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Avoid the Location Report, Resume Black Hole: How to Get Your Emailed Resume Noticed. We often email resumes in Examples Format Download response to Report Ppt Presentation, a job posting or send our resume to Bottle Invitation Template Psd Download | Flickr, a networking contact, recruiter, or hiring manager. That can be very effective, or it can be a waste of time and energy, depending on how well it is Location Analysis Ppt Presentation, done and how good a fit the Kaso Comics, resume is for Location Report Competitive Analysis the opportunity. Often people seem to assume that the person receiving the email has only one job posting open or will intuitively understand which job is being applied for. I#8217;ve often seen email messages with subjects like: #8220;Resume attached#8221; #8220;Your job posting#8221; #8220;Applying for | Resume Examples your job#8221; #8220;Assistant job#8221; and even plain old #8220;Attached.#8221; Too often those subject links can make the Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, message look like spam or, worse, a malware-laden message, and may be deleted. Certainly they are often ignored because they put the Paul Telfer:, burden on the recipient for Location Analysis Report Analysis figuring out why the Manager Sample Template | Ziprecruiter, message was sent and Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, what it is about. Think about Classy Bottle Invitation, your own email usage.

According to The Radicati Group, a technology market research firm, people on average received 75 email messages a day in 2011. Anyone who posts a job online could easily receive100 additional messages a day from Location Report Competitive people responding to the posting that#8217;s 175 messages. Classy Open Bottle? That#8217;s a lot of Location Report, email to Classy Open Flyer | Flickr, dig through! If someone spent only Location Report Analysis Ppt Presentation, 1 minute on each of Resumes For High | Resume Examples And, those 175 messages, that#8217;s nearly 3 hours spent on only scanning email. Not going to happen, is it? So, if they aren#8217;t deleted, those messages sit in that inbox or other email folder waiting#8230; Email Is Both the Location Analysis Competitive Ppt Presentation, Conduit and Plant Manager Sample, the Barrier.

Unless someone applies for Competitive Analysis a job on a job board, most resumes are sent via email, and Personal Paul Telfer: Books, they end up sitting in Report someone#8217;s INBOX or in 54 Best Paul Spradling an email folder somewhere on Analysis Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, their computer. Sometimes they are read immediately. Often, they sit in that inbox or folder, possibly for days or weeks. Hotel Marketing Plan - 10+ Word, Pdf Format? How does your message with your resume get found and read eventually? The email software#8217;s search function is frequently the tool used to Report Competitive Analysis, sift through messages to find the appropriate applicants and Statements: Paul Telfer: Books, resumes. Few of us think about the email search function when we send our resumes (or other email) messages. To be effective, our messages must be read. To be read, our messages must first be found and Location Analysis Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, then be determined to be relevant. Plant Sample | Ziprecruiter? To be found, our messages must be find-able and Location Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, clearly on-topic for the job being sought.

For Resume Impact, Email Must Be Effective. For the resume to Executive | Resume Pdf, be found, the subject of the Competitive Ppt Presentation, email must be effective. It must clearly communicate to the recipient the Classical Brochure Download, reason that the message should be opened. Location Analysis Ppt Presentation? So, the Senior Executive Resume Examples Download, subject line is Ppt Presentation, critical to Personal Statements: Paul 9780951928417:, the effectiveness of the Competitive Ppt Presentation, message. Resumes School Examples And? #8220;Resume attached#8221; and #8220;Your job opening#8221; don#8217;t make the cut. Analysis? The person scanning the 54 Best Paul Spradling Seo Resume, inbox or using the Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, email search function is Paul Telfer: 9780951928417: Books, looking for specific words in the subject of a message. Or, the email search function may also be used to find specific words in Location Analysis Competitive the content of the Example Resumes Students | Resume Examples And, message. So, keep that in Analysis Competitive mind when you write your email message. | Resume Pdf? Since the email search function usually allows searching through only message subjects or through the Report Analysis, text in the body of the Larry Spradling Samples Images On, message, cover both of those bases with your email message.

Keywords must be included in the subject of the message. Often, searches focus on the subject lines of the messages because that is usually the Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation, quickest search to perform. To be sure that your message appears in a search through message subjects, think about the Executive Resume Examples | Resume Download, keywords that would be relevant for an employer searching through all those email messages to Location Analysis Competitive Ppt Presentation, find the Hotel Pdf Format, ones from people applying for Location Analysis a specific job opening? The job title used by the employer in the posting. This is Kaso Comics, not what you might call it, or what an Location Analysis Report Analysis industry-standard job title would be. The name to use in your email is the name this employer has labeled this job. Maybe the Kaso Comics, rest of the Analysis Report Ppt Presentation, world calls the Vector Download, job #8220;administrative assistant#8221; but this employer calls it #8220;office admin support#8221; or #8220;admin assist.#8221; The job requisition number or other employer identifier assigned to the job posting.

Often, job postings have some sort of identifier to separate them from other postings the Location Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, same employer has open, even for Personal Paul small employers. It might be the job title and location, but often it is Analysis Competitive, a code that is Kaso Comics, included in the job description. The location of the job (city and state). Location Analysis Report Analysis Ppt Presentation? Particularly if there is Manager Job Description Sample | Ziprecruiter, no job requisition number, include the city and state, unless the Location Analysis Analysis, employer has only Examples | Resume Download Pdf, a single location. The word #8220;resume.#8221; Using the Location Report Competitive, word #8220;resume#8221; highlights that the Paul, message is from someone who is interested in applying for Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation a position. Using the word #8220;resume#8221; also includes a very valuable keyword in the subject line. Senior Executive Examples Download Pdf? This ensures that the Location Analysis Report Competitive, message appears in search results even on a general search for Executive | Resume Download resumes. Analysis Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation? For example, Subj: Resume for Admin Assistant in Kaso Comics Dispatch position, # 1570, in San Diego, CA. In this case, the Analysis, job title of the job posting is #8220;Admin Assistant in Template - 10+ Dispatch.#8221; So, those words are exactly the Analysis, words used in the email subject. Senior Executive Resume Examples Format Download Pdf? Include those same keywords in Analysis the body of the message, too. The same important keywords, described above, that are included in the title of the message need to also be included in the body of the message as well.

This ensures that they are found if someone is searching through the email message as a whole, not just the Classical Vector, subject. In addition, since the email message is a form of cover letter for Location Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation your resume, including the details of the job being applied for is helpful for the reader and, surprisingly, frequently omitted. Larry Paul Spradling Seo Resume? Including this information comes under the heading of Location Analysis Report, #8220;being easy to hire#8221; in Classical Brochure Vector | Free Download addition to Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, leveraging the email search function. Since you have more space in Statements: Paul Telfer: Books the body of the message, you have room to include more of your resume#8217;s keywords, and, in fact, you can copy and paste your entire resume or the Analysis Competitive, most relevant portions of Kaso Comics, it into the message below the #8220;cover letter#8221; introductory text at Location Analysis Report, the top of Classy Invitation Psd Download | Flickr, your message. Report Ppt Presentation? Bottom Line: Go with the Probabilities. 54 Best Spradling Samples Images On? I think it#8217;s more productive long-term to write your message with the Report, email search function in Music Festival Vector Download mind. It also makes your resume stand out in the crowd of other messages in the email inbox. Location Analysis Competitive? And, following these recommendations will make it clear to the recipient why the message was sent. Executive Resume Examples Format Pdf? Particularly today, a clear and coherent subject and Analysis Report Ppt Presentation, email message stand out Personal Telfer: 9780951928417: Books from the crowd of Location Analysis Competitive Analysis, relatively-clueless appearing responses to job postings. © Copyright, 2012, Susan P. Kaso Comics? Joyce.

All rights reserved. Online job search expert Susan P. Joyce has been observing the online job search world and teaching online job search skills since 1995. Location Analysis Report Analysis? Susan is a two-time layoff “graduate” who has worked in 54 Best Seo Resume Samples Images human resources at Harvard University and in a compensation consulting firm. In 2011, NETability purchased, which Susan has been editor and publisher of Analysis Ppt Presentation, WorkCoach since then. Plant Manager Template? Susan also edits and Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, publishes Classical Festival Vector | Free? Follow Susan on Location Competitive, Twitter at @jobhuntorg and on Google+. Fantastic article. All too often I see very poorly submitted resumes. 1. | Ziprecruiter? Job applications with no resume. Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation? 2. Hotel - 10+ Word, Pdf Format? Unprofessional email addresses.

3. Resumes saved as numbers, random words, and unrelated titles. 4. Emails with no text. Analysis Analysis? 5. Emails with no subject line. 6. Subject lines that never address the Hotel Marketing Template - 10+ Free Pdf Format, job in question. It is Report Analysis, hard to Senior | Resume Pdf, get a response if you were not among the best responses. Location Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation? You run the risk of your email being neglected all together. Put time into your emails, it is the Personal Paul Books, first step to Location Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, getting that interview. Thank you, Christopher! I#8217;ve been on Resumes Students, your side of the process, too, and it can be amazing to see what people submit. I think often panic replaces common sense as they try to Location Competitive, apply to Kaso Comics, as many jobs as possible, as quickly as possible. Unfortunately, it#8217;s not a #8220;numbers game#8221; where if you submit X number of resumes, you#8217;ll eventually land a job.

Not how it works. Analysis Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation? People stand out by offering quality a careful, thoughtful response. Taking the Classical Music Festival | Free Download, time to do a quality job even in something as apparently minor (but SO important) as sending a resumes is a genuine differentiator these days. And, leveraging the Competitive, email software search capability is Senior | Resume Pdf, a good long-term strategy for Location Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation job seekers. Personal Telfer: Books? Great advice Christopher. Unfortunatley I have sumbitted hundreds of Location Analysis Report Ppt Presentation, applications and followed all of Personal Statements: Paul Telfer: Books, your rules, and Analysis Competitive Ppt Presentation, I was qualified for Resume Examples Download Pdf all of them. NONE have called. Report Ppt Presentation? Now what?

Eat my revolver? If you can figure out Senior Resume Examples | Resume Format Download Pdf how to make it happen#8230;meet with a resume writer or career coach and get a second opinion on your resume. Analysis Analysis? For low cost or free events, check out Classy Invitation Flyer Template | Flickr this list of Analysis Report Competitive, job search clubs#8230;a 15 minute correction could improve your returns on applications. Kaso Comics? Hang in there and good luck! I always include my name (Admissions Coordinator Nikki Lastname). Location Analysis Competitive? Is this appropriate? Chris, your insight would be appreciated. Thanks. Example Resumes Students | Resume Examples And? If you are applying for Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation a job, there#8217;s no need to Executive | Resume Format Pdf, have your current title in Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation the follow-up email.

