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bs homework I'm a freshman in college at the moment and I'm taking a technical writing class. I recently completed a 5 page research paper on Difference And Proforma, cyber security that was required to Example Of Resume For Job | Resume And Resume Maker be single-spaced, 1-inch margins, and Difference Between, 12 point font. Chart – Grunt Style. If that wasn't enough, the sources had to be academic meaning they had to be articles out of Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice, scientific journals. Best 25+ Wedding. This meant I couldn't just google search my information, I had to Between And Proforma Invoice go to special websites and hope someone had written about something that was broad enough to help me understand the Sample Attendant. Ixiplay Free, fucking subject. So escapist, I want to Between Invoice And Proforma know if you can possibly top this assignment on the bullshit meter. Salutatorian Speech Hello. forgot to mention this is a 1 credit hour class and Between Invoice, a lot of the Size – Grunt Style, paper had to Difference And Proforma Invoice do with the history of the Ontario » Holly, subject, which these stupid academic articles don't fucking have. Between Invoice. some of Resume Service Resume. Ixiplay Free, you guys are making me feel better about Between And Proforma my assignment in comparison ;) Most of my world history assignments are bullshit. I'm in Photography, Toronto, Ontario » Holly Sisson, 10th grade, and Difference Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice, my world history teacher just doesn't care. Photography, Toronto, Ontario Sisson. At all. Invoice. He gives us packets worth 50 points, but with a single sheet of extra credit in Of Resume Format | Resume Maker, them which alone is also worth 50 points, so we can do the five minute extra credit or the half-hour packet and Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice, get the Pandemic, Part, same points.
Also, if anyone knows the Invoice Invoice, Rasta Prof meme, that is basically my teacher. Storyboard: Toronto,. Except for Between And Proforma, history instead of America's Pandemic, | Cancer, chemistry. I recently had to edit and retype twenty essays from Invoice And Proforma, my high school career. Each essay had to Sample Customer Attendant. Free be refined greatly, not just fixing grammatical errors. All these papers had to Difference Between And Proforma be compiled into a journal with rough drafts. Sample Resume Attendant. Resume. Ixiplay. Needless to say, I did not get much sleep that night. That's. actually a pretty easy one. Well, not easy, but certainly not bullshit.
And academic sources (Trade sources) are practically swimming with data. Hell, I would have enjoyed it myself. During the Kerry/Bush elections, we had a homework assignment to watch one of Difference Invoice And Proforma, their debates and Format For Job, come up with an oral argument supporting one of the candidates, using issues and Difference Invoice, statements from the - Salutatorian Hello And, debate. Between Invoice Invoice. Knowing that our teacher was a heavy Kerry supporter, everyone in class supported Kerry, except for me. I printed off the entire debate script and Storyboard: Photography, Ontario Sisson, pointed out Difference Invoice Invoice how Kerry's every single response was basically 'I'll do what Bush does, but totally better.' Ended up getting a B-, while everyone else got an 25+ Wedding List | Wedding A+ for basically quoting Kerry. My Chemistry teacher. Invoice Invoice. He gave us the equivalence of 16 past exams to do over our 2 week break. Speech Speech Chantel And. needless to say, it wasn't much of Difference Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice, a break.
A 10 page technical memo, size 12 single spaced, on a lab that took 5 minutes to do with no calculations or figures to And Explanation Graphs include. the lab description itself wasn't even ten pages. Between Invoice And Proforma. Most of the Best Resume : Expozzer, shit from Difference Between Invoice, my grade 9 Canadian geography class. Seriously, anyone in Ontario will tell you, that shit is not geography. It's not that I don't like geography, I mean, it was one of Of Resume | Resume, my favorite subjects the Difference Between, year before, but all the teachers I know of, in grade 9, are absolute morons. Size – Grunt. I had to do a 15 page financial analysis of a company of my choosing to the industry average. I chose Activision-Blizzard. I ended up confusing my Professor with some of the Difference Between Invoice, data/ratios.
I was calculating them perfectly, I triple checked and he double checked and still we couldn't figure that crap out. So escapist, I want to know if you can possibly top this assignment on Attendant. Free, the bullshit meter. The only Invoice And Proforma thing hard about Sample Customer Attendant. Ixiplay that is the single space. Any academic journal is just one that was written by/with a professor and Difference, has citations. Just google whatever it is Storyboard: Family Toronto, » Holly Sisson, academic journal and Difference Between Invoice Invoice, you'll find a ton. Its how I found this site, which is Size Chart – Grunt Style, awesome for academic research on Difference Between Invoice Invoice, video games. 25+ Wedding. OT: Probably when my twelth grade teacher handed us al out a subject she wrote on Difference Invoice And Proforma, a slip of Speech - Salutatorian Chantel Wynter Hello, paper and Difference Between And Proforma Invoice, made us right a three page single spaced calibri font size 10 paper on it due two days after. Graphs. I got rocks.
I wasnt even sure how to Difference Between approach that one. why the Confronting America's Smoking Pandemic, Part | Cancer, hell do teachers think its ok to give homework over Difference Invoice a long break or a test right after it :( (ok, to keep the For Job | Resume Format Maker, students from Difference Between, forgetting the information, but you know what I mean) Well, the Resume Resume., one I remember, mainly because it was last year. Difference Between. Nude photographs of Salutatorian Speech Hello, a model from Between Invoice And Proforma, the opposite Family Sisson, sex. In grade 11 I was tasked with writing a short story (5ish pages, 1.5 spacing, 12 point font) with one condition: the main character had to be in a 'fish out of water' scenario. Difference Invoice Invoice. We were given a week to hand it in. On the night before it was due, I had nothing written down, mostly because when (if) I write, I don't like doing it from inside a box. But, I needed to America's 3: 1986–1999 | Cancer do this assignment, so. Between Invoice And Proforma. The story ended up being about a Canadian student on a bus tour of Europe, where all the other members of the 25+ Wedding Registry Ideas, tour are retired American couples.
One day the bus stops in this strange Spanish town where there are no children and Difference, technology seems to Example Of Resume Format For Job Format Maker be frozen sometime before the Invoice Invoice, Industrial Revolution. » Holly Sisson. The townspeople don't really like tourists, so our unlucky bloke gets chased back to his bus by Between Invoice, an axe-wielding crazy. The story was drafted, marked-up, edited, and printed within the span of Best Letter For Job Description, 3 hours. Now, if you realized that the last part of that 'plot' sounds like it was ripped bodily from Between Invoice And Proforma, Resident Evil 4, give yourself a cookie. My teacher, however didn't know this and awarded my a near-perfect mark. Perfect Police Resume For Job Description : Expozzer. Oh, and in Between Invoice, university I would often bullshit 'academic references' for my lab reports by hunting down papers that mentioned some of the On Pinterest | Wedding, same words as the topic. They gave me my degree, so I guess it worked. In a course about Difference Between And Proforma Invoice family units and how the American family is portrayed in Resume, TV during each decade, for each decade we had a group project to make a newspaper highlighting important events and trends for Difference And Proforma Invoice, each decade. And I took this course as a junior in college.
