Order Form. A deadline of 20 Dec 63 has been set for completion of the plan. There are then notes that these requirements were communicated to Four In Employee Performance You CINCPAC and COMUSMACV on December 2, with a reply from COMUSMACV on December 3. CIA station guidance, however, happened even more rapidly than that: CIA guidance to Saigon Station for intensified planning was dispatched following the Honolulu Conference (CAS 84972, 25 Nov 63). (Emphasis added.) In other words, the CIA began developing intensified plans to implement OPLAN 34A, the program of seaborne raids and sabotage against North Vietnam that would lead to the Gulf of | Sweetiques Tonkin incident and eventually to the wider war, one day before President Johnson signed the directive authorizing that action. How this happened, and its precise significance, remains to be determined.9.
John F. Kennedy had formally decided to withdraw from Vietnam, whether we were winning or not. Robert McNamara, who did not believe we were winning, supported this decision.10 The first stage of withdrawal had been ordered. The final date, two years later, had been specified. These decisions were taken, and even placed, in Ideas Collection Letter Of Recommendation Template, an oblique and carefully limited way, before the public. Howard Jones makes two large contributions to this tale. One of them is simply range, depth, and completeness. His recent book Death of a Generation is Form | Sweetiques, a full history of Traveling | American Traveler how the assassinations of Diem and | Sweetiques, then of JFK prolonged a war that otherwise might have ended quietly within a few years. Where this essay has presented the story-within-a-story of just a few Washington weeks, Jones goes back to Letter Of Recommendation Template For Student the start of the 1960s, chronicling the struggle for power and policy that marked the whole of Kennedy’s thousand days. And he presents a reasonably complete account of the archival record surrounding the withdrawal decisions of October 1963. Equally important, Jones’s reach extends to Saigon.
In a long and fascinating section he outlines the intrigues that led to Order Form the murders of Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu on November 1, 1963. Here, Kennedy’s White House appears at its worst. Application First. It was fractious, disorganized, preoccupied with American politics, ignorant of the forces it faced in Vietnam. Diem’s mistreatment of the Buddhists, which provoked the monk Quang Duc to burn himself on | Sweetiques, a Saigon street in June 1963, traumatized the White House. And following that incident, Madame Nhu and her remarks about “barbecued bonzes” were an irritant out of proportion to their importance.
Thus, in part, the Application Forms. Employment Form First Surname decision to dissociate from Diem. In August 1963 it was a faction of subordinates (Averell Harriman, Roger Hilsman, Michael Forrestal) who seized the Order opportunity to foment a Saigon coup, taking advantage of the absence of the most senior officials over a Washington weekend. Grand Sky Hookah Flyers. Then, having set events in Order Form, motion, the Ideas Collection Of Recommendation Template For Student White House became preoccupied with a deniability that was wholly implausible. Order Form | Sweetiques. Partly as a result it had limited contact with the conspirators and was unable to Ideas Collection Letter For Student protect Diem and Nhu when the coup came. Order Form. Diem was indefensible in many ways.
But the coup went forward with no alternative in view; and as the French ambassador to Saigon put it at Four Performance the time: “any other government will be even more dependent on the Americans, will be obedient to them in all things, and so there will be no chance for Form, peace.” Meanwhile, there are tantalizing undercurrents of Sky Hookah Flyers what might have been. Form. Was Nhu in discussions with intermediaries for Ho Chi Minh, with the possibility that there might have been a deal between North and South to boot the Americans from Vietnam? It appears that he was. And had he succeeded, it would have saved infinite trouble. U.S. policy over Vietnam changed again in late November1963. The main change was a decision to authorize OPLAN 34-Aminor but fateful commando raids against targets in the North. The decision to launch covert attacks on North Vietnam does not by Home Renovation & Excel itself establish that Lyndon Johnson wanted a larger war. As tapes recently released from the LBJ Library establish, Johnson also knew that Vietnam was a trap, a tragedy in the making. He feared that a catastrophe would follow.
In this respect, Johnson and Kennedy were similar. And yet, Johnson could not muster Kennedy’s determination, one might say blind determination, to Order Form avoid the Grand Opening Of Red | My Flyers disaster. He acceded to proposals for covert action, and he promised the military, on November 24, that they could have what they wanted. And so the sequence of events that led to the Tonkin Gulf, to our retaliation, to the North Vietnamese decision to Order introduce their own main forces in the South, and to our decision to To Build Performance – Do You introduce main forces, played out. The days from Honolulu to NSAM 273, November 20 to 26, 1963, simply marked the first turning point. It is not difficult to Order Form | Sweetiques understand why Johnson felt obliged to assert his commitment to Vietnam in | American Traveler, November 1963.
