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biographical account Biographical accounts as a workable strategy in Invitation educational research. | Cook Resume. Paper presented at the conference Directions in educational research: postgraduate perspectives, University of Invitation, Leicester, 23-24 July 2003. Persuasive Essay Essay Helper 123 Buy A. Biographies reveal the Invitation Letter Resumed relationship between the private and Template. Contract Template, the public worlds individuals experience. The recording of Resumed, these two structures in a personal document is the hallmark of the biographical method (Merrill, 2002). In qualitative research, biographical methods have been widely used. 6+ Authorization Job. However, traditional methodology textbooks have paid little tribute to this.
It is not until the | Sales Resumed last fifteen years that biographical research has been regarded more seriously as a method. Flyer In Vector Eps, Psd. As more emphasis was put into biographies and collection of 9+ A | Sales Resumed, life stories, biographical accounts began to be seen as points of Essay Me - Essay 123 Buy A, research and discussion and not merely as components of any other ?serious? method (Roberts, 2002). 9+ A Formal Letter. This change has been registered as the Download In Vector Psd ?biographical turn? in 9+ A Invitation social research. The fields of study where biographies have been used have also been extended within the Persuasive Essay 123 Help Essay Helper 123 Buy A social sciences; however, most of the Formal Letter | Sales studies were conducted under positivist approaches. 7+ Cover Page | Cook. As the Letter | Sales Resumed contexts and Format Job, disciplines where biographical research was used expanded, this gave it a more interdisciplinary character. One of the 9+ A Letter Resumed areas where it has been fruitful covering topics like schooling experiences, teachers? careers and lives, is education. The biographical or narrative turn has had an Top 10 Professional Business Writer Cost impact on Invitation Letter, the ways in For Report | Cook Resume which educational experiences, processes and policies are researched and understood (Coffey, 2001: 6).
The classroom, the school structure, teachers? experience in the educational systems and students? achievement, for 9+ A Invitation example, had already been focus of study, however, now they were analysed under different approaches It would appear that the 30 Best Funeral Templates Images On Pinterest | Memorial telling of 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales Resumed, a story about a life has become an 6+ Authorization | Resumed important aspect of practice and Formal Letter, research in Service Contract Training professional teaching and Formal | Sales Resumed, other settings (Riessman, 1993: 5-6 in Flyer Download Psd Roberts 2002: 23). Theoretically speaking, feminist theory also influenced the development of 9+ A Invitation | Sales Resumed, this research by appealing to the value of voice, consciousness raising and empowerment. Flyer - 20+. The insights of the 9+ A Letter women?s movement began to Persuasive Essay Me - Persuasive Helper A have a transformative effect on fields such as oral history and women?s experience were accorded value and writers began to regard oral accounts as means of recording women?s social and Formal | Sales Resumed, historical experiences (Gluck and - 20+ Download In Vector Psd, Patai, 1991:1 in 9+ A Roberts 2002: 29). In my interest to 7+ Cover For Report Resume explore students? identity and 9+ A | Sales Resumed, the interrelation of this with their educational experience, using a biographical account sounded promising. As well as documenting individual lives and Format | Resumed Job, identities, the biographical turn in 9+ A Invitation Letter | Sales sociological enquiry provides a strategy for exploring personal histories and biographies, as well as the Examples Of A Book Report. | Love For relationships between structure and agency in Invitation Letter contemporary society (Coffey, 2001: 54). Using this approach could open a window to Persuasive Essay Me - Persuasive Helper A try and see how students? (re)constructed their identity as they went through university life. Biographical research is part of a movement to reveal and Invitation | Sales, understand the ?personal? and Contract Training, its interlinking with the 9+ A Invitation Letter Resumed immediate and Business Plan, wider social context and political practices (Roberts, 2002: 31). It could also provide me with a wider vision on the different agendas students have in their daily life as they go through university education.
What would the biographical accounts reveal about the ways students construct their identity? This was one of the Invitation Resumed key questions throughout my study. In order to present my experience using the Student Cereal Box Biography Report. biographical method, I will divide this paper into 9+ A Invitation | Sales, five sections. First, I will first present a general theoretical support for Plan Cost the use of the biographical method in researching identity in educational contexts. 9+ A Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed. Second, I will write about the context of my study and Persuasive Helper A, the aims for 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales Resumed conducting it.
Third, I will write about the Student Of A Box Biography | Love methodology followed specifically to 9+ A Letter | Sales collect the students? accounts. Fourth, I will discuss the pros and 6+ Authorization Format | Resumed Job, cons I have experienced with the approach. And finally, I will present some preliminary findings of my research. 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales Resumed. The biographical approach. 30 Best | Memorial. The term biographical research is used to refer not to one approach to Formal | Sales research but to a different range of similar approaches, whose main field of Essay 123 Help Me - Persuasive Helper 123 Buy A, study is Formal Letter Resumed, ?lives?. 19 Best On Pinterest Templates. Biographical research is an exciting, stimulating and Invitation | Sales Resumed, fast-moving field which seeks to Examples Cereal Book | Love understand the changing experiences and Invitation, outlooks of individuals in their daily lives, what they see as important and Template. Training Template, how to provide interpretation of the account they give of their past, present and future (Roberts, 2002: 1). The methodology I used to collect the Formal students? accounts is guided by Training this concept.
The definitions of the Invitation | Sales biographical method as well as materials relevant to study with this approach vary. The definition of biographical research I have used in Contract Template. Training Template Training my study follows the 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter Resumed lines of Roberts (2002: 3) where the term is used to 7+ Cover | Cook Resume denote work which uses stories of Formal Letter Resumed, individuals and Student Of A Box Biography Book | Love For, other ?personal materials? to understand the Resumed individual life within its social context. The type of accounts students produced for Images my research fall within this category of ?personal materials?. Coffey?s (2001) notion of Invitation Resumed, biographical research complements this definition by identifying the 7+ Cover Page For Report | Cook centrality of Invitation | Sales Resumed, individual experiences as mechanisms for 6+ Authorization illuminating social processes in Invitation Letter | Sales educational settings. According to her, biographical research has its emphasis on how social actors routinely engage in educational contexts and Of A Cereal Report. | Love For, how they articulate and make sense of these experiences. 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter Resumed. Sarantakos?s (1994) version of biographical accounts identifies two elements: how the authors define themselves and social action and 7+ Cover Page | Cook Resume, how their individuality is influenced by 9+ A Letter Resumed social factors. The first element relates to the way people perceive and interprets the world around them. The second element talks about the relations between their opinions and their social environment. In my research, I was interested in Cereal Book Report. | Love finding a way that would allow me to see some connections between the university experience and the way students formed their identity.
To this particular interest, I found the biographical method enlightening. On one hand, you could see, through the student?s pieces of writing, how they read the 9+ A Formal | Sales world around them, their perception of reality. On the other hand, it could also offer some insights into how their opinions were influenced by the social environment of Student Examples Cereal | Love, which the university and they were part of. Now, how could the students? accounts based on their life experience at the university offer some insight into 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales, the way they constructed their identity? Biographies and identities in an educational research project.
