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Ossett - the history of Reference Template | Download Free Forms, a Yorkshire town. My grandfather was a coal miner all his life. It was a difficult and dangerous occupation, yet essential for the development of industry in the U.K. miners were judged so important that they were given exemption from military service in WW1 and WW2. There were coal strikes at the pits in Ossett in 1893 and 1926 that I am aware of, and probably others that haven't been documented. Although my grandfather didn't work in the Ossett or Gawthorpe mines, I am intrigued by the history of New Year 2017 Flyer ~ Flyer Templates, Ossett's coal industry, which employed a large proportion of the men in the town around the end of the 19th century and beyond. The pits at old Roundwood, Gawthorpe and Shaw Cross were substantial and Template there were many more smaller undertakings dating back to the 1790s or earlier. The men who worked in these mines endured terrible working conditions and accidents were common. Much evidence of the Student Inspiration, many horrific mining accidents in the Ossett coal mines can be found in the archives of the ' Ossett Observer ' and I have reproduced just a few of the reported incidents in this account.
There were many more. It is Reference List | Download & Premium Forms, said that in 1965, the NCB had records of Free Templates Office » Resume Draft Template, twenty-six different coal mines in Ossett. However, first indications suggest that there were many more mines than twenty-six and there were certainly many more mineshafts within the boundaries of the Reference, town, which have all now been properly filled up. The old colliery workings at Low Laithes came to national prominence in March 1973 when it was found that a build-up of water in the old workings at the abandoned 19th century pits caused the Resume, terrible disaster at Lofthouse Colliery when seven men lost their lives from a huge inrush of water and sludge. It was later estimated that the old mine workings at Low Laithes had become an List Free & Premium Templates, underground reservoir containing nearly 3 ½ million gallons of Employer | Docoments, water. Shortly after the disaster, which happened at 2am the 21st March, a surface visit was made to the site of the old Low Laithes Colliery and it was found the Bye Pit was exposed and water could be heard falling down the shaft. It was also reported that the Engine Pit and Bull Pit were exposed and water could also be heard falling down them. Templates, Forms? There was little doubt that there was a direct relationship between the inrush of 2017 Flyer ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market, water into the Lofthouse workings and the water pouring down these old shafts.
It is known that a coal mine was established at Gawthorpe as long ago as 1366 during the reign of Edward III. Above: Westfield Colliery circa 1880. Originally owned by Joshua Wilby and Reference | Download Free Templates, Forms located close to the old GNER railway, which connected Ossett with Batley and Wakefield. When Wilby died in 1881, the Printable Periodic Tables, colliery was purchased by Henry Westwood and Company. A relatively small mine, in 1896 it employed 56 underground workers and 11 surface workers.
The manager was Mr. J. Simpkin and Reference List | Download Templates, the under-manager, Mr. J. Wilkinson. Smithson's New Park Colliery, Low Laithes. In 1743, James Fenton leased land to extract coal belonging to the Earl of Cardigan in the area surrounding Bushy Beck, near Low Laithes in the townships of Ossett-cum-Gawthorpe, Alverthorpe and Printables On Pinterest | Detroit, West Ardsley. In the event, only a small part of the coalfield was worked and that was in the Ardsley area, because of the Reference Template | Download & Premium Forms, difficulty in transporting the Student Resume Inspiration Decoration., coal to the Calder, which was about four miles away. The first recorded pits in Ossett were probably in the Low Laithes area and date back to the 1790s. Robert Smithson (1747-1800) was a gentleman farmer and maltster who leased Low Laithes Farm from the Earl of Cardigan like his family had done for years before him. Smithson leased land nearby his home at Low Laithes to Reference List Template Free, develop his New Park, Kirkhamgate or old Low Laithes Colliery (as it was variously known) from 1796. In 1798, he and his Wakefield associate, cloth merchant John Charnock (1752-1811), opened their version of New Park colliery and Free Printable Tables (pdf) 'Smithson's Tram Road' connecting it with the Calder and Reference | Download Free Forms Hebble Navigation at Thornes Wharfe, Wakefield.
The railway was horse powered and Free Resume Templates Open Draft | Resume had L-section rails mounted on stone block sleepers. There was a parallel railway covering almost the same route to collieries (also confusingly called 'New Park Colliery') owned by Smithson's arch rival and Yorkshire coal-king, William Fenton. Fenton's railway crossed Smithson's on Template | Download & Premium Forms the level near Wakefield, and for several miles higher up the Student Sample, valley towards the Template | Download & Premium Templates, Forms, pits, the two lines actually ran side-by-side. Fenton's railway was powered by bullocks rather than horses. Robert Smithson died in 1800, and it is said that his early death was partly as a result of the bitter business rivalry with William Fenton, which continued after his death.
For a few years, Smithson's collieries and tramway were run by a consortium of trustees headed by Smithson's well-to-do cousin William Smithson (1750-1830) of Ledston Hall and College Student Resume Decoration. later Heath; his own brother Joshua Smithson and his brother-in-law Thomas Preston of Halifax. In 1818, Robert Smithson's farm and malt business (valued then at £8,906) was bequeathed to his son, also Robert. A three-quarter share in Smithson's collieries and tramway (and the debts due to them) was passed to Smithson's youngest son Joshua Smithson (1791-1867) who continued with the Reference List & Premium Templates, Forms, coal business under difficult circumstances until he failed financially in 1850. During the early years, the relatively small numbers of colliers working in Smithson's pits can be illustrated in the case of Ossett-cum-Gawthorpe by the use of the poor rate assessments as a basis for rating of the number of colliery face workers. 7 Best Euchre Printables On Pinterest Games? In 1820, Smithson's Gawthorpe colliery had fourteen face workers and there were five more at Paleside. By 1823, this had risen to Template Forms, eighteen at Gawthorpe and seven at Paleside. In 1833, there was a prolonged strike at Smithson's colliery in Ossett. Templates Open Office Draft Template? An attempt was made to bring in 'blackleg' labour to replace the striking miners. Joshua Smithson described the plan as a complete turn-out of colliers. The 'blackleg' labour force was provided with houses and even bedding. Reference Free & Premium? Many of the men brought their wives and families to the area.
It was noted that four of the 'blacklegs' sold the bedding that they had been provided with and ended up in front of the local magistrate accused of theft. At the Bye Pit at New Year 2017 Template Templates ~ Creative Low Laithes, Ossett, records show that in Reference & Premium Templates,, 1844, four coal miners, who were aged between 60 and 70 years, earned on average, a weekly wage of £1-1s-3d each. However, at Useful How To Wr - Vktg English Bye Pit No. 5, seventeen colliers earned up to £1-5s-6d for an eight hour day. For this, they had to Reference List Template Free Templates,, fill twenty corves (coal wagons) a day with coal. By the end of the Useful How To Wr, 1840s, the Reference Template & Premium, colliers were being paid 3s-3d for Periodic, getting one dozen of coal at the face and 3s for straitwork. Straitwork is the work involved in extending the access tunnels to the area of the coalface. Fatal Colliery Explosion at Low Laithes - December 3rd 1859. Smithson's colliery had a low fatality rate, although in 1859 when the Reference List Template | Download Free & Premium Templates, Forms, Low Laithes colliery business had been bought by Benjamin Roberts, there was a fatal accident at Bull Pit and this was recorded as follows:
Mr. Taylor, Coroner for the horour of Pontefract, held an Free Resume Open Office » Resume Draft Template inquest on Monday evening, at Alverthorpe, near Wakefield, respecting the death of David Beacher. On the 28th November 1859. Beacher and another man, named Brown, were working together at a bank in the Bull Pit of the Reference Template | Download Free & Premium Templates, Forms, Low Laithes Colliery, belonging to Mr. Benjamin Roberts, under the direction of John Noble, the steward. Noble told the men to get the coal until they got to Euchre Printables Images On Pinterest, the old works ; but he gave no orders about lamps, and they worked with naked candles. | Download Free & Premium? Both men placed their candles upon the edge of the solid coal, when the gas from the old workings fired at that of Beacher. College Inspiration? The two men were badly burned but Beacher most severely. A third person, a burrier, was also burned.
Beacher died from his injuries on Saturday morning last. Verdict - Accidentally burned. There was no formal contract for colliers to | Download Free Forms, serve for a fixed period in Free Templates | Resume, Smithson's mines and they could leave their employment as and Reference | Download & Premium Forms when they desired. Of course, this arrangement worked both ways and coal miners could be summarily dismissed without comeback. These were the days before Unions were established. Between 1834 and 1850, Smithson made profits of £4,320 in nine of the years and Student Sample losses of £3,690 in the other seven years. This left a net profit of only £630, or about £40 a year over the entire period. Clearly, the modest profits could not sustain the rentals and by 1850, the business had failed.
By 1850, Smithson had ten working pits in Ossett, close to List | Download Free & Premium, where Low Laithes Golf Club is now situated. These pits all took coal from either the Haigh Moor seam or the Gawthorpe seam. The first recorded instances of coal workings in Free Periodic, Ossett date back to the 13th and 14th century after woodland was cleared and coal was beginning to be used as fuel. There were several day holes and | Download simple mines located in various parts of Ossett. These pits were recorded in the Manor Court Rolls of Wakefield and examples are Rhode Pyttes, Coolepitt Close, Runtinge Pitts, Totteringe Pitts, plus many more unnamed workings. There are several references in the Court Rolls of people mining for Free Periodic, coal without the Template Free & Premium Forms, required licence from the Lord of the Manor. Free Resume Open Office » Resume | Resume? In 1332, three Ossett men were each fined 6d for not filling in pits in the New Park and in 1339 all the inhabitants of Ossett were required to back fill all coal pits in the township that were worked out. In the 14th century the rolls record that Adam del Dene cut down trees, made waste the Reference List Template | Download Free Forms, land, gardens and College Student Resume Decoration. houses, which his mother held as a dower for digging coal. Free Templates,? Clearly coal was becoming an important fuel not just for heating homes but as a fuel for industrial use such as the making of iron. Ironstone digging and smelting was an important local industry at around this time and was first carried out in the New Park. In 1332 Adam de Gaukethorpe and William Carpenter were charged with digging an Open Template iron mine without a licence in the bond lands of the Lord of the Manor and were fined 3d each.
John Sonman paid the Lord of the Manor 12d for a licence to dig a mine in List Free Forms, Gawthorpe for stones to be used for iron smelting. The first 1:10,560 large scale OS map of Ossett was published in 1851 and from that map, it is possible to Office » Resume Draft Template, identify most of Smithson's pits at Low Laithes. In addition there were several other coal mines in Reference List | Download Free & Premium Templates, Forms, Ossett listed on the map. The following listing is an attempt to identify all the known coal mines in 7 Best Euchre Images Games, Ossett. There are many others, not listed here, identified only as 'old coal pit' and shown clearly within the town boundaries of Template Templates,, Ossett on historic OS Maps. Some of these may have been shallow bell pits and it is known that when the underground reservoir along Chidswell Lane in Gawthorpe was excavated in Useful How To Wr, 1877, between 200 and Reference List | Download Free 300 tons of coal were removed and sold on behalf of the Local Board. The first eight mines listed here were part of the old Joshua Smithson undertaking at Low Laithes, which had been bought out by Benjamin Roberts after Smithson failed financially. The pit shafts were geographically separated by some distance, especially those located in the area of Gawthorpe. 1. Engine Pit(No. 1), Low Laithes - 35 yards to the Haigh Moor seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850. 2. Bye Pit(No.
2 ), Low Laithes - 141 yards to the Haigh Moor seam and 71 yards to the Gawthorpe seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850. 3. Barron's Pit (No. 2017 Flyer Template ~ Flyer? 6), Low Laithes - 120 yards to Template | Download Templates, Forms, the Haigh Moor seam and 50 yards to the Gawthorpe seam, owned by J. Printable (pdf)? Roberts from 1850. 4. Barron's Pit (No. 4 ), Low Laithes - 55 yards to the Gawthorpe seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850. 5. Bull Pit (No. 7), Low Laithes - 140 yards to the Haigh Moor seam, owned by Reference List | Download Free Templates, Forms J. Roberts from 1850. 6. Lower Park Farm, Gawthorpe - 120 yards to the Haigh Moor seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850.
7. Lodge Hill, Gawthorpe (Nos. 42 and Free Printable Periodic Tables (pdf) 43) - 30 and Reference Template | Download Templates, 18 yards respectively to the Top Haigh Moor seam, owned by New Year Party Templates ~ Creative Market J. Reference Template | Download Free Templates,? Roberts from 1850. 8. Flyer ~ Flyer Templates? New Lodge Colliery, Gawthorpe - owned between 1855-1889 by George and John Haigh and was most probably Lodge Hill (above). In 1874, the manager of the colliery, William Haigh and two under-managers, John and Reference List Template Free Forms Isaac Oates were prosecuted at Dewsbury Petty Sessions for offences brought by the government inspector of mines, Mr. Wardell after a fatal colliery explosion in the pit that led to the death of Burman Lister, which could have been avoided.
FATAL COLLIERY EXPLOSION 1 - On Saturday evening, a hurrier, named Burman Lister, of Free Open Draft | Resume, Ossett Street Side, near Dewsbury, died from the Free Templates, Forms, effects of an explosion of firedamp at the Gawthorpe Colliery on the previous afternoon. Deceased and a miner named Samuel Waterhouse had completed their day's work and were coming down one of the main roads with corves when the gas fired and both were severely burnt. Waterhouse had on a flannel shirt and he suffered less from the scorching flames. The one Lister wore was of cotton and it was burnt off his back, which along with his arms, breast and face, was terribly scorched. The explosion caused great excitement among the miners and the injured men having been brought to the surface, the others were raised without delay. Lister died, as above stated, on Saturday evening. The explosion was caused by gas coming into to contact with a naked light, which was carried by the deceased as he and Waterhouse were walking down the hurrying road. GROSS CARELESSNESS AT A WEST RIDING COLLIERY 2 - Yesterday an adjourned inquest was held at Ossett Street Side, near Dewsbury, on the body of Burman Lister, coal miner, of that village who was killed by an explosion of gas at Messrs. Haigh's colliery, Gawthorpe on the 4th inst.
Mr. Wardell, government inspector of mines, watched the proceedings, as also did Mr. Useful Phrases Wr Letters - Vktg English? Pickard, secretary of the West Riding Miners' Association. Evidence was given that on Reference Forms the 4th inst., about half-past one, the deceased and another youth named Waterhouse came along the main air-road with lighted candles, they having ceased work for Printable Periodic Tables, the day. List | Download Free & Premium Templates, Forms? On arriving at a drift or slit, the deceased went up, taking his naked light with him. An explosion followed and Sample Decoration. Sample both youths were severely burnt, the deceased fatally.
It transpired at the inquest that a labourer had several weeks ago received instructions to build a wall some distance up the Template Free & Premium Templates, Forms, drift, but to leave a hole, a foot square for ventilation. This he did, but about ten days before the accident he filled up the hole with dry bricks, not knowing, he told the jury, that he was doing anything wrong. As it was stated that Waterhouse was in a very precarious state and unfit to Printable Periodic (pdf), be examined, the inquiry was further adjourned. THE LATE FATAL COLLIERY EXPLOSION AT GAWTHORPE 3 - Yesterday, the adjourned inquest was held on Reference | Download & Premium the body of College Inspiration Decoration., Burman Lister, hurrier, who died on September 5th from List & Premium Templates, Forms, injuries he received the previous day at New Year ~ Flyer Gawthorpe Colliery, through an explosion of Template Free Forms, fire-damp. From the evidence, it appeared that the deceased and a young man named Waterhouse were coming down the Free Resume Open » Resume Template, hurrying road and when opposite a disused working they both stopped and | Download Free Templates, Waterhouse began to dress himself, having previously stuck a lighted candle in some clay on the corve.
Lister took the candle up and said he would go to the drift and look at the air pipes, as he could smell something. His companion told him to keep the candle down. New Year Party 2017 Flyer Template Templates ~ Creative Market? The deceased had just entered the drift when the explosion took place and they were both severely burnt. The jury recorded a verdict of Accidental Death. COLLIERY PROSECUTIONS AT DEWSBURY 4 - At the Dewsbury Petty Sessions, yesterday, William Haigh, of West Ardsley, the certified manager of the Gawthorpe Colliery was charged with neglecting to inspect the Reference List Template | Download Free Templates,, mine.
John and Isaac Oates, underviewers, were summoned for - the one for neglecting to enter in a book kept for the purpose, the | Docoments, state of the mine and the other with neglecting to fence off a drift in Reference List | Download Templates, Forms, which there was an accumulation of inflammable gas and with neglecting to exhibit a danger signal there. Through this neglect an explosion of gas took place in the pit on the 4th of September, resulting in the death of one collier and in another being frightfully burnt. Haigh was fined £5, or two months imprisonment; Isaac Oates £3, or three months and Resume Templates Office » Resume | Resume John Oates £2, or two months. In the course of the Reference List Template & Premium Templates, Forms, hearing it transpired that the report book had not had a single entry made in it until three days after the explosion. Burman Lister was just 16 years of age when he died.
Samuel Waterhouse lingered on a few weeks before he also died from the Resume Sample Decoration. Sample, burns he had received in the accident. The five pound fine that William Haigh, the colliery manager received is the equivalent of about £360 today on the basis of RPI inflation. Less than four months later, another miner would lose his life at Gawthorpe Colliery as a result of a terrifying fire in January 1875: A COLLIERY ON FIRE 8 - Fire was discovered to have broken out on Friday (8th January 1875) in the colliery at Gawthorpe, near Dewsbury, belonging to Messrs. List Template | Download & Premium Templates, Forms? J. and G. Haigh, and Tables (pdf) it is believed was caused by a hurrier boy accidentally igniting a canvas brattice by his lighted candle. Seventy men and boys were in the mine at the time and great alarm was occasioned, as the Reference List Template | Download Forms, flames spread to a quantity of wood and College Resume Sample then set fire to the face of the coal.
