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Add a citation and create a bibliography. Before you can create a bibliography you need to have at least one citation and source in | Download Free & Premium, your document that will appear in your bibliography. If you don't have all of the information that you need about a source to create a complete citation, you can use a placeholder citation, and then complete the source information later. Note: Placeholder citations do not appear in the bibliography. 4+ Labor Agreement Templates - Free Examples! Add a new citation and source to a document. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click the arrow next to Style . Click the style that you want to use for the citation and Swot Analysis Example | Download Free & Premium Templates, source. For example, social sciences documents usually use the MLA or APA styles for citations and sources.
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On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Manage Sources . Swot Example | Download Free Templates, Forms! If you open a new document that does not yet contain citations, all of the sources that you used in Budget | Uspensky-Irkutsk.ru, previous documents appear under Master List . If you open a document that includes citations, the sources for Swot Analysis Example Free & Premium Templates, those citations appear under Current List . 21+ Car Sales! All the sources that you have cited, either in Example & Premium Forms, previous documents or in the current document, appear under Master List . To find a specific source, do one of the following: In the Your Procedures, sorting box, sort by Swot | Download Free Forms, author, title, citation tag name, or year, and then search the resulting list for the source that you want to find. Resume With Business Resume Keywords! In the Search box, type the title or author for the source that you want to find. The list dynamically narrows to match your search term. Note: You can click the Browse button in Source Manager to select another master list from which you can import new sources into your document. For example, you might connect to a file on a shared server, on a research colleague's computer or server, or on a Web site that is Swot Analysis & Premium, hosted by a university or research institution. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Manage Sources . In the Source Manager dialog box, under Master List or Current List , select the source you want to edit, and then click Edit . Note: To edit a placeholder to add citation information, select the placeholder from Current List and Agreement Samples, Examples click Edit . In the Edit Source dialog box, make the Example | Download Free Templates,, changes you want and click OK . Occasionally, you may want to create a placeholder citation, and Sheet then wait until later to fill in the complete bibliography source information. Any changes that you make to a source are automatically reflected in the bibliography, if you have already created one. A question mark appears next to placeholder sources in Source Manager. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Manage Sources . Under Current List , click the Swot Analysis Example Free & Premium Templates, Forms, placeholder that you want to edit.
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CSR: the dangers of ‘doing the right thing’ economist and Analysis Example | Download Free & Premium, author. ESSAY: The rise of Data With Analyst Keywords, corporate social responsibility is Analysis Free & Premium Forms, bad for Reports Dissertation democracy. I n this first part of an exclusive two-part essay for spiked , Phil Mullan examines how the decline of & Premium Templates,, profitability and investment has caused corporations to lose faith in their social role, leading them to embrace the idea of corporate social responsibility - at the expense of democratic accountability. Five years after the low point of the 8+ Daily Spread Sheet | Uspensky-Irkutsk.ru, Western financial crisis, we still see almost daily attacks on bankers’ bonuses and CEO pay levels. This idea that big payouts to business people are a key factor behind our economic troubles has become something of a ‘modern truth’; unfortunately it is one that obscures and stymies the | Download Free & Premium Forms, much-needed deeper analysis and discussion of what’s really gone wrong with the 4+ Labor Templates - Free Examples, Western economies. While there are lots of reasons why this narrow focus on executive salaries and bonuses has been so enduring, one significant driver is the way big business has opened itself to this sort of challenge by its own adoption of the dictums of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Under the auspices of CSR, businesses are expected to look beyond their day-to-day business objectives and challenges and consider how they can ‘do good’ for society.
The assumption behind the need to adopt CSR practices is that otherwise businesses are failing society in some way, that they are doing the ‘wrong’ thing. The implication of CSR is that business must have some inherently irresponsible proclivity, otherwise why is there a need for CSR? Just as we need road safety codes, otherwise there would be a lot more accidents on busy roads, so it seems we need CSR codes, otherwise apparently we’d have lots more corporate social irresponsibility . For some CSR advocates today, it almost seems that business is inherently immoral. The cumulative effect is that it is now commonplace to assume that business has something to answer for to society. In practice, CSR is a polite form of business bashing.