To continue with Kennedy’s withdrawal, after his death, would have been difficult, since the American public had not been told that the war was being lost. Nor had they been told that Kennedy had actually ordered our withdrawal. To maintain our commitment, therefore, was to maintain the | Sweetiques illusion of continuity, and thisin the moment of trauma that followed the assassinationwas Johnson’s paramount political objective. Moreover, delay in the resolution of the Vietnam problem in late 1963 did not necessarily entail the war that followed. Our commitment then was still small.
Tonkin Gulf and Images October, its aftermath lay almost a year into the future. Notwithstanding the commando raids, a diplomatic solution might have been found later on. Left in Form | Sweetiques, charge, Lyndon Johnson temporized, agonized, and cursed the fates. But ultimately he committed us to war that he knew in advance would be practically impossible to win. Nothing can erase this. And yet meanwhile, alongside McNamara, he too prevented any steps that might lead to an invasion of the North, direct conflict with China, and nuclear confrontation. He bided his time, until the trauma of Grand Of Red Sky Hookah Tet in January of 1968 and Form | Sweetiques, his own departure from politics in March liberated him to Model Template | Word & Excel do what Kennedy had done over Form Laos in 1961: send Harriman to Form First Name: Surname end it at the negotiating table. Why did Johnson do it? He was not misinformed about the prospects for sucess.
He was not crazy. His political fate in Order Form, 1964 did not depend on Physical Jobs | American Traveler, a show of toughness. But one possibility is that the alternatives, as he saw them, were worse. To appreciate this possibility, one needs to Order | Sweetiques grasp not one but two exceptionally thorny nettles: that of the strategic balance in the early 1960s on the one hand, and Traveling Jobs | American Traveler, that of the assassination of John F. Kennedy on the other. In contemplating Johnson’s dilemma we find ourselves poised between the Order two black holes of the modern history of the United States.11. Kennedy’s decision to Ways To Build Trust In Employee Performance Reviews – Do withdraw from Vietnam was, as Jones writes, “unconditional, for he approved a calendar of events that did not necessitate a victory.” It was also part of a larger strategy, of a sequence that included the Laos and Berlin settlements in Order, 1961, the non-invasion of Cuba in 1962, the Test Ban Treaty in 1963. Kennedy subordinated the timing of these events to politics: he was quite prepared to Application Employment First Surname leave soldiers in harm’s way until after his own reelection. His larger goal after that was to | Sweetiques settle the Cold War, without either victory or defeata strategic vision laid out in JFK’s commencement speech at American University on June 10, 1963. And that was, partly, a question of Home Renovation | Word & Excel Templates atomic survivala subject that can only Order | Sweetiques be said to have obsessed America’s civilian leadership in those days, and for very good reason. Therapist | American Traveler. The Soviet Union, which had at that time only Order Form | Sweetiques four intercontinental rockets capable of hitting the U.S. mainland, was not the danger that rational men most feared.
The United States held an overwhelming nuclear advantage in late 1963. Accordingly, our nuclear plans were not actually about deterrence. Rather, then as evidently again now, they envisioned preventive war fought over a pretext.12 There were those who were dedicated to carrying out those plans at the appropriate moment. In July 1961, the nuclear planners had specified that the Therapist Jobs | American Traveler optimal moment for such an attack would come at the end of 1963. And yet, standing against them (as Daniel Ellsberg was told at the time), the civilian leaders of the United States were determined never, under any circumstances, to allow U.S. nuclear weapons to be used firstnot in Laos or Vietnam, nor against China, not over Cuba or Berlin, nor against the Soviet Union. For political reasons, at a moment when Americans had been propagandized into thinking of the atomic bomb as their best defense, this was the deepest secret of the Form | Sweetiques time. Was it also a deadly secret? Did LBJ have reason to fear, on Application Employment Application First Name:, the day he took office, that he was facing a nuclear coup d’etat?13 Similar questions have engendered scorn for | Sweetiques, 40 years. Physical Traveler. But they are not illegitimateno more so, let me venture, than the idea that Kennedy really had decided to quit Vietnam. Perhaps someday a historian will answer them as well as Howard Jones has now resolved the Vietnam puzzle. Meanwhile, let us hope that we might learn something about the need to recognize and cope with policy failure.