The miners and hurriers rushed along the ways as the alarm spread and getting to the pit eye, were drawn up as quickly as possible. One, however, was left behind and he was subsequently found lying dead at some distance from his working place, apparently having been suffocated. His name was Richard Oldroyd, aged 39, and he leaves a widow and children. One of the miners that had got to know that a fire was raging, called to Oldroyd as he ran past his working place, but the Reference & Premium, deceased was rather deaf, and it is supposed he did not hear the warning cry of Letters - Vktg, his fellow worker, and was not made aware of the danger until he felt the List Template Free & Premium, suffocating gas. The body was discovered by Flyer Template Market an exploring party and in a place where, if he could have gone four yards further, he would have had a stream of fresh air. The progress of the Reference List Template Free & Premium Templates, Forms, flames was arrested in College Student Decoration., the course of the day by stoppings being built and there is List Free, reason to believe that the fire has been extinguished. In the Printables Card Games, ' Ossett Observer ' 24th November 1888, the Reference List Template Free & Premium Templates,, following piece was printed concerning a colliery strike and it gives us an Free Resume Open Draft | Resume idea of the size of the colliery and the attitude of the owners to their workforce:
The miners employed at Messrs G J Haigh's Gawthorpe Colliery, about Reference List | Download Free 30 in number, recently went on strike for Free Periodic Tables (pdf), a 10% advance in wages. The advance was conceded by the Yorkshire colliery owners generally, but Messrs. Haigh did not see their way to follow the example and Reference List Template | Download Free & Premium consequently the strike still continues. Subscriptions have been gathered and Useful Phrases Wr - Vktg English levies received from other collieries in Reference List | Download & Premium Templates, Forms, support of the men on strike. The strike was still going on into early December 1888, but after that there was no further word, so it is likely that the men returned to work, maybe in time for Christmas? 9. Wheatley's Colliery , Shepherd Hill, Flushdyke. In 1831, a Wakefield barrister and land speculator, Thomas Foljambe (1775-1851) purchased land at Printables Images | Detroit, Hagg's Lane, near to Woollin's Roundwood mine, which he rented to another Wakefield man, Samuel Rhodes, for Reference Template, the purpose of mining for coal. 7 Best Games? In 1833, Foljambe had built his grand residence Holmefield House in Reference & Premium, Wakefield. Rhodes paid Foljambe an annual rental of 7 Best Printables Images Games, 6% of the original purchase price and in 1831 Rhodes was selling 10 tons of coal per day, with another 20 tons per Reference List Template | Download Free Templates, week going to a regular customer. Rhodes also sold 2 barge loads of coal (90 tons) per week, which had to be shipped from the colliery to the nearest canal in Wakefield. Rhodes died in College Resume Sample Inspiration Sample, early 1838 and by Reference List Free & Premium Forms 1839, his widow had gone bankrupt.
The colliery was then taken over by Charles Locke, whose family had recently sunk a new pit at nearby Snapethorpe, Wakefield. The colliery was eventually bought by Charles Wheatley (1813-1900) who had been working a colliery at Free Resume » Resume Draft nearby Ossett Common (probably Lights Colliery) in 1836. Wheatley was a Mirfield colliery owner with significant land holdings in List | Download & Premium Templates,, Ossett, some of which he had inherited from the Haigh family, who were also coal masters. In 1851, Wheatley had 110 men and 140 boys working in Resume Inspiration Decoration. Sample, his coal mines. The Ossett colliery at Reference Template & Premium Shepherd Hill was likely to be a relatively small undertaking and may even have been a day hole, which was simply a drift mine dug into Useful How To Wr the side of a hill. Wheatley was still working the Shepherd Hill colliery in 1854 with a steam engine and List Template & Premium his rateable value was £36.
Wheatley's colliery is likely to have closed down in the mid to late 1850s and Free Printable Periodic Tables (pdf) was not working in1869. Wheatley was by then operating the Reference Template, Hagg Wood and Phrases How To Wr Letters - Vktg English Whitley Wood day holes in Dewsbury; the Bradley and Helm coal mines in Huddersfield and the Ledgard Bridge and Calder Day Holes at Mirfield. Reference | Download Free & Premium Templates,? The latter mine, with an Useful Phrases - Vktg English entrance on the bank of the canal close to Greenwood Lock, was driven into Reference List Template Free & Premium the hillside below Sands House, Wheatley's opulent Mirfield residence. By 1871, Charles Wheatley formed the Mirfield Colliery Company with Robert Barraclough and John Nevin and his mining operation in Ossett was finished. 10. Mount Pleasant Colliery , Shepherd Hill, Flushdyke was worked in Template ~ Flyer ~ Creative, the 1870s. 11. Love Lane Colliery , Love Lane, Pildacre. 12. Greaves Colliery , off Bridle Lane, Gawthorpe. Owned between 1855-1872 by Wilson and & Premium Templates, Forms Co. but then was called Gawthorpe Colliery and was probably Greaves Colliery, which was owned by Joshua Greaves prior to 1855.
The pit finally closed 1872. 13. Streetside Colliery , behind the Red Lion Public House, Dewsbury Road and was owned first by Abraham Greaves until his death in 1843 and then by Recommendation Letter | Docoments Ojazlink Ossett coal masters Joseph Greaves and Joshua Greaves. Reference List Template | Download & Premium? The colliery had four face workers in 1836. 14. Old Roundwood Colliery , was probably first known as John Woollin's Hagg's Lane Colliery and a plan exists of this site dating back to 1812. The original Roundwood colliery was located close to the Ossett and Alverthorpe boundaries near to the top of Shepherd Hill at Flushdyke where mining had been carried on back to at least the 14th century. The Woollin family worked Low and Scale coal there until giving up the lease in approximately 1839. The colliery at Roundwood first established in 1847 by Terry, Dawson and Greaves was said by John Oldroyd Greaves to be a very small affair at Letter the top of Flushdyke Hill about one mile to the north of the Reference List | Download & Premium Templates, Forms, later Roundwood colliery. College Student Decoration.? They had simply taken over the workings of a smaller, older pit, partially worked some years previously.
The older pit was most likely Woollin's pit, closed in 1839. In 1847, Wakefield mining engineer, John Oldroyd Greaves (1824-1916), the son of Ossett coal master Abraham Greaves (1794-1842) founded the Old Roundwood colliery with two other investors in the name of Terry, Dawson and Greaves. John Greaves had been articled to John Walker, the Reference Template | Download & Premium, Wakefield based mining and civil engineer for five years in the 1840s and, for a short time after qualifying, had been manager of a colliery in Stanley owned by New Year Party ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market Robert Hudson and Co. The other partners in the concern were Benjamin Terry (1818-1882), who was born in Gawthorpe, the son of Percival Terry and William Anson Smith Dawson of Wakefield. Benjamin Terry became a law pupil at Haigh's, a Horbury firm of solicitors. Reference | Download Free & Premium Templates,? After qualifying, Terry joined the Phrases Wr - Vktg, firm of Carr, Nettleton and Terry as a partner and List | Download & Premium Forms then moved to Bradford in 1844 setting up first in business in Free Tables, his own right and by 1864 as Terry Watson, Solicitors. In 1846, he married Alice Cooper Dawson in Wakefield, who may have been related to his partner William Dawson. Terry entered public life and he served at one time as an Tory alderman of Bradford Council. He lived in some style at Barkhill House, Idle and when he died in 1882, he left an estate worth £40,000 (a considerable sum in those days) plus a generous £500 per year annuity for his widow.
Not much is known about William Anson Smith Dawson, the third partner in Reference List Templates,, the enterprise. In the 1851 census, Dawson is unmarried and living at Useful Roundwood, Alverthorpe with a house servant Ann Peace. Reference List Templates, Forms? He is Printables Images | Detroit,, listed as a coal proprietor employing 12 miners, 12 hurriers, 2 banksmen, 1 blacksmith, 1 boy and 1 woman, which may well refer to the operation at Roundwood colliery. His secondary occupation is that of a farmer of 19 acres, employing 1 man, 1 lad and door (sic) labourers. He was aged 25 years in 1851, having been born in 1826 at nearby Stanley, a village on the outskirts of Wakefield. However, by May 1953, Dawson had dropped out of the business and he died in Bradford in the summer of 1854, to be replaced by Watson Scatcherd, a Morley lawyer and squire. Reference Template | Download & Premium Forms? The three partners each putting up a sum of £500. In 1857, after Scatcherd had died in 1855, the accounts showed that Terry had advanced £1,150, Greaves the same and Scatcherd £950. When Scatcherd died, the business was carried on as Terry, Greaves and Co.
When Benjamin Terry died in 1882, his two daughters continued in business with Greaves until a limited company was founded until 1908. Benjamin Terry (or his daughters) and John Greaves never entered into a formal partnership since both men trusted the other implicitly and no legal agreement was ever needed. Perhaps as a result of the death of Scatcherd, the partners considered selling the colliery in 1857. Printable Periodic (pdf)? At this time, they also owned Manor Colliery, which was located on Ossett Common but was definitely not the colliery on Reference List Template Free & Premium Forms Cross Lane in Wakefield, which co-incidentally, Terry, Greaves and Co. did purchase much later. The Gawthorpe seam, which was the top portion of the Recommendation Letter Employer | Docoments, well-known Barnsley seam and about three feet thick was mined originally, but this didn't last long. The pit was in List Template Free & Premium Forms, profit and balance sheets for Roundwood for 1857 and 1858 reveal profits of £1,702 and £2,032 respectively.
However, if they were to continue, some serious decisions had to Phrases How To - Vktg English, be made. Instead of selling up, Greaves and Terry decided as early as 1853 to develop Roundwood significantly by sinking two new shafts, a mile to | Download Forms, the south of the Useful - Vktg, original Flushdyke pit and close to List Free Forms, the Wakefield - Ossett boundary. Resume Templates Office » Resume Draft Template | Resume? This would be the better-known location of Roundwood colliery at the top of Queen's Drive where coal would be worked for another 100 years or more. The second significant decision was to establish a railway link to Roundwood and Reference Templates, Forms an agreement was made in July 1860 with the Bradford, Wakefield and Leeds Railway to Useful Letters - Vktg, build a mineral railway link to the Ossett Branch so that coal could be transported from Reference Template Free & Premium Templates,, Roundwood to more distant markets. At this time, there were still tolls on the Wakefield - Halifax turnpike, which all traffic going from Roundwood downhill to Wakefield had to negotiate.
However, in 1867, the firm advertised that it had agreed for tolls on coal beyond Westgate Moor Bar on Phrases Wr English the turnpike road to be removed. The new railway link to Roundwood was opened in January 1862 and for goods and passengers to Reference Free & Premium Templates, Forms, a temporary terminal station at Flushdyke in April 1862. In 1860, two new shafts were sunk to the levels of the top and low Haigh Moor seams at 140 and 150 yards respectively. These shafts were of the Engine Pit at 9 feet diameter and the Bye Pit at Useful Letters - Vktg 10 feet in diameter. Both shafts were walled with brick 5 inches thick with four water conduits behind the brickwork. The Engine Pit was sunk five yards below the bottom of the coal to Template | Download Templates, Forms, form a sump and the Bye shaft was widened to 13ft at the bottom. John Oldroyd Greaves continued with the management of 7 Best Euchre Printables Images On Pinterest, Roundwood colliery but by March 1874, the partners agreed to sell Roundwood colliery to Thomas Stammers Webb of List Template | Download, London and Cardiff.
There had been a period of New Year Party 2017 Templates ~ Creative, prosperity in the coal industry prior to List | Download Free, 1874, but from 1874 there was a period of continued depression. Webb agreed to take a 5-year lease on Roundwood, with power to take on a 31-year lease for Sample Inspiration, £35,000, the vendors agreeing to work the colliery and | Download Templates, pay any profits to Webb if he had first paid an initial £1,000 to them. Webb formed a new company, The Consolidated Collieries Co. Ltd. with a proposed capital of £180,000 in £10 shares. Useful Wr English? The plan was for the company to take over three collieries - the New Forest Colliery in Neath, Glamorgan and the Bush Colliery, near Cardiff were the other two. In the Reference Template Free Forms, event, the venture never got off the ground because of the deepening depression in the coal industry during 1876.
By 1885, John Oldroyd Greaves was very ill and wasn't expected to Recommendation Letter Employer Ojazlink, live very long, but he eventually recovered and lived on in good health until 1916. In the event, his 17 year-old son Percy Christian Greaves (1868-1957) was forced to leave school and Reference Template Free & Premium Forms take charge of the family business, which he found in a parlous state. Percy Greaves had been born on Free Resume Templates » Resume Draft Christmas Day 1868 and was educated at Lockers Park School, Hemel Hempstead before going firstly to Reference List Template Forms, Wakefield Grammar School and then to Tonbridge School in Kent. Percy Greaves was equal to Wr - Vktg English, the difficult task and applied his talents energetically to the running of Roundwood colliery. In July 1892, he obtained a first-class certificate as a colliery manager under the Coal Mines Registration Act of Reference List Template | Download & Premium Forms, 1887. At the time he was living at 69, Westgate, Wakefield with his parents. In 1889, Percy Greaves was responsible for the sinking of the new upcast shaft to a depth of 200 yards to the Silkstone seam.
During the sinking of this new seam, in June 1888, two men were to lose their lives. The 'Ossett Observer' dated June 23rd 1888 gives the following account: On Wednesday last a shocking fatality occurred at Roundwood Colliery, Wakefield Road on the boundary of Ossett. At present the Haigh Moor seam of coal is being worked, at a depth of Employer Ojazlink, 160 yards from the surface; but the proprietors of the List Template Free, colliery, Messrs. ~ Flyer Templates Market? Terry and Greaves, are sinking about 190 or 200 yards further, in order to Template Free & Premium Templates,, reach the Silkstone seam. Phrases Letters - Vktg? The new sinking is being made as a continuation of the upcast shaft, which is 12ft in diameter; it has already progressed some 40 yards downward, and is expected to be completed this year. On Wednesday morning about half a dozen sinkers were at work, and they had come up the List | Download Free Forms, shaft to the surface whilst some shots were being fired for blasting purposes. After the shots went off, three of the men got into the ordinary hoppet or bucket, and were lowered down the shaft by the engineman.
In descending they had to pass the mouth of a ventilating furnace and there is some reason to suppose that this may have induced them to change their position in the hoppet. This would possibly cause some additional oscillation of the hoppet, which almost immediately struck the Free Printable Periodic Tables, corner of the arch in the Haigh Moor seam. Reference List Template & Premium? All three men were thrown out, but one of them, named Patrick O'Brien, of Wakefield, managed to clutch the edge of the hoppet. One foot of another was caught by O'Brien, who was, however, unable to hold it. Two men consequently fell a depth of about 40 yards to Useful Wr Letters, the bottom of the newly sunk portion of the shaft, and were doubtless killed instantly. O'Brien, however, reached the Reference List Free & Premium, bottom in safety. The deceased men were Mathew Harrison, aged 32, married, of Resume Decoration. Sample, Ashton-under-Lyne, and George Geary, aged 20, single, of Wakefield. Harrison had only commenced working at the colliery the previous day.
In November 1897, John Oldroyd Greaves, who by now was no longer involved in the active management of Roundwood colliery made two of his sons, Percy Christian Greaves and John Henry Greaves (born 1871) partners in the family business of land agents, mining engineers and colliery proprietors. Greaves senior had bought the Snapethorpe Hall estate in Wakefield on behalf of the colliery partnership in November 1891. Meanwhile, Percy Greaves, despite his tender years, was able to take the running of the family business in his stride and he soon became one of the leading mining experts in northern England. Reference Template | Download Free Templates, Forms? Percy Greaves' obituary that appeared in the The Times newspaper on Friday, 25th October 1957 says this of him: comparatively few days passed when he was not to be seen at New Year Party Template ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market the pit-head or down the shaft of one of his own collieries or one of those of the | Download Free & Premium Forms, many people who readily consulted him as, perhaps, the Printables On Pinterest, best known mining engineer in the north. His pride in his own pits was unbounded. He knew the men and their problems personally. He was at Reference Free Templates, the forefront in the introduction of new methods, making for safety and efficiency, and it was his proud boast, evoking the sincere admiration of his many friends that, from English, 1886 until the nationalization of the mines (1947), none of the groups of List Template Templates,, collieries under his control had ever suffered a single strike apart from the Free Resume » Resume Draft | Resume, national strikes, which affected the whole country. By 1896, the manager of Roundwood was Mr. F. Flint, and the under-manager was Mr. Reference Templates, Forms? H. Farrant.
There were 619 underground workers and 129 surface workers. Letter | Docoments Ojazlink? By 1945, ownership of Roundwood was still with Terry, Greaves and Co., Wakefield, but the colliery was now managed by Mr. H. H. Burton with two under-managers. Mr. H. Reference List | Download Free & Premium? Newell and Mr. J. Morley. There were now 521 underground workers and 120 surface workers. Above: Picture of Old Roundwood Colliery from the early 1900s.
The building on the right-hand side of the picture is a brickworks. The brickworks was subsequently closed, but it was proposed to reopen them to produce building bricks for Ossett's council house building programme in the 1920s and 1930s. In the event, this never happened and bricks were sourced elsewhere. In June 1895, the Free Templates » Resume Draft | Resume, ' Ossett Observer ' published details of An Alarming Accident at Ossett Collieries - Two Cages in Collision - Miner fatally injured. The account, reproduced below gives a good insight into the working conditions at Old Roundwood: On Thursday morning, an accident of Reference List Free & Premium Forms, a serious and unusual nature occurred at the Ossett Roundwood Collieries (Messrs. Terry, Greaves and Co.) There are three seams of coal, worked by means of Resume Office » Resume Draft, three separate shafts. Reference List Template | Download & Premium Templates,? One of these shafts, about 350 yards deep, passes through the Cannel seam at a depth of 240 yards, and goes down to the Silkstone. About 160 men and boys are employed in the Cannel seam, and among these was Richard Renshaw (35), a married man, residing in Teal Street, Ossett.
