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Using a Scientific Journal Article to Write a Critical Review. Writing a critical review of Of Lease Letter, a journal article can help to How To Reorder Bar Supplies improve your research skills. Termination. By assessing the Handwritten work of others, you develop skills as a critical reader and Of Lease, become familiar with the types of Internship, evaluation criteria that will be applied to research in your ?eld and Termination Of Lease, thus your own research. You are expected to read the Tax Withholdings article carefully, analyse it, and evaluate the Letter quality and originality of the research, as well as its relevance and presentation. Its strengths and Your, weaknesses are assessed, followed by its overall value. Letter. Do not be confused by the term critique: it does not mean that you only look at the negative aspects of what the researcher has done. You should address both the positive and negative aspects. If your lecturer has given you speci?c advice on how to write a critical review, follow that advice. If not, the following steps may help you.

These steps are based on a detailed description of How To Land Internship, how to analyse and evaluate a research article provided by Wood (2003) in Termination Letter, her lab guide. This guide is 2017-2018 Calendar Schools divided into Termination Of Lease Letter two parts. How To Land Dream Internship. The ?rst part, Researching the Of Lease Letter Critique, outlines the steps involved in selecting and evaluating a research article. Reorder - Dummies. The second part, Writing your Critique, discusses two possible ways to structure your critique paper. The questions listed under many of the Termination Letter subheadings in this section may provide you with a good place to begin understanding what you are looking for and what form your critique might take. If your lecturer does not assign a topic or a particular article for you to review, and How To Calculate Income, you must choose a topic yourself, try using a review article from Termination Of Lease Letter, your ?eld. Handwritten Essay Examples. Review articles summarize and evaluate current studies (research articles) on Termination Letter, a particular topic. How To Calculate California Income. Select a review article on a topic that interests you and that is written clearly so you can understand it. Use the Termination review article to select a research article.

This can be very useful in writing your critique. Invoice. The review article will provide background information for Termination Letter, your analysis, as well as establishing that the research paper you are critiquing is signi?cant: if the paper was not so highly regarded, it would not have been selected to be reviewed. When choosing a research article, examine the Materials Methods section closely and make sure you have a good grasp of the techniques and methods used. If you don#39;t, you may have di?culty evaluating them. Read the article(s) carefully. As you read the article(s) use the Template following questions to Termination help you understand how and Boyfriend Gift Ideas Images On Pinterest, why the research was carried out. What is the author#39;s central purpose?

Look at Termination Of Lease, INTRODUCTION. What methods were used to Reorder Your Bar Supplies accomplish this purpose (systematic recording of observations, analysis and Of Lease Letter, evaluation of published research, assessment of 901 Best Boyfriend Ideas On Pinterest | Projects, theory)? Look at Termination Letter, METHODS. Land Your Internship. What were the techniques used? and how was each technique performed? What kind of Termination, data can be obtained using each technique? How are such data interpreted?

What kind of information is Template Pdf | produced by using the technique? What objective evidence was obtained from the author#39;s e?orts (observations, measurements etc.)? What were the results of the study? Look at Letter, RESULTS. How was each technique used to obtain each result? What statistical tests were used to evaluate the signi?cance of the conclusions based on numeric or graphic data? How did each result contribute to answering the question or testing the hypothesis raised in the introduction? How were the results interpreted? How were they related to How To Land Your Dream Internship the original problem (author#39;s view of evidence rather than objective ?ndings)?

Look at DISCUSSION. Termination. Were the author(s) able to answer the question (test the hypothesis) raised? Did the research provide new factual information, a new understanding of a phenomenon in the ?eld, a new research technique? How was the signi?cance of the work described? Did the We Know References reported observations/interpretations support or refute observations or interpretations made by other researchers? (Adapted with permission of Termination Of Lease Letter, Professor Susan Lollis, Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, University of Guelph. Source of questions in Handwritten, each section Wood, 2003) Once you are reasonably familiar with the article, it is important to gain an understanding of the research context, both societal and Termination Letter, intellectual. To establish the research context, questions such as the Calendar following should be addressed: Who conducted the research? What were/are their interests?

When and where was the research conducted? Why did they do this research? Was this research pertinent only within the authors#39; geographic locale, or did it have broader (even global) relevance? Were many other laboratories pursuing related research when the reported work was done? If so, why?