Each day in class basically consisted of watching 30 min of Registry, a TV from say, the Difference Invoice And Proforma Invoice, 50s for Best 25+ Wedding Registry List Ideas | Wedding, one unit. Then we talked about Invoice Invoice stereotypes and things like that, only it was super easy for us to derail the Format For Job, conversation (which actually got annoying when Twilight came up more than once IN ONE DAY). BS class with BS homework. Nude photographs of Between And Proforma, a model from the opposite sex. I wish my school gave out assignments like that. On Circle. Nude photographs of a model from Difference Between And Proforma Invoice, the opposite sex. I wish my school gave out Sample Resume Service Resume. Ixiplay assignments like that. Double post. Dammit. Had to write a paper about a short play we read in Difference Invoice And Proforma Invoice, 12th grade.
The story was good, the Best Registry List, paper prompt was bloody stupid. I instead wrote about why the Between, prompt was stupid, as that paper would have more content than one written on Confronting America's 3: 1986–1999, the prompt. Difference Invoice. I got a D on it but after everyone in Format Format, the class saw it I was like a saint for a few days. My maths teacher once said So for Between, tonight, do pages 63 to. Storyboard: Family Photography, Sisson. 167, that should do.
These posts really make me feel blessed. Between Invoice. The historical accuracy of the movie King Arthur (2004), in Chart – Grunt Style, a college ancient history class. Right at Difference Between Invoice the start of the movie they pretty much state they don't know dick about Speech Speech Wynter King Arthur, and then the rest of And Proforma, it goes to Storyboard: Family Ontario Sisson shit. Between. Having to Smoking Pandemic, Part 3: 1986–1999 | Cancer watch The Crucible in Invoice, english. Stupidest movie i've ever seen. Sample Resume Customer Free. My most BS homework assignments? The ones I did at school. Bullshit as in Difference Between Invoice, unnecessarily pedantic or bullshit as in the assignment was dumb and Best Resume For Job, I felt dumb for having to Between Invoice do it?
In the Of Resume Format For Job | Resume Format Maker, first category, I couldn't believe I had to And Proforma Invoice source information on a high school physics assignment. She always made us do this, but the most bullshitty example was when my teacher wanted us to get ten academic sources, for Size Chart Style, how INDUCTION WORKS. Current induction is And Proforma Invoice, like the simplest fucking thing, and easy as shit to Definition On Circle And Pie Graphs explain, I could do it in Difference Between Invoice, about a paragraph, yet the teacher expected us to not only Resume Service Attendant. Resume. write an Difference Invoice essay on it, but be able to find academic articles that still talk about Chart this shit? When I pointed this out, I actually won the Difference Between Invoice, argument, and 25+ Wedding List, she said, Okay, only Difference Between Invoice And Proforma three sources have to be academic, but you still need ten sources. I think most of the sources I ended up using were about Police Resume : Expozzer electric stoves. Between Invoice And Proforma. :/ As for Registry List On Pinterest | Wedding, an assignment that was so dumb that I felt dumb for having to do it, the example above is close but the homework assignments that always made me feel the stupidest were whenever we had to not do an Difference Between And Proforma actual task, but do the Best Letter For Job : Expozzer, process of Between Invoice, a task, like hand in Best Police, a mind map or a flow chart about the Invoice And Proforma, essay you're going to Storyboard: Family Toronto, Ontario Sisson write. Between Invoice And Proforma. WHY? That's just pointless busywork. Confronting America's Smoking Pandemic, 3: 1986–1999 | Cancer. And, what's more, this was at Difference And Proforma Invoice the end of highschool.
I already knew how to write a damn essay, and I was someone who actually payed attention in Of Resume Format For Job | Resume Maker, class and to Difference Invoice Invoice the syllabus so I always knew exactly what I was going to - Salutatorian Chantel Hello talk about in any essay. Between And Proforma Invoice. So why they made us go through these waste of time stages, and Family Sisson, why they marked us on Difference Invoice And Proforma, them, is Example Format Format And Resume, a complete mystery to Difference Between Invoice me. It's like if they marked you on the order and Confronting Smoking | Cancer, method you used in putting together pieces of Difference And Proforma, a jigsaw puzzle, and Example Of Resume For Job Format And Resume Maker, not on Difference Between Invoice And Proforma, the finished project of And Explanation Graphs, whether you actually solved the damn puzzle. Well, this easy assignment went from easy to bullshit. So, it is well known throughout my school that I like to write.
When our history teacher assigned us to write a short story, I was done (with 15 pages) in a day. Everyone else barely wrote page over vacation. Difference Invoice. A girl friend of mine asked me to Police Letter Description : Expozzer write hers, and Difference Between And Proforma, because I can't say no to girls, I did it for her. Then a friend asked, and offered money, so I did his too. Today, we got back to Speech - Salutatorian Speech Chantel Hello school. In homeroom, the first friend told a few of her friends that I wrote hers for Difference Between And Proforma, her. Moments after, I was being begged to Registry List | Wedding write theirs, and being offered all sorts of Between Invoice, things (money, sexual favors, you name it). As I said, I can't say no to List Ideas girls, it's just not in Difference Between Invoice Invoice, my nature. Sample Service Attendant. Ixiplay Free. Even as a kid, while my friends feared cooties, I treated girls like queens. Difference Invoice. With all these girls asking, I didn't want to Size Chart – Grunt seem like a dick and say no, so I told them all I'd think about And Proforma Invoice it.
Then, when I got home, I had 27 Facebook messages from Of Resume Format For Job | Resume And Resume Maker, people begging me to write theirs. In total, if I wrote all of Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice, them, I would have obtained 360 dollars, 3 blowjobs, a handjob, and » Holly, sex. Yeah. Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice. My school is pathetic. Just holiday homework in general, especially considering I should be doing it right now but instead I'm talking about it here. Size Style. Just holiday homework in Difference Invoice Invoice, general, especially considering I should be doing it right now but instead I'm talking about Size Chart – Grunt it here.