Renshaw was a hanger-on in How To Letters, the Silkstone seam, and about quarter past six o'clock in the morning, he was ascending in one of the Reference List | Download Free, cages, a two-decker, to the Silkstone landing. Euchre Images On Pinterest Games? The cages are guided by List Templates, thimbles working on Recommendation Letter | Docoments wire conductors of 1.5 inches in diameter. Through some unexplained cause, the ascending cage came into List Template Free & Premium Templates, contact with the brickwork at the side of the shaft, and almost immediately afterwards collided with the descending cage. Owing to the velocity with which the cages were travelling, the collision damaged both, and Free Resume Templates Open | Resume gave a terrible shock to poor Renshaw, who was in the descending cage alone. He eventually reached the bottom in a helpless and paralysed condition suffering from List Template Free & Premium Templates, Forms, spinal injuries. He was taken up another shaft to the surface, and removed to his home, where he died the same evening. Work in the Cannel seam had to be suspended for two days.
At the inquest, which was held at the Little Bull Inn, Teal Street, it was concluded that it had never been know for the cages to catch before, but evidently they had caught this time. It was an unforeseen event and nobody could be held responsible, although something could be done to prevent a recurrence. They returned a verdict that the unfortunate deceased was accidentally injured. An extension of the Ossett borough boundary in 1900 brought Roundwood Colliery, owned by Terry, Greaves and Company Limited into the town. Mining ceased at this pit in April 1966. Above: The biggest colliery in Ossett was Old Roundwood, so named in 1901 to avoid confusion with another Roundwood Colliery that had opened in South Yorkshire, which had suffered financial difficulties. Roundwood was opened in 1847 and finally closed in 1966. Useful Phrases Wr Letters - Vktg? Roundwood had 619 underground workers and 129 surface workers and attracted workers from all parts of the area surrounding Wakefield. Many miners from the Barnsley coalfields moved to Roundwood and Reference | Download Templates, Forms settled in the Ossett Spa area.
Roundwood Colliery was a large concern and mined the Cannel, Haigh Moor, Lupset, and Silkstone (new Hards) seams. It was noted in the 'Ossett Observer' dated 20th March 1948 that the following accident occurred at Old Roundwood: Twelve miners at Old Roundwood Colliery were injured, including two men with broken legs, when the cage taking them down to the Silkstone Seam for the night shift got out of control for the last 40ft of the descent and crashed into the sump boards. The engine winder had fainted at the controls in the engine house. Like all other British collieries, Roundwood was nationalised in Student Sample Inspiration Sample, 1947 and Reference & Premium became part of the National Coal Board empire. Old Roundwood colliery was finally closed in April 1966. Above: View of Roundwood Colliery from the top of Queens Drive in the 1960s.
After the pit was demolished, what is now the Holiday Inn was built on Free Templates Open Office » Resume Template | Resume part of the old pit site. 15. Thorn Tree Pit , Low Laithes adjacent to the Great Northern (LNER) railway line. The 16th green of Low Laithes golf course is Reference List | Download & Premium Templates, Forms, believed to be located on the site of College Resume Sample Decoration. Sample, Thorn Tree pit. 16. Dewsbury Lane was opened before 1856 and closed in 1877. List | Download Free Templates, Forms? Owned between 1856-1870 by W. Hallas and between 1862-1876 by W. Gartside. It was reported that in December 1871, a collier's supper was held in the George Hotel, Ossett for the miners at Mr.
Gartside's colliery, which is likely to Student Resume Sample Sample, have been Dewsbury Lane colliery. The meal was for members of the colliery Sick and Reference Free Templates, Accident Club, which was funded by the miners themselves from Printables Images On Pinterest Games, weekly subscriptions to pay the members during times of sickness. In 1871, there had been no accidents at the colliery and only £134 had been paid out in sickness benefit. List | Download Templates,? The managers of the colliery, Messrs. T. Recommendation Employer Ojazlink? Westwood and J. Wilkinson were praised by the men for their work at the colliery. Thirty-six members of the club were present at the supper, suggesting a fairly small coal mine. 17. Field Lane Colliery , Gawthorpe near to the Flying Horse public house.
The Field Lane colliery was worked by List Template | Download Free & Premium Templates, Joshua Greaves and after his death, in 1861, it was offered for sale in February 1862. The advertisement in 1862 mentioned that the Letters - Vktg English, colliery was powered by a steam engine and that there was a 3ft seam of coal at a depth of 30 yards with three leases - two expiring in 1877 and one in 1881. It appears that when the | Download & Premium, two leases expired in 1877 that the colliery was closed down. Some more details about Flyer Templates Field Lane Colliery following a particularly suspicious accident resulting in the death of 19 year-old Richard Broad: 5. WANTON OUTRAGE NEAR DEWSBURY - A MAN KILLED: On Thursday night last, an inquest was held at & Premium Forms the Shoulder of Mutton Inn, Gawthorpe, before Mr. Taylor, coroner, on the body of Richard Broad, who met with his death after falling down a pit shaft on Printables Images On Pinterest the previous Tuesday. Mr. Morton, the Government inspector of mines, was in attendance and watched the List Template | Download Free Forms, case, in consequence of the pit rope having been maliciously cut. The evidence went to Printables Images On Pinterest Games, show that the deceased was employed at Field-lane Colliery, Gawthorpe and had charge of the pumping engine.
At this colliery there are two shafts, one used as a pumping and downcast and the other as as an upcast and drawing shaft. The only apparatus for List | Download & Premium Templates,, reaching the bottom of the former is a windlass and a rope an inch and a quarter in New Year Template Templates ~ Creative Market, diameter, and when men wish to go to the bottom, they attach a man-loop to the end of the rope. This man-loop consists of a piece of tough and strong wood, about thirty inches long, and near the ends are two holes about an inch and a half in diameter. Through these holes are drawn a piece of hempen rope an Template Templates, inch and a quarter in diameter, and the ends are securely fastened underneath. On the day in question the deceased used this loop, examining it before he did so, and, having placed himself astride, he was lowered by two men to the bottom with a few tools where he repaired the pump clack. Having finished his work, he gave the signal for ascending, and was raised to Employer | Docoments, within half a yard of the platform, when the List Free & Premium Forms, rope of the man-loop gave way at once close to both holes, and he was precipitated to the bottom.
He was alive when reached, and was removed home; but he died within a few hours. Broad sustained a fractured thigh, a fractured rib (one portion of the 2017 Flyer Template Templates ~ Creative Market, rib was driven into the lung) and a large scalp wound. Dr. Thornton, Church St,, Dewsbury and Reference | Download Free & Premium Templates, Forms Mr Greenwood, Surgeon, Ossett attended. The broken rope was examined by Student Sample the jury and was unanimously pronounced to have been cut. Reference List Free Forms? It ought to Free, have borne half a ton without danger. The deceased was a small, spare youth of nineteen years of age.
An open verdict was returned. In the List Template | Download Free & Premium, meantime the police are making active inquiries in the matter. No person was criminated by Free Open Office » Resume Draft the evidence offered to the inquest. 18. Ossett , owned by Messrs Haigh - but as yet unidentified. 19. Crownlands Collier y, possibly the site of Northfield Colliery, which was owned by Westwood and Co. 20. Reference Free & Premium Templates,? West Field , owned by Joshua Wilby when it was opened in 1863. The colliery closed in 1908.
In 1896, the owner was Westwood and Co., Ossett. Manager: J. Simpkin, Under-Manager: J. Wilkinson. In 1896 there were 56 underground workers and 11 surface workers. West Field colliery mined the Beeston, Middleton and Haigh Moor seams. 21. Healey Lane , was owned by Charles Kilner and Henry Slater trading as Hinchcliffe, Kilner and Co., when the pit was first opened 1876. However, their partnership was dissolved in June 1886.
Kilner was later declared bankrupt in June 1888, by which time he was living in the Green, Ossett and was working as a colliery weighman and book-keeper. By 1896 the owners were John Wilby and Edward Mortimer, both of Ossett. The Colliery Manager was owner John Wilby, but there was no under-manager. There were only 18 underground workers and 5 surface workers at the height of the pit's production. The Yorkshire Sheet 247.08 Ossett (SW) Combs 1905 map (O.S. reprint from Periodic Tables (pdf), 1890) by Alan Godfrey clearly shows a pit near the bottom of Healey Lane with a day hole linked by tramline to a series of buildings, which may have had pit shafts. There are other older mine workings below the house called Green Lea shown on the map suggesting extensive coal mining operations in List | Download Free Forms, the area over the years. The colliery closed in 1899. 22. Ox Close, was owned in 1880 by the Flockton Coal Co. Limited.
Ox Close opened in 1873 and closed in 1881. The pit was sunk between 1873 and 1878. The owners between 1873-1875 were Whitworth and Co. and then between 1876-1880, Tolson Whitworth, who formed a limited company in September 1877. The colliery had a lease on two beds of coal: the Joan Bed and the Flockton Thin Bed over an area of 48 acres. 11. The pit was not yet operational in 1877 as this excerpt taken from the Ossett Observer on the 11th August 1877 reporting an accident to a miner shows: On Tuesday evening last, shortly after 5 o'clock, a rather serious accident occurred at the new coal pit being opened out by Messrs.
Whitworth Co. in Runting Lane. A heavy piece of pump gearing weighing about 7 Best Euchre Printables Images On Pinterest | Detroit, Card 4 tons was being lowered down the shaft by means of a capstan and two-inch ropes. It had reached within about eighteen inches or so of the bottom when one of the ropes broke. Two men who were at Reference List Template Free Templates, the bottom fortunately got out of the How To Letters - Vktg, way. The half-dozen men who held the capstan bars, feeling the jerk, and being startled, let go, with the exception of Template Free & Premium Forms, one, a miner, named John Grace, who was instantly knocked off his feet and thrown to Resume Open » Resume, the ground. He was found to Reference List | Download Free & Premium Forms, have sustained a compound fracture of one shoulder , injuries to his arms and back, etc. On his removal to his house at Ossett Common in Recommendation Letter Ojazlink, a cab he was attended by Mr.
J.G. Wiseman, surgeon, and is, as we hear, progressing as well as can be expected. The cause of the rope giving way is not known, as it was considered to be capable of bearing the strain of six tons. Ox Close was located in the Runtlings area of Ossett and medieval maps show the presence of Runtinge Pitts in the Ox Close, which is bisected by Ryeroyde Lane . However, Ox Close is not shown on current maps, although it is thought it was so named at Reference List Template | Download & Premium Templates, Forms the time of the Ossett Inclosure around 1807. 23. Lights Colliery, was located north-east of the old Lights Bridge, which was near the location of the present Two Brewers public house and is shown on New Year Party Flyer Template ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative the 1851 1:10,560 OS Map. Many of the men who worked here were patrons of the Colliers Arms, later the Reference Template | Download & Premium Templates,, Little Bull in Inspiration, Ossett Common, which dates back to at least 1830.
The Wakefield Manor Rolls for Reference List Template Forms, 1709 refer to a small colliery at Ossett Lights and between 1712 and 1752, the 7 Best Euchre Printables On Pinterest Games, colliery was operated there by Joseph Naylor. Lights or a clearing in the woods was so named because the Reference List Template Templates,, of the way the woodland pasture was managed. Trees were grown on the same land that was used for Recommendation Letter Employer Ojazlink, rearing stock (usually pigs). Reference List | Download Free & Premium Templates,? The branches of the Free Open, trees were cut and Templates, Forms used for fuel, fencing or building. This process was called pollarding (and is the derivation of the English surname Pollard) so that when the tree branches were cut, sunlight would reach the forest floor through the previously dense canopy of woodland, hence the name The Lights . Ossett Lights covered an estimated area of 254 acres, but presumably, by the time the colliery was established, much of the woodland had been completely cleared.
24. Manor Colliery, Middle Common, was located between Manor Road and Spa Lane in 2017 Template Templates ~ Creative Market, the area known as Drain Close. Reference | Download? The colliery dates back to the 18th century and was owned then by the Naylor family. Later, in 1857, the colliery proprietor was John Mitchell who, according to the 1843 Tithe Map of Printables Images On Pinterest | Detroit, Card, Ossett rented the Reference List | Download & Premium Templates, Forms, land at Drain Close from the Ingham. At some stage, Manor Colliery was owned by Template Templates Market Terry, Greaves and Co., owners of Roundwood Colliery, probably prior to 1857.
Manor Colliery is almost certainly the site of the Engine shown on Jeffrey's 1775 map. The symbol on the map looks like a windmill, but it seems more likely that it was a steam powered pumping engine at the coal mine. The local press 13 and 14 in 1857 describes a fatal accident at the colliery, which gives us some indication of the scale of operations: A MAN KILLED BY FALLING DOWN A COAL PIT SHAFT Mr. Taylor, coroner for | Download Free, the town of Pontefract, held an inquest, on Saturday last at the Weaver's Arms, Ossett, on the body of Joseph Rushworth, blacksmith, 46 years of Useful Phrases Letters - Vktg, age.
The deceased was employed in Template | Download Free, attending the engine of the Manor Colliery, Ossett during the day. (NOTE: Manor Colliery is given as located in Middle Common, Ossett and in the ownership of Resume Templates » Resume | Resume, colliery proprietor John Mitchell in the Leeds Mercury report of the same accident on 22nd December 1857). Last Tuesday evening Rushworth was relieved at the usual time by Luke Veale, the man who performed night duty. Rushworth went to Horbury and Reference Template returning between ten and eleven o'clock at night, he went to the coal cabin. At that time he was tipsy. He remained there a few minutes, when, he got up saying it was too warm for him there, left the cabin and was not seen again. On Friday afternoon last, a miner named Joseph Chappel went down the pumping shaft of the pit to unloose a rope which he had made fast to the bottom a week ago, when he was assisting to change the buckets. When he got about forty yards down the shaft, he saw the body of Recommendation Employer Ojazlink, Rushworth suspended by a stay, his head and legs resting on the plank. The body was mutilated, the legs broken, and the jaw-bone crushed in. The shaft was only Template & Premium about 30 yards from the coal cabin and Recommendation Letter Employer the deceased, being no doubt confused with the Reference Template | Download Free Forms, drink he had taken, had missed his way and fallen down the pit. Verdict -found dead with fractures.
25. Park Lane , Ossett was opened in Party Flyer ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market, 1862 and closed 1885. Owners between 1862-1874 were Cliffe and Co. then between 1876-1885, G J Haigh. The colliery, which had two working shafts, was located to left of Owlers Farm, Flushdyke. 26.
Pildacre Colliery , Ossett was owned originally by Reference List & Premium Naylor and Co., and opened 1872, but closed in November 1910 after an inrush of water. Recommendation Employer Ojazlink? By 1896 owners were John Naylor and Co., Ossett. Template | Download Free Templates, Forms? Manager: S. Broadbent and Under-Manager: J. Mann. There were 232 underground workers and Letter 25 surface workers in 1896. Pildacre mined coal from the Flockton, Joan, Low Haigh Moor, Top Haigh Moor and Haigh Moor seams. The ' Ossett Observer ' for the 25th February 1893 carried the following report about Pildacre Colliery: Messrs. Reference Template | Download? John Naylor and Co. Resume Open » Resume? Ltd.
The half-yearly meeting of the shareholders of this company was held at Pildacre Collieries, Ossett, on Monday afternoon last. The directors report for List Template | Download Free Templates,, the half year ended December 31st showed a profit of £162 3s 9d. The Chairman, Mr. Edwin Mitchell J.P. in moving the adoption of the report, said that the directors had continued the Party Flyer ~ Flyer Templates, policy of developing and improving the efficiency of the colliery plant and workings, and were now in a position to produce about 1,500 tons of coal per week from the Joan and Flockton beds. Since the beginning of August last they had incurred considerable expense in opening out the Cannel seam at Pildacre, which was of a very fine quality and satisfactory thickness; next winter they hoped to send out a respectable quantity of Cannel, the price of which was much higher than black coal. Reference Free Templates,? They now had over 50 wagons, the property of the company, and another 24 partially paid for. The wages paid were now considerable (between £360 and Useful Phrases How To Letters English £370 per week ) and the directors could not spare anything to secure safety in working the collieries. A man's life was of more consequence than a dividend. List Template | Download Free & Premium? The Chairman said that there had not been a serious or fatal accident at Pildacre for Euchre Printables Images On Pinterest | Detroit, Card, about seven years, which spoke well for the management. 27. New Low Laithes , owned by the Low Laithes Colliery Co.
Ltd was first opened in 1892 using existing pit shafts, which were widened in 1890 and were probably the old pit shafts from the defunct New Lodge (Gawthorpe) colliery, which had closed in 1889. In September 1890, two local men employed as pit sinkers at New Low Laithes: Michael Glynn (51), Manor Rd., Ossett and John Murray (40), New St., Wakefield, were to lose their lives whilst working on widening the existing pit shafts from 9ft to 13ft in diameter. 9 They were working on a circular wooden platform 100ft down the pit shaft, which was suspended by heavy-duty iron chains. One of the List | Download Free & Premium Forms, four chains holding the platform was being re-attached when Glynn slipped, tilting the platform at a precarious angle. Glynn desperately tried to hold on to Murray, but only succeeded in pulling both of them to an instant death as they crashed down 150ft to the bottom of the Free Open » Resume, old pit shaft.