For experimental research, what funding sources met the Of Lease Letter costs of the Dream research? Was the selection of the research topic in?uenced by the source of Termination Letter, research funding? On what prior observations was the research based? What was and How To Reorder Your Bar Supplies - Dummies, was not known at Of Lease, the time? How important was the Pdf | research question posed by Of Lease Letter, the researcher? For more detailed information on Template Blank ~ Ipralatam, how to answer these questions, see Labs 4 and Termination Of Lease, 5 (Wood, 2003). Ideas Images. After you have read the Of Lease article and answered the questions in California Income, the previous section, you should have a good understanding of the Termination Of Lease research undertaken. You can now begin to Handwritten Examples evaluate the Letter author#39;s research. 901 Best Boyfriend Images. Making judgements about someone else#39;s work is often the most di?cult part of writing the review.

Many students feel that, because they are new to Letter a discipline, they do not have enough knowledge to make judgements of other people#39;s work. The following checklist may assist you: Read the statement of purpose at the end of the introduction. 901 Best Boyfriend Gift On Pinterest | Projects. What was the Of Lease Letter objective of the study? Consider the title. Does it precisely state the How To California subject of the paper? Read the statement of purpose in the abstract.

Does it match the one in the introduction? Check the sequence of Termination Of Lease, statements in the introduction. Does all the How To Calculate California Income Tax Withholdings information lead coherently to the purpose of the Termination Of Lease Letter study? Review all methods in relation to the objective(s) of the study. Are the methods valid for studying the Storyboard Template problem?

Check the methods for essential information. Could the study be duplicated from the Of Lease Letter methods and information given? Check the Bar Supplies methods for ?aws. Is the sample selection adequate? Is the Of Lease Letter experimental design sound? Check the sequence of statements in the methods. How To Land Your Internship. Does all the information belong there? Is the Letter sequence of Essay Examples, methods clear and Termination Of Lease, pertinent? Examine carefully the data as presented in the tables and diagrams. Does the title or legend accurately describe the Invoice Template Blank content? Are column headings and labels accurate?

Are the data organized for ready comparison and interpretation? (A table should be self-explanatory, with a title that accurately and Termination Of Lease Letter, concisely describes content and column headings that accurately describe information in the cells.) Review the Pdf | results as presented in the text while referring to the data in the tables and Letter, diagrams. Does the text complement, and Template, not simple repeat, data? Are there discrepancies between the results in the text and Of Lease, those in the tables? Check all calculations and How To Calculate California, presentation of Termination, data. 901 Best Ideas On Pinterest. Review the results in light of the stated objectives.

Does the Termination Letter study reveal what the Handwritten researcher intended? Check the interpretation against the results. Of Lease Letter. Does the discussion merely repeat the 2017-2018 - Fort Lee Public Schools results? Does the interpretation arise logically from the Termination Of Lease Letter data or is Storyboard Template Pdf | it too far-fetched? Have the faults/?aws/shortcomings of the Termination research been addressed? Is the interpretation supported by other research cited in the study? Does the study consider key studies in 2017-2018 Calendar - Fort Schools, the ?eld? Are there other research possibilities/directions suggested?

Reread the abstract. Termination Letter. Does it accurately summarize the Handwritten Essay article? Check the structure of the article (?rst headings and Of Lease Letter, then paragraphing). Is all the material organized under the Your Internship appropriate headings? Are sections divided logically into subsections or paragraphs? Are stylistic concerns, logic, clarity and economy of expression addressed? (adapted from Kuyper, 1991) 6. Establish the Significance of the Research. Of Lease Letter. Finally, it is We Know People! References important to Termination Letter establish whether the research has been successful has it led to Template Pdf | new questions being asked, new ways of Termination, using existing knowledge? Are other researchers citing this paper?

The following questions should be answered: How did other researchers view the signi?cance of the research reported by your authors? Did the research reported in your article result in the formulation of new questions or hypotheses (by the authors, by other researchers)? Have other researchers subsequently supported or refuted the observations/interpretations of these authors? Did the research make a signi?cant contribution to Boyfriend Ideas On Pinterest | Projects human knowledge? Did the research produce any practical applications?

What are the social, political, technological, medical implications of this research? How do you evaluate the Of Lease Letter signi?cance of the research? To answer these questions look at review articles to ?nd out how reviewers see this piece of Boyfriend Ideas | Projects, research. Look at research articles to see how other people have used this work; what range of journals have cited this article? For more detailed information on Termination Letter, how to Ideas On Pinterest | Projects answer these questions, see Lab. 8 (Wood, 2003). Two possible approaches.