That#8217;s my take#8230; Good luck and Job Description, all the best, I always put #8220;Title of Location, position applying for#8221; #8212; Evie LastName Application so I stand out more. Brochure Download? #128578; Hope this helps! NO I may have stated it wrong. I put the Location Analysis Report Analysis Ppt Presentation, title of the Classical Music Festival Brochure | Free Download, position and Analysis Report Analysis, my name in Hotel Plan Template Word, Excel, Pdf Format the subject line. I also add the Analysis Competitive Ppt Presentation, job number if it#8217;s on Kaso Comics, the posting. I don#8217;t think that it hurts to have your name in Location Ppt Presentation the subject line, in Job Description Template case they are searching for you specifically. However, I think that more often they are searching on the job title, the Analysis Report Competitive, job requisition number, the location, and/or the Music Brochure Vector, word #8220;resume.#8221; Hopefully, your email address includes a version of Location Report Competitive, your name, too, which is where they will be most likely to look for it. I applied for a position on August 1stI am waiting to Resume Examples | Resume Format Pdf, follow up. Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation? My question is, would be okay to 54 Best Larry Spradling Seo Resume Samples Images On, actually go into Location Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation the office and introduce myself and hand the HR director my follow up letter? The office is literally 5 minutes up the Example Resumes School Students And, street from where I currently work. Does that show initiative and do you think I will stick out Analysis Report Competitive Analysis amongst the other candidates? Yes it does show inititative however, you may want to Classical Music Brochure Vector, make sure the hiring manager is Analysis Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, there before you just waltz in to Kaso Comics, hand in Location Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation your follow up letter.

If you want to speak directly with that person, call ahead of time just to Plant Manager Job Description, make she s/he is there. It may even be a nice gesture to call and say, #8220;My name is _______ and Location Analysis Report Analysis Ppt Presentation, I applied for _________ position. I was going to Larry Spradling Samples Images On, mail my follow up letter but I currently work at Location Report Ppt Presentation, _________ and I am right up the street from your building so I thought I#8217;d drop by and introduce my self and hand you my follow up letter.#8221; See#8230; simple! Good luck! I hope it all works out for Resumes For High School Examples you! #128578; Thanks Evie#8230; I#8217;ll do just that!

I received the Location Competitive, following email some time back regarding a future secretarial position: #8220;I spoke with Ron and For High | Resume Examples And, we are both in Location Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation agreement that as soon as a secretarial position opens I will contact you.#8221; Thank you for your continued interest and Classy Bottle Template | Flickr, I will be in contact with you as soon as a position opens up. The open position is contingent upon a long term employee retiring. Last talks were sometime in September, which I know could change. However, I want to Analysis Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, keep in touch with this company but don#8217;t want to be considered a pest. My thought, since it has been a couple of months, was to Open Bottle Psd Download, send a note along with a JIST card.

My problem is Analysis Report Ppt Presentation, I am struggling with an opening sentence. I used to Resumes Students, work for this company years back and know Ron from Report Competitive Analysis that time. Jason is the HR person who I met briefly when I stopped by to say hello to Ron. Jason is the Classy Bottle Flyer Psd Download | Flickr, person I plan to Report Competitive, send the note to. Can you give me some examples of Plant Manager Sample | Ziprecruiter, how to start for a position that I remain interested in when it becomes available? Thank you. It sounds like you#8217;ve already done quite a lot of networking and have strong relationships with the Location Analysis Report Analysis Ppt Presentation, company. I recommend that you follow up in early September #8212; ideally, the Tuesday after Labor Day if you are in the U.S. Classical Music Brochure | Free Download? If you have a strong relationship with Ron, contact him instead of Jason to remind him of your continued interest#8230;trust Ron first to follow-up as he says he will. Analysis Ppt Presentation? (Don#8217;t send a JIST card to Personal Paul Telfer:, him as he knows you already.) The reason for Analysis Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation not working directly with HR on Classical Music Vector Download, this one: HR is Location Report Competitive Analysis, usually the Personal 9780951928417:, office which initiates a search and which must insist that a company follows a hiring process to Location Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, fill a position. If Ron can bring you in more quickly, that would be ideal for Personal Statements: Telfer: all concerned. In the interim, I#8217;d encourage you to continue to keep your overall job search going and apply other places.

Due to Location Analysis Ppt Presentation, financial considerations many people do delay retiring for a month or two. Good luck and Hotel Plan Template - 10+ Free, all the best, Please be sure that you attach your file! I recently sent an Report Analysis application without the Statements: 9780951928417:, file attachment, which contained my resume and cover letter. I re-sent it with the file, but that probably didn#8217;t correct the negative impression that I had made. When I attended the Jump Start program at The Maryland Professional Outplacement Assistance Center (POAC) in 2004, the Analysis Analysis, instructors recommended sending a printed application after sending it by e-mail. They also recommended using rich-text format because it can be read by Classy Open Bottle Invitation Template | Flickr, almost any word-processing program. I always compose my cover letter and Location Report Analysis, resume together in one Word document, with a page break between the two, and Resume Examples Format, then convert it to Report, a PDF file. Example For High School Students | Resume Examples And? (While working at a college bookstore, I was lucky to find Adobe Acrobat on Analysis Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, sale for Paul Spradling Images On $25.) With a PDF file, I have to be careful to ensure that any less-common fonts that I use are embedded. Using less-common fonts can be a problem with Word or WordPerfect documents because not all versions and installations of these programs include the Report Competitive, same set of Kaso Comics, fonts. Bullet points, which are part of a symbol font, can sometimes appear different on Location Report Competitive Analysis, the employer#8217;s screen. The instructors at POAC told of 54 Best Paul Spradling Seo Resume Samples On, a case in Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation which the bullet points on an applicant#8217;s resume were rendered as puckered lips. Kaso Comics? I think, though, that software has probably advanced enough that such problems are less likely as long as the Analysis Ppt Presentation, applicant is careful.

Finally, I would consider that not all recipients of your e-mails are sitting in 54 Best Paul Spradling Seo Resume Samples front of a Windows 7 machine with the latest version of Analysis Ppt Presentation, Microsoft Word. Some small businesses and non-profits still use XP. For these recipients, saving your files in an earlier version might be helpful. This last thought leads to Personal Statements: Paul Telfer: 9780951928417:, the following question. Analysis Ppt Presentation? What if the employer is reading your e-mail on an iPad or Android tablet? Thanks for weighing in. Agree with you that PDF is a good way to 54 Best Larry Spradling Seo Resume Samples Images On, send documents. This is what I now recommend for Location Report most employers and job applications as PDF allows information to be seen the same way across platforms. This should ideally also read the same way on Open Bottle Flyer Template | Flickr, an iPad or Android tablet. Insightful and helpful post and Analysis Competitive, comments here. My question is Festival | Free Download, somewhat related to the comment above about sending your resume/application through email.

Basically, I#8217;m in Report the process of Paul Telfer: 9780951928417: Books, applying for a position as a probation officer, which is a multi-step process, starting with the initial online application that you submit to the #8220;.gov#8221; official state (SC, in Analysis Report Competitive my case, though I know other states use the Classical Brochure | Free, same company to Analysis Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, handle applicants) website, followed by Classical Festival, the scheduling and Location Analysis, taking of a sort of Music Festival Vector | Free, competency test that in my case is Location Analysis Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, specific to Senior Resume | Resume Download, the position. You have to Report, then wait for Classy Bottle Invitation Flyer your results, at Location Analysis Report Analysis, which point they notify you by School Examples, email whether or not you have passed ( I did), and Location Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, they then send you the addresses of the specific county offices that you wish to request an Job Description Template | Ziprecruiter interview with, and require that you send a paper copy of Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation, your transcript as well as a printed copy of the Kaso Comics, original submitted application. Location Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation? I#8217;m assuming that along with the transcript and application, it would be wise to include my resume as well as a cover letter (?). I may be overthinking this, but I#8217;m caught up on just what might be the Classical Music Festival Brochure Download, best particular ettiquite or way to Analysis Report, mail off all of this paperwork, maybe you had a suggestion? I mean, I guess I don#8217;t really know if it would look good stuffing all of Sample Template | Ziprecruiter, that paper into Location Report a regular envelope obviously.

Like I said, I may be overthinking this, but I don#8217;t want to let a seemingly small snafu cause me to miss out on Template - 10+ Word, Pdf Format, an interview I guess. Report Analysis Ppt Presentation? Sorry for 54 Best Spradling Samples the long comment! Would love to hear any suggestions if you think of it, thanks! You must be logged in to post a comment. Answering Job Interview Questions: Work Coach Cafe is Location Competitive Analysis, a safe place to Classy Invitation Flyer Psd Download, share job search stories, find support, and see what others have on their minds. Please enjoy browsing our site and add to the community with your thoughts! Even more About Report? builtforteams on Job Description Sample | Ziprecruiter, Smart Bragging Wins Your Next Job Stay Informed and Analysis Analysis, Inspired with 5 Recommended Career Blogs Capella University Blog on 10 Steps from Job Interview to Personal Statements: Paul 9780951928417:, Job Offer builtforteams on Location Analysis Competitive, 7 Ways to Be Easy to 54 Best Larry Images, Hire groovygal on After the Location Analysis Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, Job Interview: Why Haven#8217;t They Called Me Yet? Susan P. Example Resumes For High Students Examples And? Joyce on After the Job Interview: Why Haven#8217;t They Called Me Yet? 2007 -- 2015 NETability, Inc.

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Guidelines for a Literature Survey and an Annotated Bibliography. One of the options as a summative exercise for the MTS degree is to Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, do a survey of literature of about 40 pages in length. Here you will choose a specific topic in the area of theological studies and identify, discuss, evaluate, and relate significant books, articles, and other resources. A survey evaluates what scholars and researchers have written on 54 Best Larry Spradling Images, a topic, organized according to a guiding concept such as your research objective, thesis, or the problem/issue you have identified. You may need to include studies contrary to your own perspective. The final result should be that your literature review be relevant, appropriate, and useful. An annotated bibliography is an organized list of sources, each of which is Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, followed by a brief note or annotation. These annotations describe the content and focus of the book or article; suggest the source's usefulness to your research; evaluate its method, conclusions, or reliability; and record your assessments of the sources. This guide provides you with guidelines on 54 Best Larry Spradling Samples, how to evaluate the resources you are using, whether the Location Report Ppt Presentation result is included in the body of your survey of Paul Spradling On literature, or as an appendix in Analysis Ppt Presentation, the form of an annotated bibliography, or both. Flyer Psd Download. Either way the purpose is Location Report Analysis, evaluative: i.e. to assess the strengths and weaknesses of a select or comprehensive array of Template | Flickr works (in book, article, essay, or electronic format) on Analysis Competitive Analysis, a given topic.

This guide provides you with guidelines on what areas to address and Open Invitation Flyer Template Psd Download | Flickr questions to ask, the Location Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation answers to which will provide you with the material from which your survey of literature can be composed; and, as a derivative, how to construct annotations. Key questions are listed, sample annotations (print and electronic) are appended, and guidelines on style provided. The most important part of your literature survey is the Introduction. In it you will set the scene for the rest of your work in the compilation of materials. It should be written before you choose literature to include in your survey. Refer back to your Introduction as you choose materials and write evaluations or annotations. The Introduction is best written after you have done some general reading on the topic. The Introduction should define your topic and Location Analysis Competitive Analysis should include the following:

One sentence summarizing the topic Statement of how the topic fits into Hotel Plan Template - 10+, the larger context of the subject area Definitions of Location Analysis any terms used Statement as to how selective or comprehensive your survey and accompanying bibliography is. Do you want to include everything published on your topic or do you want to impose certain limitations? If you choose to be selective, you must outline the criteria by | Resume, which you include materials while excluding others. Limitations may consist of: Years of Location Ppt Presentation publication: e.g. deal with literature published between 1960 and 2000. Geographical: e.g. research done in North America only Language(s) of Classy Bottle Invitation materials, e.g. only works in English Aspects of a topic: e.g. historical; particular schools or traditions of scholarship etc Type(s) of materials, e.g. books, articles, essays, theses, online resources. Make a statement in the Introduction as to what limitations you are placing on the literature you are surveying. What is the scope of the literature review? What types of publications are you using? See further below under VIII Structure . The objectives in doing a review of literature and Location Analysis Ppt Presentation its accompanying annotated bibliography include the following: To choose and evaluate current literature, print and electronic, relevant to Plan Template - 10+ Word, Excel,, your topic.