Above: Rare picture of List | Download Templates, Forms, Low Laithes Colliery circa 1920 looking north. The house on the horizon is thought to Free Printable Periodic, be Low Laithes villa. Above: Another rare picture of Reference List | Download Free & Premium Templates,, Low Laithes Colliery courtesy of Ian Taylor. His grandfather Ernest Hutchinson worked in a clerical capacity at Low Laithes until its closure in 1927, and this picture is from 7 Best Euchre Printables Images On Pinterest, Mr. Hutchinson's photo album. Low Laithes Colliery was located to the west of Reference List | Download Free Templates,, Low Laithes Farm, and east of the village of Gawthorpe, a few hundred yards along Gawthorpe Lane, which leads to Kirkhamgate and Bushy Beck. The men from Gawthorpe who worked at the colliery used the shortest route, which was a footpath, shown on the map below going almost due west towards the village.
Above: Map of the 7 Best Euchre Printables On Pinterest | Detroit, Card Games, new Low Laithes Colliery off Gawthorpe Lane, Ossett dated 1908. The terminus of the Mineral Railway that ran to Flushdyke can be seen to List Template | Download Forms, the south-east of the colliery. In 1894 the site was shared with a brickworks. In 1896, the manager was A.B. Blakeley with the under-manager at the time C Copley. There were 155 underground workers and 43 surface workers in 1896, but by 1908 this had increased significantly to 460 underground workers and 133 surface workers showing that the pit had expanded rapidly in the preceding 12 years. Above: Miners from Low Laithes Colliery, Gawthorpe pictured in | Detroit, Games, 1905 after an underground shift.
The bottles were used for List Template | Download Templates, Forms, carrying water or cold tea for meal breaks underground. The colliery was affected by the Great Coal Strike of 1893 when the Coal Owners Federation tried to impose a 25% wage cut on miners because of a fall in the price of coal. The men at Low Laithes went out on strike for several months in the summer and autumn of 1893. At Low Laithes, the management offered a 15% reduction in wages rather than the Phrases How To Letters - Vktg English, 25% reduction (of the 40% advanced since 1887), but this was unacceptable to the men's representatives and a rumour that Low Laithes was to be re-opened was quickly denied by the manager. On the List | Download Free, 17th November 1893, a settlement was arrived at on basis of the old rate of wages being paid until at Recommendation least the 1st February 1894, with a Conciliation Board to follow in at least one year. Subsequently, the miners at Low Laithes returned to Template Free Templates, Forms, work the following week.
Above: Winding Engine at Low Laithes Colliery, Gawthorpe which was used to pull the 7 Best Games, cage up the pit shaft. The man operating the controls is thought to be the manager Mr. David Arnold West. In 1908, the colliery was still managed by Mr. A.B. Blakeley, followed in 1915 by Reference List Template & Premium Forms Mr.
David Arnold West, a mining engineer born in Student Resume Sample Sample, 1875 at Reference List Template | Download Templates, nearby Birstall. By 1908, the output of the pit was 61,250 tons per annum, all produced by muscle power alone. Low Laithes was served by what was called a 'mineral railway', which ran from Flushdyke to New Year Party Flyer Template ~ Flyer Market, a rail terminus just south of the Template Free & Premium Forms, colliery. The coal from Low Laithes could then be transported via the railway goods yard at Flushdyke to any part of the UK. The coal extracted from 7 Best | Detroit, Card Games, Low Laithes was taken at various times from the Silkstone, Beeston, Haigh Moor, Flockton or Cannel seams and there was a ready market for coal of this quality. Above: The winding engine house at Low Laithes Colliery with the List Template Templates,, water softener and steam accumulator circa 1920. The New Low Laithes Colliery, now owned by W. and E.H. Middlebrook, ceased production in May 1927, and the sister colliery at nearby Wrenthorpe also closed at the same time. Useful How To Wr? The effects of the 1926 General Strike were causing severe economic problems at the time and Reference Templates, Forms trading was difficult with many coal miners either on shortened working weeks or having already been made redundant. Free Periodic? The Ossett Observer in December 1928 noted that the chances of the Gawthorpe pit re-opening were remote and sadly it never did, despite probably being viable. In the event, the site changed hands, re-emerging as the Doric Kerb Works producing concrete drainage ducts.
The Doric works were derelict in Reference List Free Templates, Forms, the 1960s and it is believed that production ceased completely in the 1950s. 28. 7 Best Euchre On Pinterest Games? Northfield , Ossett opened in 1896 and closed in 1917. The colliery was owned in 1896 by C. List Templates,? Newsome, and in 1899 by New Year Party 2017 Flyer Template ~ Flyer Templates Shaw's Linfit Lane Coal Co. By 1917, Northfield was owned by the Northfield Colliery Co. Ltd. Reference List Free & Premium Templates, Forms? It is Resume Sample, most likely that Northfield and Crownlands Colliery are the same site. In 1908, there were 61 underground workers and 10 surface workers so this was a relatively small undertaking. The manager in 1908 was Mr.
S. Broadbent. 29. Reference | Download Templates,? Shaw Cross , Owl Lane on the Ossett - Dewsbury border, was owned by C. B. Crawshaw and Warburton and first opened in Free Periodic, 1903 and closed in 1968. In 1896, the manager was G.F. Blacher and the under-manager was P. Winstanley. By the early 1900s, there were 228 underground workers and 45 surface workers, but the colliery expanded significantly. Above: Shaw Cross Colliery as seen from Owl Lane, Ossett.
The pit baths were on the opposite Reference List Template | Download Templates, side of (pdf), Owl Lane. Above: Miners leaving Shawcross Pit after completing a shift underground circa late 1960s. 30. List Template | Download? Storrs Hil l, Ossett, close to the Weavers Arms, was owned by W. Euchre Printables Images On Pinterest | Detroit, Card? Wilcock and was opened in 1901 and closed in 1908. Template & Premium? The pit was not working between 1904-1908.
31. Longlands , Ossett was first opened in Flyer Templates, 1910 and Template Templates, abandoned in May 1923. The colliery was owned by the Northfield Colliery Co, Ossett and mined the Haigh Moor seam. 32. Greatfield Colliery , was opened in 1913 and closed September 1954.
The pit was initially sunk between 1913-1916 and was owned in 1945 by the Northfield Colliery Co. Ltd., Ossett with manager: A.W. Thompson and Tables (pdf) no under manager. | Download? In 1945 there were 49 underground workers and 11 surface workers. 7 Best Euchre | Detroit, Card Games? In 1947, the colliery was nationalised and came under NCB ownership. Above: A group of Template | Download Free & Premium Templates,, Ossett coal miners at Useful Phrases How To Letters - Vktg English Greatfield Colliery in the early 1950s. Above: A group of miners at Greatfield Colliery, Ossett circa 1956, which was always referred to as Westwood's Pit.
My thanks to David Maddison who recently contacted me and has identified his father Jack Donald Maddison on the back row, 2nd from the Template | Download Free Templates, Forms, left. The miner with the impressive ZZ-Top beard, second from the Printable Periodic Tables (pdf), right on the back row is Harry Bains. 33. Whinny Moor , is listed as an Ossett pit, although geographically it was actually located between Lupset and Wakefield. The colliery was first opened in 1869 and abandoned in June 1913. List Template Free Templates,? The owners between 1869-1873 were Hargreaves, Naylor and Co. In 1896, the Resume Sample, colliery was owned by John Naylor and Co., who was also the owner of Pildacre Colliery in List Template | Download Free & Premium Templates, Forms, Ossett. In 1896, the How To Letters - Vktg English, manager of Whinny Moor Colliery was S. Broadbent with the under-manager being J. Hudson. There were 37 underground workers and 7 surface workers. Collieries adjacent to Ossett. Many Ossett and Reference List | Download Forms Gawthorpe men worked at the pits just outside the town boundaries and the nearest four pits are as follows:
1. Chickenley Heath , Dewsbury, was leased by Joshua Greaves in 1854. By 1857 it was noted that the Greaves Brothers had a 40 yard shaft at Chickenley Heath colliery and one man who had worked for them for six years. In 1861, after the death of Joshua Greaves, the lease of coal at Chickenley Heath was assigned to Gawthorpe butcher and farmer Joseph Terry and two others, most probably the ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market, Greaves brothers. In July 1862, the List Template | Download Free & Premium Forms, local press 10 had a notice that the partnership of John Henry Greaves and Charles Howard Greaves, trading as Greaves Brothers and Co., at Chickenley Heath was being dissolved and that from the 31st March 1862, the business would be carried on by John Henry Greaves alone. Chickenley Heath colliery was owned in Useful How To Wr - Vktg English, 1880 by List Template & Premium Templates, the Chickenley Heath Coal Co., Dewsbury.
In 1896, the manager was Mr. A.B. Blakeley and the under-manager was Mr. M. Rayner. There were 122 underground workers and 12 surface workers at this time. 2. Chickenley Wood , Dewsbury, in 1880 the Templates Market, owner was the Chickenley, Wood Coal Co. 3. Chidswell , Dewsbury, In 1880 and 1896, the owners were C. Crawshaw and Warburton, Dewsbury. The manager in 1896 was Mr. G.F. Reference List | Download Free & Premium Templates,? Blacher and the under-manager was Mr. Recommendation Employer | Docoments Ojazlink? P. Winstanley with 248 underground workers and 17 surface workers.
Since the owners, the manager and Reference Template | Download Free Forms the under-manager are the same as those who were at 7 Best Euchre Printables Card Games Shaw Cross in 1903, it seems likely that Chidswell Colliery was an earlier variant of Shaw Cross, with possibly new pit shafts being sunk at Shaw Cross in 1903. In March 1888, the local press 12 carried a report describing a fatal accident at the pit, which was described then as being located in Reference Template | Download Free Forms, Leeds Road, Ossett: FATAL EXPLOSION AT OSSETT COLLIERY. An inquest was held at Ossett yesterday by Free Tables (pdf) Mr. T. & Premium? Taylor, coroner, touching the Free Periodic Tables (pdf), death of George Brook (45), colliery labourer, Naylor-street, Ossett, who was killed on Monday at Messrs. Crawshaw and Warburton's collieries, Leeds-road. Mr.
F.N. Wardell, H.M. Inspector of Mines watched the proceedings. The evidence stated that three other men working with the deceased had a narrow escape with their lives and had been severely burnt. Isaac Kilburn, pit sinker deposed that on Monday last he and another man named Waterhouse were working in a staple or ventilating shaft between two seams known as Flockton and Old Hards. They were widening the Reference List Template & Premium Templates,, shaft and stood on a scaffolding fixed therein.
After they had been working for between two and three hours with naked candles and without noticing anything unusual, gas came up the shaft, and there was a violent explosion. The scaffolding was blown away, and Waterhouse and witness, both burnt were left clinging to the ledge of Student Decoration., brickwork at the side of the Reference Template | Download Free & Premium Forms, shaft. The deceased and another man, who were working a jack-roll or windlass at Free Printable the top of the shaft were also scorched, and List | Download Free & Premium the planking on which they stood was displaced, causing the Student Sample Inspiration Decoration. Sample, deceased to fall down the shaft. Reference List Template Free? When assistance came, Brook was quite dead. James Pomfret, the Deputy in charge at the time stated that the cannel seam was chiefly worked at the collieries, which employed a large number of men. Next, below this was the Flockton seam, in which the deceased was at the time of the explosion and lowest of all, the Old Hards, which was being newly opened out. He examined the workings in the latter seam prior to the accident and found them free from Free Periodic, gas and List & Premium Forms when he entered them afterwards, he found the ventilation in good order still.
In answer to questions by the Inspector, he said that eastwards of the bottom of the staple shaft was a heading driven, the further progress of which had been checked by a fault. When he examined that part of the workings on Monday morning, he did not go up to the fault, because part of the Student Resume Sample, header was standing nearly up to the roof in water, but he examined the the edge of the water with his safety lamp and found no trace of Reference List Free & Premium, gas, a good current of air coming over the water. The jury returned a verdict of accidentally killed. He leaves a widow and a large family. 4. Wrenthorpe , Wakefield was first opened in 1838 and was closed in 1900 after the death of the owner Mr. W.T. Marriot of Sandal Grange, Wakefield. Before then and as late as 1885, the colliery was in Printable Periodic, the ownership of D. Micklethwaite and Company.
In 1896 the manager was Mr. T.W. Embleton and the under-manager was Mr. W. Wood. There were 103 underground workers and 35 surface workers. In 1905, the colliery was bought by the Low Laithes Colliery Co. Ltd, who were operating their pit at Reference List Template Free & Premium Templates, Gawthorpe. Resume Sample? It was re-opened in 1907, and was used as part of the principal Low Laithes colliery with the same manager, but Mr. D.A. West was the Reference List | Download Free & Premium Templates,, under-manager at Wrenthorpe. In 1908, there were 80 underground workers and 31 surface workers, suggesting a slight decline from ten years previously.
Wrenthorpe colliery had a branch line to the nearby main Leeds-London railway to Phrases How To Letters - Vktg, transport coal to Reference Template | Download & Premium Forms, distribution centres and larger customers. Wrenthorpe colliery closed in 1927 at the same time as New Low Laithes Colliery as a result of the strike. Above: Wrenthorpe Colliery complete with an Upholsters Shop. The date of the photograph is not known but this section of the colliery opened in 1857. As an example of the New Year Party Template ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market, prevailing conditions, there was a report in the ' Ossett Observer ' in June 1912 of a pit deputy being killed at List Template | Download Free & Premium Templates, Wrenthorpe pit, part of the Low Laithes Colliery: William Henry Hayes (56), colliery deputy of Free Templates » Resume Draft Template | Resume, Dewsbury Road, Ossett met his death as a result of an accident in Free, the Wrenthorpe part of Low Laithes colliery. The deceased was well-known in both Earlsheaton and Chickenley Heath, in which places he had lived for a good many years. Ezra Ramsden, of 11 East Parade, Eastborough, Dewsbury, coal miner, said that the College Resume Sample Inspiration Decoration. Sample, accident happened on Friday at 12.30 p.m. In a few more minutes he would have finished the job of filling up a gob. There had been a fall of roof three or four days before in the Silkstone seam, and deceased, who was assisting to remove the List Template | Download Free & Premium Forms, dirt, was working about half a yard from the witness.
Suddenly, a stone fell down on the deceased, who was sitting on Printable Tables his right foot and Reference List Free leg and was in the act of using his shovel. The end of the stone struck him on the head, and knocked him against a prop which was behind him. Printables On Pinterest | Detroit, Card? He was still upright when witness pulled him out. The stone was not on him. He said Pull me out Ezra and Template | Download Templates, Forms he (witness) said Tha is out. Flyer ~ Flyer? There was no bleeding, but deceased appeared helpless.
He asked him (witness) to lean him against a prop, but he said he was not easy after after that had been done, so he was laid on his back. Deceased asked witness to take him to the gate, but witness told him that he could not do that by himself. Reference List Forms? He would not let witness go for Party Flyer Templates, help for some time, and he could not call for help because there was no one near to hear. Template Free & Premium Forms? Eventually witness got the help of several men, and Useful Phrases How To Wr Letters - Vktg together they got him out of the Reference & Premium, pit on a stretcher. He was quite helpless all the time. The stone that fell would be about three feet six inches long, twenty inches broad, and would not fill a tub. One end hardly fell fourteen inches, because it reared. The roof was a yard high. Tamar Hayes, of Pickersgill Street, Dewsbury Road, Ossett, widow of the deceased said that her husband was an old servant of the New Year Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market, company and had worked at Wrenthorpe for about five years. He left home at about 4.15 a.m. on Friday morning and Template Free & Premium Templates, she heard that he had been hurt at about three in the afternoon.
She was able to see him at Clayton Hospital, Wakefield and 2017 Template ~ Flyer Templates although conscious, he could not talk much. She was there when he died on Saturday afternoon. Dr. List | Download Free Forms? Hugh Walker Moir, assistant house surgeon at the Clayton Hospital, said that deceased was admitted on the 21st June, and was suffering from paralysis of the legs, arms and body, and from shock. He was quite conscious and quite helpless. The case was hopeless from the commencement. He rallied from the shock, but gradually sank and died at 12.15 on the following day. The cause of death was fracture of the fourth vertebra of the spine. Mr. D.A. West, the manager of Wrenthorpe colliery, said that the deceased had been at Wrenthorpe for three years and had worked for Recommendation Letter Employer | Docoments Ojazlink, the company for forty-five years.
He had never worked anywhere else. The Coroner remarked that the deceased was a thoroughly experienced man and not a man likely to work in a reckless way. The evidence pointed to it having been a pure accident, and he suggested a verdict to the effect That deceased was killed by having his spine accidentally fractured by a fall of stone whilst at work. The jury agreed. The 1893 Ossett Coal Strike 6. In 1893, the price that mine owners could get for their coal dropped significantly.
Since 1887, coal miners' wages had increased by 40% above the standard rate and now, because profits were being affected, the Coal-owners' Federation called for a reduction in wages from August 1893. The mine owners wanted to pay only 15% above the Reference List | Download Free & Premium Forms, standard rate, i.e. an effective reduction in Letter Employer | Docoments, wages of 25%. When the Coal-owners' Federation presented their revised pay offer to List | Download Free Templates, Forms, the Miners' Federation of Great Britain, not surprisingly, the proposal was turned down flat and the Miners' Federation then asked its members to withdraw their labour from the end of July 1893. Free Printable Periodic Tables? All of the List Template Free Templates,, English Coalfields were affected, with the exception of Durham and Northumberland, where wages had already been reduced under sliding scale agreements. In 1893, there were four working collieries inside the town boundaries: Low Laithes (Gawthorpe), Pildacre, Westfield and Healey Lane. Just outside the Ossett boundary, but always regarded as an Ossett coal mine, was Roundwood Colliery, which was easily the biggest of the Euchre Printables Images On Pinterest Card, local pits, and on record as employing 619 underground workers, with another 129 surface workers (1896 figures).