Identities are negotiated and biographies constructed through school processes, learning encounters, and curricular engagement. In turn, the articulation and Top 10 Custom Business Plan Cost, representation of selves in 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales Resumed educational settings can be challenged, change, resisted or accepted (Coffey 2001: 53). The relationship between biographical research and identity is important since most debates on the condition of Service Template. Training Template Training, identity construction in our times are developed in the field of 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter, abstract theory (Roberts, 2002). Therefore, a study on Custom Business Writer Cost, identity which explores the ?lived lives? becomes appropriate and relevant. 9+ A Invitation Letter Resumed. Studying through biographical accounts how identities are constructed opens up a space for insights into how factors like space, organizations and other social structures like youth and gender groups participate in this identity or identities? formation. In my study, in particular, the 6+ Authorization Job university is considered as a site of 9+ A Formal Invitation, identity formation by offering a spatial, organizational and grouping structure for students, educational arenas form important sites for Student Of A Cereal Box Biography Report. the active engagement of identity and 9+ A Formal Letter, biographical work (Coffey, 2001: 53). Student Examples Of A Cereal Box Biography Report. For. Educational research in 9+ A Formal colleges and universities in the last 20 years has primarily been focused on academic achievement and students? attitudes and 6+ Authorization Format Job, aspirations (Pascarella and Terenzini, 2001).
With the emerging interest in 9+ A biographical work, schools, and other educational arenas, have increasingly been seen as sites for the active construction, production and reproduction of biographies and identities. Rell - Resume Images On Pinterest. Hence life histories, biographical data and 9+ A Formal Letter, personal narratives have been collected and 19 Best On Pinterest, analysed as mechanisms for understanding the lived realities of schools and of teaching (Coffey, 2001: 55). In most of the 9+ A Invitation | Sales studies conducted using the Retro Flyer Template - 20+ Eps, Psd biographical method, however, the interest has been put on the teachers? agenda: academic identity, racial and gender issues (Goodson 1997; Munro 1998; Weiler and Invitation, Middleton 1999 cited in Coffey, 2001). My study, on the other hand, focuses on Funeral Templates Images | Memorial, the students? identity. 9+ A Invitation Letter. In order to better contextualise the use of the biographical method in Training Contract my study, the 9+ A Invitation Resumed next section details the aims and context of my research. Aims and context of my research. The motivation for my research sprung up from On Pinterest, my experience in 9+ A | Sales Resumed teaching university students in Top 10 Professional Plan Writer Cost Mexico and working for Formal Letter two types of Retro Template In Vector Eps,, universities, a public and 9+ A Letter Resumed, a private one.
The way students saw themselves as part of the University and how they carried and 30 Best Funeral Program Images On Pinterest | Memorial, showed this way of 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter | Sales, seeing themselves throughout their time there always struck me as interesting. - 20+ Download Eps,. The way the Formal Invitation Letter | Sales University experience became central at certain point in 7+ Cover | Cook Resume their lives was also intriguing. | Sales Resumed. Finding out 6+ Authorization Format, what the students as related themselves to 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales Resumed higher education and how they valued it guided the Examples Of A Box Biography Report. key questions in my study. A focal aim in my study was to 9+ A | Sales find out Cost, how students created and (re)created their identity inside an educational institution and to what extent the university was involved in this issue of identity formation. Formal Invitation | Sales. I was not only interested in particular processes of identity formation but rather in Retro - 20+ In Vector developing a wider understanding of the role of higher education to shape the identity of Formal Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed, people in our society and 6+ Authorization | Resumed, elaborate a more critical view of it. Context of 9+ A Invitation Letter | Sales, study. The study was conducted in two universities in the State of Nuevo Leon, Mexico; a private (ITESM) and 19 Best On Pinterest, a public one (UANL). The participants in | Sales the study included undergraduate students and 7+ Cover, academics. Formal. The group where I collected biographical accounts from was the students. The study comprised 365 students from Science and Social Sciences and in their second year of Contract Training, study. Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed. The idea was to get a purposive sample of Student | Love, students where both systems of education ?public and private university- and at least two fields of science were represented.
I was also interested in Letter Resumed students who would have been in the university for at least one year so they would have already had a ?feel? for Templates On Pinterest | Memorial university life experience that they could write about. The following table sums up the Formal Invitation Resumed sample of students in my study: The higher education institutions in Mexico. The subjects: students from the areas of Science and Social sciences in Persuasive Essay 123 Help Me - Persuasive Essay Helper both institutions. Formal Letter | Sales Resumed. 365 Undergraduate students total. ? State-funded university: ? Privately-funded university: ITESM. The data collection was done in the university premises and in Persuasive Me - Essay Helper the following paragraphs I will explain how it was done. 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales Resumed. Description of the 6+ Authorization data collection and 9+ A Formal | Sales Resumed, the educational biographical account. | Cook Resume. In order to collect information from students I used a technique which I called the educational biographical account. This method combined an information eliciting activity (word association) followed by an autobiographical account. 9+ A Formal Letter. The word association technique is Essay Persuasive A, one that I had extensively used as a teacher, mostly in language courses, to elicit vocabulary. Guided by 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales Resumed a grounded theory orientation in Resume my methodology, I found it useful to 9+ A Formal Letter Resumed get students to write about Custom Business Writer Cost, how they valued higher education departing from their own ideas rather than from topics induced by 9+ A Formal me.
I wanted to see what ideas they connected to higher education and this eliciting technique seemed to be a less intrusive or indirect way to do it. The purpose of Persuasive Essay 123 Help Essay Helper 123 Buy A, its application is best described by Sarantakos (1994: 209) in his description of 9+ A Letter, biographical methods, In the context of qualitative research, biographical methods attempt to present a perception of the 6+ Authorization Format self and the world from the viewpoint of the Invitation | Sales Resumed author of the - Resume On Pinterest | Resume biography. This is 9+ A Formal Resumed, how the technique was conducted. I asked students to write five words they related to the phrase university education ( educación universitaria in Spanish). After that, I asked them to explain why they had chosen such words and what they meant for them. An example of the 19 Best Images Templates technique I used can be seen on appendix 1. My intention was to find what ideas or themes emerged from their answers that would connect with issues on 9+ A | Sales Resumed, identity construction. Before students started writing, I explained to Template - 20+ Download Eps, Psd them the aims of Formal Letter | Sales Resumed, my research trying to get their writings directed towards my purpose.
I did this for ethical as well as for Examples Cereal | Love For practical reasons so they would not write only isolated words with any connection. I also told them how I would be using their information keeping it confidential at all times. I have typed and Formal Letter Resumed, analysed 365 documents in total; the amount of documents not processed was a low percentage and it was mainly due to inability to understand the Custom Business Plan Writer Cost students? handwriting or when the students failed to Invitation | Sales Resumed provide basic information that would allow a proper classification of the document. Download Eps,. In order to 9+ A analyse my data I followed the | Resumed Job process of qualitative analysis suggested by Miles and Huberman (1994: 10-12) which includes four basic principles: data reduction (through coding), data display and conclusion drawing and verification (for detailed information of the model see Miles and 9+ A Formal Invitation Resumed, Huberman 1994). While typing the students? documents was a time consuming task it helped me elaborate the memos or commentary documents suggested by Miles and Huberman?s model for a preliminary analysis. I had originally planned using the qualitative research software NVIVO to facilitate the management of Retro Flyer - 20+ In Vector Eps,, my data; at this moment, I am still evaluating its usefulness since the analysis I have conducted so far has been done manually. 9+ A Invitation | Sales. One drawback I found using NVIVO was that entering the Custom Professional Plan Writer documents and 9+ A Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed, codes could take a long time.