Condemnations of senior pay levels follow easily in such a climate. The fact that large parts of Swot Analysis Example | Download Free Templates, Forms, business accept the need for CSR actions validates this more refined version of business criticism, and thereby opens the way for all those attacks on business leaders, their pay and incentives, and Agreement - Free Examples, their supposedly greedy, dangerous behaviours. This highlights the key issue with CSR: it is no longer, if it ever really was, a criticism of business from outside – from lobbyists or from Analysis Free Forms, non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Spread? Now, CSR is a framework endorsed by business itself. Most business leaders genuinely accept that there is some deficiency in the mores of Example | Download, business which requires an alternative CSR-style, morally and ethically guided approach. Without CSR policies and actions, business appears to accept that it is not a socially responsible force in society; that it is not ‘doing good’ for society. The reason why businesses embrace CSR is a product of our contemporary culture. It is rooted in the defensiveness of business leaders: over the past 30 to 40 years, they have increasingly lost faith in themselves and in Samples, Examples, their contribution as business people.
They no longer feel able to argue for the essence of capitalism as represented by their profit-driven organisations. Business corporations, as a distinct organisational form, are set up to produce things – goods or services – for sale to customers in a market-based economy. That is their primary social purpose . In the course of that activity, they do have responsibilities , and they do have social impacts . Example | Download Free & Premium? The blurring of - Psd, Download, these three categories – purpose, responsibilities and impacts – expresses the confusions and Swot Analysis Example | Download Free, uncertainties in relation to what business is about, and what it should not be about. Businesses do not have ‘responsibilities to society’, in the sense of duties that they have to carry out directly for society. Their sole responsibility is to their owners, usually the company’s shareholders, which on a day-to-day basis means business responsibility is to the board of directors nominated or elected, in some fashion, by the shareholders. As Peter Drucker (1909-2005), generally regarded as the world’s foremost management theorist, said: ‘Business, that’s easily defined - it’s other people’s money.’ These ‘other people’ are the owners and investors. Given that the shareholders have invested their money in the business to - Free Samples, Format, make more money, this is the source of the idea popularised by Milton Friedman in his famous 1970 article in the New York Times titled ‘The social responsibility of business is to increase profits’.
While this provocative phrase more than justified itself in the impact this article had on all subsequent discussions of corporate responsibility, it would be more accurate - though a little more long-winded - to say that sustained profitability is a necessary condition for a business to fulfil and continue its purpose to produce things and thereby both satisfy the owners to Swot Example & Premium Templates,, whom it is accountable and responsible, and to bring about the consequences from Agreement - Free Samples, Examples, which society benefits. The drive for Swot Example | Download Templates, Forms profit underpins the dynamic of capitalist businesses. Business has both direct and indirect social impacts and effects. Directly, it provides employment to its own workers and to many suppliers. The business organisation is the main form of wealth creation in a market economy, and this wealth provides the extra resources for investment in the future and for Simple Agreement Template taxation to pay for social requirements today. Business is therefore the prime source of the wealth that society can choose to Swot Analysis | Download Templates,, utilise in Custom Written Reports Dissertation Help, order to Swot | Download Free Templates,, address our common social or environmental challenges. Indirectly, businesses can also contribute to Investment, social progress. When pursuing opportunities for Swot Example | Download Free & Premium their own profit, businesses bring about technological transformation, improving productivity at a society-wide level and therefore contributing to social, as well as to economic, development and progress. They are the indirect vehicles for transforming lives for the better and for modernising society. Collectively, businesses’ drive for profit and commercial success generates the Budget Spread Sheet | Uspensky-Irkutsk.ru, growth in productivity that is essential for Swot Example Forms rising living standards. Business did this pretty consistently and extensively in the late-eighteenth and nineteenth centuries across Europe and large parts of America, and again for much of the twentieth century, though more unevenly, and with the huge disruptive interruptions of the 21+ Car Sales Brochures Ai Illustrator, 1930s slump and World Wars along the way.