The next two largest local collieries were Pildacre with a workforce of List Template | Download Templates, Forms, 232 underground and 25 surface workers (1896 figures), then Low Laithes, which had about 120 miners in 1893. 7 Best Printables Images On Pinterest | Detroit, Games? Westfield and Healey Lane Collieries were relatively small by comparison with Westfield having thirty underground workers and Healey Lane only about twelve. Also, many Ossett and Gawthorpe men worked at Shaw Cross colliery, on Owl Lane, just over the town boundary in Dewsbury and employing about 232 underground workers and 45 surface workers (1896 figures.) Nearby Chickenley Heath and Chidswell collieries employed about another 350 local men, some of whom must have lived in Ossett. Those miners that were union members were organised by the Yorkshire Miners Association, based in Barnsley. Within the Ossett collieries, Union membership was strongest in the larger collieries, Roundwood, Pildacre and Low Laithes. Work had ceased at Low Laithes and Roundwood by the end of July in List Free & Premium, line with the Recommendation, recommendation made by the Miners Federation, and at Pildacre soon afterwards. At the two smaller Ossett pits, Westfield and List & Premium Forms Healey Lane, the miners worked on Resume Templates » Resume | Resume and this was to cause trouble in the following weeks. The strike had a serious effect on the local economy, which was based on the use of coal as a fuel for industry and transport. On Saturday, 12th August, the Great Northern Railway cancelled the List & Premium, majority of its passenger trains, from the following Monday, which ran between Ossett, Leeds, Wakefield and Bradford. The Ossett Observer noted that the short notice that was given had caused the Letter, maximum inconvenience to travellers.
Worse was to Reference Template | Download Free & Premium Templates, Forms, come, and further cancellations followed in September. Before the end of August, the lack of coal had forced some of Ossett's textile mills to introduce part-time working. In September, the mills of J T Brook at Town End and Flushdyke; Swallow's Mill on Dewsbury Road, and Giggal Clay's Mill at Healey all had to close. The Ossett Gas Company was also affected by the lack of coal and in November, it increased the price of gas from 2s 9d to 3s 0d per 1,000 cubic feet because of the rise in coal prices. Local mill owners tried to keep their businesses going by Printable (pdf) buying coal from the Durham coalfield and some paid up to triple the normal price. Template Free Forms? Unfortunately, the coal deliveries were delayed because the North-Eastern Railway was unable to cope with the increase in demand for coal from the still operational Durham and Northumberland coalfields. A by-product of making gas from coal is coke and a few enterprising Ossett mill owners used coke purchased from the Free Periodic Tables (pdf), Ossett Gas Company instead of coal. Unfortunately, by the end of Reference List Template | Download & Premium Forms, August all the coke stocks had been used up.
Pildacre Colliery was a wet pit and needed constant pumping to prevent the underground workings from flooding. Pildacre's manager, Mr. S. Resume? Broadbent applied to Reference & Premium Templates, Forms, the Yorkshire Miners Association for permission for his men to get coal from the pit to keep the pump engines running. The owners of - Vktg English, Pildacre Colliery were not among those trying to impose a wage reduction on their workers, but nevertheless, showing a certain amount of insensitivity, the Miners Association refused the request and Broadbent had to purchase 100 tons of coal from the Durham mines. Pildacre was potentially the worst affected of all the Ossett mines because of the Reference Template Free & Premium, flooding, but conditions deteriorated in all the Phrases How To Letters English, other local collieries during the List Template Templates,, strike. Ossett's two small collieries, Healey Lane and Westfield tried to work on through the dispute.
This caused a certain amount of anger among the striking miners and Resume Templates Office Draft Template there were several attempts to intimidate the men working at these mines, who in any case, were not members of the mineworker's union. List Template | Download Free & Premium Forms? At Healey Lane, the police were called on Saturday the 12th and Monday the 14th August in College Student Resume Decoration. Sample, order to prevent a likely breach of the peace by a group of pickets. This intimidation had some effect, since on the Monday, only part of the workforce turned up for work. Reference List Template Free Forms? When the men came out of the pit, the had to be escorted home by the police amid hooting and cries of 'Baa' and other unfriendly demonstrations by a crowd of men and women . As a result, the Templates » Resume Template, men did not return to work on Reference Templates, the Tuesday. On Saturday, 2nd September, some of the miners at Healey Road had returned to work, but were once again the subject of a rather hostile demonstration by a crowd of pickets. On Monday 4th September, a group of Recommendation Letter Employer Ojazlink, forty or fifty miners from outside the town gathered at Westfield Colliery, Ossett owned by Henry Westwood and where only a few miners were at work. Reference List | Download & Premium? Two or three of the pickets went to see Henry Westwood to ask him to close the pit. Westwood was not imposing any wage reduction on his men and in fact, he was opposed to the wage reduction proposals. Westwood refused to close the pit on the grounds that depriving Ossett's textile mills of coal would not help the miners, but would inflict hardship on the textile workers, who were unconnected with the strike and would be put out of work.
This did not meet the approval of the pickets and one of them suggested that they should fetch the blacklegs out College Student Resume Decoration. Sample, of the Template | Download & Premium Templates, Forms, pit and throw the corves down the shaft. | Docoments? Sensibly, this proposal was not carried out, but when Westwood's men came up from the shaft and were leaving the pit-yard to go home, some of the pickets started shouting 'Baa' and one of the ringleaders grabbed a pit deputy and hustled him. Any further disturbance was prevented by the timely appearance of two policemen. On Thursday 7th September 1893 at the height of the coal miners strike, it was reported in & Premium Templates, Forms, the Ossett Observer that a serious encounter took place at Chidswell on the Ossett boundary a mob of between 2 and Student Resume Decoration. 3,000 men was marching in the direction of Ossett. About forty-five police charged the mob, and dispersed it using truncheons. There was a good deal of stone-throwing, and some of the rioters were armed with formidable bludgeons, but they did not make very much of a stand against the police staves ( it was noted that some of the crowd were rather severely punished by the officers' truncheons.) The constables were also armed with cutlasses, but did not resort to the use of List | Download Free, them.
Westfield Colliery in Ossett was the true objective of the Chidswell rioters, but Henry Westwood, the owner of Westfield Colliery had learned of the planned attack earlier in the day and had withdrawn his men from the Free Tables, pit. Only two men were arrested at Chidswell; one was a miner and the other a cloth fuller. They were both sentenced to Template | Download & Premium Templates,, one-month's imprisonment by the West Riding Court in Dewsbury. Unfortunately, for the local police, the disturbances coincided with the St. Leger races at Doncaster, which annually took some 200 men away from their usual duties in the West Riding.
When Ossett came under threat, there was only one policeman in the town. Following the disturbances, Ossett's police force was strengthened by the addition of a sergeant and three constables, to Useful Phrases How To Wr Letters - Vktg, the usual force of six officers. All of the police were armed with cutlasses and officers were stationed at the town's collieries. At the beginning of the week of disturbances, there was the first of three mass meetings by the town's miners. All three were organised by the local branches of the Yorkshire Miners Association. The first two meetings were held at the football field near Ossett railway station, and Reference List Template Free Templates, the final meeting took place in the Temperance Hall in Illingworth Street. Templates Office Draft? At the first meeting, which was held on List Template & Premium the evening of Monday 4th September, a resolution expressing continued support for Free Printable Tables (pdf), the strike was passed by the 800 to 1,000 men present. List Template Free? Although one of the speakers, Mr G.R. Simpson, a check-weighman at Roundwood Colliery condemned the rowdyism that had recently taken place at Westfield Colliery and said that some of the unionists were very sorry that there had been an Phrases How To Wr Letters English element in Ossett that day which was no credit to the working class . Another of the speakers, the Reverend B. Haddon, a Primitive Methodist minister, hailing from Durham was more forthright. In his opinion this was not a strike but a lock-out and Template | Download Free that a terrible day of Resume Open, retribution would come for men who out of the blood of the working class were selfishly amassing huge fortunes . The miners next meeting took place on the morning of Thursday 14th September. List Free & Premium? A large number walked to the meeting behind a brass band and the banner of the New Year Party Flyer Template Templates ~ Creative, Chickenley Heath branch of the Yorkshire Miners Association.
At the meeting, which was attended by 2,000 people, a resolution to resist the wage reduction was unanimously passed. The final meeting was held on Wednesday 18th October and the principal speaker, the President of the Reference List Template Free, Yorkshire Miners Association, Edward Cowey (1839-1903), received an enthusiastic reception from the audience. Letter Employer? The Ossett Observer noted Cowey's effectiveness as an Reference List & Premium Forms orator a big man, with a deep voice, and a North-country accent, Mr. Cowey has a rugged eloquence of his own, which evidently exercises a powerful effect on its hearers - exhibiting as it does, deep earnestness and an absence of affectation. By the time that Cowey visited Ossett, some of the miners' families were suffering hardship. When the dispute began, the Yorkshire Miners Association was able to pay 9 shillings a week to each man. Euchre Images | Detroit, Games? The funds were distributed in the local public houses and one collier wrote to the Ossett Observer protesting about Template & Premium Templates, Forms receiving his pay in a public house and suggested instead that a schoolroom in the Temperance Hall would be more suitable. In the third week of September 1893, the Association's fund ran out.
The last strike pay, amounting to 7 shillings a week for each man, was issued on Thursday 21st and Friday 22nd September. The non-union miners who were forced out of work by the strike received no strike pay at all. For example, of the 30 'coal getters' at Westfield Colliery, five were non-unionists. In Ossett, the local leaders of the Yorkshire Miners' Association began organising relief for non-unionists in September. A Relief Committee, headed by Thomas Webster of Roundwood Colliery was set up and collections taken.
In the week ending Saturday 9th September, almost £20 worth of 'necessaries' were distributed to non-unionists. A number of individuals also tried to help the families of miners who were suffering from hardship. Among them was the Mayor, Councillor Francis Lumb Fothergill, who visited over 200 such families and also Alderman Wilson. Some help came also from the Ossett Industrial Co-operative Society, which received £10 from the Co-operative Wholesale Society and distributed it in the form of groceries. The congregation at the Primitive Methodist Chapel in Dewsbury Road raised £5 9s 8d in a collection, while the parishioners in North Ossett raised enough funds to Student Resume Sample Decoration. Sample, provide thirty boys with breakfast at Gawthorpe Church School. A meeting for those groups interested in helping provide relief for the miners was called in List Template | Download Free & Premium Templates, Forms, the Temperance Hall on Wednesday 11th October 1893 and this resulted in the formation of a Relief Sub-Committee of the Borough Council and the opening of a subscription list. The Sub-Committee consisted of eight men representing between them the Borough Council, the town's Anglicans, the town's non-Conformists and the miners. By Saturday, 14th October, the Sub-Committee had raised £48 1s 6d.
The largest donation of £10 came from the Leeds Mercury Fund, whist Westwood and Company were among four donors of £5 each. The Sub-Committee distributed some 180 relief tickets weekly until Friday 3rd November, when the funds ran out. During the same period, the Sub-Committee also provided two teas for 600 children in the town's schoolrooms, whilst two Leeds gentlemen provided tea for New Year Party Flyer Template ~ Creative, 200 children. A dance and then a concert, both held in Template, the Temperance Hall provided the Sub-Committee with fresh funds and there was a further distribution of Periodic Tables, relief in the weeks ending Saturday 18th November and List & Premium Templates, Saturday 25th November. Two more free teas for 600 children were provided and How To Letters - Vktg Walter Scott, a butcher in Station Road provided tea for 200 children. By the List Template Forms, 25th November, the strike had finally come to an end.
It lasted so long because neither side was willing to compromise. The Coal-owners Federation insisted on a wage reduction whilst the Useful Phrases Letters English, Miners' Federation was firm that no reduction of Reference Free & Premium, wages was acceptable. A ballot, held by the Yorkshire Miners' Association in early September, indicated that most of its members supported the strike. A wage reduction, arbitration and a return to work on 7 Best Images | Detroit, Card Games the old rate of List Free Templates, Forms, wages were all rejected by large majorities. However, in Ossett, the feeling was rather different and the Ossett Observer noted that the overwhelming majority of miners in Resume Open Office Draft Template | Resume, the town wanted to Template Free Templates,, return to work at Flyer Template ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market the old rate of wages.
The attitude of the Reference List Template, Yorkshire miners changed as their strike fund ran out later in the month. In a second ballot later in September, they accepted a recommendation from the leaders of the College Resume Sample Sample, Yorkshire Miners' Association to return to work at those collieries where the old rate of pay was offered. Free & Premium? The Miners' Federation endorsed a return to work on these terms, but also imposed a levy of one shilling a day on returning miners in order to support those still in dispute. Phrases English? Most of the Yorkshire miners found that their employers were still insisting on a wage reduction and so only a minority returned to work. List & Premium Templates, Forms? In Ossett, Healey Lane and Pildacre Collieries were working double shifts at the beginning of October, while Low Laithes and Free Tables Roundwood remained closed. At Low Laithes, the management offered a 15% reduction in wages rather than the 25% reduction of the Reference Template | Download & Premium Forms, 40% advanced since 1887, but this was unacceptable to the men's representatives. In mid-November, a rumour that Low Laithes was to be re-opened was quickly denied by the manager.
The dispute was finally brought to an end by New Year Party Flyer Template ~ Flyer Templates the Prime Minister, William Ewart Gladstone, who appointed the Foreign Secretary, Lord Rosebery as a mediator between the two sides. On the 17th November 1893, a joint conference was held at Template & Premium Templates, the Foreign Office, under the presidency of Lord Rosebery between representatives of the 7 Best Euchre Printables On Pinterest | Detroit,, Federated Coal-owners and the Miners' Federation. A settlement was arrived at on basis of the old rate of wages being paid until at List | Download Templates, least the 1st February 1894, with a Conciliation Board to follow in at least one year. Employer? In Ossett, the miners at Low Laithes and Roundwood returned to work the following week. With the end of the strike, the town's mills were able to List & Premium Templates,, return to full production and cancelled rail services were gradually restored. 2017 Templates Market? Unfortunately, the Ossett Observer did not comment on how long it took the miners' families to recover from the financial strain of the Template Free Templates, Forms, dispute. Bradford Observer, Monday, 7th September 1874. Bradford Observer, Tuesday, 15th September 1874. Bradford Observer, Friday, 25th September 1874. Bradford Observer, Tuesday October 13th 1874.
Leeds Mercury , Saturday January 17th 1863. 1893 Ossett Coal Strike - adapted from an essay by David Scriven. Relative value of UK pound in RPI terms, taken from the web site: http://www.measuringworth.com/calculators/ppoweruk/ York Herald , Monday, January 11th 1875. Leeds Mercury , Thursday, September 25th 1890. Leeds Mercury , Saturday, July 19th 1862. Leeds Mercury , Saturday, September 8th 1877. Leeds Mercury , Thursday, 29th March 1888.
Leeds Mercury , Tuesday, 22nd December 1857. Lancaster Gazette , Saturday, 26th December 1857. My maternal grandfather, Joseph John Smith worked nearly all his life as a coal hewer in the Yorkshire pits. He was born in Party Flyer Templates ~ Creative, Beaufort, Ebbw Vale in 1897, but moved to Yorkshire in the 1920s to work at Sharlston Colliery. Here, Joe Smith met and married local Horbury girl, Frances Margrave and then lost her to cancer in 1936. For a while, in the 1960s, he came to live with his only daughter, Margaret Wilson and family in Kingsway, Ossett. I wish I had talked with him more about his life, but it didn't seem important at the time. My grandfather was a great talker, but he never talked about his experiences in the Welsh and Yorkshire coal mines, where he had worked from the age of 14. His back and upper arms were mottled with bluish-grey tattoo-like markings, which were the scars from cuts and abrasions sustained working bareback, hewing coal in the narrow seams under Wakefield.
The bloody, exposed tissue had then filled with black dust, just like ink from a tattooist's needle, leaving him with a permanent reminder of the decades of underground toil. His lungs were shot from years of inhaling the coal dust, muck and bad air down the mines. List & Premium Templates,? I can hear his hacking, wheezing cough now. Joe died aged 68 from diseases and complications brought on by his years of Useful Phrases - Vktg English, working in that subterranean hell-hole. Miner's Death 1869 - Inquest at Template | Download Forms the Little Bull, Ossett Common. Mr Taylor, honor and county coroner held an inquest at the Little Bull Inn, Ossett Common over the body of a coal miner, Joseph Crabtree, aged 30. His widow stated that he had his back hurt about Recommendation Letter Employer two years ago and was laid up for a week. Reference Template | Download Free & Premium? On Friday 27th August 1869 he had left home at 5 o'clock in Recommendation | Docoments Ojazlink, the morning to go to his work at Messrs. Terry, Greaves and Co., Roundwood Colliery, Soon after 1pm the same day, he was brought home with his left leg broken. Mr. Kemp from Wakefield attended him and Mr.
Lawson Tait also acted to set his leg. Deceased began to complain of | Download & Premium, pain in his left side a day or two afterwards, but he seemed to mend until last Thursday when the pain in Free Templates Office » Resume Draft, his side commenced again. Reference | Download? He died on College Student Resume Sample Inspiration Wednesday morning about half past two. Mr. Lawson Tait, Wakefield surgeon said that he visited the Reference Template | Download Free Templates,, deceased about Useful How To Letters - Vktg a fortnight ago and found that he had fractured his left leg and Reference List | Download & Premium Templates, thigh. The leg was in position and appeared to be going on well. On Thursday witness made a post mortem examination of the body and found the fractures in process of a cure and in a very satisfactory state. The organs were in Free Resume Office, a normal condition, except the right side of the heart, which was very much distended with dark, fluid blood. The pulmonary artery was entirely stopped with a hard clot of blood. The clot would cause death by suffocation. It had no direct communication with his injury.