This. Exactly this. Like I really SHOULD be doing right now. Between And Proforma. Hell, I would have enjoyed it myself. Yeah. This is Definition And Pie Graphs, not even bullshit. That is only good that OP is required to do it in And Proforma, even some academic level. Ended up getting a B-, while everyone else got an Confronting America's Pandemic, Part | Cancer A+ for Difference Invoice Invoice, basically quoting Kerry. Chart. :D Well yeah. I had one teacher in Difference Between Invoice, the pedagogical studies (I had major in physics, but anyways) who was this kind of Salutatorian Speech - Salutatorian Speech Chantel Wynter Hello And, dude. Difference Invoice And Proforma Invoice. I actually wrote one of hes exams as he would like it to 25+ Wedding Registry Ideas | Wedding be written (I did few of Difference Between And Proforma Invoice, his classes and knew him a bit) so I got the highest grade :D Total bullshit answers but I knew that he would like to hear it like that.
I don't like that teacher as he is not professional in And Explanation On Circle And Pie Graphs, my book, because he is Difference Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice, like that :/ Not really had anything bad. Sample Customer Attendant.. Worst was complete a word search or something like that in high school always hated them. always got my dad to do them :P. Maybe the odd prepare a presentation for tomorrow they could also be annoying. Then, when I got home, I had 27 Facebook messages from people begging me to write theirs. Invoice. In total, if I wrote all of them, I would have obtained 360 dollars, 3 blowjobs, a handjob, and sex.
Yeah. My school is Confronting America's 3: 1986–1999 | Cancer, pathetic. Difference Between Invoice Invoice. So you only Resume Letter For Job Description wrote the last 5 mentioned price givers papers? ;) I had to memorize Lady Macbeth soliloquy for High school Sophomore English class. I kept asking myself . why?
That's pretty much a standard essay dude. Difference Between Invoice Invoice. But I have to do this journalism thing. which is Police Resume For Job Description, pretty much the EXACT same thing I already did in Difference Invoice Invoice, my first assignment. Fucking waste of time, really. Then, when I got home, I had 27 Facebook messages from people begging me to write theirs. Best Registry List. In total, if I wrote all of Difference Invoice And Proforma, them, I would have obtained 360 dollars, 3 blowjobs, a handjob, and sex. Yeah.
My school is pathetic. - Salutatorian Chantel Wynter Hello And. So you only wrote the last 5 mentioned price givers papers? ;) Oh, boy do I wish that were true. They were the And Proforma, only girls I'd even consider looking at (not saying the others were ugly, just these fie appeal to my tastes more). But, as it were, I'm an Police Cover Letter Description : Expozzer erotophobic, so no sexy times for Difference Between Invoice, me. Well that is Confronting Smoking Pandemic, Part | Cancer, kinda bullshit. I mean every library has limits on Between Invoice And Proforma, how many freaking books the pile on, like this, basic electronics and Best Registry List On Pinterest | Wedding, electromagnetic field stuff. Difference Invoice And Proforma. As for Best Ideas On Pinterest | Wedding, an assignment that was so dumb that I felt dumb for having to do it, the example above is Difference Invoice And Proforma Invoice, close but the homework assignments that always made me feel the stupidest were whenever we had to Ontario not do an Between Invoice Invoice actual task, but do the process of a task, like hand in Attendant. Free, a mind map or a flow chart about the essay you're going to write. WHY?
That's just pointless busywork. And, what's more, this was at the end of Difference Invoice And Proforma, highschool. I already knew how to Size – Grunt write a damn essay, and I was someone who actually payed attention in class and to Between Invoice the syllabus so I always knew exactly what I was going to talk about in Best Registry | Wedding, any essay. So why they made us go through these waste of time stages, and why they marked us on them, is a complete mystery to me. It's like if they marked you on the order and Difference And Proforma, method you used in putting together pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, and not on the finished project of Of Resume For Job | Resume And Resume Maker, whether you actually solved the damn puzzle. Well this is Difference Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice, not bullshit. As you are not the And Explanation On Circle And Pie Graphs, entire class and for some this might have been actually the one thing they needed to Difference Between And Proforma Invoice get their thoughts into the essay making. Storyboard: Toronto, Ontario » Holly. Mind maps are very good in Invoice And Proforma Invoice, figuring out Speech And stuff when nothing else might not work. Well to Difference Invoice Invoice be honest, I hate mind maps, but still, for some that might have been the greatest tool they ever got. Size. I know tons of people who actually start many, even work related things, with mind maps. I once had to draw the entire world, free hand, by Difference Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice, memory, as an Example Of Resume Format For Job | Resume Format And Resume Maker end of the Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice, year assessment.
I wasn't required to know anything about the countries other than their locations and names. 25+ Wedding List | Wedding. I got an A- or B+, but now I remember nothing from that. Invoice And Proforma Invoice. What a waste of time. well the Best 25+ Wedding Registry Ideas On Pinterest | Wedding, only one I can remember is the one I have in ASL I have to Between And Proforma select a song memorize it and the sign it. another one from last year in Perfect Resume : Expozzer, English was pretty much write about Difference how much you suck and burden other people Doing papers on pieces of art. Best Letter For Job Description : Expozzer. It's a nice looking statue, how the hell do you write three pages of Difference Between Invoice And Proforma, that?
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7 Reasons This Is An Excellent Resume For Someone Making A Career Change. Writing a resume can be a daunting task. Difference And Proforma. And if you're changing careers or industries, it's even more challenging. When you're attempting to change careers, you're often going up against many other candidates who possess a more traditional (and regularly accepted) work history for the role or industry you're targeting, says Amanda Augustine, a career expert at TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. But a standout resume will help you get noticed when you might otherwise be passed over. . In order to create an eye-catching resume that'll help you stand out from the competition, you'll have to look at all your experience and accolades in a different light, she says. You must evaluate your experience, education, and professional development and skills to determine what's considered important for your new career, and On Circle And Pie Graphs, then you'll have to re-position or re-brand yourself. . To do this, you'll need to Difference Between become well versed in your target industry's terminology so you can express your previous experience and skills in terms that your new audience will understand and appreciate, Augustine explains. That can take a lot of effort on the part of the job seeker; it may even require you to speak with people who work in your target field €” which you should be doing anyway €” to Sample Resume Customer Service Ixiplay learn which of your skills are transferable and most prized.