However, I still found it useful to - 20+ Download Eps, Psd manage the 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales Resumed data. The fact that it can organise the data into big categories and be used to find correlation among data categories such as age, gender and field of study groups is a positive feature. Furthermore, its quantitative output of Persuasive Essay Me - Essay 123 Buy, data could be used to 9+ A | Sales Resumed complement a primarily qualitative analysis and 123 Help Me - Helper 123 Buy A, this is the benefit I am planning to use in my research (Kelle, 1995). 9+ A Formal Invitation Resumed. Challenges and benefits of dealing with data come at different times of the research process either with software or without it. 6+ Authorization Job. From collection to 9+ A Letter | Sales Resumed data analysis they pose interesting questions and bring the research to Student Of A For new stands and ways to develop. In the following section, I will write about the 9+ A Letter challenges and benefits I have experienced using the biographical account. Challenges and benefits of using the biographical approach. Retro Template In Vector. As Silverman (2000) states, there are only ?useful? or ?more useful than? techniques to fit a theory and a methodology and it is important to 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales Resumed address the issues and limitations as well as the 6+ Authorization Job positive impressions experienced with a certain method.
The relatively new appearance of the Letter biographical method as a trend in Templates | Memorial social science research make it susceptible, as any other method, to hard criticism in terms of lacking unity in its epistemological and methodological assumptions. This is in part due to its eclecticism in the way decisions are made as to what constitutes relevant material to study, how it is gathered and further on how it is analysed. This expansion of interest in the study of lives and Formal Resumed, the use of biographical material raises the 6+ Authorization Job immediate issue of Letter, whether there is really common ground ?in epistemology, methodology, interpretation and Essay 123 Help Persuasive Essay A, theoretical framework: a shared approach (Roberts 2002: 169). This biographical turn , as Roberts calls it, challenges the researchers and Invitation Resumed, the audiences to Persuasive Essay Persuasive 123 Buy doing research in different ways; to Formal Invitation Resumed exploring old concepts in Student Of A Cereal Box Biography Book Report. | Love new lights and to 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales Resumed continue refining their methods of 19 Best Rell - Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume, enquiry. It is in this fashion that emergent methodologies develop and become recognised; the biographical turn may just as well follow the 9+ A Invitation Letter same path. As mentioned above, one of the challenges associated with the Persuasive Essay 123 Help A biographical method is the variety of material it may cover. Although some clarifications have been made in Letter | Sales respect to some terms such as life history vs. life story (Atkinson, 1998), the main term remains at Rell Images times elusive of definition. According to Miller (2000: 19) life history refers to 9+ A Invitation Resumed a series of substantive events arranged in chronological order.
Life story, on the other hand, refers to an account given by Rell - Resume Templates the individual without following a chronology. 9+ A Letter Resumed. In my research, the Custom Business Plan type of Formal Invitation Letter, material produced by students falls into Service Template Training, this category. Although it is not written as a biography per se, it does include aspects of the students? lives as they go through university. The challenge here is to make the material fit the description of a ?biographical piece? which in itself remains elusive in standard literature. An ethical and epistemological issue arises with my accounts because I am giving students a central idea to 9+ A Formal Resumed write about, different from life stories. This is an advantage as well as a risk. 30 Best Funeral | Memorial. By channelling their answers to one topic I make sure they write about what my study is looking for; the other hand, I may as well be confining their writings to 9+ A Formal Letter Resumed one particular aspect of their lives. The decision to For Report | Cook conduct the data collection this way foresaw these problems, however in the interest of practicality I decided to take that risk. Another challenge I faced with the educational biographical account was the fact that it was technique I had not used it before in doing social research but as a teaching tool. Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed. I was not sure if the Page For Report | Cook Resume writings were going to come out clear and 9+ A Formal Invitation, focused. A pilot study using this technique could have been beneficial; unfortunately, practical issues like limited time and budget would not allow me to Student Box Biography Book do it.
The first groups I worked with had a rougher experience with a less focused explanation of 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter, what to 7+ Cover Page Resume do on 9+ A Formal Invitation Resumed, my part. I even changed the format of the activity later on as I realized there was some information I would need from students and Retro Flyer - 20+ In Vector Eps,, I had not included that in the original format. This let me experience one of the benevolent sides of qualitative research where rewriting your process along the way is part of the research experience and Formal Letter, opens a space for reflexivity, especially if novice in the field. Here also lies the basis for Top 10 Professional Business Plan Writer my argument that the flexibility of the 9+ A Invitation Letter | Sales biographical method to Retro Template - 20+ accept as valid a wide range of materials opens spaces for innovation and development of the methodology itself. It offers a field where new methods can be tried out and the possibility to Invitation Letter | Sales explore social issues in a different light, from different angles, perhaps not yet explored. According to Amanda Coffey (2001:54), she agrees with Atkinson and Silverman (1997); Munro (1998); and Goodson (1992) in some of the potential problems one could encounter by using this approach: A danger in romanticising the individual and their stories in biographising the social and a possibility of Program Images, missing the social contexts and Formal Invitation Letter, processes by Top 10 Plan Writer Cost overly concentrating on 9+ A Invitation | Sales Resumed, the individual and Student Examples Cereal Book, the personal. By privileging certain voices and 9+ A Formal Letter Resumed, lives, you may be ignoring the 19 Best On Pinterest | Resume lives and voices of others. In my study, I found that it is indeed easy to be let carried away by 9+ A Letter | Sales Resumed personal stories and miss the Persuasive Helper 123 Buy context. Formal Invitation Letter | Sales. This would happen when the Examples Of A Box Biography Book Report. For account I was analysing connected somehow with your own experience as a university student. 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed. However, ?situating the 7+ Cover For Report writings as voices of 9+ A | Sales, social actors?, when conducting the analysis, as the Custom Professional Business Writer Cost terminology goes, helps to keep focused on the social and the processes being researched. It is Formal Letter | Sales Resumed, a constant reminder the researcher needs to keep in mind, though.
As to the privileging certain voices, I believe that is 19 Best - Resume Images | Resume Templates, real challenge in Formal most studies. By concentrating in two universities only, I am aware I am leaving out the voices of Format Job, those who go to vocational institutes and Invitation Letter, teacher training centres. I also know I am only Custom Writer Cost, getting the 9+ A Letter | Sales Resumed view of a percentage of the Rell Images On Pinterest student population. 9+ A Invitation Letter | Sales. By describing the Rell - Resume On Pinterest | Resume sample in my study and acknowledging its limitations I have tried to 9+ A | Sales Resumed make justice to Flyer In Vector Eps, Psd its partiality. With a vast universe like university students, aiming to get a purposive sample is as good as it gets once the 9+ A Invitation | Sales Resumed limitations of the study have been acknowledged. Although the field of biographical research poses interesting challenges in terms of interpretation and definition of its limits, its relevance in the development of qualitative methodology is Flyer Template Eps,, notorious.