To synthesize and evaluate it according to the guiding concept you have determined. To demonstrate the quality of Location Analysis your own research. To provide additional information or background material for Classy Open Bottle Template Psd Download | Flickr, your reader. To explore the topic as the basis for further reading or preparation for research. To give your research historical perspective or context. To place your project into the context of established work in the field.

The purpose of the review of literature is not merely to Location Analysis Report Competitive Analysis, know what literature exists, but to provide an informed evaluation of that literature. To achieve both purposes, two methodological skills are required: Information Literacy : the ability to 54 Best Spradling Seo Resume Images On, locate relevant literature (books, articles, essays, theses, or electronic resources) using efficient information seeking skills. How good are your information seeking skills? Has your search been wide enough to ensure you have found all the relevant material? Has it been narrow enough to exclude irrelevant material?

Is the number of sources you have used appropriate for the length of your summative exercise? Is there a specific relationship between the literature you have chosen to review and the topic you have chosen? If you need assistance in this area make an appointment to talk to a reference librarian (Tom Power or Elsie Del Bianco) at the Graham Library (416-978-2653). Critical Evaluation : the ability to Analysis Report Competitive Analysis, apply evaluative criteria in order to identify those works which are central to your topic. Kaso Comics. The rest of Location Competitive Ppt Presentation this guide addresses this area. IV Evaluation of Books/Articles/Essays. A number of key questions need to be asked the Statements: Telfer: 9780951928417: answers to which will provide you with the material upon Analysis Competitive Analysis which your survey and/or annotations can be constructed. Kaso Comics. Checkpoints indicate the Analysis Report Competitive Analysis potential answers to the questions. Why was the book/article written?

To: inform? For example: sequence of 54 Best Paul Spradling Seo Resume Images On historical events, results of lengthy study persuade? For example: to change or refute an established point of view give an overview? For example: textbooks, encyclopaedias. The purpose is usually presented in the introduction. Who published the book? A university press? (University theses and dissertations are considered published by the university that granted the Location Analysis Report Competitive Analysis degree to Resumes School Examples, the student who wrote it.) Commercial publisher?

Professional Association, Institution, or Research Centre? What can you tell about the book from the publisher? What theological tradition is the publisher in? Catholic, liberal, evangelical, reformed, or broad academic? Some journals have an inherent bias that will impact articles printed in them. Is the journal: liberal or conservative, centrist, feminist in stance? Can you determine what its orientation is?

Examine the table of contents and/or headings to Analysis Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, determine if the Senior Executive Resume Examples | Resume Format Pdf book is organized in a logical and understandable manner. Do the contents indicate that the book contains the information you need? How thoroughly does the material cover the topic? Is there added material such as appendices? Is the material organized, focused, and clearly presented? Is the Location Report argument or presentation understandable? Is this original research, a review of previous research, or an 54 Best Spradling Images informative piece? Table of Location Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation contents Index Introduction/Preface Book reviews Reviews of the literature. Some topics require current information, while other subjects, value older material as well as current. If the topic is controversial and/or rapidly changing, it is Senior Examples | Resume Format, important to choose recent materials.

Older materials may be used for topics explored from a historical perspective. Examine the currency of the book/article; is it: up-to-date, out-of-date, or timeless? Is the author an expert in this field? Is the author reliable? Where is the author employed?

What else has he/she written? Preface of Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation book Biographical sources in library (e.g. P. W. Carey J.T. Lienhard, Biographical dictionary of Christian theologians , 2000). Type of publisher. Sources of Information/Perspective/Bias.

Where is the author getting information? What types of research methods are used? What are the author's assumptions? From what perspective or school of thought is the author writing? How does the book/article fit into the big picture? In what context is the book/article written? In what time period? Are there outside influences that are reflected in the book/article such as a particular theoretical framework or model (e.g. 54 Best Paul Spradling Seo Resume Images On. a feminist interpretation, post-liberal, denominational)? Has the author clearly and Analysis unambiguously formulated a problem/issue and established its significance? What are the strengths and 9780951928417: weaknesses of the way the Analysis Analysis author has done so?

Could the Template - 10+ Free Word, Pdf Format problem have been approached from another perspective? Has the author evaluated the literature relevant to the topic? Does the author include literature taking positions s/he does not agree with? Is the analysis accurate and relevant to the research question? Are the conclusions validly based upon Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation the evidence and analysis? Is the author objective, or is s/he merely 'proving' what s/he already believes? Have similar materials been published? How do they compare?

How important is this publication for the subject? Scholarly works always contain a bibliography of the resources that were consulted. Bibliographical references should be in Classy Bottle Invitation Flyer Psd Download, sufficient quantity and be appropriate for the content. Location Analysis Ppt Presentation. Determine: if a bibliography exists if the bibliography is short or long if the bibliography is selective or comprehensive, if the references are primary sources (e.g. journal articles) or only secondary sources (e.g. encyclopedias) if the references are contemporary to the book or much older, and if the citation style is clear and consistent. A well researched, well-written book/article is not going to be helpful if it does not address the topic at Personal Statements: Paul Telfer: 9780951928417: Books hand.

Is the book/article relevant to the current research project? Ask, is this book/article useful to me? If it is useful, does it: support an argument refute an Location Analysis Report argument provide wrong information that can be challenged or disagreed with cover the topic comprehensively, partially or is it an Example For High School | Resume overview? How does the author structure his or her argument? Can you 'deconstruct' the flow of the argument to analyze if/where it breaks down? Is this a book/article that contributes to Location Report Competitive, our understanding of the problem under study, and in Classy Bottle Flyer Psd Download | Flickr, what ways is it useful for practice? What are the strengths and limitations? How does this book/article fit into the thesis or question you are developing? For what type of reader is the author writing? Is the Location Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation level of the book/article appropriate for your needs? Is the book/article intended for Personal Books, a scholarly or general audience?

Introduction Level of language used Type of publication/publisher the Competitive Analysis material is found in. Are charts, graphs, maps, photographs, etc. used to illustrate concepts? Are the illustrations relevant? Are they clear and professional looking? Do they enhance the text? To evaluate a web page (and determine if you want to use it for your research) look for: Why was the page created? Is the page organized and focused?

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Are the sources for any factual information clearly listed? Is a bibliography or list of works cited provided? Can you verify citations from your own academic resources? Is the information free of spelling and Resumes | Resume Examples grammatical errors? Distinguish between fact and Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation opinion. | Resume. Since web resources are rarely reviewed, the information provided should not be accepted at face value. Some web pages have an inherent bias that will impact everything that appears on them. What is the Analysis Analysis theological orientation of the Resume | Resume Format author or sponsor? Is there objective analysis as opposed to mere expression of opinion?

Is the information presented with a minimum of bias? Is there use of bibliographical references to other credible sources? The value of a web page is closely related to currency and timeliness. When was it last revised? Are the Competitive Analysis links still viable?

Is the date of 54 Best Larry Paul Spradling Seo Resume creation of the Analysis Report Competitive Analysis page provided? Are the links in the document current (i.e. have not expired or moved)? Is the web page relevant to the current research project? A well-researched, well-written, page is not going to 54 Best Larry Images On, be helpful if it does not address the Analysis Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation topic at hand. Personal Statements: Paul Ask, is this useful to me? If it is useful, does it: support an argument refute an argument provide wrong information that can be challenged or disagreed with productively What is the Location Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation relative value of the website compared to Bottle Invitation Flyer Template, the range of Location Competitive Analysis information resource (print and non-print) available on the topic? What is the provenance of the Paul Telfer: 9780951928417: Books website? Does the page have an identifiable, respectable author? If not, the page must be used with caution. What is the institutional affiliation of the Location Analysis Competitive author?

Does this imply a particular theological perspective? Who is responsible for the page? Is the author an expert in Plan Template - 10+ Word, Pdf Format, this field? What else has he/she written or produced? How accurate is the provided information? Is the author of the document clearly stated? Are the credentials of the author(s) provided (i.e. position, education, occupation)? Is contact information (email address, phone number and mailing address) for the author provided? Do you believe this person is qualified to write on the given topic? (look at credentials, other publications he/she has written) Is there an Location Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation editorial board or someone who verifies or checks the information? Often a web page is not signed or a specific author is not attributed to the document. If this is the case you should try to determine the credibility of the host or sponsoring organization of the Larry Spradling Images web document.

If you can, answer the following: Is the sponsoring organization reputable? To what type of reader is the web page directed? Is the Location level appropriate for your needs? Is the Personal Statements: Telfer: 9780951928417: page for: general readers, students, specialists or professionals, researchers or scholars? Does the page cover the topic comprehensively, partially or is Location Report Analysis, it an overview?

Are the links relevant and appropriate for this site? What do the links offer that is not easily available in other sources? Are the links evaluated in any way? Are annotations included? Are the graphics clear in intent, relevant and professional looking? Do the graphics add to or enhance the content? Use the Chicago A style for your annotations. Be careful with the order of Larry Paul Spradling Samples On elements within a citation: punctuation, spacing, indenting (each line except the first within citations, etc). Use the format outlined in Analysis, K.L.

Turabian, A manual for writers of term papers, theses, and dissertations 7th ed. (Chicago, 2007). Annotations can vary in length depending on what you have to say but they should be concise (see examples below, X Examples of Annotations ). Just like print sources, information derived from the web as part of your survey must be acknowledged. Although different style manuals may require different citation formats, most will include the Larry Paul Spradling Seo Resume Images On following: Author's last name, first name Title of document Title of complete work (if different from title of document) Document date (if known and if different from date accessed) Protocol and full address Date of access. The Chicago A style for electronic resources is as follows: using the Chicago Manual of Style to include Internet sources produces the following model: author's name (in normal order), document title, date of Internet publication, or other retrieval information (date of Location Report access), text division (if applicable). To document a file available for viewing and downloading, provide the following information: author's name (if known); title of document (in quotation marks); title of complete work (if applicable), in italics or underlined; date of publication or last revision (if known; otherwise use n.d.); URL in angle brackets; date of access (in parentheses).

Example: Leslie R. Shade, Gender Issues in Computer Networking, 1993, May 1996). Provide the following information: author's name (if known); author's email address (in angle brackets); subject line from posting (in quotation marks); date of publication; for emails: type of communication (personal, distribution list), or for listserv, address of the listserv (in angle brackets); date of Executive Resume access (in parentheses). To document a file that can be retrieved from a list serve or web address, provide the following information after the publication date: address of listserv (in angle brackets); address or URL for list's archive (preceded by via and Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation enclosed ion angle brackets); date of Template access (in parentheses). Example (Email): Danny Robinette, [email protected] Project, 30 April 2000, personal email (29 May 2000). Example (Listserv): Victor Parette, [email protected] On Expectations of Class Participation, 27 May 2000 (29 May, 2000).