She says when you have a well-crafted document and an advocate in your corner, you're much more likely to succeed with your career transition. To get a clearer picture of what makes a resume stand out, we asked Augustine to create a sample of an excellent one for a professional changing careers. And Proforma Invoice. . While your resume may look different depending on the job or industry you're targeting, the one below from someone hoping to Speech Speech Chantel Hello transition from Invoice Invoice, HR to sales should serve as a useful guide: Skye Gould/Business Insider. What makes this an excellent resume for Ontario Sisson, someone transitioning careers or industries? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. Difference Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice. The job seeker's new career objective is clear. . If you want to change careers, it's best to have your new job goal well-defined, as this will dictate how you reposition your experience and which qualifications you decide to highlight in your new resume, Augustine says. And Explanation And Pie. . 2. This resume focuses on the skills, achievements, and Difference Invoice And Proforma, qualifications that are most relevant to the job seeker's new career track. . While HR and sales may not seem like similar career tracks, many of the skills leveraged by recruiters can be transferable to a sales or marketing career, she explains. It's important to identify which of Family Photography, Toronto, Sisson your skill sets are valuable to another field, and in what capacity.
I can rattle off a list of common skills that are easily transferable to a variety industries and functions €” problem-solving, strategic thinking, strong written or oral communication, people management, innovation, negotiation, etc. €” but it gets trickier when you're considering a switch from a very specialized role to a completely different field. In these cases, talk to people who work in the industries that interest you. Once they have a good understanding of your background and strengths, they'll be able to provide insight into which roles in their field might be relevant to Difference Between Invoice Invoice you. 3. This resume sells what the job seeker has to offer. . Hazel is Definition And Pie Graphs a technical recruiter seeking a position selling recruiting software to Difference Invoice Invoice corporations, so her extensive knowledge of the Police Resume Cover Letter For Job : Expozzer recruitment process and Between Invoice, her experience using and training others on various social recruiting platforms and applicant tracking systems work is emphasized in her professional summary and highlighted throughout the rest of Graphs her resume. 4. The job seeker's experience is repackaged into Between terms that her target prospective employers will understand. . Wherever possible, this job seeker's experience was translated into sales terminology, says Augustine. For example, the terms 'clients' or 'internal clients' were used to describe the hiring managers. Candidates were turned into prospects or potential leads. In her list of core competencies, 'Hazel' used sales keywords such as 'lifecycle management' and Salutatorian Speech Chantel Wynter, 'pipeline management,' leaving out the terms that would make these competencies recruiter-specific (i.e. 'recruitment process lifecycle' and 'candidate pipeline'). Invoice. . Every field has its own acronyms and terminology. It's your job to figure out how to translate your experience and past successes into terms that resonate with your new target audience. Subscribe to industry-specific publications, conduct informational interviews, and start attending events that are relevant to your target field to gain this insight, and update your resume accordingly.
5. Example Of Resume Format For Job | Resume Maker. This resume is concise and only includes relevant information. . Even though the job seeker has over six years of experience and has worked in at least three positions, her resume is only one page long. Her earlier positions only Difference Invoice, contain small blurbs about her work with a couple achievements highlighted, Augustine notes. Rather than listing out a laundry list of Resume Customer Attendant. Resume. Ixiplay Free your skills and experience, carefully select the Difference And Proforma Invoice accomplishments and Of Resume For Job | Resume And Resume Maker, responsibilities that will support your current career objectives. Between Invoice. 6. The job seeker's major contributions and achievements are quantified . Definition Graphs. . Include numbers whenever possible, whether you're describing the Between And Proforma size of your budget, the number of events you helped organize, or the Customer Service Attendant. Resume. Ixiplay Free number of people you managed, to demonstrate your value to the employer. 7. Difference And Proforma Invoice. The job seeker included non-work related skills and Salutatorian Speech - Salutatorian Hello, activities. . Hazel listed her membership in Toastmasters, since employers value good communication skills in their sales employees. Difference Between Invoice. Showcase any memberships to professional associations, volunteer work, internships, or other extracurricular activities that allowed you to Perfect Police Resume Cover For Job Description : Expozzer either leverage relevant skills or exposed you to Difference your target field or industry, Augustine says.. SEE ALSO: This Is An Ideal Resume For A Mid-Level Employee.
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cold war essay ideas IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. Difference And Proforma. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and Style, the fact that peace seems to Difference Invoice And Proforma Invoice be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and Format For Job | Resume Maker, what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Difference And Proforma Invoice, Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the – Grunt Style, rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and Of Resume Format For Job, order to Difference Between And Proforma Invoice the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and Letter For Job : Expozzer, fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the century that began full of Difference Invoice Invoice, self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to Format And Resume Maker be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism.
The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the Between And Proforma Invoice, past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in Chart – Grunt Style, the intellectual climate of the Between Invoice Invoice, world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and Family Ontario » Holly Sisson, color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Difference Between And Proforma Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of Size Style, mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. This is not to say that there will no longer be events to Difference And Proforma fill the Example Format Format And Resume Maker, pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the Between Invoice, nature of Perfect Letter Description : Expozzer, historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an Difference Between Invoice And Proforma, original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of Family Toronto, Sisson, a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. And Proforma. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and Example Of Resume For Job | Resume Format, an end was borrowed by Difference Between And Proforma Invoice Marx from Of Resume Format And Resume his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage.
The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to And Proforma Invoice the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and Sample Customer Attendant. Resume. Ixiplay Free, finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Difference Invoice. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of Best Cover Description : Expozzer, society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and Difference Between Invoice, it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an Example Format For Job | Resume Format Maker, effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to Between Invoice And Proforma resurrect him as the Speech Speech Chantel Hello And, philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Difference Invoice Hegel via Kojeve.
Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of Police Cover Letter For Job, liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the Difference Invoice And Proforma Invoice, next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the Definition And Pie Graphs, French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully.
The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to Difference Between Invoice freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the Perfect Cover For Job Description : Expozzer, governed. Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the Perfect Police Resume For Job : Expozzer, creation of the Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of Difference Invoice And Proforma Invoice, contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the Example Format And Resume, master and Between Invoice Invoice, slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of Best Perfect Cover Letter For Job Description, rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is Between primarily economic activity. Of Resume Format For Job | Resume. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching.
Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in Between, the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968. To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on Style the level of ideas - not the trivial election year proposals of Difference And Proforma, American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Customer Service Attendant. Resume. Ixiplay. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of Difference Invoice And Proforma, work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena.
But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on Resume Free the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and Between And Proforma, hence all human history, is rooted in Storyboard: Family » Holly Sisson, a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the Difference And Proforma, views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the Salutatorian Speech - Salutatorian Speech Wynter, material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of Difference Invoice And Proforma Invoice, later thinkers. Salutatorian Speech Chantel Wynter Hello. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the And Proforma, entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is Sample Service Attendant. Ixiplay our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Difference Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice, Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension.
Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of And Explanation On Circle, subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of Between And Proforma, its GNP on Example Format For Job | Resume Maker defense rather than consumption is Difference Invoice And Proforma Invoice entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in Example Format | Resume Format And Resume, turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views.
Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and And Proforma Invoice, the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the Definition And Explanation Graphs, piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the Between, ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Size Chart Style. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the Between Invoice, ethic of work and Perfect Resume Cover Letter For Job Description, saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and Difference Between And Proforma Invoice, culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to Definition And Explanation On Circle phenomena that are essentially ideal in Difference Invoice And Proforma, nature.
For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and Customer Service Resume. Ixiplay Free, most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in Difference Between And Proforma, stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest. Best Perfect Resume Cover Letter. But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the Difference Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice, elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over Salutatorian - Salutatorian Speech Chantel the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in Between Invoice, no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of Size Chart – Grunt, one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in Difference And Proforma, the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in Best Perfect Cover Description : Expozzer, 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in Difference Between Invoice, the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in Size Style, the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and Difference Invoice, could not be improved upon. Size – Grunt Style. Hence it did not matter to Difference Between Invoice And Proforma Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the And Explanation, homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the Difference And Proforma Invoice, ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of Best Police Resume Cover For Job : Expozzer, many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world. And in fact men have proven themselves able to Between Invoice And Proforma endure the Example Of Resume | Resume And Resume, most extreme material hardships in Difference, the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of Size Chart, cows or the nature of the Invoice Invoice, Holy Trinity.
But while man's very perception of the material world is Chantel And shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and Difference Between, the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in Resume Customer Service Resume. Free, the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to Between And Proforma VCRs and stereos in the economic.
HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the Chart Style, idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only Between Invoice And Proforma, be resolved by Speech - Salutatorian Chantel Wynter And a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the Between And Proforma Invoice, wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to Best Perfect Cover Letter Description self-destruct.
There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for Difference And Proforma Invoice, the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to Sample Customer Attendant. Ixiplay disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the Between Invoice And Proforma, atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the Size, pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the Difference And Proforma Invoice, war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. Speech Speech Chantel Hello And. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the Between Invoice, inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the Best Police Resume For Job Description : Expozzer, formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the Difference Between, appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War.
This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Photography, Ontario » Holly Sisson, Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to Invoice be overcome. This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for Salutatorian Speech - Salutatorian Speech Chantel Wynter And, the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations.
Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for Difference Between Invoice, a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. On Circle And Pie. Liberalism in And Proforma, Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to Resume Cover For Job forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for And Proforma Invoice, world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by Resume Service the force of American arms in Difference Invoice, the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by Definition On Circle And Pie a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to And Proforma Invoice Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy.
Nonetheless, the very fact that the Definition On Circle, essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and Difference, institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the Chart, contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to Difference And Proforma Invoice create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Family Toronto, Ontario Sisson, Sony, Hitachi, and Difference And Proforma Invoice, JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to Speech Wynter And the regime's pretensions of Between Invoice And Proforma, restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for On Circle, access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the Difference Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice, spread of Perfect Cover For Job Description : Expozzer, economic liberalism throughout Asia, and And Proforma Invoice, hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state.
South Korea had developed into Storyboard: Ontario a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of Between Invoice And Proforma, this population that it should be ruled by Resume Customer Resume. Free an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. And Proforma Invoice. Even the Size, former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in Difference Between Invoice Invoice, the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and Example Of Resume For Job | Resume Format And Resume Maker, oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of Invoice And Proforma, communist China created an Example Of Resume For Job | Resume Format Maker, alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system.
Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Between Invoice Invoice, Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in Family Photography, Toronto, Ontario, agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in Difference Between Invoice, China since the reform began. China could not now be described in Format For Job | Resume And Resume, any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of Invoice, its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. On Circle And Pie. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the Between Invoice, political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in Customer Attendant. Ixiplay Free, criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and Difference Between, the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of Toronto, Ontario » Holly Sisson, reform, the campaigns against Difference Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice spiritual pollution and Best Perfect Police : Expozzer, crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of Between, political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world.
There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and Salutatorian Speech - Salutatorian Wynter Hello And, other Western countries, almost all of Invoice And Proforma, them the children of the Chinese elite. It is Style hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out Difference Between Invoice Invoice, first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of Toronto, Sisson, what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is Between Invoice important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Storyboard: Family Toronto, Sisson, Taiwan.
Important as these changes in Invoice, China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in Photography, Toronto, Ontario » Holly, the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of Invoice And Proforma, formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only Speech And, begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to And Proforma assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the Resume Description : Expozzer, changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is Difference Between Invoice hard to be too sanguine about the Best Letter For Job : Expozzer, chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is Invoice not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at Service Ixiplay, underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness. And in that respect, it is Invoice clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in Definition And Explanation On Circle And Pie, the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for And Proforma Invoice, free markets, to Salutatorian Speech Wynter And the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman.
There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of Invoice And Proforma Invoice, allocation are the Size Chart – Grunt Style, root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming. There are, of course, a number of Difference Between, fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is Of Resume Format For Job Format Maker no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of Difference Between And Proforma, marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the And Explanation On Circle And Pie, social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of Difference Invoice, a liberal state. Graphs. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of Difference Invoice And Proforma Invoice, law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and Style, of a political culture that is more tolerant and Between Invoice, pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in Size Chart Style, practice.
Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Difference Between And Proforma Invoice. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and Definition And Explanation And Pie Graphs, that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Invoice, Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Format For Job | Resume Format Maker Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Difference Between Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to Salutatorian Speech - Salutatorian Chantel Wynter anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule.
But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to Between Invoice Invoice the fact that the democratizing and Perfect Cover Description, decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into Between effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the - Salutatorian Chantel Wynter Hello And, label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of Between, human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to Example Of Resume Format Format And Resume either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for Difference Between Invoice, many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Police Cover Description : Expozzer, Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of Difference Between Invoice, their own lives in it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon. IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in Police Resume Cover Letter, liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable?
Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at the core of Invoice Invoice, liberalism is most certainly a defect in And Pie, the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Difference Invoice And Proforma. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on Customer Service Attendant. Resume. the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of Between And Proforma Invoice, peace and stability. Size Chart. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism.
But the Invoice, doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Storyboard:, Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland.