Biographical research has the important merit of Formal Letter | Sales Resumed, aiding the task of Student Examples Box Biography | Love, understanding major social shifts, by 9+ A Invitation including how new experiences are interpreted by Essay 123 Help Me - Persuasive Essay Helper 123 Buy A individuals within families, small groups and institutions (Roberts, 2002: 5). This aspect relates closely to Formal | Sales Resumed my area of study. Exploring how universities as social institutions influence the 19 Best Rell - Resume Images | Resume Templates way students construct their identity brings up questions on 9+ A Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed, how students interpret their experience within this social and dynamic setting. Persuasive Essay. According to Goodson (1997, cited in Coffey, 2001) these are some of the benefits the biographical approach brings to 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales Resumed research: It values personal experiences and individual voices as relevant and 19 Best Rell Images, insightful ways of understanding the 9+ A Invitation | Sales Resumed everyday realities of education. Cereal Report. | Love. It ensures that the backgrounds and Formal Letter, experiences of the individuals involved are treated seriously and Flyer Template In Vector Eps, Psd, that they are grounded in their social, cultural and historical context. 9+ A Formal | Sales. It helps understand the relationship between the 19 Best On Pinterest students? lifestyles, latent identities and cultures. Formal Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed. Identities are complex, fragmented and shaped by Persuasive Essay 123 Buy A understandings of lifestyle and culture.
Gathering students? narratives can help make sense of the complexity of their identity construction and 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed, culture. In my experience using the Rell On Pinterest Templates method, I could add that although the 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales challenges of the approach are important and Persuasive Essay 123 Help Helper, should be taken into account when doing the research, the richness in the data and 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter, the sense of reality you find as you read the Template In Vector Psd documents makes it a valuable approach to follow. Needless to say, visiting the classrooms and talking about 9+ A Invitation Letter, my research to Template. Training Training students was one of the 9+ A | Sales most enjoyable parts of Examples Of A, my fieldwork experience. The more I explained what my research was about the Formal Invitation | Sales more I was convinced of the Essay Persuasive Essay 123 Buy A value of my project and the more refined my search for 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter specific information became. Using this method helped refine, feedback and develop my research project, an ongoing process most designs would aim for. A challenge in disguise had to do with the Examples Of A Cereal Box Biography Book For settings where I conducted the study. Having a captive audience guaranteed numbers of 9+ A Formal | Sales, people answering my exercise, but not their willingness to Format | Resumed Job do it.
Some of the texts I collected gave me the 9+ A Formal | Sales Resumed impression that students were only killing time by answering. Others showed rather shallow answers and limited themselves to write short answers unrelated to a lived experience. They were defining some words as if they were taking them out of a dictionary. 30 Best. At first sight, this may seem disappointing; however, it could also show me how interested students were in Formal Invitation Letter giving their opinions, or at least, when being asked in that way. This opened my mind to | Cook thinking of 9+ A Formal | Sales, ways to improve the technique by 19 Best - Resume On Pinterest perhaps combining it with a more direct method like a person-to person interview as well as doing a pilot study to 9+ A Invitation Resumed test it, as I mentioned before. All in Images all, the response I got was positive and it helped me see the degree of 9+ A Letter | Sales, effectiveness and challenges my technique may have.
The classification and Templates Images | Memorial, analysis of the data concluded with 365 documents. The results of the Formal Resumed first codification suggested some general themes which I will share in 6+ Authorization | Resumed Job the following section. Formal Letter | Sales Resumed. Preliminary findings and implications. According to the students? views on higher education and how it relates to Essay Me - Persuasive Essay 123 Buy A their lives suggest that education is Invitation Letter Resumed, primarily seen as: A factor for Persuasive Essay 123 Help Persuasive A social mobility regardless of the students? economic background. Education is Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed, seen as a channel where students have deposited their aspirations for economic success. According to Persuasive Essay 123 Help Persuasive Essay 123 Buy a study carried out in Mexico city, students from low income families face the dilemma of continuing with their studies or entering the labour market, 83% decides to continue with their studies (Valle and Smith).This shows the high value students give to Formal Letter | Sales education when regardless of the economic difficulties they might experience, the Service Contract Template idea to 9+ A Invitation Letter | Sales continue with their studies is still a strong motivation for Box Biography | Love them.
Education as an individual project: Personal development. ?Personal development? was a popular answer in the students? writings yet with diverse connotations. Most students wrote about personal development and Formal Invitation | Sales Resumed, their meanings included being knowledgeable, cultivating their spirit, attaining success as professionals; for some female students it meant accomplishing something different as women in a masculine-dominant school or family. Training Contract Template Training. Education as an asset. The high value students give to university education, especially as something good for the future suggests that besides being an ideal it is also considered as a personal asset. Often students write about Formal | Sales Resumed, a ?brighter future? referring to Examples Box Biography Book Report. | Love the time in their lives after they conclude their studies. 9+ A Formal Letter Resumed. Their economic and professional aspirations are basically centered in Retro Flyer getting their degree. 9+ A. They also write things like I know this is going to bring me benefits. Education as a family project.
The value for Top 10 Professional Writer education is not only connected to an individual project but also to a family one. There are concerns of paying back to the parents, for Formal | Sales example. 6+ Authorization | Resumed. In lower income families, in general, the values the Resumed family attributes to Contract Template. Contract Template Training education are then channelled or indirectly imposed on Resumed, those who can attend university. In most of the Retro In Vector answers students gave about 9+ A Letter | Sales, how they value education, the Student Examples Of A Box Biography For family connection is recurrent. Either if they feel grateful to Formal Invitation Letter Resumed their parents for paying for Essay Me - Essay Helper 123 Buy A their education or because they want to reward in Formal Letter Resumed some symbolic ways what their parents have done for them. In the case of - 20+ Download Eps, Psd, students who work or who are the bread-winner of the family the connection seems to Formal Invitation | Sales Resumed be stronger since they feel the future of their children will also depend on the progress they make having a university degree.
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Coffey, A. and Persuasive Essay Essay Helper A, Atkisnon, P. (1996). Making sense of qualitative data. Complementary research strategies. London: SAGE Publications. Kelle, U. (1995) ed. Computer-aided qualitative data analysis. Theory, methods and Invitation, practices . London: SAGE publications. Merril, B. (2002) Biographies as collective experience?
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Roberts, B. (2002) Biographical research . Buckingham: Open University Press. Sarantakos, S. (1994). Social research . Funeral Program Images On Pinterest. Hampshire, UK: The MacMillan Press, LTD. Silverman, D. (2000). Formal Letter Resumed. Doing qualitative research. Persuasive 123 Help Persuasive Essay. A practical handbook . London: SAGE Publications LTD.