And as for the truth behind the darkest state secrets, let us also hope that the victims of September 11, 2001, don’t have to wait as long. James K. Galbraith, a 2003 Carnegie Scholar, holds the Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr., Chair of Government/Business Relations at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Order Form Public Affairs, University of 10 Best Images About | Template, October Texas at Austin. 1 JFK and Vietnam has an odd story, in which I should acknowledge a small role. On release, it received a front-page review by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. in Form | Sweetiques, the New York Times Book Review. But of some 32,000 copies printed (in two printings, according to Newman) only about 10,000 were sold before Warner Books abruptly ceased selling the hardcovera fact I discovered on my own in the fall of 1993, when I attempted to assign it to a graduate class. Four To Build Reviews – Do You. I met Newman in Form | Sweetiques, November 1993, partly through the good offices of the 10 Best About | Template, October LBJ Library. I carried his grievance personally to an honorable high official of Time Warner, whose intervention secured the return of his rights. Still, the hardback was never reissued, and no paperback has appeared. 2 “Counterfactual Historical Reasoning: NSAM 263 and NSAM 273,” mimeo for a conference at Order Form the LBJ Library, 1415 October 1993, published as “NSAM 263 and 273: Manipulating History” in Lloyd C. Gardner and Ted Gittinger, eds., Vietnam: The Early Decisions (University of Application Forms. Application Name: Surname Texas Press, 1997). 3 Reeves, author of President Kennedy: Profile of Power, made this argument in a televised lecture at Order Form the LBJ Library in early 1995.
4 In a contribution to Vietnam: The Early Decisions, Newman adds a further reason: Kennedy had, on October 2, allowed McNamara and Taylor to announce, as their recommended target date, that the withdrawal be completed by 1965. Model Template Templates. It would have been awkward to follow just three days later with a presidential decision making clear that the timetable was, in fact, a firm one. 5 The fate of these commandos surfaced in Form, the New York Times of 14 April 1995, where it was reported that after 30 years in prison, many were denied immigration to the United States because of 10 Best About On Pinterest | Template, a lack of service records. 6 My father has said many times that Kennedy sent him to Vietnam “because he knew I did not have an open mind.” 7 I requested release of the tapes in a letter to the ARRB in November 1996. 8 CINCPAC was developing these plans, but they had not been shown to Form | Sweetiques JFK, according to Newman. 9 According to Newman, LBJ took a belligerent tone at his first Vietnam meeting as President on November 24, and McGeorge Bundy attributed the escalatory language in NSAM 273 to 10 Best About | Template, this. However, by any standard the CIA moved quickly, and by this account it relied on the discussions at Honoluluwhich occurred while JFK was still alive. 10 I have in this narrative deliberately underplayed the role of my own father, who was repeatedly called upon by Kennedy to deliver arguments in favor of disengagement from Vietnam, and whose 1962 recommendation for phased withdrawal was probably the basis of the 1963 orders.
My father did not know that the actual decision was taken in October 1963, but he is in no doubt as to Kennedy’s determination: he recalls Kennedy in 1962 saying to Order Form him privately and unmistakably that withdrawal from Application Employment Application First, Vietnam, as that from Laos and the detachment from Cuba, was a matter of political timing. 11 My father retains a distinct, chilling recollection of LBJ’s words to him, in private, on one of their last meetings before the Vietnam War finally drove them apart: “You may not like what I’m doing in Vietnam, Ken, but you would not believe what would happen if I were not here.” 12 Heather Purcell and I documented these nightmares in an article published in 1994 entitled “Did the U.S. Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?” It is still available on Order, the website of the 10 Best October American Prospect. Order Form | Sweetiques. When once I asked the late Walt Rostow if he knew anything about the National Security Council meeting of July 20, 1961 (at which these plans were presented), he responded with no hesitation: “Do you mean the one where they wanted to blow up the world?” 13 There is no doubt that the danger of nuclear war was on Traveling Therapist Traveler, Johnson’s mind. It also explains important points about his behavior in those days, including his orders to Earl Warren and Richard Russell (the latter in a phone call, a recording of which has long been available on the C-SPAN website) as to how they would conduct their commission. The point to appreciate is that there is only one way a war could have started at that time: by preemptive attack by the United States against the Soviet Union.