You have completed your analysis and evaluation of the journal article. How do you then put all this information together? If your instructor has not provided a format for your critique, there are two possible ways you might present it. If your instructor is concerned that that the Of Lease Letter article be clearly situated within the social and intellectual research context, then you might present it in the following way: In the introduction, cite the journal article in full and then provide the background to this piece of Gift Images On Pinterest, research, establishing its place within the ?eld. Use the Termination Of Lease Letter answers to How To the questions in Establish the Termination Letter Research Context to develop this section. Follow the structure of the journal article. Evaluate each section of the article Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion highlighting the strengths and Blank, weaknesses of each section. Use the Termination Letter answers to the questions in Evaluate the Text to 901 Best Gift Images On Pinterest | Projects develop this section. In this section, sum up the strengths and Of Lease Letter, weaknesses of the research as a whole. Establish its practical and Handwritten Examples, theoretical signi?cance.

Use the answers to questions Establish the Signi?cance of the Research to develop this section. Another common way to structure a journal article critique is the Letter following: In the introduction, cite the Storyboard Template Pdf | journal article in Termination Letter, full and provide a summary of the journal article. Use the Gift answers to Termination Of Lease Letter the questions in Handwritten, the section Analyze the Text to Termination Letter develop the Invoice Template Blank ~ Ipralatam summary. Follow the structure of the Termination Of Lease Letter journal article. Template Blank ~ Ipralatam. Evaluate each section of the Letter article Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion highlighting the Lee Public strengths and Termination Of Lease, weaknesses of each section. Use the Handwritten Examples answers to the questions in Evaluate the Text to develop this section. In this section, sum up the strengths and weaknesses of the Termination research as a whole. Establish its practical and theoretical signi?cance.

Use the answers to 901 Best Ideas On Pinterest questions Establish the Signi?cance of the Research to develop this section.

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How To Write A Comic Book Script and Other More Important Things. A plethora of resources both online and offline will teach you exactly how to Termination Of Lease write a screenplay but good luck trying to learn how to People! References write a comic book script. Though comic writers who work for the big publishers typically format their comic book scripts similarly to screenplays, there is still no official industry standard. And if you write your own independent comics—either webcomics or print—you have even more freedom with your script’s format. After all, you are the only one who ever has to use it. Working with separate members of Of Lease Letter, a team requires a tighter, more standardized approach if the writer’s intent is to be fully realized by the artists. We’ll begin with a pseudo-standard approach to comic book script writing. Then we’ll share our own crazy approaches to Examples give you an idea of how flexible this process can be.

And to show you what this looks like, we (Lora and Chris) provided samples of our comic scripts via the links below. Our regular readers won’t be surprised to hear us say that there is no point in starting a comic script unless you have addressed these 5 things. Do not start writing a script for your comic without a rock-solid outline. A rock-solid outline includes a clear plan for Of Lease Letter, the beginning, middle and end of your story. To learn more about this, listen to Lora and I talk about The Ocean and Story Structure. The most important parts of your outline are the arcs for your main and secondary characters. Those should be clearly mapped out. How To Your Bar Supplies! We recommend creating an emotion-graph for each character: An Emotion Graph can help you chart where your characters are, emotionally, at Letter each point in Template, the story.

Keep the characters in motion emotionally and you’ll keep your readers engaged. Be sure to include the timing of vital set-ups and Letter, pay-offs for both plot and Storyboard Template Pdf |, character. Regardless of whether you’re writing an individual issue of an Letter, ongoing, serialized comic like Spider-Man , a stand-alone graphic novel, or a five-volume series, we recommend that you use a traditional three-act structure. There are a bajillion books about three-act story structure but we recommend Save The Cat by Blake Snyder as a great, practical way to get started. Three-act structure is versatile because it is flexible enough to scale to fit the length of whatever story you are writing. You can apply three-act structure to an animated short, a trilogy of novels or an Reorder Bar Supplies - Dummies, entire season of television. Termination! Even scenes within stories have three acts. At least the good ones do. You will deviate from the outline during the Essay Examples, writing process.

Every long road-trip needs a map so the driver doesn’t get lost along the way. And the crafting of any script, any well told story is Of Lease, a long, long road-trip. Sure, you might find some interesting stops and Handwritten Examples, detours while you’re out there. You might even change your mind about your ultimate destination. But if you are just wandering aimlessly without a plan, your passengers (readers) will eventually get tired, smelly, hungry and grumpy. They’ll think twice before going on a road trip with you again. Without a map there is no answer to, “Are we there yet?” Good stories tell you when you have arrived at the destination. Don’t leave your passengers guessing about whether you’re getting close. Stories with a point are like the signs along a highway counting down the miles until you’ve reached your destination. They give you a sense of scale and Of Lease Letter, a growing anticipation that the end is Invoice Template, nearing.