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Gracias por tu colaboración. Si deseas comunicarte conmigo puedes enviarme un correo electrónico a Lupita.Rodrigu[email protected] 9+ A Formal Invitation. This document was added to the Education-line database on - Resume | Resume Templates, 16 July 2004.
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They are not intended to be construed as an exhaustive list of all responsibilities, duties and skills required of employees assigned to this position. Medtronic Northridge CA. Mechanical Design Engineer Cae- Solidworks. 1. Resume Copy paste or upload your resume. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) 2. Cover Letter (Optional) Attached Cover Letter. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) Copy paste or upload your cover letter. Don’t have a cover letter? Build one now! We will save your jobs while you are here, but once you leave, they will be discarded.
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essay on augustus An Online Encyclopedia of 9+ A Invitation Resumed Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to For Report address the underlying ills of the Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by Training Contract Template Training, a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of Resumed all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king.
Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and precedent, and Persuasive Helper the general air of arrogance and 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter | Sales high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name. To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. That the cabal of 19 Best - Resume Images | Resume nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at Invitation Letter | Sales, the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey. The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception.
The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Top 10 Custom Professional Plan. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the Formal Invitation Resumed people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Custom Professional Business Writer Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to each member of the Roman people--the dam of 6+ Authorization | Resumed Job emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city. 9+ A Invitation Letter. Power seemed firmly in Page | Cook Resume the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. 9+ A Formal | Sales. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of Top 10 Custom Professional Writer Cost his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. Formal Letter | Sales Resumed. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in Custom Business Plan Cost and began training him to | Sales Resumed be his successor. This assertion is Examples Cereal | Love For clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Formal Resumed, Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC). There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted.
Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and | Cook Resume was accorded military honors. Formal | Sales. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the Of A Cereal | Love latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the 9+ A Invitation | Sales dictator for Student Of A Cereal | Love For, the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of 9+ A Letter Resumed Horse for 43 or 42 BC. Despite these indications of Persuasive Essay 123 Help Me - Persuasive Essay Helper 123 Buy A favor, it is fair to say that in 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter Resumed the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on Top 10 Plan Writer his Parthian campaign. His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to 9+ A Invitation | Sales Resumed Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen.
He opted for 7+ Cover Page For Report | Cook Resume, the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for Invitation, Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [] Antony paid no attention, at Service Contract Template. Training Template Training, least officially. He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. [] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales leaders of the Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on For Report the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting.
The ensuing exchange did not go well. [] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. [] Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Letter Resumed Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of Service Contract Training Contract his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales Resumed modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of Custom Professional Business Plan Writer 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of 9+ A Invitation Cisalpine Gaul in 19 Best Rell - Resume Images | Resume November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations.
Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more. Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Formal Invitation | Sales Resumed Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the 6+ Authorization power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to 9+ A | Sales Resumed attack Decimus Brutus in 6+ Authorization Format Job Cisalpine Gaul. [] The situation was now highly volatile.
Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul. 9+ A Invitation Resumed. Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. Custom Professional Business Plan Cost. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. 9+ A Invitation Letter Resumed. The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [] Cicero and Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. Persuasive 123 Help Persuasive 123 Buy A. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power.
As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and moved against Antony. [] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over Student Examples Of A Report. | Love For, the Alps to his political allies in Letter Transalpine Gaul. Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in Essay 123 Help Me - Persuasive 123 Buy A the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. 9+ A | Sales Resumed. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. 19 Best - Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted.
Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in 9+ A Invitation Resumed requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph. Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in 6+ Authorization Format Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [] In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and 9+ A Formal Invitation determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. 19 Best Rell Images On Pinterest. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day.
Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and Formal Invitation therefore he had to Examples Of A For rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for Top 10 Professional Business Plan Writer Cost, instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and | Sales Resumed only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only Writer Cost, two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to.
In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to 19 Best Images On Pinterest make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to Formal Resumed an inauspicious start. Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in Top 10 Custom Writer instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and Formal Invitation Letter argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to the triumvirs in Italy.
Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance. The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in the chaos and Top 10 Custom Professional Business Plan Writer mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. [] Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with.
After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and | Sales Octavian moved on Cassius and Brutus in 19 Best - Resume Templates the summer and autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in 9+ A Formal Resumed October at Philippi in Macedonia. The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the Service Template. Training Contract Training new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by 9+ A Formal | Sales, his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Persuasive Helper A Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to manifest itself. [] In the West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the Formal settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and Custom Professional Plan Writer Cost so could influence the future loyalty of his armies.
The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. Template. Training. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the Formal Invitation | Sales triumvirate and led to Service Template. Contract Training the so-called Perusine War. One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Formal Invitation Letter | Sales. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians.
His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to Format | Resumed be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation. Invitation | Sales. By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the councilors and people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and Professional Cost gave the town over to his soldiers to Invitation | Sales Resumed plunder. He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. Page | Cook. [] Mark Antony reacted to 9+ A Invitation this situation by moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium.
Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and Essay 123 Help Essay negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the 9+ A Formal Invitation Resumed Pact of Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East. Lepidus continued to languish in Africa. Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in For Report | Cook the West. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the Resumed more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 7+ Cover Page Resume 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to Invitation Letter Resumed the sea as a pirate leader.
When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the Writer senate and Invitation Letter | Sales the Liberators appeared to Format | Resumed be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by 9+ A Invitation Resumed, refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against 7+ Cover Page For Report Resume Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in 9+ A Formal | Sales Resumed no way from the Custom Plan Writer Pact of Brundisium and Formal Letter | Sales Resumed was not officially recognized by the triumvirs. Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on 7+ Cover Page | Cook Resume Rome's grain supply.
Antony and Formal Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed Octavian were forced to Format | Resumed act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an 9+ A Formal Resumed agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 19 Best Images | Resume Templates 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [] The Treaty of 9+ A Letter Misenum was to have a short shelf life. 6+ Authorization. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general.
Toward that end, the presence of Invitation Resumed Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 6+ Authorization Format | Resumed 38 BC. Octavian moved against 9+ A Formal | Sales him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Rell On Pinterest Templates Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Formal Invitation | Sales Sextus (in return for a promise of Essay 123 Help Me - Persuasive 123 Buy A 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. 9+ A Invitation Letter | Sales. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Now their power was renewed. Essay Persuasive Essay. []
Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to Invitation Letter | Sales converge on Italy from the Student Cereal Box Biography Book | Love For northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the Letter | Sales entire operation. Me - Persuasive Helper A. Agrippa, however, saved the day and | Sales Resumed took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward.
Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in the West. 7+ Cover Page | Cook Resume. Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to | Sales make a play for power. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for 7+ Cover Page | Cook Resume, good. Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and Invitation confined him to 7+ Cover house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in Letter | Sales Resumed 12 BC. [] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and Page Resume the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. Formal Invitation | Sales. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC.
In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in Service Contract Template. Training Contract Template Training 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. 9+ A Formal Letter. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an Top 10 Custom Professional Plan Writer eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria. In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome.
Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an Formal | Sales atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and Top 10 Custom Writer Cost water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by 9+ A | Sales, Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Me - 123 Buy A Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter Resumed. [] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and Top 10 Business Plan saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC. This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the Invitation Letter niceties of Persuasive Essay Helper 123 Buy legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of Formal Letter Resumed power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not.
In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. 7+ Cover Resume. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and Invitation | Sales proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). 19 Best Rell On Pinterest | Resume. Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and Formal Letter | Sales Resumed denounced Antony. Contract Contract. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators. News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife.
Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to 9+ A Formal Invitation be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. Service Template. Training Template Training. It seemed to 9+ A Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Service Training Contract Template. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the 9+ A Formal Letter people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. [] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans. Arrayed against Service Contract Template. Contract each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West.
The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the | Sales Resumed end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. Examples Of A Report. | Love. The two sides encamped on the north side of the Formal | Sales Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command.
In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to Custom Professional Plan the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales then Antony fled the battle prematurely. The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [] The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Format | Resumed Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea.
A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and Formal | Sales Resumed his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of romantic legend. Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of Template Training that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for himself and for Rome. [] From Octavian to 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done.
After taking Egypt and | Resumed settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales East. For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in Service Training Contract Training place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in 9+ A Invitation Resumed August of 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Template. Template Training Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt). Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of 9+ A | Sales 32 BC, now extended in 123 Help Me - Essay A principle, if not in practice, to Formal embrace the entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of Me - Persuasive Essay Helper 123 Buy A affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter | Sales political posturing in his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth.
He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for Student Examples Of A Box Biography Book, a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of this, the Formal Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to be restored. Top 10 Business Writer Cost. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order. Memories of 9+ A Formal | Sales Resumed Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in Service Training civil war, and Invitation Letter Resumed the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the 19 Best Rell On Pinterest | Resume Templates sensibilities of the elite. 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter | Sales. In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic.
This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. [] On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for 7+ Cover, ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the Invitation case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic. Student Cereal Box Biography Book Report. | Love For. This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to appear to 9+ A Letter | Sales be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on Box Biography | Love For 16 January. Invitation Letter Resumed. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. | Resumed. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus.
Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the Formal Letter Resumed beginnings of an Augustan ideology. Service Template. Template. By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. Formal Invitation | Sales Resumed. [] In the summer following the Me - Persuasive 123 Buy settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. 9+ A Invitation. While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. Examples Cereal Box Biography Book For. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged. At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. In the Formal Letter absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the Custom Business Cost settlement seems the Invitation Letter | Sales stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. Me - Essay. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable.
Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on two further occasions in the rest of his life, for 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales Resumed, dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of - Resume Images any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to Invitation Letter Resumed the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of this province. Essay 123 Help Persuasive Helper 123 Buy. The implication is 9+ A that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the Top 10 Plan Cost imperium aequum ). Whatever the legal details, by virtue of this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in the empire. Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to Invitation Letter retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to Service Contract Template. Training Contract Template be renewed. In relinquishing the Formal Invitation | Sales Resumed consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding).
These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of 6+ Authorization Format a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [] While the major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the 9+ A | Sales Resumed settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for Template. Contract Template Training, the East (22-19 BC).
Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter him by Service Contract Template. Training, the people, who appear to 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales Resumed have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the year before. Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to | Resumed convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed. In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for Examples Box Biography | Love, five years. When Lepidus finally died in Invitation | Sales 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to see why, since the title placed Augustus in Persuasive 123 Help 123 Buy A a relationship with the 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales Resumed Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of Student Cereal Book Report. For everything. In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of Formal Invitation Letter authority and influence derived from one's social and Page | Cook political position, family, abilities, and achievements. It was, most importantly, an 9+ A Formal Invitation informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by Format | Resumed Job, the senate or the 9+ A Formal Resumed people. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for Student Examples Of A Cereal Book, matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected.
No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales. [] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Page. Above all, there was political genius in Formal Letter Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in Persuasive Me - every area of public life. 9+ A Invitation | Sales Resumed. At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and Service Contract Template. Contract Template Training the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the 9+ A Invitation Resumed passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of 19 Best Rell - Resume Images Templates Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and Formal Invitation | Sales Resumed honors on him. Format. He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to Formal Letter | Sales accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright. In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for Top 10 Custom Professional Business Plan Writer, life but, rather, for fixed periods of 9+ A Letter Resumed five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice.
That is what mattered. The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Page Resume Augustus one of the 9+ A Resumed greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of Student Of A Cereal Box Biography | Love any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. 9+ A. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by On Pinterest, his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of 9+ A favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC. In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus.
The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in Format | Resumed the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in 9+ A Invitation power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Images On Pinterest. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales Resumed what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an Rell | Resume Templates account of the Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed state's resources to the consul Cn. Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at 19 Best Images On Pinterest Templates, the top. Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate.
He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. [] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to Invitation Letter have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to Me - Essay Helper A the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the 9+ A Formal Invitation senate had Octavius granted the Images | Resume right to stand for Invitation, the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and Persuasive Me - Persuasive Helper A just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by 9+ A Formal Letter, a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Format Job Roman nobility). Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Invitation Letter Resumed. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. Contract Template. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in 9+ A Invitation | Sales Augustus's own powers. This is Custom Business Plan Writer not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in Invitation | Sales Resumed any way from favor. Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. 19 Best Rell - Resume Images On Pinterest. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is 9+ A Invitation reported to have commented in 6+ Authorization Format Job 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to 9+ A Invitation | Sales Julia or kill him.
Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Top 10 Custom Professional Plan Writer Cost. Until his death in 9+ A Formal 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Essay Persuasive Essay Helper 123 Buy A. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). [] By virtue of these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over 9+ A Formal Resumed, the reins of government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the senior partner. Of A Box Biography | Love. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC).
When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar. A further complication is added when the 9+ A Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Contract Training Template Training Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed, the third generation of the Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years.
Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Persuasive Essay 123 Help Helper A. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Formal Letter Resumed Tiberius the following year. Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and Writer Cost experienced of the secondary princes in Invitation | Sales Resumed the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for Rell - Resume On Pinterest, campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and 9+ A Formal Resumed the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to Custom Professional Business Writer his eventual succession in AD 14. In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position.
Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in 9 BC). He appears to have relied on | Sales Resumed his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of Me - Essay Helper A dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of 9+ A | Sales Resumed Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to Examples Cereal Book | Love For avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by 9+ A Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed, Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to | Resumed Job come behind him. The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only 9+ A Formal, a teenager at 6+ Authorization Format Job, the time and Invitation the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in Persuasive Essay 123 Buy future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of Formal | Sales his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the - Resume Images | Resume Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in Formal Invitation | Sales its train some domestic tragedies. Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and Service Contract Training her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and Formal Invitation Resumed banished to Me - Persuasive 123 Buy the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Letter | Sales Resumed Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and Resume equestrians.
In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales Resumed Pandateria. She never returned to Rome. The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and Top 10 Professional Plan immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment. Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the 9+ A Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed dynasty.
That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at least in Service Training Template part, is suggested by the trial for treason of Formal Invitation Resumed one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the Examples Report. Younger. However murky the details in Letter | Sales Resumed each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [] In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only 6+ Authorization Job, perpetuated it for Formal Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed, all future emperors.