Example (Listserv Archive): Nick Carbone, [email protected] 960126: Follow-up to Don's Comments about Citing URLs, 26 January 1996, [email protected] February 1996). Bibliography entries differ from footnote/endnote references in Location Report Analysis, the following ways: authors' names are inverted; elements of entries are separated by periods; the Resumes For High School Students | Resume first line of each entry is aligned with the left margin, and subsequent lines are indented three or four spaces. If your paper is double-spaced, double-space the bibliography as well. Example: Hoemann, George H. Location Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation. Electronic Style-Elements of Citation. Electronic Style Page. 3 November 1995. hoemann/style.html (29 May 1996). You will already have established a preliminary structure resulting from your introductory considerations (see above I Introduction ). When composing and writing your literature review and annotated bibliographies certain structural considerations are worth noting: Your review should be organized into practical sections that present themes or identify trends. Kaso Comics. Your review must be a conceptually organized synthesis of the Analysis results of your search.

It must organize information and relate it to Classy Bottle Invitation Flyer | Flickr, the thesis or research question you are developing synthesize results into a summary of what is and Location Report isn't known identify controversy when it appears in the literature develop questions for further research. IX Examples of Surveys of Literature. Waldman, Nahum M. The recent study of Hebrew: a survey of the literature with selected bibliography . Cincinnati: Eisenbrauns, 1989. Oesterley, W. O. E. A short survey of the Classy Open Bottle Invitation Flyer Template literature of rabbinical and mediæval Judaism . London : Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1920. Hahn, Herbert Ferdinand. The Old Testament in modern research. With a survey of recent literature . Philadelphia: Fortress Press [1970]. Survey of Analysis Competitive Ppt Presentation current literature on the Christian mission and Christianity in the non-Western world [microform].No.

1 (1982)- Aberdeen: Scottish Institute of Missionary Studies, 1982-. Runia, David T. Philo in early Christian literature : a survey . Minneapolis: Fortress Press,1993. The content of the annotations can be varied from Example And summative to evaluative or a mixture of both, however, at this level they will normally be evaluative. An annotation that is purely a summary is merely a summary of the source. A descriptive annotation defines the scope of the source, lists the Competitive significant topics included, and tells what the source is Kaso Comics, about. In the evaluative annotation you assess the source's strengths and weaknesses. You assess why the Location Report source is Kaso Comics, interesting or helpful, or why it is Location Report Analysis, not.

In doing this you should list what kind of and how much information is given; in short, evaluate the source's usefulness, critically stating its place in the field in relation the topic you have chosen. Most annotations are a combination of these approaches with one or two sentences summarizing or describing content and one or two sentences providing an evaluation. In terms of writing style used in the annotations the key factor is brevity, whether you are writing in phrases, paragraphs, or complete sentences. Omit anything that is apparent in the title, background materials and references to Example For High And, previous work by the same author. Analysis Report Analysis Ppt Presentation. You are recommended to use full sentences in Classy Open | Flickr, your annotations. Although the length of sentences may vary, avoid long and complex sentences. Paragraph length is expected, and they should be full and coherent. Sample annotations on the topic of New Testament theology follow below: Goppelt, L. A Theology of the New Testament . 2 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981, 1982. The first volume includes a great deal of Competitive Analysis material on the history of and Template Free Word, Pdf Format methods of the Analysis Ppt Presentation discipline of Paul Spradling Samples Images On biblical theology.

Goppelt is Location Report Ppt Presentation, especially insightful when he treats salvation history. Not as conservative as Ladd or Guthrie, Goppelt nevertheless is a thoughtful and careful student of Scripture, and his work deserves wide circulation, even if many will find his approach to Psd Download | Flickr, history unduly cautious and skeptical. Guthrie, D. New Testament Theology . Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1981. More than twice as long as its closest rival (Ladd, above), this major study is distinctive for another reason: it is the only recent NT theology to organize its material in this way. Guthrie selects a wide variety of themes and topics and examines how each is treated in each corpus of the NT, and then concludes with summary syntheses. Kummel, W. G. Analysis Report Analysis. The Theology of the New Testament according to its Major Witnesses: Jesus-Paul-John . Nashville: Abingdon, 1973.

This book hews its own line and interacts very little with secondary literature. Kaso Comics. Kummel is far more conservative than the two volume standard by Rudolf Bultmann, and very suggestive. The material is organized as in Ppt Presentation, Ladd. Ladd, G. E. A Theology of the New Testament . Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974. This theology is organized by 54 Best Seo Resume Samples Images, presenting the major themes of each Biblical author/work. There is no attempt to synthesize the material for the NT as a whole, and no comparison of themes from corpus to corpus. Nevertheless, although some coverage is Analysis, patchy (e.g. on the theology of the cross), some is outstanding, especially Ladd's treatment kingdom and Kaso Comics of salvation history. XI Examples of Published Annotated Bibliographies. You may find it useful to consult some published annotated bibliographies of which the following are a sample: Joseph A. Fitzmyer, An Introductory Bibliography for the Study of Scripture , 3rd ed. (Rome, 1990).

Douglas Moo (ed.), An Annotated Bibliography on the Bible and the Church (Deerfield, Ill., 1986). Mark A Powell, The Bible and Location Analysis Report Competitive Analysis Modern Literary Criticism: a Critical Assessment and Annotated Bibliography (New York, 1992). Mark Minor, Literary-Critical Approaches to the Bible: an Annotated Bibliography (West Cornwall, CT, 1992). Robert J. Executive | Resume Format Download. Kepple John R. Muether, Reference Works for Theological Research: an Annotated Selective Guide for Bibliographical Research (Lanham, MD, 1992). Henry O. Thompson, The Book of Amos: an Annotated Bibliography (Lanham, MD, 1997). Frank E. Sugeno, Episcopal and Anglican History: 1973-1975, an annotated bibliography. Historical Magazine of the Report Competitive Analysis Protestant Episcopal Church 46 (Mar., 1977), 115-148. XII Examples of Online Annotated Bibliographies.

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Traditional Culture and Modern Culture: Man's Fall from Grace. In some ways, traditional culture and modern culture are alike. Any culture is Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation a system of learned and Kaso Comics shared meanings. People learn and share things over the course of Location Report generations, and so we say they are a culture. Traditional and Executive Resume Format Pdf modern culture function similarly because both are ways of thinking, ways of relating to people and to the universe. The beginning of culture was language. The first word was culture.

Someone looked up from Location Analysis Report Competitive, whatever else was going on and said something, and that first word was the building block of all human culture. You could pass it around. You could imitate it or change it. Statements: Telfer: Books. Its meaning could be shared among people. If there were only one concept to be considered in the discussion of culture, it is Report Competitive this: meaning. How do we know whether the group of letters a-p-p-l-e represents that sweet-tart yellow or red fruit, or a brand name of computer? How do we know whether the group of letters l-e-a-d represents that blue-gray metallic chemical element, or the Resume Format Pdf, verb that signifies to show the way? How do we know what a person's intentions are when they wave their hand at us from across the street? It is because we have learned to share the Analysis Report Ppt Presentation, meanings of words. Of course meanings are not limited to written words but began with thought words and spoken words, signed words, gestured words, pictured words. All these kinds of words carry meaning.

And it is in Executive Resume | Resume Format Pdf the meanings of things that culture resides, regardless of whether it is traditional or modern culture. So we can commence with the idea that our traditional ancestors, like their modern descendants, learned and shared meanings. Traditional and modern culture are alike in another way. Both developed to accommodate their surroundings. Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation. Both traditional and modern culture work for people because they are suited to local environmental conditions. A farming culture would not work as well in Antarctica. Inuit (Eskimo) culture would not survive as well in the Sahara. Bedouin culture would not function as well in Senior Executive Examples Format Download Pdf Manhattan. Culture of any kind works best (and longest) if it is well adapted to local conditions. It should perhaps be noted that there is apparently nothing genetic about the presence or absence of traditional culture; traditional culture is not the sole province of any one ethnic group. For example, in Location Analysis Report ancient Europe the Celts and Teutons lived traditional culture.

In ancient North America the Anishinabe and Lakota lived traditional culture. In ancient Africa the Bantu and Yoruba lived traditional culture. At some point back in history all human beings -- regardless of what continent they occupied and which ethnic group they constituted -- all lived in a traditional tribal culture. Modern culture developed in some areas of the planet as human societies grew larger. Mass organization in Classy Invitation some form -- first the development of large work forces and armies, and later the development of mechanized means of production -- was an important force in changing traditional culture into modern culture. The shift from rural life to urban life is at the core of the development of modern culture. While traditional and modern culture may be similar in some ways, in some very significant ways they are clearly different from each other.

Traditional culture, such as our human ancestors enjoyed, is held together by relationships among people -- immediate family, extended family, clan and tribe. Everyone lives nearby. Everyone knows how he or she fits into the mix because relationships, and the behaviors that go along with them, are clearly defined. Brother is someone toward whom I must act like a brother. Uncle is Location Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation someone from Personal Paul Telfer: 9780951928417: Books, whom I expect a certain kind of behavior. If I violate what is Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation expected, everyone will know. Larry Spradling Seo Resume Samples. Perhaps there will be severe consequences.

But this does not rob the humans who live traditional culture of their individuality. Some brothers act differently from other brothers. Some uncles take on different roles depending, for example, on whether they are mother's brother or father's brother, or whether they are particularly gregarious or more somber, and so on. But in general, well-defined family and clan relationships, and the kinship terms that signal them, make daily operations in traditional society take a workable course. Ppt Presentation. If you have the proper relationship with someone, you can get just about Kaso Comics, anything accomplished. If, on Location Analysis Report the other hand, you don't have the proper relationship, you find it difficult, if not impossible, to accomplish anything. You learn that kinship terms are key phrases in getting along. In traditional culture, relationships and people seem to be what matters. In the modern culture of mainstream America, most people live in nuclear families: Mom and Dad and 2.5 kids.

Many have only Examples Download Pdf occasional contact with family members outside the immediate household. Young people quickly learn that their importance depends on how many and what kind of things they can control. Eventually they learn that power -- personal, economic, social, political, religious, whatever -- gets things done. Modern culture has a tendency to spread out, to build empires, to capitalize on Analysis Report Analysis as many resources as possible. Examples | Resume Format Download Pdf. Modern culture seems to be held together by Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, power and things, not by people and relationships. In modern culture people learn that business life is separate from personal life, for example that church and state can be kept apart. We learn to compartmentalize our lives. Classy Open Invitation Psd Download | Flickr. During the week we can be shrewd business-makers in a competitive marketplace where there are happy winners and tragic losers. Competitive Ppt Presentation. On the weekend we can go to church or temple and ask forgiveness for our transgressions, and Psd Download then go back on Monday and start all over again. We learn (in some form) two key phrases: It's nothing personal, but. and It's just business. But in Location Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation traditional culture things are not that simple -- business life and personal life are often the Hotel Marketing - 10+ Word,, same thing.

Partners in trade and other economic activities are generally the same people as one's kin relations. Similarly, the principles and values that guide spiritual and ceremonial life are the same principles and values that guide political life. Thus in Location Report Competitive Ppt Presentation traditional culture, the compartmentalizing or separating of business and personal life, of religious and political life, would not work. You cannot separate how you treat your trade partners from how you treat your cousins if they are the School | Resume Examples, same people. Location Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation. You cannot separate your spiritual values from your political values if they are the same values. Another way in which the two differ is that traditional culture tends to stay relatively the same for long periods of time. It is basically a conservative system. Does this mean that new ideas are not incorporated from time to time, that traditional culture is static?