The private business sector is not the | Download Free, sole source of innovation and productivity growth - the state has contributed to Custom Written : Phd How Long, innovation, too; think only of atomic energy or space travel or the internet - but the private market economy is nevertheless a significant driver of human progress over the past quarter of a millennium. Banker bashing may have risen to fever pitch in the wake of the 2007-8 financial crisis, but we should remember that business-bashing more widely has been increasingly prevalent and Analysis Example | Download, widely echoed for 4+ Labor Agreement - Free Samples, much longer, since at least the early 1990s. The same Peter Drucker may have denounced the Analysis Example | Download & Premium Forms, ‘business ethics’ movement as ‘ethical chic’ as long ago as 1981, but as respected as his views were then, they are now seen as wildly anachronistic. It was probably the Brent Spar affair that propelled business behaviour and CSR to centre stage in the business world, and brought this new anti-business mood fully into Data Resume With, the open. In 1995, environmentalists campaigned against Shell over Swot Example | Download & Premium, its decision to sink a redundant oil platform, Brent Spar , in deep ocean waters. Despite multiple studies recommending deep-sea disposal for the old platform as the safest and most environmentally responsible course of action, and 4+ Labor Agreement Format, after requesting and receiving UK government approval for its plans, a campaign orchestrated by Swot Templates,, the NGO Greenpeace forced Shell to reverse its decision and dismantle the platform on land instead.
Subsequently, the independent journal Nature carried an article that concluded that Shell’s original studies were sound, a view that has not been seriously refuted since (1). Shell had been forced into Data Example Business Resume Keywords, taking actions that were more expensive and & Premium Templates, Forms, potentially more hazardous and dangerous than its original decision. Nevertheless the heralded ‘success’ of this crusade against business gave great encouragement to the CSR lobby (more recently sometimes re-branded as ‘ESG’: environmental, social and corporate governance). Dissertation Help How Long? Over the | Download & Premium Templates,, past two decades, the CSR/ESG movement has seen many other companies adopting a defensive stance, and accepting the underlying assumption that much of Template, what companies do, even if unintentionally, is harmful for society and Example Templates, Forms, destructive for the environment. Instead, it has been assumed both outside and inside the Simple, corporate world that businesses need to mend their ways and address their moral and ethical responsibilities while they pursue their day-to-day activities, or ‘give something back’ to society to Swot & Premium Templates,, offset any harm unavoidably inflicted.
The economic backdrop to the openness to CSR ideas within the Templates Samples,, business world is the return of economic unevenness since the 1970s, following the end of the postwar boom. Economic and technological progress has stalled again since then and generally slowed. Weak business investment underlies this faltering of innovation and productivity growth and the resulting relative lack of growth in average living standards in Example | Download, many Western economies (2). Business leaders are products of a social environment where the Templates, elite has become increasingly uncertain about the future. The wider elite’s loss of confidence in taking society forward has sapped business leaders’ own sense of Analysis Free & Premium Forms, legitimacy in themselves and in business organisations as a respectable and valued institution. As David Henderson, a CSR critic and former head of the Analyst With Business Analyst Keywords, Economics and Statistics Department of the Analysis Example | Download Templates, Forms, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), described: ‘CSR is in large part an expression, a reflection, of the Data Analyst Business Analyst Keywords, prevailing climate of opinion, which affects people within companies as well as outside: these are not two separate worlds. Positive and negative ways of thinking reinforce one another. On the one hand, there is general approval for the appealing notion of Analysis Example | Download & Premium Templates,, sustainable development… Almost equally widespread, at the same time, is distrust of the Sales Brochures Download, profit motive together with a disparaging view of the standards of conduct that currently prevail in Analysis Example, private business.’ While the Western elite’s hesitancies about the meaning and purpose of Western society go back much further, to Sales Brochures Download, the early parts of the last century, this malfunctioning of capitalism since the 1970s has served to exacerbate business leaders’ discomfiture in the mission of their own organisations. Business success in production has become much tougher than it was in the 1950s and 1960s. The slowdown in Swot Analysis | Download Free & Premium Templates,, the economic dynamic has aggravated their own uneasiness, and engendered an openness to frameworks other than explicit profit maximisation.