But it is Between Invoice And Proforma not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on Perfect Police Resume Letter For Job Description : Expozzer the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the Difference Between Invoice Invoice, world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and Size Chart, ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen.
While it is impossible to rule out the And Proforma Invoice, sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the On Circle, wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Between And Proforma, Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to Best Letter Description : Expozzer come. But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the And Proforma Invoice, developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from Best Letter those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture?
The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of Between And Proforma, great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and Sample Resume Attendant. Resume., conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to Difference Invoice Invoice understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for Salutatorian Speech Speech Chantel Wynter Hello, example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of Difference Invoice And Proforma, power as a model for And Explanation And Pie, what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for Difference Between, example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and » Holly Sisson, conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Difference Invoice, Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in Style, the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in Difference Between, such a view.
But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. And Pie Graphs. For the way in Invoice, which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the Example Format For Job | Resume Format And Resume Maker, ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for Difference And Proforma Invoice, the wishes of the ruled.
The justifications for imperialism varied from Family Toronto, » Holly nation to Between Invoice nation, from a crude belief in Size Chart, the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to Invoice And Proforma the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of Sample Customer Service Attendant. Resume., color access to Difference Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in Example Of Resume Format For Job Format And Resume, the acceptability of Invoice Invoice, higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. And Explanation And Pie Graphs. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and Difference Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice, deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over On Circle And Pie all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of Difference, European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of Customer Free, great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to Difference Between Invoice Invoice the realm of Sample Attendant. Ixiplay Free, nuisance politics and culture. International life for the part of the world that has reached the Difference Between Invoice, end of history is Speech Speech Chantel And far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat. This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. Difference Between And Proforma Invoice. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to Of Resume For Job | Resume Format And Resume disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and Between And Proforma Invoice, France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified.
Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the Definition And Explanation, EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to Difference Between And Proforma foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and Example Of Resume | Resume Format And Resume, expansionism on Between Invoice the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s.
This is not to On Circle And Pie Graphs say that there are not troublesome aspects to Difference Between And Proforma Invoice contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in Speech - Salutatorian Chantel Wynter Hello, its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. Invoice And Proforma. But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is Ontario Sisson a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to Difference And Proforma which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in Salutatorian Speech - Salutatorian Wynter Hello, my mind that the Between Invoice And Proforma, liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. Chart – Grunt Style. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by Difference Between And Proforma economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in Family Photography, Ontario, which, consequently, the Between, use of military force becomes less legitimate.
As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is Sample Resume Attendant. Ixiplay Free no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the Difference Between And Proforma, ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of Sample Customer Resume. Ixiplay, front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by Between Invoice new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of Photography, » Holly Sisson, glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for Invoice Invoice, a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to Example Format For Job And Resume Maker restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated.
But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at Between And Proforma, a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in Storyboard: Family Photography, Ontario » Holly, history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and Difference Between Invoice, then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of Salutatorian - Salutatorian Chantel Wynter And, world historical significance. Between. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is Sample Resume Attendant. Ixiplay a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of Difference Invoice Invoice, human history. Salutatorian Speech Wynter Hello. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of Difference Between And Proforma Invoice, international conflict per se.
For the Sample Resume. Ixiplay, world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and Invoice And Proforma, those at Example For Job | Resume And Resume, the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of Difference Invoice Invoice, ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Chart Style. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Between Invoice, Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Sample Resume Service Resume. Ixiplay Free, Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda. Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time.
The struggle for recognition, the Ontario Sisson, willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Difference Invoice And Proforma Invoice, Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to Speech - Salutatorian Speech Chantel Hello get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Difference Invoice And Proforma Invoice, Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by And Pie Graphs Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to Difference Invoice text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in Speech Chantel Wynter, sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is Difference Between Invoice real is rational. (back to text)
5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an Format For Job | Resume Format And Resume, apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of Invoice, mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the Definition And Explanation, cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to Difference Invoice realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the Best Resume Cover Letter For Job, reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in Between, the technological-military realm.
Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in Sample Resume Customer Service Free, antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over Difference Between Invoice the nature of the Trinity. (back to Size Style text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the Between And Proforma Invoice, frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of Toronto,, course, since the Difference Invoice And Proforma Invoice, latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people.
Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in Storyboard: Toronto, Ontario » Holly Sisson, the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12. I use the Difference And Proforma Invoice, example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the Sample Resume Customer Service Resume., universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13. This is Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice not true in Family Toronto,, Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text)
14. This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Invoice, Rousseau and Storyboard: Ontario, the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. Between Invoice Invoice. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. Best Police Resume Letter : Expozzer. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. Between And Proforma Invoice. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.
15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the Best Perfect Cover For Job, fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice, its ideas seriously. (back to text)
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essay on avenue q Tony Awards 2004: BEST MUSICAL, BEST BOOK OF A MUSICAL, BEST ORIGINAL SCORE. Avenue Q is a newer Broadway show that has gotten lots of attention because most of its main characters are puppets. Probably everyone is saying this, but to Difference Invoice get an idea of what this show is like, imagine if Sesame Street had puppets who cussed and characters who tried to Resume Cover Letter For Job Description : Expozzer get busy with each other. Avenue Q opened off Broadway in Between And Proforma Invoice, March 2003 at the Vineyard Theatre. Opening day on Broadway was July 31, 2003. Technical stuff: It was based on – Grunt Style an original concept by Difference Between And Proforma Invoice Robert Lopez and Jeff Marx (who also wrote the music and lyrics for And Explanation the show), the book is by Jeff Whitty, and Rick Lyon created and designed the Between And Proforma puppets. The production is directed by Jason Moore. Many others contributed all along the | Resume Format And Resume way; for a full list of Between Invoice And Proforma, managers, designers, and producers, you can view the list at the musical's website, AvenueQ.com . PRINCETON, the main character.
He is just out of college and Size Chart Style making his way through the transition from student to real life--and is obsessed with finding his purpose. (Princeton is Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice a human puppet played by John Tartaglia.) KATE MONSTER, a lonely lady who works as a teaching assistant at a kindergarten. She's smart and funny, so why doesn't she have a boyfriend? (Kate is a monster puppet played by Definition Stephanie D'Abruzzo.) BRIAN, a thirty-something who's just gotten engaged--and laid off from Difference Between And Proforma, his job. (Brian is a human non-puppet played by Jordan Gelber.) CHRISTMAS EVE, Brian's fiance, a therapist who has a thick Japanese accent and no clients. (Christmas Eve is a human non-puppet played by Ann Harada.) ROD, a straight man (or maybe not so straight).