It must have been in existence for several days or possibly weeks. Weakness from injury or illness would be likely to cause disease. Jacob Page of List Templates, Forms, Alverthorpe, coal miner, a fellow worker of the 7 Best Printables Images | Detroit, Card Games, deceased's said that about Reference Template Free & Premium Forms 11 o'clock in the morning of the 27th August, the deceased's hurrier fetched him and he went to ~ Flyer, his bank, He found the deceased sitting about two feet from the face with about 3 or 4 hundredweight of coal and rock on his left leg and helped free the List Template, deceased by moving the coal. A row of props were set to within four feet of the face. Letters - Vktg English? The seam of Template Free & Premium Templates, Forms, coal is the Haigh Moor, which is about a yard thick, but in three seams. The deceased told him that he had got the two lower seams and Useful How To Wr tried to | Download Forms, get down the top seam and failed, and he had therefore determined to let it stop up until he had got ready for Printable Periodic, another fall.
Verdict: Died from a clot of List | Download & Premium Forms, blood, accelerated by the accidental fracture of the left leg. From the ' Ossett Observer' 18th September 1869. Fatal Accident to a Hurrier at Roundwood Colliery - 1877. On Tuesday the 2nd inst., a Horbury lad named Wilson Baines was at his work as a hurrier at the Roundwood Colliery, when a mass of stone from the pit roof fell on him inflicting various injuries to his head. The poor boy was taken home unconscious, in which state he remained till half-past one on Sunday afternoon, when he died. Last Tuesday morning, an inquest was held at How To Wr Letters the King's Arms, the house of Mr. Reference List Template | Download & Premium Templates,? S. Hall, before Mr. T. Taylor and a respectable jury of whom Mr.
Thomas Mitchell was foreman. The following evidence was adduced:- Charles White, joiner of Northgate said the deceased was his step son and was 15 years old on Friday. He was a hurrier and Free Templates » Resume Draft Template the son of the late Mr. Reference? T. Baines, rag dealer.
He went out to his work at a quarter after five o'clock, a week since that morning. He had worked in a pit going on for four years. Free Printable Periodic Tables? He was brought back soon after twelve o'clock, unable to speak, and remained unconscious till he died on List | Download & Premium Sunday afternoon. He received frequent attention, both from Messrs. Kemp and Son, surgeons of Wakefield and from Mr.
B. Kemp from Horbury. William Peace, hurrier of Flushdyke, Ossett said he was working at Student Resume Messrs. Terry, Greaves Co.'s Roundwood Colliery, and knew Wilson Baines who hurried on the same road with him. On Tuesday morning deceased was standing in the middle of the Reference List | Download & Premium Templates,, horse road, which is about 5ft 6 in high, when a piece of the roof came in suddenly. Only one piece came out; it was a lump of blue bind and seemed to catch the deceased on the head, knocking him down. He raised an alarm, and Free his father came to the spot. Joseph Peace, coal miner, of Flushdyke, said he was getting coal from the face of a bank, when he heard something fall and his lad scream out O father, do come, and away he ran and found the deceased on the floor bleeding, with knees drawn up and insensible. He was in a new road which he (witness) helped to drive. He had always considered the road good; his own boys passed up and down the way 70 or 80 times a day, and he had to go that way himself.
If he had not, he should not have used the road himself or have allowed his boys. Where the accident occurred, the road was about 8 or 9ft wide. Deceased was bleeding about the head. Reference | Download & Premium Templates, Forms? The piece of stone which came down would weigh about Useful Wr Letters - Vktg English 5 or 6 stones, and it knocked a prop down in falling. Witness went up to the pit bank immediately to send for a doctor, and the deceased was taken to his home. A verdict of accidental death was returned. From the ' Ossett Observer ' October 13th 1877. Sep 18th 1880: A Chidswell collier with the List Template Free Templates, Forms, nickname “Wild Jack” had made a bet that he would “worry a live hedgehog with his teeth, his hands being tied behind him” , also that he would go through other similar performances, in a field behind the Letter | Docoments Ojazlink, Royal Oak, Owl Lane. On Saturday afternoon a crowd of about 200 had gathered, including a number from Batley and other places. A man was also in attendance with a bag containing the hedgehog. The police had heard of the affair however, and at 5:00pm a sergeant and two plain clothed constables arrived and were greeted with hooting.
No attempt was made to proceed with the exhibition, but it was rumoured that the encounter between the man and the hedgehog came off the same evening at Reference Template Templates, Forms a place called “Dog Loitch”. Above: Percy Christian Greaves (1868-1957) long time principal of Roundwood Colliery, Ossett. Greaves took control of the colliery in 1885 at the tender age of 17 years when his father, John Oldroyd Greaves (1824-1916) suffered a heart attack. Percy Greaves was destined for a place at Cambridge University, but his father's ill health forced him to take over the family business. By 1892, he had qualified with a first-class colliery manager's certificate and he went on to become one of the most eminent mining engineers in 7 Best Euchre Printables Images On Pinterest | Detroit, Card Games, the UK. Reference Free? He was respected and very well-liked by Phrases How To - Vktg English the men at Roundwood where there were no strikes (excluding National Strikes) during his ownership. Greaves always strove to provide the Reference List | Download & Premium Forms, most up-to-date methods for safety and efficiency for his men.
It was noted in his obituary (The Times of October 25th 1957) that few days passed when he was not seen at the pit-head or down the shaft of one of his collieries. Percy Greaves lived with his wife and family of four children at Woolgreaves, near Wakefield; a large eleven bedroomed house built in the 1830s and Party 2017 Flyer ~ Flyer Market set in 30 acres of Reference Template & Premium Templates,, grounds. Miners summoned for leaving work - 1888. At the Tables (pdf), West Riding Court, Dewsbury, George Cawthorne, Richard Foy and John Richardson were summoned for unlawfully absenting themselves from their employment at Pildacre Colliery, Ossett early in July 1888. List Free Templates,? Foy did not appear. Mr. T.L. Chadwick appearing for Messrs. John Naylor and Co.
Ltd., the Inspiration Decoration. Sample, colliery proprietors stated that the defendants on entering their employment signed the usual printed form of contract to Template | Download & Premium Templates, Forms, give or take 14 days notice on leaving. On the | Docoments Ojazlink, dates named, however, they had abstained themselves and were written to by Mr. William Noble, the colliery manager, but appeared to have obtained work elsewhere. Compensation was claimed from each, being 2 shillings per day, a proportion of the Reference List | Download Free Templates, Forms, standing expenses of the colliery during their absence. Foy was asked to Recommendation | Docoments, pay £2, Richardson £1 14s and Cawthorne £1 12s. Richardson was allowed two weeks to pay and the others two months. From the ' Ossett Observer' 12th August 1880.
Aug 16th 1890: A day hole is to be opened from the Runtlings Lane colliery of Messrs Westwood Co. to Healey. It will be fitted with an Reference Free Templates, engine plane, so that coal can be sent out that way for the mills at Healey, instead of Letter | Docoments, being drawn up that shaft. List Free Templates,? The object is to save the expense of carting coal down into Free Printable Periodic Tables the valley. During the coal strike in Ossett in 1893, the Reference Template Forms, textile mills in the town were starved of coal and many had to Phrases Letters, close. Reference & Premium Templates,? Temperance Mill in Letter Employer | Docoments, Church Street, Ossett was owned by Francis Lumb Fothergill and he came up with a novel approach to keep his mill open. Reference Template | Download Free Forms? By running the Printables Card, mill boilers on dried sewage sludge, he was able to keep Temperance Mill operating. By the middle of September 1893, Fothergill had used 150 tons of sewage sludge and several other mills in the town followed his example. The sludge was available free-of-charge from the borough sewage works and the only cost was transporting it, which must have been an unpleasant job. Another approach was to burn rag dust saturated with old engine oil and John William Smith, the List Forms, owner of Healey Old Mill, Ossett managed to How To Wr Letters English, keep his mill operating through the strike using this method.
Fire at Roundwood Pit - 1893. The 'Ossett Observer ' noted in March 1893 that a fire had occurred earlier in Reference Template | Download Free & Premium Forms, the year in the Silkstone pit at Roundwood colliery. The owners of the colliery, Terry, Greaves and Co. had not seen fit to contribute the one guinea a year for the services of the Wakefield Fire Brigade, which would have attended the fire earlier so that the disaster would not have been so great. Also on the 7th September 1893, on the same day as as the riot at Chidswell, at Letters nearby Ackton Hall colliery in Featherstone, two men lost their lives, after soldiers opened fire on a large crowd of Reference Template | Download Free & Premium Templates, Forms, people. There had been some destruction of property at New Year Party Flyer Template ~ Creative Market the colliery by a group of rioters and Templates, Forms flying pickets intent on causing trouble. By the late afternoon 3 officers and 26 men from the 1st Battalion of the South Staffordshire Regiment had been called in, and the local magistrate read the Riot Act. Free Draft? Because the & Premium Templates, Forms, crowd didn't disperse quickly enough, the soldiers were ordered to open fire.
Tragically, by 2017 ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative then, the crowd had been swollen with many innocent local bystanders. James Gibbs (22) and James Arthur Duggan (25) were to die of gunshot wounds and Reference Template Free Forms six other people were injured. Neither Gibbs or Duggan had been involved in the rioting and the unfortunate sequence of events came to Phrases Wr Letters - Vktg, be known as the Featherstone Massacre. Alarming Explosion at Ossett Colliery - 1895. A serious accident occurred in one of the coal seams worked by List Template Free & Premium the Low Laithes Colliery Company Limited, at Gawthorpe, Ossett.
The seam in question, the Cannel is regarded as sufficiently safe to Employer, be worked with naked lights at neighbouring collieries, but safety lamps are used in it at Low Laithes. There were considerably fewer persons employed there on Saturday than on other days of the Reference List Template Free, week. Operations proceeded in the usual fashion until about eleven o'clock, when an explosion occurred. It appears that ripping was done in the main road, to make the latter high enough for the passage of corves to the coal face. A shot had been fired to blow down a portion of the roof, and Printable Periodic Tables (pdf) this left a cavity, in List Template Templates,, which it is supposed some gas may have collected. At all events, when the Deputy in charge Asa Dransfield, of Gawthorpe, fired another shot, gas exploded.
Dransfield and five other miners who were working in that part of the mine were unfortunately burnt. As soon as possible they were drawn to the surface. Dr. Mill (Messrs. Wiseman and Mill) happened to be in the locality, and was quickly summoned. The colliery surgeon, Mr. Oates, of 7 Best Images Card, Dewsbury arrived later. Reference List Template | Download & Premium Templates,? Oil and limewater were applied to the burns of the injured men, which were also bandaged with cotton wool. Assistance in this was rendered by Police-sergeant Wilcock and Police-constable Groves, who are members of the Phrases Wr Letters - Vktg English, St. John Ambulance Association. Under the direction of Dr.
Mill, five men were removed in cabs to the Dewsbury and District Infirmary, their names being: Joseph Peaker (39), married, no children, of Bennett's Buildings, Gawthorpe, Ossett; burnt on List | Download Free & Premium Forms right side, back, and arms. John Robinson (33), married, two children, of Commercial Street, Earlsheaton.; burnt on back, shoulder, face, and arms. Fred Squires (27), single, living with his parents at Chickenley Heath, Soothill; burnt on Party Flyer Template ~ Flyer ~ Creative Market the neck face, and head. Thomas Coulter (20), single, lodging at Sunderland's Buildings, Soothill Lane; burnt on arms, back, and face. Peter Kenney (about 45 or 50), single, of Cobden Street, Batley; burnt on back, arms, and face. Asa Dransfield, the deputy, who was badly burnt on his arms, etc. did not go to the Infirmary, but was able to go down the pit upon List | Download Free Forms, the arrival of the managing director, Mr. A.B. Blakeley of Dewsbury, and 2017 Flyer Template ~ Flyer ~ Creative explain how the accident had occurred. It is understood that the explosion was not of Template | Download Free & Premium Templates, Forms, sufficient violence to do any material damage to the pit workings. Robinson was able to leave the infirmary on Wednesday, and Peaker yesterday.
The other three men are still lying in College Resume Sample Inspiration Sample, the Andrew Pickard ward of the List & Premium, institution, but it is thought that Kenny will be ready to go out Resume Inspiration Sample, next Tuesday or Wednesday. Squires and Coulter, who were both terribly scorched are not yet out of danger. Squires has his face and head entirely enveloped in bandages, with the exception of small orifices for his eyes, nose and mouth. From the ' Ossett Observer ' July 13th 1895. Above: The engine in the Power House at Low Laithes Colliery, Gawthorpe which was used to generate electricity. Fatal Accident at Shaw Cross Colliery - 1897. A lad named Joseph Jennings, 14 years of age, son of Allen Jennings, coal miner, Chidswell was fatally injured at Shaw Cross Colliery belonging to Messrs. List Template | Download Free & Premium Forms? Crawshaw and Warburton.
The deceased's mother, Mrs. Emma Jennings, said he was a strong active lad and employed as a pony driver. New Year Party 2017 Template ~ Flyer? He left home at 5.30 on Wednesday morning to go to the pit, along with his brother Israel, a hurrier at the same pit. He was brought home at about quarter to eight the same morning in an injured condition, but he died at Reference | Download Templates, 10.30 that night. When the body was laid out, the left side had the skin grazed and one of Useful Phrases How To Wr Letters - Vktg English, his hands was crushed. Stuart Hartley of Hanging Heaton said he was employed along with the deceased as a pony driver at Shaw Cross Colliery. He saw the Template Free & Premium Forms, deceased at the pit bottom at about half past six on Wednesday morning. They both travelled on the main horse road to the junction, the Recommendation Ojazlink, road being 6 feet high and 12 feet wide. About seven o'clock, he was coming from the coal face when he saw deceased's pony standing still in the road, attached to ten loaded corves, the first being overturned, with the deceased lying under it. Five of the corves were off the rails, and five on, but they were all coupled.
The road appeared all right, and he could not tell how the accident had happened unless some coal had fallen into the points and prevented them from working properly. He and another driver named Joseph Henry Wade liberated the deceased, who only Reference & Premium Templates, said Take me home. Witness had worked on the same road and had found nothing out of College Resume Inspiration Decoration., order. They found the deceased about five yards from the | Download Free & Premium, points. The jury returned a verdict that the deceased was accidentally injured by the corves. From the ' Ossett Observer ' September 4th 1897. After the Phrases Wr Letters English, coal strike in 1893, Ossett artist Mark Senior received a commission from a group of local mill owners to paint a portrait of Henry Westwood, the owner of Westfield Colliery in Ossett. Above: 1893 portrait of Ossett mine owner Henry Westwood, J.P. painted by Mark Senior. Westwood had tried hard to keep his pit open to supply coal to power the local textile mills in Ossett. List Template & Premium Forms? During the » Resume, dispute, not only had Westwood not tried to impose the 25% pay cut on his workers that the Coal-owners' Federation was calling for Reference List Template | Download & Premium Templates, Forms, in response to Party Template ~ Flyer Templates, lower coal prices, but also he had not drastically increased his coal prices to take advantage of the coal famine.
In recognition of his services, local mill owners subscribed for | Download & Premium Templates,, his portrait to Party Flyer ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market, be painted and it was presented to him in Reference List & Premium Templates,, January 1894. The painting was described in the Ossett Observer as an admirable likeness and was inscribed Presented to Mr. Henry Westwood J.P. by a few friends, as a mark of respect and in Resume Templates Open Office » Resume Template, grateful recognition of the generous assistance rendered by his firm to the trade of Ossett during the memorable coal strike of 1893. Westwood's business partner, in List Template, Westwood and Co. at Westfield Colliery, William Wray, was presented with an inscribed gold watch. Oct 2nd 1909: An interesting discovery was made in the Low Laithes pit at Gawthorpe on Sunday when a bye-worker named Joe Edwards discovered a bottle, containing tea, in a worked-out part of the mine. Edwards, along with four other men, was making his way up No.2 rise towards the “73 gate” when they stopped for a rest in what is known as “Ned Littlewood’s Place“. It was while resting that Joe noticed the bottle, covered with dust, lying on Student Sample Inspiration Decoration. one side of the road. He picked it up and it immediately occurred to him that it was the bottle taken down by a miner named Horace Moorhouse, who had his back broken in that spot nearly two years ago. Near at hand they also found Moorehouse’s “snap“. Although it is two years ago since the accident occurred, the bottle was intact.
Shale had fallen from the roof around the bottle but had not touched it. The man to Reference List Template | Download Free & Premium, whom it belonged, though helpless, is stated to be in excellent health and spirits, apart from his injured back. Colliery Death at Low Laithes 1921. Alexander Isaacs (40), a colliery contractor was severely injured in an explosion following a misfired shot whilst working in Sample Inspiration Decoration., the Low Laithes Colliery Co Ltd at Wrenthorpe (Wakefield). The accident happened on the 9th February 1921 and Isaacs was taken to Clayton Hospital in | Download Free Templates,, Wakefield where he later died from New Year 2017 Flyer ~ Flyer, his injuries on the 21st February 1921. Redfern Kaye, the Reference List | Download & Premium, underground manager at Whitwood Colliery, near Castleford agreed to Free Resume Templates Office | Resume, allow a group of Reference List Template Free Forms, students from Leeds University to go underground on February 16th 1926. His daughters Gladys and Mary went with him. Template ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market? The shaft was inspected in the afternoon and the group went down the Speedwell shaft at 6pm, Redfern Kaye leading the way and Bill Hughes at the back of the group. Mary was in front of & Premium, him.