Despite the internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to Format | Resumed present a united image of the imperial house to the populace. This is best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in Formal | Sales Resumed January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the 6+ Authorization Format Job imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army.
Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to 9+ A Invitation Letter Resumed be lost in Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by - Resume Templates, a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in Letter | Sales and of itself. | Resumed. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the 9+ A Invitation Letter | Sales army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and Of A Cereal Book | Love extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune). Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter Resumed disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of Service Template. Training service in the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and Formal tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. Rell Images. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of loyalty to him and by Formal Resumed, his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge. In short, he was their patron. The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of 7+ Cover Page Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of 9+ A Formal | Sales Resumed Augustus's own family or immediate circle. Examples Of A Box Biography | Love For. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in 9+ A Formal Resumed Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers.
Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in On Pinterest | Resume Templates Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in 9+ A Formal Invitation the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. Caesar and the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the Custom Professional Business Plan Writer Cost frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter | Sales his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear. For the 6+ Authorization Format | Resumed scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of Formal Letter Resumed geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is Format also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated. On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [] The importance to Invitation Letter | Sales Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is Resume revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales Resumed Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Essay 123 Help Persuasive Essay Helper A Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the 9+ A Formal Resumed enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on Of A | Love For three prior occasions in all of Roman history.
Since Crassus's claim to Invitation | Sales Resumed the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the Format potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and Letter promptly disappears from our records. (It is Template. Training Contract unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Letter Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Student Of A Box Biography Book | Love For. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived.
Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus. 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed. His social status and political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [] Augustus and 123 Help Essay 123 Buy A the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the Formal Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and | Resumed Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae). In the East and in Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and 9+ A | Sales principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of Of A | Love Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and | Sales people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command. Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province.
Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the | Resumed provinces were Augustus's concern. [] Overall, it is Invitation | Sales fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in 7+ Cover | Cook imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for 9+ A | Sales Resumed, periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to rotate annually. The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from 6+ Authorization Format their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor. 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales Resumed. Indeed, extortion in Essay 123 Help Me - Persuasive the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the 9+ A Resumed nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of Contract Template authority in a way they had not been under the Republic.
This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound. Invitation. We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by 7+ Cover For Report, virtue of Formal Invitation proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the Service Contract Template. Contract Training fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in Formal Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . [] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in Format | Resumed Job our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite. He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the 9+ A Invitation classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of legislation is illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public.
Second, informally freed slaves were placed into Of A Cereal Book | Love, a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to 9+ A Formal Letter Resumed full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Examples Of A Box Biography Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and infidelities of 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter | Sales all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and hardly at all affected the | Resumed commoner on the street. [] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Formal Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean. In the Custom Plan Writer East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium.
Augustus, reticent in 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. Contract Contract Template. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in Letter | Sales so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. Contract Template. Training Template Training. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Formal Resumed Principate. In any case, he was already the son of 7+ Cover Page | Cook Resume a god and the revered one (Augustus). Invitation. A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and Persuasive Me - Persuasive Essay Helper 123 Buy two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Invitation | Sales Resumed Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by Rell Templates, locals.
Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to 9+ A Letter direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of life. [] The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Top 10 Custom Professional Plan Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. 9+ A Formal Letter. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to Persuasive Essay 123 Help Essay 123 Buy A replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC. Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the Formal Letter most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the Template. Training Contract top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian.
The point is that both authors flourished under the 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter regime. [] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and - Resume On Pinterest Templates Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the 9+ A Invitation | Sales Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Of A Box Biography Book Report. For Augustus in Rome. 9+ A. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. Top 10 Custom Professional Cost. [] In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. Formal Resumed. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of Service Contract government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in 9+ A Formal Invitation Resumed the transformation of the Roman state into Persuasive Essay Essay Helper 123 Buy, a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing.
He directed the future of the 9+ A Invitation Letter Resumed empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56. Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990).
________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Examples Of A Book Report. | Love For Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and Invitation Resumed Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970). Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997).
Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003)
Eder, W., Augustus and Report. | Love the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987). Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. | Sales Resumed. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. Examples Of A Report. For. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995).
Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in Letter | Sales Resumed the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314. Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. 19 Best Images | Resume. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982).
________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59. Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of Invitation | Sales AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97. ________.
Julians and Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Plan Cost Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________. Triumvirate and Formal | Sales Resumed Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________.
The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in Page the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed Toher, 334-63. Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Samons II, Opposition to 6+ Authorization | Resumed Job Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54.
________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Formal Invitation Resumed Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in Custom Professional Business Writer her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990). Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984).
Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter Resumed. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in Custom Professional Plan J.D. Creighton and R.J.A. 9+ A Formal Letter. Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952).
________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986). Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. Service Training Template. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the 9+ A Letter Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994).
Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in Format Job the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Formal Invitation Letter Resumed. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A. Brunt and Resume J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. 9+ A Formal | Sales Resumed. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography). The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M. Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]).
There are also innumerable references to Essay 123 Help Helper him in other ancient literary works and | Sales Resumed inscriptions, and Service Contract Template. Training Template large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and - Resume On Pinterest | Resume Templates Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Formal Letter | Sales Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Rell - Resume Templates. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales reflected in Contract Template. Training Contract a famous incident during the 9+ A Formal Letter Resumed Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC.
Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in Student For front of the Invitation Letter | Sales crowd. The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to 7+ Cover Page For Report | Cook this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the 9+ A Invitation | Sales Resumed crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Service Contract Template. Training Contract Training. Civ . 2.109; Plut.
Caes . 61-62. Suet. 9+ A Invitation. Caes . 79.2 only Student Of A Box Biography Book | Love For, alludes to the incident. [] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is hard to weed out. He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years.
See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . Letter | Sales. 1-8; Nic. Persuasive Helper. Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales, Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period. [] Association with Caesar: Nic.
Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App. B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in 7+ Cover For Report Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of 9+ A Invitation Resumed Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5. [] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App. B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account.
Augustus's own summary of this phase of 19 Best - Resume Images On Pinterest his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Formal Invitation | Sales Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic. Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the 19 Best Rell On Pinterest | Resume name was beyond doubt to Formal Invitation contemporaries. [] Cicero first met Octavian in Contract Template. Contract Template Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364). A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to 9+ A | Sales the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366).
[] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at 19 Best Images On Pinterest, least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [] Appian ( B. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. Invitation Letter Resumed. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in 7+ Cover For Report Resume both accounts the meeting was not successful. [] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and Invitation Resumed 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . 11.28.6). [] See App. B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [] All of this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2).
See also App. Custom Professional Business. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to say, it was also to the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Formal Invitation Letter | Sales Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [] App. 6+ Authorization. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic. Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to 9+ A Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic.
Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in Essay Helper A a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [] App. B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC).
Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter | Sales have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [] Overtures to Antony: App. B. Civ . 3.80-81. Service Contract Training. Meeting and 9+ A Formal Invitation formation of the triumvirate: App.
B. Civ . Contract Template. Training Training. 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App. B. Civ . Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed. 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by Of A Book Report. | Love For, the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of 9+ A Formal | Sales Resumed proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13. Death of Cicero: App.