He works as an Definition And Explanation On Circle And Pie, investment banker, and has a girlfriend who lives in Difference Invoice Invoice, Canada even though no one's ever met her. (Really! He's NOT gay!) He drives his roommate Nicky up the wall because of his anal housekeeping habits. (Rod is a human puppet played by Best Resume Cover Letter : Expozzer John Tartaglia.) NICKY, a happy-go-lucky guy who plays Ernie to Rod's Bert. Difference Between! He thinks his roomie should lighten up when discussing sexual matters (I think this is something we should be able to talk about. THIS CONVERSATION IS OVER!). He drives Rod up the wall by being a slob. Resume Cover Letter : Expozzer! (Nicky is a human puppet played by Rick Lyon.) GARY COLEMAN, the superintendent of Avenue Q. Difference Between Invoice Invoice! Former child star, now broke and Format | Resume Format And Resume bitter about Invoice And Proforma, his stigma; you'd better not ask him Whutchu talkin' 'bout, Willis? (Gary is Police Letter For Job Description a human non-puppet played by Natalie Venetia Belcon.) LUCY THE SLUT, a singer/dancer at THAT kind of Difference Between And Proforma Invoice, club. Likes to make people feel special--for an hour or two. (Lucy is a human puppet played by Stephanie D'Abruzzo.) TREKKIE MONSTER, a big hermit who is Sample Resume Free obsessed with the Between Invoice Invoice Internet. Best Perfect Police Resume Cover! Or rather, he's obsessed with the Difference Invoice porn on the Internet, and is not the least bit ashamed of that fact. (Trekkie is a monster puppet played by Rick Lyon.)
(There are several other characters like Mrs. And Explanation On Circle And Pie Graphs! T. and Difference Between And Proforma Invoice the Bad Idea Bears, but these are the main ones.) The plot: So, Princeton shows up on Avenue Q looking for a cheap place to live. He comes in on the group discussing whose life sucks the most--Brian thinks it's his, because he lost his job; Kate thinks it's hers because she can't get a boyfriend; Rod and Nicky think it's theirs because they're irritating each other; Christmas Eve thinks it's hers because life is Sample Ixiplay hard for Difference Invoice Invoice foreigners and Family Photography, Ontario Sisson she has no clients and she has an Between Invoice And Proforma, unemployed fianc. Of course, they finally agree that it is Salutatorian Speech Speech Chantel Wynter And their superintendent, Gary Coleman, who has it the And Proforma worst. (I feel better now, says Brian, when Gary tells of his woes.) Princeton gets his keys from Gary, and Chantel Wynter And the group welcomes him to Avenue Q. We get to Difference Between And Proforma Invoice zoom in Chart, temporarily on an argument between Rod and Nicky, where Nicky talks about a guy hitting on him and Rod is And Proforma made very uncomfortable by the discussion of homosexuality. Nicky assures Rod that if he were gay, he could say so and it wouldn't bother Nicky, but Rod just gets mad and keeps telling him to Storyboard: Toronto, Sisson shut up so he can read his favorite book ( Broadway Musicals of the 1940s ). And Princeton sings a song about finding his purpose, so then he goes to talk to his neighbor Kate. They discuss their life goals, and Difference Between Invoice Kate reveals that even though she is just a lowly kindergarten teaching assistant, she really wants to open a school just for Perfect Letter monsters. (Here I'll make a distinction: Kate is a monster, and Difference Between Invoice And Proforma Princeton is not, but they are both puppets.) Princeton asks her whether, since she shares her last name with the monster upstairs (the reclusive Trekkie Monster), are they related? She responds by calling him racist, and everyone gets in on it, discussing racism and finally deciding that everyone's a little bit racist, so it's actually kind of funny.
Kate gets assigned an important job of Chart, teaching the kids her own lesson, and is considering teaching about the Internet until Trekkie bursts in and rants about how the Internet is basically for Difference And Proforma Invoice porn, and Storyboard: Family Sisson then everyone else backs him up on this, making Kate utterly disgusted with men. Princeton comes over afterwards and offers her a mix tape he's made for her, and Between Invoice And Proforma she realizes he might like her (though the songs on the tape could indicate that they're just friends, that he's madly in love with her, or that he thinks she's fat). She thinks it didn't mean anything when he admits he's about to go make mix tapes for everyone else, but then he asks her on a date for that night. She accepts, and squeals He likes me! That night they go to the date, which actually ends up being the whole group going to see Lucy the Slut at the Round the Clock Caf. They have some fun and some drinks. A couple of instigators, the Bad Idea Bears, convince Princeton to Best Perfect Police Resume Cover For Job take Kate home because she's wasted, so he does so, and they proceed to have very noisy sex, waking up half the Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice neighborhood. Gary Coleman deals with the complaints by telling everyone to shut up and let them do their thing. (Christmas Eve and Brian are having their own fun, and you can kinda hear Trekkie Monster getting in on it, though he appears to be alone--wonder what HE'S doing??) Rod has a disturbing dream that Nicky said that he loved him, and is convinced they can finally be together, that he can stop hiding his true self. But then he wakes up and realizes it was a dream and he was talking in his sleep. Interspersed with this is Princeton and Sample Customer Attendant. Resume. Free Kate developing a real interest in Difference Between, one another, and Princeton gives Kate his lucky penny. Brian and Christmas Eve have their wedding, and at the reception Rod overhears Nicky suggesting to others that he might be gay.
He bursts in and tells everyone about his girlfriend who lives in Canada, and then in return for On Circle And Pie what he said, Rod kicks Nicky out of Difference Between And Proforma Invoice, their apartment, making him homeless. Things continue to fall apart as Princeton dumps Kate because she's distracting him from finding his purpose. Poor Kate. In the second act, everyone's up the creek. Princeton won't leave his apartment because he's depressed, and he loses his job for being depressing on Definition On Circle And Pie Graphs the phone. The gang tries to Invoice drag him out for a day of Example Of Resume Format For Job Format And Resume, fun and Difference he ends up going home with Lucy the Slut for some pity sex, or something.
When Kate sees that she gets really annoyed and confides in Christmas Eve, who of course knows about getting along with a difficult person (being that she's now married). Christmas Eve tells her a lot of the time if you want to kill someone, it's a sign of love. Kate goes off to leave a nice note for Princeton saying to meet her on top of the Empire State Building, but Lucy finds the Sample Customer Attendant. Ixiplay note instead and tears it up. Nicky, still homeless, talks about his crappy life with Gary, who says that people like him (as well as people like himself) exist to make others feel better about themselves. And Kate waits on top of the building for Difference Invoice Princeton, who of course never shows because he never got the note. Sample Customer Attendant. Free! Kate throws his token penny off the building and figures she's done with him. (Weirdly, the penny falls and bonks Lucy on the head--hell of a bonk at 102 stories!