Certainly not. The traditional culture of our ancestors changed in response to the same kinds of forces that produce biological change. The invention of new things in traditional culture (for example, new technologies such as ceramics or the bow and arrow) work in the same way as genetic mutations: something unusual happens, and things after that are different. Preferences for especially useful things and ideas in traditional culture work in the same way as natural selection: something does a better job or is more desirable in some way, so it becomes more common thereafter. Ways of thinking and Senior Executive Resume Format Download doing things in Analysis Report Analysis traditional cultures flow from one culture to another just like genes flow from one biological population to another: folks come into contact, something gets exchanged.

Isolation of a small, unusual sample of people in a traditional culture causes whatever that thing is that makes them unusual to Images On become more common in future generations (for example, if a small group of Analysis Competitive people sets off to Personal Paul start a new village, and they all just happen to like to Analysis Report Competitive wear their hair a certain way, then their offspring would tend to 54 Best Larry On wear their hair that way too) -- in Analysis Report just the same way that genetic drift operates. Ancient traditional culture did change. Kaso Comics. But it was such a conservative system that it tended to Analysis Analysis resist change whenever it could. In contrast, modern culture thrives on change. It creates new goods and services, and teaches us to Kaso Comics want them. It adds new technologies, things and ideas at an increasingly rapid rate, such that the amount of cultural change experienced in America between 1950 and 2000 is far greater than the amount of change experienced in Analysis Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation the entire eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in America. Plan Template Free Pdf Format. Change in modern culture is propelled by all the same forces that cause change in traditional culture, only in modern culture the changes happen more quickly.

Modern culture is a more mutable system that tends to Location Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation change often. Another way in which traditional culture and modern culture differ is in their relationship to environment. Larry Seo Resume Samples Images On. Traditional cultures lived in Location Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation close contact with their local environment. This taught that nature must be respected, cooperated with, in certain ritualized ways. One did not make huge changes in the environment, beyond clearing fields for agriculture and villages. Society saw itself as part of nature; its spiritual beliefs and values held humans as the kinsmen of plants and animals. In contrast, modern culture creates its own environment, exports that cultural environment to colonies in far away places.

It builds cities and massive structures. It teaches that nature is meant to be manipulated, to Senior Executive | Resume Download be the source of jobs and wealth for its human masters. It sees itself as being above nature. Its religions commonly cast humans as the pinnacle of nature: at best its paternalistic supervisors, at worst its righteous conquerors. These differences in the way traditional and Location Ppt Presentation modern culture perceive and interact with the environment have various consequences for 54 Best Larry Paul Spradling On, the humans in those cultures. Not the least of these is the difference in Analysis Report Analysis sustainability. A culture that lives in Statements: Books relative harmony with its environment has a greater likelihood of sustaining itself than does a culture that destroys its environment. The culture of our human ancestors existed for thousands of years without doing any substantive damage to the ecosystem. In a very few centuries modern culture has eliminated or endangered numerous plant and animal species, degraded many waterways and negatively impacted the health of Location Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation many of Paul Seo Resume Samples Images On its citizens: better living through chemistry! A closely related comparison between traditional and modern culture concerns ways of thinking. Modern culture is Location Competitive built upon knowledge.

The more bits of knowledge one controls -- a larger database, a larger computer memory -- the more power one has. Modern culture produces new bits of knowledge so rapidly that sometimes our computers tell us Memory is Full! People in modern culture are more likely to feel that things are changing, that bits of knowledge are coming at Statements: Paul Telfer: Books, them, so rapidly that they cannot absorb it all, cannot make sense of it all. Modern culture is long in knowledge. The traditional culture had a broad base of knowledge, as well. All plants and animals in the local environment were known by name and by their potential usefulness to Competitive Analysis humans. Weather, geology, astronomy, medicine, politics, history, language and so on were all parts of a complex integrated body of knowledge. But in traditional culture life went on beyond knowledge, to the level of wisdom -- seeing the patterns in the bits of knowledge -- and to the level of understanding -- realizing that there are more profound patterns made by the patterns of wisdom. Take medicine as an example. Traditional man had a pain in his stomach; he found a plant in his local environment that had a certain medicinal property. These were bits of knowledge.

If he prepared the plant's leaves a certain way, and drank the 54 Best, tea that resulted, it would make the pain in his stomach go away. This is a scientific method, a process that involves seeing the Competitive Ppt Presentation, pattern in the bits of knowledge: x (the plant) goes with y (the preparation) to produce z (the treatment). This realizing of patterns is what I call wisdom. Plan - 10+ Free Pdf Format. Both modern and traditional culture go this far, but here they often tend to diverge. Eventually this traditional ancestor realized that there were all kinds of Analysis Report Analysis plant treatments for all kinds of ills -- that for every ailment there was a treatment -- and Paul Telfer: 9780951928417: Books that there was a balancing act that operated on a universal scale of Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation which he was but a small part. There was a harmony that could become disturbed if he destroyed the forest in Senior Examples Download Pdf which the plants grew, or if he overestimated himself by taking for Location Analysis, granted the wisdom he had gained about the plants -- and this harmony had to be maintained on For High School Students | Resume Examples And all levels (physical, social, environmental, spiritual, etc.). This realization that the patterns of Report Competitive Ppt Presentation wisdom were themselves connected in higher order patterns was the beginning of what I call understanding. The traditional culture of our ancestors was long in Kaso Comics understanding, whereas modern culture frequently seems to stop the thought process at the level of wisdom. In modern culture, the Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, elders tend to think of traditional culture as primitive, backward, somehow childlike. In traditional culture, on the other hand, the elders tend to Senior Executive Examples | Resume Format think of modern culture as hollow, ignorant, somehow childlike. But modern culture tends to take over traditional culture because modern culture is Location Report Analysis Ppt Presentation powerful: it is mechanized, it moves mountains, it digs canals and drains swamps, it overwhelms, and Paul Telfer: 9780951928417: Books it is seductive -- it glitters, it tastes sweet, it goes fast.

And it advertises. So why do so many people these days seem to be refugees from Location Competitive Analysis, modern culture? Why are so many people who were raised in the ways of modern culture now so interested in Classy Open Bottle Invitation traditional American Indian or Celtic culture? Why is there a constant stream of people searching for a new age, for medicine men and powwows and Location Analysis Analysis traditional ceremonies and Highland games? I think it is because there is a hole in Example School | Resume modern culture, where the truly important spiritual and humane parts of life used to be.

Put another way, I think that inside modern man there is a traditional man somewhere -- who wants the security of Location Analysis Competitive feeling connected to Classy an extended family and a clan of Analysis Analysis other humans -- who longs for the pleasure of Resumes For High School Students | Resume Examples hearing stories told around the hearth -- who resonates to the steady drum rhythm or the Analysis Report Competitive, haunting bagpipe wail -- who plods through his anxious dreams grasping at bits of knowledge, thirsting, perhaps unknowingly, for the cool, delicious harmony of understanding. Students | Resume And. I believe the shift from traditional to modern culture was one of man's greatest falls from Location Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, grace.

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Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) The GMAT Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) consists of two, 30 minute components. One asks you to Location Report Competitive Ppt Presentation analyze an 54 Best Larry Spradling Samples Images On argument, and the other asks you to analyze an issue. These 2 essays can appear in either order when you take the Location Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation GMAT. A Warning About Studying the Downloadable GMAT Essay Questions. The test writers at the GMAC have published two complete lists of Hotel Marketing Plan - 10+ Excel, current Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) questions. You can download the analysis of an Report Competitive Ppt Presentation argument questions here and the analysis of an issue questions here.

A note of warning: Please understand that you do not want to spend the time it would take to practice responding to every one of these questions. It is, however, a good and efficient preparation technique to review the list and to think about how you would respond to a few selected questions. Your essays will most likely be graded by Hotel Marketing Plan - 10+ Word, a teaching assistant or graduate student from a university English department. This evaluator will assign your essay a grade from 0 to 6. A computer program, called the E-rater, will then 'read' your essays and Location Analysis Report Competitive, assign a grade as well. If there is a difference of more than one point between the two grades, a second human reader will grade your essay and your score will be the average of the two humans' scores. This average will be rounded up if it falls between the half point intervals. The graders (both human and computer) look for overall evidence of the following 4 qualities in Personal Statements: Telfer: 9780951928417: Books your essays: Critique of the argument or analysis of the Location Analysis Report Analysis Ppt Presentation issue Ideas developed in a rational, persuasive manner, with relevant examples supporting them Organization Proper grammar and Kaso Comics, syntax. Due to Analysis Competitive Analysis the economics involved in grading this test, graders are not given much time to spend on each essay. In fact, it is estimated that they spend an average of only 2 minutes on each essay. As you will see below, this impacts the strategies that you should choose for taking the AWA.

The Overall Importance of the Writing Assessment. Admissions committees simply do not give AWA scores the same importance that they do to Senior Executive Resume Format Pdf GMAT verbal and quantitative scores. This written assessment is just another way for the business school to assess your communication skills, in addition to Analysis your admissions essays and interview. We recommend that you spend more time preparing for the verbal and Senior Executive | Resume Download, quantitative sections of the GMAT than you do for Location Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, the AWA. Classy Bottle Invitation | Flickr? You will have 30 minutes for each section. We suggest that, before you begin writing, you spend 3 to 5 minutes preparing a rough outline on your scrap paper of how you intend to attack your essay. Report? Consider this your brainstorming time.

Just throw down as many ideas on the paper as you can. At the end of this 3 to 5 minutes, look at what you have written. Scratch out anything you know you do not want to include. Number the remaining thoughts in terms of Classy Open Invitation their importance to your issue or argument. Congratulations you now have a logical outline around which to Analysis Report Competitive structure your essay! You should spend the next 20 to 22 minutes actually writing the essay, leaving yourself 5 minutes for proof-reading. Try to Plan Template - 10+ Word, Excel, finish writing the Ppt Presentation essay when there are 5 minutes remaining on the GMAT CAT's clock. Classy Open Psd Download | Flickr? Take a second to Location Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation close your eyes, stretch, and then try to re-read your essays with fresh eyes. These last 5 minutes are best utilized to proof what you have just written. Here's what you should be looking for: Make sure the introductory paragraph is still relevant to the body of your essay.

Read the essay line by line, looking for and correcting omitted words, typographical errors, and grammar errors. Make sure your thoughts come across clearly. Check for use of appropriate transition words. Do not, however, attempt to Statements: Paul 9780951928417: Books begin a drastic overhaul of your essay. Competitive? Giving Your Essays the Proper Structure. You will only use approximately 20 of the Example For High Students | Resume Examples allotted 30 minutes to actually write each essay. You will probably only be able to Location Analysis write about 350 words, which translates into 5 or 6 paragraphs. Since this must include an Template Free Word, Excel, Pdf Format introduction and conclusion, you will have only 3 or 4 paragraphs in Analysis Competitive Ppt Presentation which to express 3 or 4 ideas.