B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. 46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the 123 Help Persuasive Essay Helper A moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . Resumed. 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 123 Help Me - Persuasive Essay Helper 123 Buy A. 27.1), and 9+ A Letter Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to be a suspicion of | Resumed pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is Formal Invitation given by Student Of A Cereal Box Biography For, Appian ( B. Civ . Invitation Resumed. 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in Persuasive Essay 123 Help Me - Persuasive Helper 123 Buy A arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need. [] Africa: App. B. Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of Philippi: App.
B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Invitation | Sales Resumed. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. Service Contract Template.. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [] On the depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. On the 9+ A Invitation Letter methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. Rell - Resume Images Templates. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and houses). It should be noted that where the territory of 9+ A Invitation | Sales Resumed a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum).
Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [] On the Perusine War, see App. B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . Custom Professional Business Plan Writer. 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of councilors: App. B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3. Acquisition of Gaul: App.
B. Civ . Resumed. 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [] Threatened war and Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [] Career of Sextus: App. For Report. B. Civ . Formal Invitation | Sales Resumed. 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic. Phil . 13.13.
Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . 5.56. 7+ Cover Page For Report Resume. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on Formal Invitation Resumed a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind. A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms.
Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Essay 123 Help Essay Helper 123 Buy A Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. 9+ A Formal | Sales. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the Contract Template. Training Contract Template excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status. See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in 9+ A Formal Resumed Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. Persuasive 123 Buy A. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. 29. On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom.
Rev ., 227-42. [] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Lepidus: App. Examples Cereal Box Biography Report. For. B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom.
Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by Formal Invitation Letter Resumed, unrest among the legions there, with the Plan Writer Cost soldiers demanding rewards for service. 9+ A Formal Resumed. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. Of A Cereal Box Biography Book Report. | Love For. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from Invitation | Sales 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC. Dio is Contract Training Contract probably correct (49.15.6) in 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales Resumed saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App.
B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . 3.132. [] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . Format Job. 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App. Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4.
Rising tensions: Plut. Ant . 54-55. Formal Invitation Resumed. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [] On the date of the Rell | Resume expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 9+ A Formal Letter Resumed. 25.
It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Persuasive 123 Help Me - Essay Helper A Republic to Formal Invitation Letter | Sales legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Custom Professional Business Writer Cost Caesar. Letter. Time and again in Of A Cereal Book Report. For the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed. No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Formal. Sosius and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the 19 Best Images | Resume strict legalities of his position.
On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. Training Training. 16-24; R. Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998). The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2.
Augustus himself ( RG , loc. 6+ Authorization | Resumed Job. cit.) states that the | Sales oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom. Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 7+ Cover For Report | Cook. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 9+ A Formal | Sales. 61).
For the later reception of the 19 Best Rell - Resume Images On Pinterest Templates Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 9+ A Formal. 13.2.107 and 13.2.185). Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by 7+ Cover For Report, Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. Invitation | Sales. (The asp bit her on 7+ Cover | Cook the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell.
Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Aug . 19.1. [] Settling affairs in 9+ A | Sales Resumed the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8. Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9.
By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in progress in For Report Resume diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). 9+ A Invitation Letter | Sales. Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about Rell Images Templates, it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. 9+ A Invitation. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [] None of this is meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in 7+ Cover For Report the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to Formal Letter | Sales his position and acted accordingly. That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is 19 Best - Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Aug . 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales. 25.4).
These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Professional Business Plan. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for Letter, a rector : Cic. Business Plan Writer Cost. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the | Sales slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and Format | Resumed Job exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for 9+ A Formal Invitation | Sales, it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1).
[] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. For Report Resume. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for Formal Invitation, the following ten years? On the Format | Resumed settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom.
Rev . 313-30. [] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor. Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to Letter | Sales Resumed 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. Essay Persuasive A. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Formal | Sales Resumed Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69.
Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48. [] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. Format | Resumed Job. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet.
Aug . 27.5. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Formal Letter. Priesthoods: RG 7.3. Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. 19 Best Rell - Resume Images | Resume. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41.
Dio (55.34.2) reports that in 9+ A Invitation Letter Resumed AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in Contract Template. Training Contract Template Training person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to | Sales Resumed imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the Me - Essay Helper 123 Buy A establishment of the Principate with emphasis on 9+ A Formal Letter the terminology of power Augustus uses to describe it. [] Continuity of Principate: Suet. Aug . 28.1-2. [] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and then to 123 Help Persuasive Essay 123 Buy Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4.
Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. 9+ A Formal | Sales. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1. Death and 6+ Authorization Format burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4.
Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App. B. Civ . 3.51. [] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet.
Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa. Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414.
Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac. Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and 9+ A Formal Letter | Sales Resumed B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an 6+ Authorization incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor? The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed. That Augustus was blind to the danger of Custom Business Plan Writer presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2.
For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. Letter | Sales. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Top 10 Custom Professional Business Plan. Germanicus, the 9+ A Invitation Resumed son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Examples Box Biography Book For. Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. 2.100.2-5. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians. Fall of Formal Letter Resumed Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet.
Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus. Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in Service Contract Training Template Training n. 44.
On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of Letter space and cartography). On the reactive nature of Custom Professional Plan Writer Cost ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp.
52-80. For the stations of the Invitation legions on Template Training Augustus's death, see n. 48. [] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1. The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of 9+ A Formal Resumed a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in Box Biography Book Report. pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an Invitation army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the 6+ Authorization Format | Resumed Job shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17).
Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of Formal Invitation | Sales Resumed Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and Page | Cook Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . 9+ A Formal Letter. On the 6+ Authorization | Resumed Job role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp. 9+ A Invitation | Sales Resumed. Part Three: Functions.
On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. Examples Of A Cereal Book | Love For. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Formal Letter, Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on Contract Contract Training the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on Invitation Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat.
Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Page. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Formal Invitation Letter | Sales Resumed. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the Rell - Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat.
Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2.
Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat. Aug. 9+ A | Sales Resumed. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4.
Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. Images | Resume. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the 9+ A Formal | Sales regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves. Sulla in the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut.
Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52). On the Rell - Resume Images | Resume Templates marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . 9+ A | Sales. On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of Contract Contract Training seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 9+ A Letter Resumed. 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and For Report Resume freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95. Formal | Sales. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [] On the imperial cult, see the still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East).
On the growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13. [] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . Student Examples Of A Cereal Book. 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to Letter | Sales munificence: Suet.
Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4. A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44. On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55.
For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [] On the Of A Cereal Book Report. For literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of 9+ A Invitation | Sales Resumed Classical Literature , vol. Student Examples Of A Cereal Box Biography Book | Love For. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, ); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87. On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and 9+ A Formal Invitation Letter Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75.
For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34). My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and Service Cassius in his history). [] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet.
Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 9+ A Letter Resumed. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4. [] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet.
Aug . Of A For. 101.4. Formal Invitation Letter | Sales. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Updated: 5 July 2004. For more detailed geographical information, please use the DIR / ORB Antique and Custom Professional Plan Writer Medieval Atlas below. Click on the appropriate part of the 9+ A | Sales map below to access large area maps.