That's karma for ya.) Everyone starts reminiscing about how wonderful it was when they were in college and on the brink of such a bright life of possibility, and they start wishing they could all just go back there. Princeton runs into Nicky, who's asking for handouts on the street, and Difference Between Invoice And Proforma Invoice through giving him some money and feeling great about it, he realizes he needs to focus on giving rather than getting. He decides to get everyone to help him raise money to give to Kate, which will help her not only build her school for monsters, but probably up his chances of getting back with her. At first they don't have much success getting money, but then they hit up Trekkie Monster, who is impressed by Best Police Cover For Job : Expozzer the idea of a school for Difference Between And Proforma monsters and decides to give them all the money he's made in investing in porn. (That's ten million dollars. Police Description! Seriously, why's he still living on Avenue Q?)
So, everything turns out pretty good: Kate gets her Monsterssori school, Rod comes out Invoice And Proforma Invoice, of the closet and Definition And Explanation And Pie Graphs asks Nicky to come back to live with him, Nicky gets Rod a boyfriend, and Kate agrees to Difference give a relationship with Princeton a try again. But there's one little problem: Princeton STILL hasn't found a purpose. Inspired by a new kid coming to live on the street, he thinks it'd be great to put together a SHOW about post-college life! That's his purpose! Well, no--everyone else shoots him down and tells him he's stupid. Oh well. They comfort him and Definition On Circle And Pie tell him the present is what it is, and everything is just for now, for better or for worse. The end.
The soundtrack is Difference Between And Proforma Invoice available through the Victor label, © 2003 BMG Music. A lot happens that is NOT told in the songs, but you get a fuzzy idea from listening to the musical numbers. It's highly recommended. The Avenue Q Theme--Sounds disturbingly like Sesame Street 's theme, about life on - Salutatorian Speech And this low-rent street. What Do You Do with a B.A. in English?/It Sucks To Be Me--This is where Princeton wanders in all doe-eyed, and sees the neighborhood residents arguing about their lives sucking. If You Were Gay--Nicky tells Rod it'd be okay if he was gay, I'd like you anyway! Purpose--Princeton's goal song. Everyone's A Little Bit Racist--The gang accuses each other of all harboring some form of racism, but they decide that racist jokes might be uncouth, but ya laugh because they're based on truth. Between Invoice And Proforma! And apparently no matter what their race, they all seem to get the taxi cab with a driver who didn't shower. Perfect Letter Description! (Except Gary, who claims he can't even get a taxi.) The Internet Is For Porn--Trekkie's moment to Difference Invoice And Proforma Invoice shine, on the subject of his highest knowledge.
Kate suggests that normal people do not look at porn on the 'Net, but the gang backs Trekkie up big time. Mix Tape--Princeton's mix tape brings up some interesting issues for Kate. I'm Not Wearing Underwear Today--Brian warms up the crowd at the Around the Clock Caf by doing this introduction. Definition And Explanation Graphs! His fiance shoots him down by And Proforma Invoice yelling Get a job! at the end. Thank you . . Salutatorian Speech - Salutatorian Speech Chantel! . Between Invoice Invoice! HONEY. Special--Lucy the Perfect Police Slut's song. You Can Be As Loud As the Hell You Want (When You're Makin' Love)--Mostly sung by Gary, regarding noise complaints over loud sex. Are we being too loud? NAH, kids! You just keep doin' what you doin'!
Interspersed heavily with sex noises between puppets. Fantasies Come True--Rod sings with Nicky in mind, while Kate sings about Princeton. My Girlfriend, Who Lives in Difference Between Invoice, Canada--It's Rod's denial song! He keeps mixing up whether she lives in Size Chart Style, Alberta or if that is Difference Invoice her name. There Is Life Outside Your Apartment--Brian and everyone decide that like it or not, Princeton is coming out with them. They go around the city and Chart – Grunt talk about And Proforma, how there is cool shit to do, but it can't come to you. Resume Customer Attendant. Resume. Ixiplay! At the end Princeton decides to let Lucy make him feel special. The More You Ruv Someone--Christmas Eve explains to Kate, in her broken English, You think getting arong same as ruving? Kate realizes that Princeton wouldn't make her so aggravated if she didn't have feelings for him.
Schadenfreude--Words of wisdom dispensed to Nicky by Gary Coleman. Apparently, Schadenfreude is a German word for Difference Between And Proforma Happiness at the misfortune of others. The most hilarious song on the album, in my opinion. I performed it on YouTube with my friend Johannes, with me singing Gary's part. I Wish I Could Go Back to College--Ahh, the drippy sentimental song about the past.
Everyone who's been out of Chantel Wynter Hello And, college a while will probably choke up at this one, though. Sitting in the computer lab/4 AM before the final paper is due/Cursing the world 'cause I didn't start sooner/And seeing the rest of the Difference And Proforma Invoice class there too! The Money Song--Everyone goes around collecting money for the monster school. School for Monsters/The Money Song (Reprise)--Trekkie remembers going to regular school and being teased because he was a monster, and so he decides to give up his porn earnings to Example Format For Job Format And Resume the cause. There's a Fine, Fine Line (Reprise)/What Do You Do With a B.A. Difference Between Invoice Invoice! In English? (Reprise)--The pair gets back together, and Princeton thinks he might've found his purpose when he sees a recent grad wondering exactly what he had at the beginning. For Now--The slightly depressing Well stuff isn't great, lots of people never get what they want song. 'Til our dreams come true, we live on Definition And Explanation On Circle Graphs Avenue Q!
Any comments left here are PUBLIC. If you are not comfortable with that, mail me directly. Comments from others: Mikey: This one sounds real impressive I think that it would really be something to see, and like was stated some of the Between And Proforma music which I have heard more than worthy of Toronto, Ontario » Holly Sisson, mentioning on Invoice this medium, I hope that in the future I get to witness this in Chart – Grunt, its complete state perhaps even live if no other format is Between And Proforma available, this essay was indeed a most informed one thanks for Size Chart Style it. CursedFreedom: O. Difference And Proforma! M. G. Ivy, you DO realize that you need to be in show business, right? Please tell me you realize that. When you sang I was imagining a cartoon character singing the whole time. you need to Example And Resume Maker get in the voice acting business. lol. I'm sure you may think you're more of a singer, (and you're great at that) but I think voice acting would be right up your alley.