Unable to make the case positively for profit making as the means to social wealth creation, and finding the perceived greater uncertainties difficult to handle, anxious business moved to promote risk management as a substitute organising framework. This went alongside the ‘reputation-protecting’ phase of CSR. Businesses initially justified CSR’s adoption negatively, as a means to limit the possibility of making mistakes or causing adverse social effects that could harm a company’s reputation. For example, companies took steps to eliminate the use of child labour in their, or in suppliers’, factories in emerging markets. Subsequently, much of Simple Investment Agreement, business has moved on to the fuller, positive endorsement of the assumptions of CSR, expressed in the widespread business acceptance of ‘sustainable development’. Swot Example | Download Free Forms? Business leaders became susceptible to the notion that they have to earn some sort of social ‘licence to operate’ through their better behaviour; that they have to prove their value morally and Sheet | Uspensky-Irkutsk.ru, ethically, not just by being good at their line of business. Being ‘good at business’ was no longer seen as the Example | Download Forms, prime goal. In fact, commercial success even seemed to become something of Custom Written Reports : Phd, a liability if profits were large enough to be denounced as ‘excessive’. Supermarkets, banks, and energy companies have all fallen foul of this charge. Instead, it is more important that you have to be seen to ‘do good’ than be good at Example | Download & Premium Templates, your business. The result is that businesses do not just go along with CSR nostrums; they positively advance the CSR agenda.
In the absence of genuine business purpose, this CSR approach has become assimilated almost as a necessity, not just as an optional but beneficial extra. For example, without businesses being able to Agreement Template, espouse their own institutional meaning, people working for them have become less ‘engaged’, to use the language of the Swot Analysis | Download Free Forms, human-resources world. Although business leaders find it difficult to promote their organisations positively as profit-making machines, they know that employees lacking motivation and drive aren’t good for business success either. They genuinely want their own employees to be more engaged in what they do. Investment Agreement? This is one driver for the embrace of Example, CSR and its fellow traveller, philanthropy, which are often justified by seeking to boost employee morale, engagement and the sense of ‘feeling good’. As Brian Moynihan, chief executive of Bank of America said recently: ‘These projects are very popular with our own staff’. Hence, too, the fashion for Sales making up fatuous mission statements. Previously, business expressed their mission through what they did - producing particular goods and services profitably for Swot Example Templates, Forms their customers - and Examples Format, didn’t feel the need to resort to creeds on Swot Example | Download Forms, bits of paper or posters on the canteen wall. In this two-part essay, I will argue that this wide-scale endorsement from Custom Dissertation How Long, within business, and from outside, of the necessity for CSR policies is unjustified.
On the contrary, CSR, or the Doing the Right Thing perspective, however well intentioned, is bad for democracy, bad for business and Analysis | Download Templates, Forms, bad for - Psd, society. Given the existing disenchantment with politics, the anti-democratic bent of the Swot Analysis | Download & Premium Templates, Forms, CSR brigade is probably the most important danger today, and the one with potentially the Data Analyst Resume With Business, most enduring impact. Paradoxically, it’s also the one least often discussed, even in the critical literature about CSR, which too often focuses simply on that Friedmanite counter-position of profit maximisation to | Download Templates, Forms, the social-responsibility crusade. CSR’s anti-democratic disposition is important, not least because there is already such a strong anti-politics mood these days. CSR has not caused this mood, but it does build upon it, and then reinforces and accentuates it. It is commonplace today, in assessments of trust levels informed by a CSR-sympathetic outlook, to Cash Log. Know Procedures, highlight the extent to which business lacks credibility. For example, according to Swot Example Free & Premium Templates, Forms, the 2013 Edelman Trust Barometer, fewer than one in Example With Business Keywords, two people in the UK have trust in big business. Meanwhile, a business think-tank, Tomorrow’s Company, introduced its recent report on business ownership, Tomorrow’s Business Forms , with the Swot Free & Premium Templates, Forms, words: ‘A prevalent public view is that business is not trustworthy and focuses too much on short term profit instead of taking a longer term view.’ (3) Such public sentiments are not surprising given the sustained experience of business bashing.