This is the formula for a winning essay: express a few ideas (the top ones you identified during your initial brainstorming session) in a few interesting sentences. Keep the essay structure simple. Remember, you only Example Resumes School Students Examples And, have a short amount of Location Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation time to write the essay, and the graders have an even shorter amount of time to evaluate it. You certainly don't want to confuse the graders by using unduly complex structures or language. You are best served by using an introductory paragraph that clearly explains what you are going to say in the essay. You then want to develop your 3 or 4 ideas, each in its own separate paragraph. Make sure your opinions are clearly stated. Hotel Marketing Plan Word, Excel, Pdf Format? (Leaving out opinion or reasoning is Location Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation probably the most common mistake people make on the writing portion of the GMAT exam.

Do not worry about offending a grader with your opinions or analysis. AWA topics are not that controversial.) Finally, in your conclusion, you want to Resume | Resume Format Pdf summarize your main points, and tie the conclusion back to the introduction. This is not a good structure to follow in all writing particularly your admissions essays but it works extremely well for the AWA. Other General Tips for the GMAT's AWA. Your grader will spend an Location Analysis Competitive Analysis average of 2 minutes reading and grading your essay.

Clever metaphors and the like will be neither noticed nor appreciated. However, you do need to come across as smart in order to make the critical first impression needed to Executive | Resume achieve a high score on this writing assessment. The following tips were conceived with just this objective in Location Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation mind: Use transition words generously. Phrases like for Kaso Comics, example, consequently, or first, second, . Report Analysis? lastly will help the reader follow your essay's structure more easily. Words such as because, consequently, and however can also be used to highlight your analytical abilities. In addition, these words are so succinct that it is 54 Best Samples Images difficult even for a time-pressed grader to Location Competitive miss them. Be specific. One of the key criteria graders look for is your ability to present ideas and arguments clearly and persuasively.

Many writers grow vague when pressed for time. Do not let this happen to you. However, do not let yourself slip into dogmatism, either. It is appropriate, even helpful, to acknowledge the limitations of 9780951928417: your arguments and to Analysis Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation concede the 54 Best Spradling Seo Resume Samples Images On validity of opposing points of view. Our society in general, and the graders in particular, look highly upon the judicious individual. Report Competitive? Because AWA essays are so short, however, such acknowledgements should be given only once or twice, and Senior Resume Examples, only in the body of the essay. Do not use big words just for the sake of using them.

Despite a popular myth to the contrary, the AWA is not designed to judge your vocabulary. Your grader will get a first impression which is the only impression he or she will be able to form in 2 minutes that you used big words to mask weaknesses in Location Analysis Competitive Ppt Presentation your analysis. Grammar is important. The grammar you use to express your ideas influences the way that people receive them. If your essay is Larry Images grammatically incorrect, most people graders included will conclude that the essay's logic, structure, etc., are also incorrect. Do not allow this natural bias to Location Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation harm your essay grade.

Vary the length of your sentences. This will make your essay easier for Kaso Comics, the grader to read. It also signals that you are a smart and effective writer. The Analysis of an Argument Essay. Report? You will be given a one-paragraph argument to critique. 54 Best Paul Spradling Seo Resume Images? You are not asked to present or discuss your own opinion on Location Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, the subject. Instead, you are supposed to find fault with the argument's reasoning. Use your 5 minute brainstorming session to think of some thoughtful and perceptive analyses of what you just read. These analyses should be geared towards providing a better remedy towards the Personal Paul Telfer: stated problem. Location Analysis Competitive Analysis? A specific and sufficiently-detailed example should be used with each argument you develop. As stated above, you should have 3 to 4 paragraphs in Example Resumes For High Examples And the body of the Location Analysis Report essay.

Each of these paragraphs should contain one point that you wish to make about the argument. Graders like to see you use specifics in your essay. For example, find the generalizations included in the one-paragraph argument. (We guarantee this will not be difficult to do.) You will be given a one-paragraph text discussing the pros and cons of some issue. 54 Best Paul Spradling Samples Images? You will be asked to select the position with which you agree. The graders will have no preference towards which position you decide to support. During your initial 5 minutes of brainstorming, try to come up with points that support each side of the argument. That way, you are more likely to select the position that you can defend well in Analysis Competitive Ppt Presentation your essay (even if it's not the position you would take if you had more time or space to Kaso Comics explain yourself). As you do in your analysis of an argument, be sure to include a specific example supporting or illustrating each point you make in the body of this essay. It's a good idea to acknowledge the complexity of the issue in your introduction. It is also a good practice to concede 1 or 2 points supporting the other position in the body of the essay. Do not worry that this might make you appear indecisive to the graders.

Recall what we stated above, about graders looking fondly on evidence of Location Analysis Competitive Analysis a judicious individual. Be careful with your choice of language and tone on this essay. You are being asked to write an issues analysis, not a campaign ad. Many test takers make the mistake of adopting language that calls on the reader to take action. The test grader will react far more favorably to a persuasive argument that lays out the 54 Best Paul Seo Resume reasons to support a position but does not call on him or her to take any immediate action.

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essay media new new What's New About New Media? Lisa Gitelman and Report Competitive, Goeffrey Pingree. In the short space of a current college student's lifetime, the internet has gone from a specialized, futuristic system to the network that most significantly structures how we engage daily with the world at large. It is now obvious to anyone who uses a computer that intellectual exercises as basic as reading the newspaper or doing research have become fundamentally different activities largely because of the internet. So too have our views of communication in general; the very notion of Senior Executive Examples | Resume, globalization, so consuming in today's world, is Analysis Report Analysis Ppt Presentation predicated on Example | Resume And the possibilities engendered by a technology barely twenty years old. Such is the nature of new media. Computers, and the digital systems and Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, products for which they are currently a shorthand, are what most of us think of when we hear the Paul Seo Resume Images, words new media . And why not? The world of computer hardware, software, email, and ebusiness is for most of us the Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, latest communication and information frontier.

Part of our experience of digital media is the experience of their novelty. Yet if we were asked to Statements: Telfer: Books think of Analysis Report Competitive Analysis, other new media, we might have a harder time coming up with obvious examples. We would have no problem citing instances of old media: typewriters, vinyl record albums, eight-track magnetic tapes, and the like. And we would have a point: These are, from our current standpoint, old media. But they were not always old, and studying them in terms that allow us to understand what it meant for them to be new is a timely and culturally important task, an exercise that in this volume we hope profitably to apply to media much older than we are. As our title suggests, this collection of essays challenges the notion that to Senior Executive Resume Examples Format Pdf study new media is to study today's new media. All media were once new media; and our purpose in Report Analysis Ppt Presentation, these essays is to consider such emergent media within their historical contexts#151;to seek out the past on Classy Invitation Template | Flickr its own passed terms. Location Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation? We do so, in part, to 54 Best Seo Resume Samples counter the Competitive Analysis, narrow devotion to the present that is often evident today in new media studies, a growing field whose conceptual frameworks and methods of inquiry are heavily influenced by Classy Open Bottle | Flickr experiences of digital networks and the professional protocols of the social science of communications.

But we undertake this inquiry mainly to encourage thinking about what newness means in Analysis Competitive, the relationships among media and societies. There is a moment, before the Template - 10+ Free Excel, Pdf Format, material means and the conceptual modes of Location Analysis Report Analysis Ppt Presentation, new media have become fixed, when such media are not yet accepted as natural, when their own meanings are in flux. At such a moment, we might say that new media briefly acknowledge and question the mythic character and the ritualized conventions of existing media, while they are themselves defined within a perceptual and Kaso Comics, semiotic economy that they then help to Location Analysis Competitive Analysis transform. This collection of essays explores such moments in order to enrich our contemporary perspective on Example Resumes For High School | Resume Examples And what media are, and on when and how they are meaningfully new. New Media, 1740-1915 focuses on the two centuries before commercial broadcasting because its purpose is, in part, to Location Competitive Analysis recuperate different (and past) senses of media in transition and thus to deepen our historical understanding of, and sharpen our critical dexterity toward, the Template Excel, Pdf Format, experience of Location Report Competitive Analysis, modern communication. Indeed, we have marked the years between 1740 and 1915 as boundaries for Invitation Flyer Psd Download, our project because this period is crucial to understanding how electronic and digital media have come to mean what and how they do. Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation? The term media itself hails from precisely this period, as do the structures of today's entertainment and information economies. Thus, the media forms and practices studied in this collection are new in a double sense: First, they newly receive the scholarly attention they deserve; and second, they are considered within their original historical contexts, their novelty years. In this, these essays provide a new perspective on the meaning of newness that attends to Kaso Comics all emerging media, while they also tell us something about what all media have in common. Yet our intention is not only to acknowledge the initial novelty of diverse media, but also to understand better how such media acquire particular meanings, powers, and characteristics. Report Analysis Ppt Presentation? Drawing from Rick Altman's idea of crisis historiography, we might say that new media, when they first emerge, pass through a phase of identity crisis, a crisis precipitated at least by the uncertain status of the given medium in relation to established, known media and their functions.

1 In other words, when new media emerge in a society, their place is at first ill defined, and their ultimate meanings or functions are shaped over time by that society's existing habits of media use (which, of course, derive from experience with other, established media), by shared desires for new uses, and by the slow process of adaptation between the two. The crisis of a new medium will be resolved when the perceptions of the medium, as well as its practical uses, are somehow adapted to existing categories of public understanding about what that medium does for whom and why. This collection, like Carolyn Marvin's wonderful When Old Technologies Were New focuses on Marketing - 10+ Free Excel, Pdf Format such moments of crisis. 2 While it begins with the zograscope and ends in the heyday of silent cinema, the volume does not aspire to cover all forms of media that emerged during the years named in its title. Indeed, New Media, 1740-1915 addresses only Competitive Analysis obliquely some of the more influential media of Template Free Word, Pdf Format, its period, print media in particular.

Most of the foliowing essays (unlike Carolyn Marvin's work) focus on media#151;zograscopes, optical telegraphs, the physiognotrace#151;that failed to survive for very long. They are, in Bruce Sterling's words, today's dead media. 3 Yet because their deaths, like those of all dead media, occurred in Location Analysis Report Analysis, relation to those that lived, even the most bizarre and the most short lived are profoundly intertextual, tangling during their existence wlth the dominant, discursive practices of representation that characterized the total cultural economy of their day. Despite their inseparable relations to surviving systems, however, failed media tend to receive little attention from historians. Lacking the validation that comes with imitation, Altman notes, unsuccessful innovations simply disappear from historiographical record. His suggested corrective for this excessive focus on, for example, cinema-as-it-is, is an attention to cinema-as-it-could-have-been or cinema-as-it-once-was-for-a-short-time-but-ceased-to-be. New Media aims to Personal Telfer: apply some of this could-have-been and was-for-a-short-time kind of thinking to past new media.

Because our understanding of what media are and Competitive Ppt Presentation, why they matter derives largely from our understanding and use of the media that survived#151;those devices, social practices, and forms of representation with which we interact every day#151;the importance of this kind of analysis is easy to Hotel Template Excel, Pdf Format overlook. By getting inside the identity crises, by exploring the failures (in some cases) of older new media, the essays in this collection will help to counter what Paul Duguid has warned are two reductive futurological tropes characteristic of the Location, experience of modern media. Example Students | Resume Examples And? The first trope is the idea of supercession , the notion that each new medium vanquishes or subsumes its predecessors. From this idea follows the current belief that in the digital age the book is Location Analysis Report Ppt Presentation doomed, or, according to the peculiar auguries of Paul Spradling Samples Images, earlier times, the Analysis Ppt Presentation, conviction that typewriters would replace pens or that radios would replace phonographs. The second futurological trope is the idea of increasing transparency , the Kaso Comics, assumption that each new medium actually mediates less, that it successfully frees information from the constraints of previously inadequate or unnatural media forms that represented reality less perfectly. 4 This notion#151;that because of their greater transparency, newer media supersede their predecessors#151;shapes both the Analysis Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, experience and the study of media today. Both of Duguid's tropes point to a frequent and shared misconception, which supposes the value and (at least theoretical) possibility of pure avenues of information, pathways that allow knowledge to pass without interruption or interference-free of mediation.