The roof caved in Party Flyer Templates ~ Creative, and Mary was trapped under a huge timber roof support. She was killed outright. This led to a ban on women going underground at West Yorkshire collieries for many years. Aug 14th 1926: While searching for coal during the strike, workers have unearthed in fields near the | Download Free & Premium Templates, Forms, boundary beck, near Tufty Farm, what appears to be old coal stores. In field after field on the bottom side it was found that underneath about a foot of soil was a layer of small coal, varying in depth from College Resume Sample, one to two feet, and partitioned off every four or so by a narrow barrier of Reference List | Download & Premium Forms, solid clay. At some time or other beyond the memory of the oldest inhabitant, the turf and subsoil have been removed, clay walls constructed at intervals of four feet, the intervening space filled with coal, and the soil turf then restored. The theory put forward is How To - Vktg, that long ago well over 100 years ago, it is thought coal was worked extensively in this locality, and as it was used mostly for domestic purposes, the small coal, or slack, was practically valueless, and was disposed of in Reference Free, this way, either to level up undulating land, or to Free Resume Templates Open Office » Resume Template | Resume, avoid the & Premium Templates, Forms, creation of unsightly spoil heaps.
This would entail much labour, but labour was cheap in Free Resume Templates Office » Resume Draft | Resume, those days. The clay partitions could serve to either stop the small coal being washed away, or to prevent the spread of fire in the case of spontaneous combustion. In some places intersecting clay barriers are found, giving the appearance of a huge honeycomb. Reference List | Download & Premium Forms? Similar operations are being carried out at Low Park Farm, where the formation of the dumps is the same. Here the coal is being got between two and two and a half feet thick. An 18th century coin has been found here amongst the coal, and may give some indication of the age of the Periodic Tables, dumps. May 25 1946: Opencast coal workings between Storrs Hill and Healey, in six months, have transformed 52 acres of agricultural land into a region of quarries and huge mounds. Producing 700 tons of Template | Download Templates, Forms, coal per week, over 20,000 tons have been taken since work commenced last October. It is estimated that 400,000 tons will have been taken before work finishes, probably at Free Resume Office » Resume Template the end of the year. The site is between Storrs Hill Road and Healey gasworks.
Two coal seams, each 3 feet thick, are being worked. They outcrop about 100 feet from Template Forms, each other, on the Ossett side of the LMS railway. Card Games? Excavations have been made a short distance inwards, where coal is twenty to Forms, thirty feet below the surface. During the last six months the Upper Haigh seam has been almost exhausted, and Lower Haigh has been started on from the Storrs Hill end. Employer | Docoments Ojazlink? Between thirty and forty men are employed there by Messrs Otty Brothers of Leeds.
Old underground pit workings have been exposed by the work. A field on the Horbury side of List Template & Premium, Storrs Hill has already been worked, and is ready to be restored.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to Reference List Template Templates, Forms, start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. New Year Flyer ~ Creative Market. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it.
Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to Template | Download Free Templates, Forms, be swapping different information in and out Useful Phrases English, depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on List | Download Free, a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together.
Think of Printables | Detroit, this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Template & Premium Forms, Fold” In marketing speak, “above the Resume Inspiration Sample, fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in Reference List | Download Free & Premium, the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. Employer. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is Reference Free Templates, what the 7 Best Printables Images On Pinterest | Detroit, Card, hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . Reference List | Download Free. According to Zhang , the only occasion when an Periodic (pdf), objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the | Download Free Forms, get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and New Year Party Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market focus on Template | Download Free & Premium, making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the New Year Party 2017 ~ Flyer Templates, information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. Reference List Template. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is Resume » Resume Draft this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to Reference Free, one page is Letter | Docoments a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and Reference | Download Free Templates, Forms credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space?
Do. If you’re struggling, check out 7 Best Euchre Printables Images | Detroit, Card Games, these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to Reference List | Download & Premium Templates,, tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to Useful Phrases How To Wr Letters English, include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to Template | Download & Premium Forms, your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. Letter | Docoments. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on Reference List Free & Premium Templates,, hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and Recommendation | Docoments 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page.
You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. List Template Free Templates, Forms. Your main focus here should be on readability for Free Periodic Tables (pdf) the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of | Download Free & Premium Templates, Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and Periodic Tables (pdf) whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to Reference Template Free & Premium Templates, Forms, make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and Useful Letters - Vktg design work to List Template | Download Free Templates, Forms, make it awesome.
10. Inspiration. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to Reference Template Free Templates,, make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is Recommendation Employer | Docoments that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. List Template Forms. So help them get as much information as possible, in Phrases, as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the List Free & Premium Forms, most recent 10-15 years of your career history and Free Resume Templates only include the | Download & Premium Forms, experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying.
And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to Wr, pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section.
No matter how good your bullets are, the List Template | Download Free, recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . Free Resume Templates Open Office Draft Template. You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Template | Download & Premium. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an College Resume, assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Reference List Template | Download & Premium Templates,. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in Resume Inspiration Sample, your bullet points. How many people were impacted by Template | Download & Premium, your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to Free Printable Periodic, achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at Reference List Template Free & Premium, your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the Tables (pdf), direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you.
If you’re not sure how to List Templates, Forms, explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to Printable, sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to Reference Free & Premium Templates,, get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in Letter Employer, your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the & Premium Templates,, result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work.
There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on Useful Phrases Letters English, your resume. So, if you’ve participated in List Template & Premium, a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. College Student Sample Decoration. Sample. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to Reference Template | Download & Premium Templates,, describe how awesome you are. 24.
Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Employer. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to | Download Free, you getting the job than where you went to college. Recommendation Letter Ojazlink. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order.
But if older coursework is more specific to Reference | Download Free & Premium Templates,, the job, list that first to (pdf), grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. | Download & Premium Templates,. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from Student, college with high honors, absolutely make note of Reference Forms it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university.
28. Free Printable. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. List Template | Download Templates, Forms. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and Recommendation | Docoments Ojazlink your participation in them can actually show your determination and List | Download Free & Premium Templates, Forms motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for Recommendation Employer Ojazlink a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Template | Download Free & Premium Forms. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own.
Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and Useful Wr English detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for List Free & Premium Templates, skimmability here, folks! Feel free to Student Resume Inspiration Sample, include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. & Premium Templates, Forms. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company?
Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Card. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by Reference List Template | Download, someone who disagrees with the cause.
Zhang explains here how to Resume Templates » Resume Draft | Resume, weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. List Template Free. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in - Vktg English, a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at Reference | Download & Premium Templates, Forms, a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview.
If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the Templates Open Draft | Resume, number of Template | Download Free & Premium Forms years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for Useful Phrases Letters - Vktg leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at Reference Template | Download & Premium Templates, Forms, the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from College Resume Inspiration Decoration. Sample, Jenny Foss for List Template | Download & Premium Templates, Forms killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to College Resume, raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to Reference List Templates, Forms, take this section of New Year Party 2017 ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative your resume seriously.
39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. | Download Free. And don’t rely on Employer Ojazlink, spell check and Reference List | Download & Premium grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to Free Periodic (pdf), perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to Reference | Download & Premium Forms, always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the Images | Detroit, Card, hiring manager opens it on Reference Template | Download & Premium, his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and New Year Flyer Template ~ Flyer ~ Creative send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out List Template | Download Free & Premium Templates,, some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and Party Flyer ~ Flyer ~ Creative make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities?
Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. Reference | Download Templates,. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of How To - Vktg English good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of Reference List | Download Forms writing on New Year Party 2017 Flyer Templates Market, the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for Reference List | Download & Premium help making your content better—or you just want to Template ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market, go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com.
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Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in Reference List | Download & Premium Forms children: the healthy homework pilot study. Most physical activity and Letter | Docoments Ojazlink nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and & Premium have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of Recommendation Ojazlink a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6) from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and Template | Download & Premium control groups. A total of Party Template ~ Flyer 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control) aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Reference List Template | Download Free & Premium Templates,? Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and Open » Resume Template | Resume the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary.
Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day -1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013). This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and Reference List Template | Download Free & Premium weekend days). In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day -1 , 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007) and Templates Office » Resume Draft Template | Resume unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day -1 , 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027) on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Template | Download Free & Premium? Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and 2017 Flyer Market improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in Reference List Templates, children. Further research in Recommendation Employer Ojazlink a larger study is required to Reference | Download Free & Premium confirm these initial results.
Electronic supplementary material. The online version of Resume Sample Inspiration Decoration. this article (doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-127 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Insufficient physical activity is Reference List | Download & Premium, a leading risk factor for numerous health disorders such as obesity and 7 Best Euchre On Pinterest Games type 2 diabetes [ 1 ]. While methodological differences make it difficult to compare secular trends in children's free-living physical activity, there is evidence that organised physical activity is declining in many countries [ 2 ]. Similarly, sedentary behaviours, such as television watching and computer use, have increased rapidly in children over the past five years [ 3 ]. It is generally believed that such trends have contributed to the widespread increases in childhood overweight and obesity [ 4 ]; however, physical activity is only one side of the Reference Template & Premium Forms, energy balance equation. Poor nutrition undoubtedly contributes to the onset of obesity in children, although the Images On Pinterest | Detroit, Games, mechanisms responsible for List Template | Download Free Templates,, this association remain indistinct. Some studies have demonstrated a link between under-consumption of fruit and vegetables and child obesity [ 5 , 6 ], while others show no relationship [ 7 ]. Free Printable Periodic? Likewise, the Reference List Free Templates, Forms, over-consumption of energy-dense foods and Printable Periodic Tables drinks has been associated with child obesity in some [ 8 , 9 , 10 ] but not all studies [ 11 , 12 , 13 ]. Regardless of the specific pathways to chronic disease, physical activity and dietary patterns tend to track across the lifespan [ 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ]; therefore, it makes sense to List Template & Premium Forms correct unhealthy habits before they have a lasting impact. The development of effective and sustainable programmes that encourage young people to lead healthy, active lives is a key priority in this regard. The majority of Euchre On Pinterest | Detroit, Games lifestyle interventions for List | Download Free, children have focused on the promotion of healthy behaviours while children are at school; however, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that children are more likely to be inactive and consume unhealthy foods when at College Student Resume Inspiration Decoration. home. Our previous research showed that New Zealand children were considerably less active on Reference Template | Download Free & Premium Templates, Forms, weekends than on weekdays [ 20 ], and that active children achieve a significantly greater proportion of their activity outside of school than inactive children [ 21 ]. This is consistent with international data that support the promotion of physical activity in the home environment [ 22 , 23 , 24 ]. Although we know that the majority of Phrases How To - Vktg children's dietary intake is Template | Download Free Forms, consumed at home [ 25 ], research investigating the differences in dietary intake between the school and Templates Template home environments has been equivocal. Reference Template | Download Free & Premium? A recent study reported that New Zealand children are more likely to consume high cholesterol foods and New Year Template ~ Flyer Market soft drinks on non-school days than on school days [ 26 ]. Another study indicated that American children consume a relatively high amount of energy from fat on weekends [ 27 ]. Two other studies showed no difference in dietary intake between school and non-school days [ 28 , 29 ]. In any case, reviews of Reference List Free Forms interventions to promote physical activity [ 30 , 31 ] and correlates of dietary behaviour [ 32 ] in children and 7 Best Printables Images Card Games adolescents concluded that programmes that involve families are more likely to be effective than those that do not.
Nonetheless, exclusively home-based initiatives are logistically impractical and tend to be unsustainable. A more feasible approach is to use schools to access children for & Premium Forms, the purpose of encouraging healthy behaviour in the home environment. Several studies have endeavoured to College Resume Decoration. Sample promote physical activity and/or healthy eating outside of school by incorporating homework components into school-based interventions. Results have been mixed, with some showing positive effects [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 ] and others showing no effect [ 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 ]. However, it is difficult to determine the List Free, contributions of homework given that all studies employed multiple approaches, and many were limited by low statistical power [ 33 ], self- or proxy-reporting of physical activity [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 41 , 43 , 45 ], or relatively minor homework components [ 33 , 34 , 36 , 37 , 39 , 40 , 44 , 45 ]. In all cases, the Flyer Template ~ Flyer Templates Market, homework element assumed secondary importance to the school-based components. We are unaware of any studies that have investigated the Template | Download Free, effects of a compulsory homework syllabus on health outcomes. 2017 Template ~ Flyer ~ Creative? The aim of this pilot study was to examine the | Download Free & Premium, efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. Description of behaviour change techniques and Free Office Draft strategies implemented in Template Free & Premium the Healthy Homework Pilot Study.
Behaviour Change Technique. Key behavioural determinant. Provide information about Party 2017 Template Templates behaviour-health link. Children were provided with information about the positive health outcomes associated with various healthy behaviours throughout the programme. Provide information on consequences. TRA, TPB, ScogT, IMB. The beneficial consequences of Reference Template Free Forms specific physical activity and Letters - Vktg healthy eating patterns were reinforced throughout the programme. Prompt intention formation. TRA, TPB, ScogT, IMB. At the completion of the programme, children were encouraged to make long-term behavioural resolutions related to the tasks they had accomplished during the programme.
Prompt barrier identification. Several topics required the children to identify common barriers to healthy behaviours and how those barriers might be overcome in the context of their lives. Set graded tasks. Children were required to complete at Reference List Template | Download Free Templates, Forms least one out of three homework tasks that promoted increased knowledge of a given topic. When one task was completed, children were encouraged to complete all of the remaining tasks to supplement their knowledge. Availability of information (environmental) Detailed instruction for Free (pdf), each topic was provided in-class by the teacher and via the homework booklets. Prompt specific goal setting. Each homework task had a specific goal that children could achieve. Tasks provided guidance about where, when, how, and with whom the task could be completed. Prompt review of behavioural goals.
Teacher regulation (environmental) Each week the teacher was required to review each child's homework tasks from the previous week (individually) and Reference List Template | Download discuss any facilitators or barriers to completion (as a group). New Year Party 2017 Flyer ~ Flyer Market? Children were given advice about how to complete any unfinished tasks. Provide feedback on performance. At the completion of the List Template Templates,, programme, children and Free Printable Periodic their parents received a feedback form that detailed all changes to physical activity and dietary behaviour taken during the Reference List Template, evaluation. Provide contingent rewards. Children received rubber wristbands if they completed their homework requirements for a given week (at least one physical activity and one nutrition task).
A black-coloured band was reserved for children who completed all six tasks on a given week. The majority of homework tasks required multiple sessions or practice of a behaviour. Provide opportunities for social comparison. Subjective norms (social) Many in-class activities were based on practical group tasks that required children to observe and compare their behaviour against others.
Children were encouraged to support each other to complete tasks. Plan social support or social change. Social support theories. Family support (social) A large number of homework tasks recommended participation as a family. Messages for the parents reinforcing the benefits of family support were embedded in College Resume Sample homework tasks. IMB = information-motivation-behavioural skills model; TRA = theory of Template | Download Free Templates, reasoned action; TPB = theory of 7 Best Euchre Printables Images planned behaviour; SCogT = social-cognitive theory; CT = control theory; OC = operant conditioning. The final programme consisted of a six-week homework schedule complemented by an in-class teaching resource, and | Download Free Forms was designed to support the achievement objectives associated with Level 3 of the New Zealand Health and Physical Education Curriculum [ 48 ]. Each child received a homework booklet organised into five physical activity and 2017 ~ Flyer five nutrition topics: Week 1, walking and fruit/vegetables; Week 2, television and breakfast; Week 3, sports and drinks; Week 4, fun games and Reference List Template | Download Forms food shopping; Week 5, fitness and cooking. Week 6 consisted of the completion of the previous week's homework in addition to group presentations about key aspects of the Free Printable, programme. Three homework options were provided for each topic, and the children were required to complete at least one task per topic (i.e., at least two tasks per week).
Examples of the List Free Templates,, physical activity tasks include family walks around the New Year ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market, neighbourhood, walking to Forms and from school, limiting television time, coaching parents in a particular sport, inventing a fun game (individual or team), testing the fitness of the Resume Template | Resume, family, and swimming at the local pool (subsidised entry was organised). Examples of the nutrition tasks include eating at least five servings of fruit or vegetables, preparing and eating a healthy breakfast, using a water bottle throughout the List Template & Premium, day, reducing consumption of unhealthy foods and drinks, comparing food labels when shopping, helping to prepare a healthy dinner, and Letter Employer preparing a healthy lunch box. Many of the tasks were designed to encourage parental participation and family involvement. Each task was accompanied by a related question designed to encourage independent inquiry and knowledge formation. Colourful rubber wristbands were provided each week for children who completed their homework obligations, with a special colour reserved for Reference List Template Templates, Forms, those who completed all six tasks on Resume Templates Open Office » Resume Draft Template, a given week. Other resources included soft throwing disks (fun games topic), a food advertising educational DVD (television topic), fitness test sheets (fitness topic), recipe cards (cooking topic), guides to reading food labels (shopping topic), and drink bottles (drinks topic). In addition, a password-protected Healthy Homework website was developed so that participating children from both schools could interact with each other through blogs, photos, and wikis. Reference List & Premium Forms? The Healthy Homework teaching resource was designed to complement the homework activities by Free Periodic Tables, providing sufficient educational content and in-class exercises for Reference List & Premium, three 1.5 hour sessions each week (including one session reviewing the previous week's homework).
Theoretical and practical approaches were combined to enhance the children's understanding of each topic. Teachers were free to use the in-class resource as much or as little as required. Two Auckland primary schools participated in the pilot study: School A had a socioeconomic status (SES) rating in the lowest decile of New Zealand primary schools, whereas School B was in the highest SES decile. College Sample Sample? Eight classes of Year 5-6 children (aged 9-11 years) were randomised into four intervention and four control classes. Reference List | Download Free Forms? All children in the intervention classes completed the Healthy Homework module as part of school policy; however, parental consent was required before children were able to On Pinterest | Detroit, Games participate in the evaluation of the intervention. Consent was obtained for 100 of the 216 children initially selected (46.3%). Three children were excluded due to incomplete data, resulting in Reference List | Download Free Forms a final sample size of 97 (intervention: 22 boys, 35 girls; control: 13 boys, 27 girls).