19972003 by James K. Galbraith. All rights reserved. Originally published in the October/November 2003 issue of Boston Review. September 01, 2003. 41 Min read time. Vital reading on Order Form | Sweetiques, politics, literature, and more in your inbox. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. Kenya#039;s New Electoral Authoritarianism. Business as Usual: The Long History of Corporate Personhood. Searching for Mao in Xi Jinping#039;s China.
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IGCSE and GCSE Geography Coursework (Paper 4) Paper 4 is the alternative to coursework paper that is worth 27.5% of Order | Sweetiques, your final IGCSE grade. Opening Flyers | Pinterest? The coursework paper tests your understanding of how coursework is Order Form carried out. Four Ways To Build In Employee Reviews – Do? The paper is 1 hour and 30 minutes long and divided into two 30 mark questions. You answer all the questions on Order, the examination paper, most questions are short in length, between 1 and 4 marks. The paper requires a combination of knowledge and skills. Grand | My Flyers | Pinterest? The questions usually focus on coursework to do with; coasts, rivers, settlements or weather. As a IGCSE geographer it is possible to Order, carry out coursework on many aspects of the course. Possible topics and 10 Best About | Template, October areas of study may include: Changes in Form | Sweetiques, river velocity from source to mouth Changes in load (shape and Trust Reviews – Do You size) from source to mouth Changes in channel depth, width, cross-section and wetted perimeter from source to mouth Changes in discharge from source to | Sweetiques, mouth Changes across a meanders cross section Changes in To Build Trust In Employee Performance – Do You, river gradient from source to Form, mouth Changes in valley size and gradient from source to mouth Changes in land use a long a river Changes in pollution along a rivers' course (you need proper equipment for this) Changes in Template & Excel Templates, vegetation (cover and variety) moving inland Changes in beach profile and sand dune profile Speed of longshore drift Changes in | Sweetiques, land use Changes in Ideas Collection Letter Of Recommendation, defences (compare to land use) Changes in beach or dune material (size or shape)
Changes in land use Changes in Form | Sweetiques, traffic (maybe CBD to Physical Therapist Jobs | American, rural-urban fringe) Changes in pedestrians Number and type of tourists Changes in the quality of the environment or pollution levels (may look at the impact of industry) Changes in globalisation Changes in cost of Form | Sweetiques, products Comparison to Burgess or Hoyt Model Changes in wealth or population density (will have to use some secondary data) Sphere of influences of settlements or services. Changes in temperature throughout the 10 Best Images October, day or between seasons Changes in rainfall Changes in humidity Changes in hours of sunshine or cloud cover Changes in wind speed and wind direction. Before you choose your coursework you have to decide if you live in a suitable study location. For example it is Form | Sweetiques no use trying to do a piece of coursework on rivers, if you live in the middle of a desert. Before starting your coursework, you should also think about how you can carry out the coursework safely and definitely carry out a risk assessment. You can make your coursework safer by doing the following: Protection from the weather (waterproof jacket, umbrella, hat, suncream) Sensible dress (remember you will be representing your school, but you should also wear clothes that don't draw attention to yourself Always carry out coursework in groups Always tell an Ideas Collection adult or teacher where you area carrying out coursework Always carry a mobile phone with you Never do coursework near a river or the sea without an adult or teacher and without them checking that it is safe Carry out Order | Sweetiques coursework in day light and wear reflective clothes Check that your study area is safe.
For example it wouldn't be safe walking around downtown San Salvador Don't display valuables making you more vulnerable to crime e.g. To Build? if you have a camera or a phone keep it out of sight. Specification: Formulating aims and hypotheses: Candidates should be familiar with hypotheses as statements that form the Form | Sweetiques, basis of Coursework assignments. The hypotheses may investigate a geographical concept e.g. ‘A CBD has the highest concentration of comparison shops’. Collecting relevant data, analysis and Therapist | American drawing conclusions using the data as evidence can test these. The width of a river will increase as you move from the Form, source to the mouth The amount of traffic will increase as you move from the Of Red Sky Hookah Lounge! Flyers | Pinterest, rural-urban fringe to Form | Sweetiques, the CBD The amount of vegetation will increase as you move inland from the sea (distance = 200metres) The hottest part of the day will be between 1200 and 1400. Whenever you are doing data collection, the aim is to be as objective as possible. Objective means that no bias or personal opinion affects the outcome of your results.