This assumption creates an interesting paradox. The best media, it would seem, are the ones that mediate least. They are not, as we think of them, media at all. Classy Bottle Flyer Template | Flickr? A new medium therefore supersedes its predecessor because it is more transparent. Few would disagree, for Location Analysis Competitive, example, that a conversation with a friend on the telephone allows for a greater exchange of 54 Best Larry Seo Resume On, personal, idiosyncratic information than a dialogue conducted via telegraph. And to a large degree, this thinking is Location Analysis Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation persuasive.

New media generally are more efficient than their predecessors as means of communication. Yet there is more to understanding what happens when people communicate through a given medium than merely ascertaining what level of accuracy and Open Flyer Template | Flickr, amount of data the exchange involves. This observation#151;that there is more than accuracy and Location Report Competitive Analysis, amount to Statements: 9780951928417: any exchange#151;comprises a founding rationale for the field of Ppt Presentation, media studies, whether characterized aphoristically by Marshall McLuhan (the medium is the message) or more recently expressed (and complicated) in Derridian terms, that the supplement #151;the specific characteristics of material media#151;can never be mere supplement; it is a necessary constituent of [any] representation. 5 To put it simply, looking for content apart from context just won't work. Owing in part to the linear progress unthinkingly ascribed to modern technology, media (so offen referred to portentously as the Resumes For High Students, media) tend to erase their own historical contexts. Location Analysis Competitive Analysis? Whether shadows in 54 Best Spradling Samples Images On, a darkened cave or pixelated images on a luminous monitor, the media before us tend, anachronistically, to Location Analysis mediate our understanding of their past. In the process, we lose any understanding of the nuanced particulars of specific media. In part, we forget what older media meant, because we forget how they meant. Once they emerge and become familiar through use, media seem natural, basic, and therefore without history. Of course we say Hello? when we answer the telephone; of course we hear a dial tone when we pick it up to place a call.

Media seem inevitable in an unselfconscious way; we forget that they are contingent. Alexander Graham Bell apparently wanted people to say Ahoy! when they picked up the 54 Best Images, phone, but English speakers settled on Hello? through the sort of unthinking social consensus that attends the uses of all media. Location Analysis Analysis? In a similar fashion, the dial tones, 12-volt lines, and modular jacks we use today all were shaped historically by a complex of forces#151;technological, to be sure, but also social, economic, and representational. When we forget or ignore the Template, histories of each of these new media we lose a kind of understanding more substantive than either the commercially interested definitions spun by today's media corporations or the causal plots of technological innovation offered by some historians. Analysis? 6 For example, it is undoubtedly important to be able to Resumes For High School Students And note, as many scholars have, how the invention of the cinema is linked to past practices of, say, lecturing with slides, as well as how it predicts certain elements of future practices. But what we often overlook are the kinds of things that only Location Analysis Competitive a deep analysis of specific media cases can offer#151;how interpretive communities are built or destroyed, how normative epistemologies emerge. No medium new or old exists as a static form. Each case invites consideration of numerous and dynamic political, cultural, and social issues.

We might say that, inasmuch as media are media of communication, the emergence of a new medium is always the occasion for Examples Format, the shaping of a new community or set of communities, a new equilibrium. As we have suggested, when a new medium is introduced its meaning#151;its potential, its limitations, the publicly agreed upon sense of what it does, and for whom#151;has not yet been pinned down. And part of the lure of a new medium for any community is surely this uncertain status. Not yet fully defined, a new medium offers possibilities both positive (one of our authors argues that zograscopes helped construct polite society) and negative (another traces the threat telephones posed to Analysis Report Competitive Analysis Amish communities). In other words, emergent media may be seen as instances of both risk and potential. Today, for example, the Larry Spradling Seo Resume Images, internet offers unprecedented possibilities for global villages to coalesce, even while it threatens national or ethnic cultural traditions and provokes anguished discussions of Analysis Report, privacy in Executive Resume Format Download Pdf, a connected age.

The same sorts of issues and anxieties surrounded the emergence of other media. Indeed, it seems that technological change inevitably challenges old, existing communities. The particulars of each case, however, are valuable to our larger understanding of how media help to Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation shape and Senior Executive Examples Format, reshape culture. Essays in this collection therefore examine media as socially realized structures of communication, where communication is culture#151;as James Carey explains it#151;a cultural process that involves not only the actual transmission of information, but also the ritualized collocation of senders and recipients.' 7 Habits of communication mediate among people, pragmatically and Analysis Report Competitive Analysis, conceptually. How do structures of communication reflect, challenge, reinforce, or mystify authority?

How do they help imagine community? How do they help construct the aesthetic, or the mimetic? How do they orient the production and experience of meaning? How do they acquire and carry epistemological authority? These are just some of the questions raised by New Media, 1740-1915 , which presents an open and diverse interrogation of emerging media as sites and as agents of cultural definition and Personal Statements: Paul 9780951928417:, of cultural change. Ultimately, then, this is a book about framing: about Report Analysis Ppt Presentation, how particular habits and Classy Open Invitation Psd Download | Flickr, media of Location Competitive Ppt Presentation, communication frame our collective sense of time, place, and space; how they define our understanding of the public and the private; how they inform our apprehension of the real; and how they orient us in relation to competing forms of representation. We have selected the cases of new media that follow because they support these inquiries, casting such habits and media into relief, affording a vantage point from which better to see how cultural meanings are negotiated. Seo Resume Samples Images? But this collection is also about how we frame our own discussions of new media, for if this interrogation of emergent media is genuinely to illuminate our understanding of cultural definition and of cultural change, then we must be responsible about our own language. We must, in other words, acknowledge the key terms that are in play in our own discussions and Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, attempt to define and deploy them as precisely as possible, not only for us now, but as they were used in earlier#151;and different#151;contexts.

In a work on new media, terms such as media, culture , public , and representation will appear often. But insofar as this collection seeks to understand how the Resumes For High School | Resume Examples And, very idea of media evolves over time, we wish to employ such critical terms with care and to bring questions about their use and meaning squarely into the discussion itself as it proceeds. Location Ppt Presentation? Our use of the word technology is a good example. This term denotes, as Leo Marx suggests, a necessary but hazardous concept; in Hotel Template - 10+ Free Excel,, this book the Analysis Report Ppt Presentation, term helps organize our thinking about the material, instrumental conditions of Kaso Comics, modern life, yet for many readers it will also come larded with less considered shades of meaning, assumptions about Progress with a capital P, or about Location Analysis Competitive, technology as a preeminent cause in history. 8 Thus although we rely on this term as an Personal Paul Telfer:, organizing device in this collection (the essays proceed from technology to technology as a form of convenience), we also wish to urge particular awareness of its hazards. Likewise with other key critical terms.

We know that we cannot exhaustively define media, for instance, any more than we can completely pin down culture (a notion that is, as Naomi Mezey observes, everywhere invoked and Analysis Competitive Ppt Presentation, virtually nowhere explained). Indeed, the cases we offer are about culture as struggle and media as means in Example School | Resume, that struggle#151;a fabric continually rewoven according to the interests of a given time and place. Rather than fixing such terms and Analysis Ppt Presentation, pinning them to moving targets, however, we can frame our discussions of such pervasive concepts in Senior, self-conscious ways that make our attempts to understand them more useful. 9. In this volume we offer cases that foreground the relationship between material and idea, between what people think or believe or wish and what they feel with their hands or see with their eyes or hear with their ears. Each of the essays in Analysis Report Competitive, the collection thus reveals, in School | Resume Examples, some fashion, the strong relationship between the contexts for some material, technological development, and shifts in self-imagining and public understanding. Erin Blake, Wendy Bellion, and Location Analysis Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, Laura Schiavo, for example, consider the cultural meanings of perspective and representation in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by focusing on the emergence of particular visual media (zograscopes, the Spradling Seo Resume, physiognotrace, and stereoscopes, respectively) and discussing how such media influenced notions of Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, individual identity. Patricia Crain, Katherine Stubbs, and Diane Umble, by contrast, consider the cultural meanings of communication by Books focusing on the arrival and adaptation of particular networked media (optical telegraphs, electric telegraphs, and telephones, respectively) that helped shape notions of identity in relation to larger communities. All of the authors engage new media as evolving, contingent, discursive frames, sites where the unspoken rules by which Westerners know and enjoy their world are fashioned. Such rules continually change, as new media become situated and as such adjustments inevitably redraw the boundaries of communities, including some individuals, and excluding others.

Each new medium in effect helps to produce a distinct public. Erin Blake's work on zograscopes, for example, elaborates the idea that media assist in the construction of the modern, Western public sphere, with its corresponding liberal subject (today known as the consumer). Although she draws upon the work of Jurgen Habermas, Blake ignores the Location Report, often-mentioned circulation of print media as the Open Flyer | Flickr, basis of the public sphere, instead looking to shared social practices to Analysis Ppt Presentation understand how space is visualized. Marketing - 10+ Word, Excel, Pdf Format? Her public is literally a sphere; in her essay the bourgeois circles of eighteenth-century London pop into Location Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, 3-D as they enter the rational and impersonal arena of public space via engravings glimpsed through new optical devices. This new medium, according to Senior Executive Download Pdf Blake, helps the public to map itself. Wendy Bellion's work on the physiognotrace depicts an Analysis Analysis, American public that also maps itself, but this public is one more complicated by its own experiences of both graphic and political self-representation. Examples Format Download Pdf? By analyzing the American reception of this profile or silhouette-tracing device, Bellion introduces her readers to Analysis Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation the cartography of the public sphere, showing the ways in Format Download Pdf, which new media are adapted within the very discursive conditions, the very rules that they help to transform. The rules for inclusion, for drawing the boundaries of a public sphere, are less concealed in Patricia Crain's essay, which examines how elaborate pedagogical systems designed to resemble new media interpellated and located their subjects, in Location Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation, this case by making them perform as optical telegraphs within larger, oppressive systems of cultural replication. Kaso Comics? Like the tinfoil phonographs of Analysis Competitive, Lisa Gitelman's essay, optical telegraphs were more powerfully imagined than they were implemented.

Very few were ever built or used, yet the Hotel Free Word,, idea of Analysis Ppt Presentation, them circulated widely within the mentality, the public imagination, of their age. Joseph Lancaster's classroom telegraphs literally disciplined students, while even broader disciplinary measures may be read in Bottle Invitation Flyer Psd Download | Flickr, their controlling institutional contexts, as well as glimpsed in Analysis, the titles of Kaso Comics, early American newspapers like the American Telegraph [Conn.], Hillsboro [N.H.] Telegraph , and Lincoln [Me.] Telegraph . (None of these titles referred to Location Ppt Presentation electrical telegraphs, which had not yet been invented.) In Benedict Anderson's formulation, the circulation and ritualized consumption of newspapers like these assisted in Hotel Marketing - 10+ Word, Excel,, the imagination of a national community. What their titles and Lancaster's system suggest, according to Crain, is that the imagination of media conditioned the Location Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, imagination of communities. Newspapers were imagined in circulation, while optical telegraphs were outright imagined. The perceived promise of any new medium can have wide-ranging import, even if those promises eventually go unfulfilled. To many observers, the tinfoil phonographs of Hotel Marketing Plan Template Free Excel, Pdf Format, 1878 promised a new, more modern and immediate type of text, as recordings might indelibly capture speech, without the intercession of literate humans wielding pencils and Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, paper.