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Who decides what the right thing to do is, when there are almost inevitably trade-offs about it? Social-impact issues for business invariably tend to be contested ones. There are no self-evident unequivocally ‘right’ answers. Responses to issues are also unlikely to be eternal or universal; they change over time and can be different in disparate parts of the Swot Analysis Example & Premium Forms, world. Consider questions such as: Should businesses invest in pollution control? Sounds straightforward - of course they should. But what are the Simple Investment Agreement Template, right levels of anti-pollution investment to Swot Example & Premium Templates,, qualify as ‘doing good’? Inevitably, there will be a trade-off between cost and the elimination of - Psd, Ai Illustrator, every last emission of every pollutant? Does the Example | Download & Premium Templates, Forms, answer change at Simple Investment different levels of economic development? In the early stages of Free & Premium Templates, Forms, development (nineteenth-century Britain, or sub-Saharan Africa today), isn’t combating poverty through creating jobs more important than pricing a start-up business out of potential markets by investing heavily in anti-pollution measures?
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Finally, what about Data Analyst Resume Example Business Keywords something as apparently mundane as employee-owned Waitrose giving its loyal member customers a free coffee? Surely this is looking after some of your stakeholders, and giving something back to Analysis Example | Download & Premium, your customers in the local community? However, consider the Petty Log. Know, potential impact on the artisan coffee shop round the corner when a big local supermarket starts giving away your main product for free. Swot Example | Download & Premium Templates, Forms? Is that the Data With, right thing for Waitrose to do? Who decides? Corporate activity pretty much always has some sort of social impact – on employment, on the local community where it operates, on the local environment – and there is no fixed, objective, eternal answer about the right way of operating. It’s very rare to be faced with a clear black-and-white choice where there is an unequivocal right course of action. Even something like an industrial accident that may injure, or even kill, a construction worker – however unpleasant that is to contemplate – is not straightforward. Last year in Britain, there were 39 fatalities in construction: everyone will agree that this represents 39 too many deaths, but does that mean construction businesses are failing by the criteria of social responsibilities? In fact, 39 is half the fatality rate of 20 years ago, but accidents are ‘accidents’ and will still happen. Even as safety levels improve further across the Analysis Example | Download Templates,, board, construction will probably remain five-times more dangerous than the average workplace.
The only certain way to stop such deaths in British construction is to stop all construction work, but that’s absurd and would result in a worsening housing shortage and infrastructure inadequacy, with all the social problems these entail. So the $64,000 question is: who decides what is the Custom Reports : Phd How Long, right thing? What corporate actions are in Swot Example | Download & Premium Forms, line with CSR maxims? We can all as individuals follow our own moral compass on Spread, what is ‘right’ or not, and Swot Analysis Example & Premium Forms, business leaders are no different; they can exercise individual moral judgments for their businesses on issues that go above and beyond their legal or regulatory obligations. In which case they should be accountable for their actions, but solely to their shareholders or whatever other corporate structure they have, not to some vague concept of ‘society’.
But the CSR movement is about more than such individual business decisions; it’s about Written Dissertation Help How Long setting standards and expectations for all of business. So who decides for society the ‘right’ form of Swot & Premium Templates,, company behaviour? Is it campaigning NGOs? No – NGOs are not accountable to anyone, so why should they decide for Cash Log. Know Cash Procedures society? Is it ‘moral’ figures like religious leaders?
They are not accountable either (at least not to a mortal constituency). Is it the companies themselves? Surely not - they do what they do for their owners, so whatever ethical decisions they may make for themselves, they are not appropriate judges on behalf of society of what is ethically ‘right’ either. They are not accountable to Swot Templates,, society. As citizens, we can’t throw business leaders out, just as we can’t throw NGOs or religious leaders out. Anyone can legitimately disagree with a decision that some business has taken, while its own leaders might see it as an informed, justified, and even principled and morally correct stance. Such disagreement is fine. However, if you insist these issues are important enough to justify setting social standards and expectations for all corporates, the only proper arena for debating and resolving these things is politics. It’s only through political debate that questions on Reports : Phd Dissertation, such contentious issues of whether there should be common standards set for business – and Analysis | Download, I’d argue it should be a very high bar before that’s answered in | Uspensky-Irkutsk.ru, the affirmative – and, if so, what they should be, can be properly discussed. The only people who can legitimately decide what’s ‘right’ for society are elected and accountable, and therefore replaceable: that is, politicians. If we don’t like what the existing politicians are doing regarding the way businesses act or don’t act, we can argue a different viewpoint, and hopefully seek to Swot Example | Download, throw those politicians out at the next election and 4+ Labor Agreement Templates - Free Samples,, replace them with others.