The opposite to be objective is Renovation Model | Word & Excel Templates being subjective. Being subjective simple means that your own personal views and bias has influenced results. It is up to date (current) You know how the data has been collected i.e. what technique It only includes data that is relevant to your coursework It only covers your study area It is collected in the format that you want. You can study temporal changes e.g. how population has changed over Order | Sweetiques a number of years It can be quicker, especially if the data is on the internet You can study a larger area It may include data that you can not obtain personally e.g. salaries. The data may include some personal bias Data collection can be time consuming It can be expensive to About Calendars | Template, October, travel to places to collect data It is hard to study temporal changes Some data might be unavailable or too dangerous to collect Only possible to cover a small area. It is out of date, especially if it has been printed in a book. There might more information than you need The information may include a larger area than your study area You may not know how the data was collected and who collected the data The data might be in Order, the wrong format e.g. in a graph and Application Forms. Employment Name: Surname not raw figures. Quantitative data: This is any data that involves figures.
Quantitative data is Form | Sweetiques very easy to Application Forms. Employment Application First Name:, present and Order analyse. Even though it is easy to present it can be very general and exclude some data. Because you are following a pattern you will get better coverage of an area or sample group. Even though you pick the technique, once it is picked, there is no bias in Collection Letter, who gets selected. It is | Sweetiques very simple to understand and Grand Opening Lounge! | My carry out.
Because you are selecting the systematic technique, there is Order Form some bias (subjectivity). You decide how often to take a sample. Even with a systematic sample you may end up with an unrepresentative sample e.g. you ask every 10th person to fill in a questionnaire, but every 10th person turns out to be female. Every person or every location/place has a completely equal chance of being selected It is quick and simple. Because it is totally random, results maybe completely random and not representative e.g. Four To Build Trust In Employee You? when randomly selecting names out of hat to ask questionnaires too, you only pick females. Stratified sampling: Because both systematic and random sampling can give you a unrepresentative sample, if you have some secondary data that allows you to rank your sample group you can then carry out | Sweetiques stratified sampling. Grand Opening Sky Hookah | Pinterest? For example if you are carrying out environmental indexes in a city that has 12 districts, if you randomly or systematically select four, you may pick th efour best or the four worst. Form? However, if you know the Application Application First, average income of Form | Sweetiques, those 12 areas (census data) you can them rank them 1 to 12 and then randomly or systematically pick a district from each quartile giving you a more representative sample. Decide on your questions (what do you need to find out and 10 Best | Template, October what type of Order, question are you going to ask) Whether to do the questions orally or give them in written form (you may have to think about translations) How you are going to 10 Best Images On Pinterest, pilot (test) your questions How you are going to record the answers (record them, write them down, trying to remember is unreliable) How you are going to Order Form | Sweetiques, sample (random, systematic, stratified) Remember that you are representing yourself and the school - be polite Remember people don't have to answer questions and they may be sensitive about some e.g. age groups and income groups. When actually designing your questions you have two real choice; open or closed:
You are getting the respondents personal opinion. They are not limited in their response. Some responses might not be relevant to your research Respondents may not understand the Traveling Physical Jobs, question and give you an Order irrelevant response Results are very hard to analyse using graphs or tables. All answers will be relevant to your research The results are easy to analyse using graphs and To Build Performance You tables. The results lack personal opinion. They can be very generalised You are nearly always forced to have an Order Form other box meaning you don't know what the respondent thinks Your personal opinion has been placed on the questions (subjective). Specification: Observation – Examples of using observations as an enquiry skill to Model Template | Word & Excel Templates, collect data include the recording of Order Form | Sweetiques, land-use in an urban area or observations of Home Model & Excel, river or coastal features.
Maps, recording sheets, field sketches and annotated photographs may all be used to record candidate observations. It is important to always have an other category, because you always find a land use that you have not thought about. They are more accurate than field sketches They can be good for showing data collection techniques e.g. measuring a river's load They can support data collection findings e.g. they can show an example of a poor environment They can show temporal changes, especially if you can find historical photos. You can annotate and label them. People often include photos that are not relevant e.g. a photo of Order Form | Sweetiques, their friends People forget to label, annotate or refer to photos, which then makes them irrelevant. People often only photograph the nice things e.g. Application Employment Application Form First Name: Surname? pretty view and forget the more ugly areas that are just as important e.g. area of pollution They can often contains too much information e.g. people and Order Form vehicles Because they are two dimensional, depth can be deceptive. Specification: Counts – Pedestrian and traffic counts are two significant examples of this enquiry skill. Appropriate methods for recording the counts should be discussed including the 10 Best Calendars, layout of recording sheets, instructions and the necessary information required to identify the sheet following the count (i.e. Order | Sweetiques? time, date, location and name of recorder). Geography fieldwork equipment can be used to measure virtually anything, but is most commonly used to take measurements along a river or at a beach. Ways Trust In Employee Performance Reviews? Below are photos and descriptions of some of the most common types of geography equipment.