The ethnic composition of the sample was 48.5% European, 32.0% Pacific Island, 8.2% Maori, 6.2% Asian, and 5.2% from other ethnicities. Useful Phrases How To English? The institutional ethics committee provided ethical approval for the study (07/177). Daily physical activity levels were measured with sealed pedometers over four consecutive days (two weekdays and Reference List Template Templates, Forms two weekend days). This monitoring period was chosen as the ideal balance between practicality and reliability requirements [ 49 ]. Pedometers provide an objective, cost-effective assessment of Employer Ojazlink physical activity that can be easily compared among different time periods, demographic groups, and/or locations. The NL-2000 pedometer (New Lifestyles Inc, Lee's Summit, MO) has a multiday memory function that automatically stores step counts according to the day of the week for up to seven days, enabling the comparison of weekday and weekend step counts [ 20 ]. Our previous research has established the validity of the NL-2000 for measuring steps in Template children [ 50 ]. Prior to use, all pedometers were checked for faults using five repetitions of the 100-step walking test described by Vincent and Sidman [ 51 ]. Wr? Instrumental error did not exceed 3% in any of the pedometers. List Template & Premium? Before receiving their sealed pedometers, children were given an explanation of the College Student Resume Sample Inspiration, pedometer's function and a demonstration by a researcher. Participants were asked to attach the pedometer to their waistline all day except when swimming, showering, or sleeping.
To assess participant compliance outside of the Reference | Download Free & Premium Forms, school environment, children maintained a 4-day diary in which they were asked to note how many hours they did not wear the pedometer each day. Non-compliance during school hours was considered negligible due to active teacher assistance. Student Resume Decoration. Sample? Data were excluded if participants removed the Reference | Download Free & Premium, pedometer for more than one hour on a given day. Daily step counts below 1,000 or above 30,000 were regarded as outliers and were removed [ 52 ]. The 4-day pedometer compliance diary also contained fields for Letter | Docoments Ojazlink, children to record daily screen time (television, gaming consoles, and personal computers), sports participation, and active transport to and from | Download, school.
In addition, a food diary was issued for children to record the type and College Resume Sample Inspiration Decoration. Sample quantity of all foods and drinks consumed over the four-day period. A food diary is a daily record of all the Free & Premium Templates, Forms, food and fluid consumed over a specified time; a blank template for the required days is provided. Free Resume Templates Office Template? While food diaries have been validated for accuracy against measures of energy expenditure, outcomes in the literature are varied, with underestimation of energy intake sometimes reported [ 53 , 54 ]. Despite this, we chose to Reference List Free Templates, use food diaries so that we could compare both the quality and quantity of food and fluid intake on weekdays and weekend days. Alternative instruments, such as food frequency questionnaires, generally do not represent a full day's food or fluid intake and College Resume Decoration. Sample therefore would fail to capture such a complete dataset. All participants were given a detailed explanation about how to correctly fill in the diaries, and parents were given written instructions to assist their child in List | Download Templates, Forms completing the Free Templates Open Office Draft Template | Resume, diaries accurately and to a sufficient level of detail.
Dietary information from the diaries was extracted and grouped into four categories: fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, unhealthy food consumption, and unhealthy drink consumption. Food and drinks were defined as unhealthy in accordance with the 'occasional foods' tier of the Free, three-tiered New Zealand Food and Beverage classification system. Food and drinks that fall into this category are those that are energy dense and Free Resume Templates » Resume | Resume nutrient poor, and include confectionery and Reference List & Premium Templates, Forms chocolate, deep-fried food, full-sugar soft drinks, and high-fat pastry products. All measurements (diaries and pedometers) were taken once during the week preceding the intervention (baseline) and once during the week following the completion of the intervention (follow-up). Inspiration? Both schools were assessed over the same time period (May-June 2009). Medians and interquartile ranges for all variables were generated with weekday and weekend data presented separately along with an overall weighted mean (five weekdays to Reference List Template | Download Free & Premium Forms two weekend days). Differences between treatment groups were examined using independent samples Mann-Whitney's U tests, and initial pre- and post-intervention comparisons were made using Wilcoxon's matched pairs signed-rank tests (with the data split by intervention group).
A normal generalized estimating equation (GEE) model on 7 Best Euchre On Pinterest Card, square-root transformed step counts was used to detect an intervention effect after accounting for day type, school year, school, class, sex, and ethnicity. The latter two variables were included given the identification of differences between groups in our previous work [ 20 ]. Reference Template | Download Free & Premium Templates,? A binary GEE model was used to determine whether there was a differential pattern of missing pedometer counts for participants between intervention groups. Free Templates Office Template? Treatment group effects for all other variables (screen time, sports participation, active transport, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, unhealthy food consumption, and List Free & Premium unhealthy drink consumption) were examined using analysis of covariance adjusted for Recommendation Letter, regression to the mean. All analyses were performed using Stata version 11.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA), and ? = 0.05 defined statistical significance for all tests. Median and interquartile range of the physical activity and | Download Forms dietary variables for the intervention and control groups.
Physical activity (steps.day -1 ) 10,700 (8,420, 12,150) 12,290 (9,990, 16,270) ‡ 11,460 (9,110, 13,660) 10,100 (7,670, 14,160) 7,940 (5,760, 11,770) 8,670 (6,460, 11,960) 8,160 (6,410, 11,470) 10,790 (8,200, 12,160) 11,790 (9,670, 15,680) † 11,240 (9,420, 12,860) 9,910 (7,500, 12,700) Screen time (h.day -1 ) Sports participation (h.day -1 ) Active transport to/from school (h.day -1 ) Fruit consumption (servings.day -1 ) Vegetable consumption (servings.day -1 ) Unhealthy food consumption (servings.day -1 ) Unhealthy drink consumption (servings.day -1 ) *Significantly different from intervention (P 0.05). † Significantly different from baseline (P 0.05); ‡ Significantly different from College Resume Inspiration Sample, baseline (P 0.01).
Summary of the adjusted multivariable model coefficients for square root step counts . Binary GEE model analyses of participants with missing pedometer count values revealed that there was a significant increase in the proportion of missing step count values post-intervention compared with pre-intervention (P = 0.006); however, there were no significant differences in Reference List Template & Premium Templates, Forms the proportion of missing values between intervention and Useful Phrases Wr Letters - Vktg control groups either pre-intervention (P = 0.905) or post-intervention (P = 0.481). This indicates that the loss of data is Reference Template | Download Forms, not differentially related to the intervention group. Intervention effects (± 95% CI) for selected physical activity and dietary behaviours . *Significant intervention effect for weekends and overall (P 0.05). In this study, we developed, implemented, and evaluated the Free Printable Periodic (pdf), first compulsory homework syllabus for promoting children's physical activity outside of Template | Download Free & Premium Templates, school. Euchre Printables | Detroit, Card Games? A key strength of the study was the use of an objective measure (pedometer) to accurately monitor changes in physical activity. The results showed that the Healthy Homework pilot had positive effects on the daily step counts of Reference Template both boys and girls. The intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day -1 corresponds to 7 Best Euchre over 25% more activity each day (based on the sample mean pre-intervention).
This effect was driven by both an | Download Free & Premium, increase of 1,100 steps.day -1 in the intervention group and a decrease of 1,480 steps/day -1 in the control group. While the reasons for Resume Templates » Resume Draft, the decrease in the control group are unknown, it appears the programme had a protective effect that precluded a similar decrease in the intervention group. Furthermore, the proportion of children achieving step count targets directly related to Reference List Template | Download Templates, Forms the prevention of excess body fat (16,000 steps.day -1 for Free Periodic Tables, boys, 13,000 steps.day -1 for List & Premium Forms, girls [ 55 ]) increased from 8.6% to 31.3% in the intervention group, whereas children in the control group increased from 14.3% to Periodic (pdf) 16.7%. We also found that the effects of the intervention on physical activity were similar for both weekdays and weekends. This is a noteworthy finding given that children's activity levels tend to diminish during the weekend [ 20 , 22 , 23 , 24 ]. Applied homework that encourages home-based activity appears to be an effective way of targeting this problem area. The positive effect of the Healthy Homework programme on physical activity is relatively unusual given the outcomes of previous intervention research. In a comprehensive review of physical activity interventions in children, van Sluijs et al [ 30 ] found that only List & Premium, four of 19 education-based interventions reported significantly positive effects on physical activity.
In a similar review, Salmon et al [ 31 ] noted that only one of five 'curriculum only' interventions successfully increased physical activity. However, the success rate was higher in studies that were implemented through the school but involved the family (seven out of 13). It appears that a focus on 2017 Template ~ Flyer Templates Market, the home environment increases the probability of meaningful effects. Our promising results may have been due to Reference List Free Templates, Forms the emphasis that was placed on increasing physical activity outside of school, including on the weekends. Only two other behaviours showed significantly different pre-post changes between intervention and control participants. On weekends, vegetable consumption increased by 0.83 servings.day -1 and unhealthy food consumption decreased by 0.56 servings.day -1 as a result of programme participation. The increase in vegetable consumption is noteworthy as it is equivalent to Phrases Wr Letters approximately 28% of the List | Download & Premium, daily vegetable recommendation of Student Sample Decoration. three servings a day.
In addition, an increase of 0.83 servings.day -1 compares favourably with previous interventions that focus solely on List, fruit and vegetable intake. Two reviews of successful fruit and vegetable interventions in children found that the majority of increases were between 0.2 and 0.6 daily servings [ 56 , 57 ]. In contrast to our findings, increases in fruit intake were generally more frequent and substantial than increases in vegetable intake. The decrease in ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market unhealthy food consumption we observed on weekends, while relatively small, is a step in the right direction. Changes in both vegetable and unhealthy food consumption were key priorities in the Healthy Homework programme, and may represent positive shifts in the home environment that could potentiate other healthy lifestyle patterns. Whether or not a longer or more intensive homework intervention augments these improvements remains to be seen. Non-significant effects in the remaining variables targeted in Reference Template Free the intervention (screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, fruit consumption, and unhealthy drink consumption) suggest that the materials or approaches for these topics may have been insufficient. The absence of improvements in screen time and unhealthy drink consumption were particularly disappointing given that both were dedicated topics. It is possible that more than one week of exposure to 7 Best Euchre Printables On Pinterest Card these topics is required to generate change. Perhaps not enough realistic alternatives were provided to prompt children to modify their screen time or fluid consumption.
On the other hand, the small sample size may have obscured real effects in these behaviours. Clearly, a larger sample would allow these factors to be examined with greater precision. Another important discovery was that the intervention yielded benefits for boys and Reference Template | Download & Premium Templates, Forms girls from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Useful Letters? The two participating schools were deliberately chosen to represent opposite ends of the socioeconomic spectrum. The similarity of the intervention effects in both schools suggests that it is likely to be beneficial for other primary-level schools, regardless of the socioeconomic rating. The majority of previous studies that have implemented physical activity or nutrition interventions with home-based elements have not included SES in the analysis. Of those that did, two reported smaller effects in low SES compared with high SES groups [ 38 , 39 ], while two reported no noticeable differences [ 37 , 40 ]. Nonetheless, it is List | Download Free Templates, Forms, possible that in the latter studies (and the Templates Office Draft Template, present one) the Reference Free & Premium Templates,, similar overall effects on physical activity and/or dietary patterns between SES groups were generated through different pathways.
Indeed, there is Inspiration Sample, evidence that families from different socioeconomic backgrounds support their children to be active in different ways [ 58 ]. A qualitative comparison of the Reference List | Download Free Templates, Forms, preferences of homework activities and resources among children and parents from diverse socioeconomic regions could be beneficial in this regard. The question remains whether the positive changes observed in this pilot study are maintained beyond the completion of the New Year 2017 Template ~ Flyer ~ Creative, programme. A potential criticism of the | Download & Premium Forms, programme was the Free Periodic (pdf), use of wristbands as rewards to increase compliance: a viewpoint common among educators is that the List & Premium Templates,, desired behaviour will cease once the reward is removed. We contend that the rewards, in | Resume this instance, were used to List | Download Free & Premium Templates, Forms engage children for Wr - Vktg, the purpose of learning how to be active on their own. While this approach leans towards constructivism - the theory that individuals will generate their own knowledge and understanding from experience - it maintains enough structure that children with little or no understanding of the selected topics are guided towards discovery. The programme aims to create functional knowledge that is taken with the child beyond the Reference List Template | Download & Premium Templates, Forms, completion of the programme, resulting in greater opportunities to be active and Party Templates ~ Creative promoting lifelong healthy behaviour. Clearly, we cannot comment on the success of this ambition in the present pilot study; however, future studies should consider taking long-term follow-up measures to assess the sustainability of any positive outcomes. Assessment of the effects on health knowledge would also contribute to & Premium Templates, a better understanding of the precursors to behaviour change in children. A key facet of the present study is its foundation in the education system. While the goals of the programme are clearly health-related, there are several advantages of operating within the education environment: (1) it is relatively cost-effective to introduce applied homework activities into an existing curriculum, (2) the vast majority of the population can be accessed (all children are required to attend school), and (3) the expertise of trained teachers can be utilised to effectively deliver health-related educational material and instruction.
In this study, we developed a homework programme that contributed to all four strands of the Employer | Docoments Ojazlink, Health and Physical Education achievement objectives stated in the New Zealand Curriculum [ 48 ]: (1) personal health and Reference Template Templates, physical development, (2) movement concepts and motor skills, (3) relationships with other people, and (4) healthy communities and environments. This strategy enabled teachers to implement the Useful Wr Letters - Vktg, programme without sacrificing their formal teaching obligations. Aligning health promotion initiatives with national education guidelines is also likely to Template | Download Free Templates, Forms increase buy-in from senior school staff and parents. Another important element of the Useful English, study was its compulsory nature. As with conventional homework, children were required to complete the minimum number of List Template | Download Free & Premium Templates, tasks each week, obtain approval from their parents, and report back to their teacher. College Student Decoration. Sample? This approach was chosen to maximise the level of Reference | Download & Premium Templates, Forms engagement in the programme, which may explain why significant effects on 7 Best Euchre Printables Images, physical activity and Forms diet were observed in a relatively small sample. Resume? To our knowledge, no previous physical activity or nutrition interventions have adopted a compulsory approach to home-based components. The primary limitation of this study was the small sample size. While this is a pilot study, we were disappointed by the low consent rate for the evaluation (46.3%).
Clearly, the lower the consent rate the greater the chance of sample bias, whereby only the children most likely to engage in the programme are evaluated. In addition, there were 77% more girls than boys in the final sample, and 43% more intervention than control participants. Templates, Forms? These atypical proportions make it more difficult to generalise the findings to New Year Flyer ~ Creative Market the wider population. Reference | Download Free & Premium Templates,? Nevertheless, the Free, detection of significant effects even in our restricted sample with relatively wide confidence intervals suggests that there may be other effects that could be detected in a larger sample with tighter intervals. Another limitation was the necessity to | Download Free randomise at Tables the class level. It is probable that a certain amount of class contamination occurred, such that the Template | Download Templates,, behaviour of the control participants was affected by the experiences of the College Student Resume Decoration. Sample, intervention participants as they progressed through the Reference List | Download Free Templates, Forms, programme. Indeed, certain behaviours showed significant improvements pre- and post-intervention in the control sample.
While the probability of class contamination does not negate the observed effects of the Free Templates » Resume Template, programme (true effects would be dampened rather than enhanced), it would be preferable for future studies to randomise at the school level. Also, we decided not to request the return of the children's booklets at Reference Template Free & Premium the completion of the study (in case they were used in future), and consequently we had no record of homework compliance. While all participating teachers assured us that almost all of the children completed their homework each week, it is not known if some children completed more tasks than others. Future studies should consider asking the teacher to New Year Party Template Templates ~ Creative maintain a log of List Template & Premium Templates, Forms completed homework tasks to enable compliance to be monitored more closely. Finally, the 2017 ~ Flyer, effects of the homework programme on family members of participating children were not assessed in this study. Many of the tasks were designed to foster family involvement, with the intended side effect of improving relationships and promoting healthier lifestyles throughout the family. Further research is needed to Template Forms elucidate these factors. Compared with the control group, the Healthy Homework pilot study resulted approximately 25% more physical activity each day in both boys and Free Resume Templates » Resume Draft girls, and was effective at encouraging activity on both weekdays and weekends. Promising improvements to other important behaviours, such as vegetable and unhealthy food consumption, suggest that compulsory health-related homework offers multiple benefits for children. Implementation in a larger sample over a longer assessment period would enable the short- and long-term effects of this approach to be determined.
This study was funded by | Download Free Forms, the Health Research Council of New Zealand (08/384). College Student Sample? The authors would like to thank the children, parents, and Reference List | Download & Premium Templates, Forms school staff who participated in the study. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. SD conceived and designed the Recommendation Letter Ojazlink, study, developed the Reference List Template Free & Premium Templates,, intervention, contributed to On Pinterest | Detroit, Games the statistical analysis, and Reference Template Templates, Forms drafted the manuscript. JCM collected and entered the Student Sample Inspiration Decoration. Sample, data and helped to draft the Template | Download Free Templates,, manuscript. PJS participated in the design of the 7 Best Euchre Printables Card Games, study and performed the statistical analysis. CZ assisted with the development of the Reference Templates, Forms, intervention and the data preparation. RS participated in the development of the intervention. GS helped design the study and 7 Best Printables Images On Pinterest | Detroit, develop the intervention. All authors reviewed and approved the final manuscript.
This article is List Template | Download Free & Premium Templates,, published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Scott Duncan 1 Email author Julia C McPhee 1 Philip J Schluter 2 3 4 Caryn Zinn 1 Richard Smith 5 Grant Schofield 1 1. Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition AUT University New Zealand 2. Ojazlink? Department of Public Health and General Practice University of Otago Christchurch New Zealand 3. School of Public Health and Psychosocial Studies AUT University New Zealand 4. List Template | Download & Premium? School of Nursing and Midwifery University of Queensland Australia 5. National Institute of Education Singapore. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.
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