That’s the way representative democracy is supposed to work. Social and moral questions that are being pushed on to companies to address are being taken away, in whole or in part, from the place where they should be discussed and debated: the Example | Download Forms, political arena. Whatever the intentions of people promoting it, the CSR agenda is part of 21+ Car Brochures Ai Illustrator, today’s anti-democratic tendency – it encourages contentious issues to be at least partially taken away from democratic debate, and seeks technical solutions through the unaccountable actions of companies. How to address social challenges is a political question, not a technical one. But increasingly they are being viewed apolitically today. Even seemingly technical tasks, such as cleaning up the local environment, confront us with essentially political decisions: who decides what to prioritise and how to Swot Example & Premium Forms, handle any trade-offs? Ignoring this represents a huge threat to democracy. Responsibility for a better future is taken from - Psd,, elected, accountable politicians and given to unelected, unaccountable business leaders.
Politicians have been losing status for their own reasons, but we should be very concerned about this tendency to move from a rejection of weak politicians into a deeper disdain for democratic politics per se . Business leaders themselves can enter these political debates as much as anyone else in Swot | Download & Premium, society; they can even stand for Petty Log. Your Cash Procedures election as politicians. But what is unacceptable is & Premium, that they should by-pass democracy and set themselves up as society’s leaders to impose certain standards of business behaviour for everyone else in that country, either because they personally think that is the Cash Your Petty Procedures, ‘right’ way or because they feel pressured by some other unelected, unaccountable body into adopting that approach as the ‘right’ one. This would mean unrepresentative, unelected people - inside or outside business - usurping the role of politics and of democracy. That is Example | Download & Premium, wrong for Custom Written : Phd Help society. As a point of democratic principle, businesses should not be encouraged, or leant upon, to use their undoubted social and economic power for Analysis the ends of ‘social responsibility’. To do so will supplant and weaken democratic channels for Custom Written Dissertation Help How Long social change and improvement. Example Forms? And it will therefore encourage the already strong anti-politics mood. A long time ago, Adam Smith, a moral philosopher and the founder of Petty Know Your Petty Cash, classical political economy (the same man, not two different personae as is fashionable for CSR advocates to assert), argued that government and business don’t go well together. ‘No two characters’ he wrote, ‘seem more inconsistent than the trader and the sovereign’ (4). His point was not about natural behaviours or differences; it was that the goals of business and of government are very different.
Smith even seemed to give an early warning about CSR: ‘I have not known much good done by those who affected to trade for the public good.’ (5) Rather more recently, in the middle of the postwar economic boom, Theodore Levitt, a former professor at the Harvard Business School and former editor of the Harvard Business Review , warned of the dangerous allure of social responsibility to business: ‘Welfare and society are not the Analysis | Download Templates, Forms, corporation’s business. Investment Agreement? Its business is making money, not sweet music… Government’s job is not business, and business’s job is | Download Free Forms, not government’ (6). Phil Mullan is the author of The Imaginary Time Bomb: Why an Ageing Population Is Not a Social Problem , IB Tauris, 2000. (Buy this book from Amazon (UK) or Amazon (USA).). For permission to republish spiked articles, please contact Viv Regan. Footnotes and Data With, references. (1) See Ann Bernstein, The Case for Swot Analysis | Download & Premium Templates, Forms Business in Developing Countries , Penguin, 2010, pp. 74-76. (2) This downshift in innovation and productivity in the western economies is Data Keywords, not the subject of Swot Analysis | Download Free & Premium Forms, this essay. For an illustration see charts 1 and 2 in the Conference Board’s 2014 Productivity Brief: Key Findings . (3) Tomorrow’s Business Forms: making the 4+ Labor Templates Samples,, right choices of Swot Example & Premium Templates, Forms, ownership, structure and governance to deliver success for 8+ Daily Spread Sheet Templates business ands society , Tomorrow’s Company, 2013, p13. (4) The Wealth of Nations, by Adam Smith, Wordsworth Classics, p817.