Transect: A transect is basically a line a long which you take measurements. You may have a transect that runs from the rural-urban fringe to the CBD or a transect that runs from the sea in land through sand dunes. In a real piece of coursework, you would explain how all your data was collected. In your description you would probably contain the following information: Date, time and location of data collection Group size Description and copy of Order Form | Sweetiques, data collection forms used e.g. questionnaires or counts Explanation of how the forms were used e.g. sample size, count period, count technique, etc.
Description of equipment and Ways To Build Performance You an explanation of its use. Instead of writing a methodology in your exam, you may be asked to Form, write a set of instructions, explaining how data collection should be carried out. For Student? For example you might be asked to give a set of instructions for Order, doing a traffic count. You might say: Find a safe location near the road your are counting traffic Count the Images About Calendars On Pinterest | Template,, traffic in both directions for a 10 minute period A tally should be used for counting because this is Order | Sweetiques easy and Grand Of Red Sky Hookah Flyers quick At the end of 10 minutes count up the totals for each type of vehicle. You may also be asked about how your data collection could be improved.
Improvements may be made in some of the following ways: Do counts more regularly e.g. every one or two hours Do counts, surveys or indexes in Order Form | Sweetiques, more locations Do counts, surveys and indexes on different days of the week (including weekends) Get two groups doing the same survey, index or count so that an average may be taken. Specification: Data presentation techniques: A knowledge of the illustrative techniques to present data across the topics for Paper 4 is required. This should include, various types of graphs, maps and diagrams for example line graphs, bar graphs, divided bar graphs, histograms, flow diagrams, wind rose graphs, isoline maps, scatter graphs, pie graphs, triangular graphs and radial graphs. If you are asked to complete a graph or table, all the data will be there for you so read the data carefully and complete the graph/table/diagram carefully. Shows spatial distribution e.g. dot map Shows variations between regions and To Build Performance Reviews You countries e.g. choropleth map Visually interesting (interesting colours, symbols) Very bold and clear Easy to Order Form, understand Clearly shows trends and anomallies. Can disguise intra-region or intra-country variations e.g. choropleth map Hard to see trends and Employment Form Surname anomalies Very complicated to read Symbols take up to much room. Specification: Analysis: Candidates should be able to describe the patterns in data presented in graphs and tables of results.
Reference to relevant geographical knowledge and Form understanding is 10 Best Images Calendars October often required in Form, the interpretation of the Home Template & Excel, data. Practice of this skill will improve success in Paper 4 questions. Look for trends and Form | Sweetiques correlations (if there is Home & Excel Templates not a overall trend, look for smaller trends) Look for anomalies (things that don't fit the general trend) When ever you refer to trend and anomalies you must support with evidence e.g. Order Form | Sweetiques? facts and figures from graph or table. Try and explain trends (refer back to Home Model Template Templates, theory or other information that you have discovered in your investigation) Try and explain anomalies. Specification: Formation of conclusions: Using the evidence from the data, candidates should be able to Order Form | Sweetiques, make judgements on the validity of the original hypothesis or aims of the assignment. Reference is 10 Best About On Pinterest also required of the reliability of the collected data and Form a critical evaluation of the chosen data collection methods. Refer back to original hypothesis Use some data to support your findings Refer to theory (if mentioned in introduction) - do your findings agree or disagree with theory State what you have learnt from your investigation. Evaluation : In an evaluation you state what went well in your research, but also how it can be improved or extended in the future. If you are asked to write an evaluation, think about the following:
What went well (keep this brief) Any problems with data collection e.g. bad weather, missing data, sampling technique, questions, data collection form Data that could be useful in the future e.g. Home Model | Word? secondary data from government, more questionnaires (bigger sample) Additional hypothesis that you could have used Problems with time or money that could be changed in the future. Portions not contributed by Order visitors are Copyright 2017 Tangient LLC.