To other observers, the 54 Best Paul Spradling Seo Resume, telephones that spread to Location Report Competitive Ppt Presentation rural America around 1900 promised to enlarge the very communication practices that self-defined Amish and Mennonite communities themselves attempted to regulate. The wide popular reception of the first promise, Lisa Gitelman speculates, challenged and helped to 54 Best Larry Spradling Seo Resume Images transform vernacular experiences of writing and print, while raising questions about the Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, instruments and the subjects of public memory. The Old Order perception of the second promise, Diane Umble shows, helped divide the aggregate Amish and Mennonite population, for this perception coincided with the ongoing regulation of intra- and inter-group communication and excommunication. Although so often the focus of great attention and Hotel Marketing Plan Template - 10+ Free Pdf Format, optimism, new media are not, as these authors pointedly demonstrate, inherently benign; they bite back. 10 They thrive amid unforeseen consequences, often despite the best, most vigorous intentions of their inventors, their promoters, their initial consumers, or of the Report Ppt Presentation, customary arbiters of - 10+ Free Word, Pdf Format, public intelligence. Nowhere are the Location Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, unforeseen consequences of new media more obvious than when they engage the culturally authoritative practices of science, with its Enlightenment logic of rational inquiry, objective experience, and accurate representation. The stereoscope, for instance, emerged from the laboratory of British scientist Charles Wheatstone as an optical instrument charged with explaining new theories of Example Resumes For High Students | Resume And, vision.

To scientists, the stereoscope could be used objectively to Location Analysis demonstrate that vision is subjective, that the body can produce its own experiences of depth when presented with the right cues. As Laura Schiavo puts it, Wheatstone's stereoscope newly insinuated an arbitrary relationship between stimulus and Personal Statements: Telfer:, sensation. Yet within the context of commercially exploited and popularly apprehended photography, stereoscopes were ultimately recast as mimetic amusements that tendered to consumers an instructive and positivist model of how their eyes actually worked to Location Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation see the world as it really is. Vernacular discourse, in other words, completely inverted the 9780951928417:, meaning of what the stereoscope proved. This inverted meaning helped to make the stereoscope popular, fueling its commercial success as later nineteenth- and early twentieth-century viewers consumed stereograph images as a form of virtual travel, appropriating the world through pictures. At stake was far more than the prestige of Wheatstone or the anti-intellectualism of the marketplace. The rules by which the Location Analysis, West knew the world had again come into play. The popularity of stereoscopes helped redraw the very category of the real, the consensual practices of accurate representation.

Assumptions about what count as rules, about what is real or accurate or normal, are no less at issue when new media are less popular than stereoscopes were or less patently involved in describing normal human perception. Media emerge and exist in ways that both challenge and regulate notions of what it means to Resumes For High Students Examples And be human. Gregory Radick's essay provides a clear-cut case. Location Analysis Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation? An amateur ethologist using the new medium of recorded sound set out to Classy Invitation Psd Download | Flickr learn the Location Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, language of monkeys and stumbled into one of the hottest debates in Victorian evolutionary biology and linguistics: How is Hotel Marketing Plan Free Pdf Format language uniquely human? In the Location Analysis Competitive Ppt Presentation, course of his research, Richard Garner's recording phonograph became an instrument of Statements: Paul Telfer:, knowledge deployed in Location Analysis Report Competitive Ppt Presentation, various philosophic and scientific controversies#151;in the Resumes For High | Resume, tension between amateur and professional science, for example, or in the dispute over whether abstraction or instinct founds thought and language, or in discussions about the fundamental differences between humans and animals. Garner worked on monkeys, but not without meddling with the category of the human in Report, two ways.. First, he raised anew the definition of Man as the talking animal; second, he wielded his phonograph as if it were a necessary#151;and better#151;third ear. As Garner's third ear suggests#151;and as many authors have noted#151;new media can be viewed as an endeavor to improve on human capabilities.

Like a telescope added to the eye of an astronomer or a microscope added to the eye of a biologist, media can extend the Senior Executive Examples | Resume, body and its senses. Yet media do more than extend; they also incorporate bodies and are incorporated by them. 11 Media are designed to fit the human, the Location Report Competitive Analysis, way telephone handsets or headsets literally fit from Resumes Examples ear to mouth, but also the Analysis, way telephone circuits, satellites, and antennas fit among their potential consumers, as integral parts of communication/ information networks that literally shape what communication entails for individuals in the modern age. And if media fit humans, humans adjust themselves in various ways to Statements: Paul 9780951928417: fit media, knowingly and not. Hands physically adjust themselves to different keyboards, different keypads, and different pointing devices, while users subtly adjust their sense of who they are. Analysis? Some of these complexities may be glimpsed in Open Bottle Invitation Flyer Template Psd Download | Flickr, Katherine Stubbs's essay, which reads the history of electrical telegraphy in Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation, the United States against and within the 54 Best Larry Seo Resume Samples On, fiction that appeared in telegraph trade journals. Published during the Location Analysis Report Competitive Analysis, 1870s and 1880s, telegraph fiction shows how new media can remain new through the agency of users. Senior Resume Examples? Amid ongoing conflicts between labor and Analysis Report Analysis, capital arising in part from the feminization of the workforce, telegrapher-authors both used and represented the telegraph as a means to explore identity in its relation to the body. In remaking themselves, by 54 Best Larry Paul Spradling Seo Resume Images On negotiating gender-at-a-distance-and-by-telegraph, for instance, telegraphers kept the character of their medium unsettled. In other words, the newness of new media is more than diachronic, more than just a chunk of history, a passing phase; it is relative to the oldness of old media in a number of different ways. As many have noted, media often advertise their newness by depicting old media.

12 The first printed books looked like manuscripts, radios played phonograph records, and the Web has pages. Ellen Gruber Garvey and Paul Young each explore less familiar instances in which the new represents the old in order to Location Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation understand more fully the Resumes School Students | Resume Examples And, purchase that newness has on the process of representation. As Garvey's account of scrapbooks explains, scrapbook-makers took old media#151;literally the old books and periodicals they had lying around#151;and made them into new media in Location Analysis, the form of scrapbooks. Newness in this case resonated as much with personal and Marketing Plan - 10+ Free Word, Excel, Pdf Format, domestic experiences as it did with public and collective apprehensions of novelty, posterity, or periodicity. Scrapbook-makers tampered with the meanings of the scraps they collected by collecting them, a practice Garvey refers to Analysis Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation as gleaning and connects to the composition and use of the Web today. Young, on the other hand, presents a telegraphic history of early American cinema, reading filmic representations of Paul Telfer: Books, telegraphs as only the most obvious link between these two media, which seem, in retrospect, so different.

As he explains, these media shared a history as the subjects of technological presentations and electrical spectacles. From the start, both became instruments of news reportage, one in the transmission of Competitive Analysis, stories on the wire (that is, by telegraph wire services like the Associated Press) and the other in the projection of stories onto the screen in actualities and protonewsreels. Newness in this case resonated with emergent conventions for Kaso Comics, representing narrative time, with experiences of currency (of news as either new or old), and with new technology#151;all experiences that transform our sense of time and space. We hope these essays will help to broaden the inquiry of Location Analysis Competitive, media studies by calling attention to the ways media are experienced and studied as the subjects of history. No ten essays can do more than open the question, but opening the question is crucial, we think, particularly as today's new media are peddled and saluted as the ultimate, the end of Classy Bottle | Flickr, media history. Location Report Analysis? Newness deserves a closer look.

To that end, we include a brief section of documents for discussion. These documents are not illustrations of our text as much as they are artifacts that themselves point toward the Personal Statements: 9780951928417:, rich and diverse record available to media historians. We hope that they will suggest specific historical and Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation, cultural meanings for media and promote a broader discussion of media history. Like the Larry Paul Spradling Seo Resume On, essays in this volume, our captions to these documents are meant as initial gestures toward that broader discussion. We include them to remind readers that the history of media is an ongoing, highly self-reflexive conversation about what we mean and#151;literally#151; how we mean it. 1. Rick Altman, A Century of Crisis, How to Location Analysis Report Analysis Ppt Presentation Think About the History (and Future) of Technology (February 2000), and Crisis Historiography, unpublished MSS., personal communication, May 1, 2001. 2. Carolyn Marvin, When 0ld Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in Senior | Resume Download Pdf, the Late Nineteenth Century (New York: Oxford Llniversity Press, 1988). 3. See Bruce Sterling, The Dead Media Project: A Modest Proposal and a Public Appeal, n.d.,, June 2001.

4. Material Matters: The Past and Futurology of the Book, in The Future of the Book , ed. Location Analysis Competitive Ppt Presentation? Geoffrey Nunberg (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 65. 5. Timothy Lenoir, Inscription Practices and Personal Paul Telfer: 9780951928417:, Materialities of Communication, in Inscribing Science: Scientific Texts and the Materiality of Communication , ed. Timothy Lenoir, 1-19 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998), 7-8. 6. Location Report Ppt Presentation? As Walter Benjamin cautions, Newness is a quality independent of the use value of the commodity. It is the origin of the illusory appearance that belongs inalienably to Kaso Comics images produced by the collective unconscious. Report Competitive Ppt Presentation? It is the quintessence of that false consciousness whose indefatigable agent is fashion.

This semblance of the new is reflected, like one mirror in another, in the semblance of the ever recurrent. The product of this reflection is the phantasmagoria of Kaso Comics, 'cultural history' in Location Analysis Report Analysis, which the bourgeoisie enjoys its false consciousness to the full; The Arcades Project , ed. Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlin, trans., Rolf Tiedemann (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), 11. 7. James W Carey, Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Classy Template Psd Download | Flickr, Society (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1988). 8. Leo Marx, Technology: The Emergence of a Hazardous Concept, Social Research 64 (fall 1997), 965-988. 9. Naomi Mezey, Law as Culture, Yale Journal of Law the Location Report Competitive Analysis Ppt Presentation, Humanities 13, no.

1 (2001): 35. See also Raymond Williams, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Kaso Comics, Culture and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985). 10. Bite back is from Edward Tenner's title, Why Things Bite Back: Technology and Analysis Analysis Ppt Presentation, the Revenge of Unintended Consequences (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996). 11. The trope of bodily extension or prosthesis is not an anachronism applied to new media. As James Lastra shows, it is one of two tropes that have played a normalizing role in the emergence of modern media (the other is that of inscription); Sound Technology and the American Cinema: Perception, Representation, Modernity (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000); see Introduction and chapter 1. See also N. Katherine Hayles on incorporating practices and embodied knowledge, 199-207 in How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1999).

12. The remediation of Resume Examples | Resume Format Download, one medium by another newer medium has recently been explored by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin in Remediation: Understanding New Media (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999). As Rick Altman explains so succinctly, Anything that we would represent is already constructed as a representation by previous representations (A Century of Crisis, 5; see note 1 above).