Suddenly all of those gross gas station bathrooms were worth it. Fans of Blake Snyder can use his Save The Cat technique and create Beat Sheet notecards in Of Lease Letter, a program called Scrivener. The cards can be moved around and reorganized as much as you want. And when you’re happy with your outline and are ready to start writing, each individual card expands to becomes its own scene. When You’re Ready To Write The Script: You have to Your decide which format you’re going to use. Are you going to format your comic script in the pseudo-standard “big publisher” format we mentioned at the beginning of this article?

…or are you going to try something different? Whatever you do, write more than one draft. Of Lease! Write as many drafts as you can before the writing deadline. Download Our Comic Script Samples: I (Lora) use a pseudo-standard “big publisher” format with page and panel breakdowns and descriptions when I write The Dreamer . Again, there is Examples, no absolute, standard script format like there is Letter, with screenplays. But if you want to Template see what my script for The Dreamer looks like: Download The Dreamer Script Sample Here. I (Chris) format my scripts more like a traditional screenplay. Termination Of Lease! If you want to see what my script for Greg The Megabeaver’s Prehistoric Sideshow looks like: Download The Prehistoric Sideshow Script Sample.

In both downloads, we included the actual comic pages which correspond to How To Land Dream Internship the script pages so you can look at them side-by-side. Because I (Chris) come from a film background, I’m more comfortable writing in Of Lease, screenplay format with the Calculate Income, Final Draft screenplay software I’ve grown accustomed to over the years. I (Lora) work similarly—one long script independent of Termination Letter, pages or panels at first—using Scrivener instead of Final Draft. Like a movie-style pipeline, we recommend you focus entirely on the script until it’s done. We Know References! One thing that Hollywood has proven thousands of times over Letter is that the final work almost always suffers if you begin “filming” the story before you have a solid, finished script. There’s a rhythm and a pace to the standard screenplay format that gets interrupted if you start by thinking about your scripts in terms of panels and pages too soon. The story should form your script and the script should form your pages and Handwritten Essay, panels.

While writing the final draft of your script, begin planning your page and panel breakdowns before moving into the drawing phase. If you are both writer and artist on Termination Of Lease your story, no matter how polished your final draft is, you will inevitably make a pass of “visual rewrites” while actually drawing the comic pages. You always discover better ways to tell the story once pencil hits the blank page. If you compare my Greg The Megabeaver’s Prehistoric Sideshow comic script to my comic pages, you’ll notice things that I changed in the drawing phase. I liken this process to that of editing a film that I’ve already shot: I’ll change dialogue, pacing or even cut entire scenes while drawing. The scenes that were cut are then removed from the working version of the script for continuity purposes. If you’re curious, in my script, the screenplay pages equal between two and four comic pages.

This makes sense to me. Or plan well, then execute quickly. Lora approaches the first few drafts of her script in a similar way, but once she is happy with it, she breaks her scripts down into pages and individual panel descriptions. Here’s what she had to say about the process she uses to write her comic scripts: After have what feels like roughly 25 pages worth of content, with a beginning, middle and end, I go back in to find “cliffhanger moments” within the script that I wrote. I use these to determine my page breaks so that whole issue is a “page turner.”

I examine the pieces of dialogue and Your, begin to group them into panels so that each panel is mini-story, each page is a small story, and each issue is a complete story. What you see here is my final draft, and believe me, a lot of edits go into every script. I just make my edits in my Scrivener document, not on paper, so there’s no real way to show you. There is a reason that I letter my own comic. It’s my last pass at the script. Even in this sample you’ll see that the Of Lease, final page has an extra “joke” in there that wasn’t in the original. Scripting in Scrivener takes the overwhelm out of writing a graphic novel series. Organize your writings into collapsable folders for each volume, issue, and scene. Okay, so we’ve talked about the importance of outlining, three-act structure and Calculate, the various format choices for writing your comic script. But now it’s your turn to share!

How have you approached the writing of your own comic scripts and do you think you’ll stick with that or try something new? Share in the comments below. Everyone reading this will benefit from your insight. So don’t be shy. Get FREE Photoshop Brushes Every Month For A Year! Claim your FREE membership to The Oatley Academy Brush Club and get new Photoshop Brushes every month for a year! You’ll also get a “how to” instructional video for every new brush set plus hundreds of Of Lease Letter, hi-res photo textures… Actually I write in Land Your, a more loose “screenplay” style first as well too, Chris.

After have what I think is Of Lease, 25 pages with my beginning, middle and where I want the Handwritten Essay Examples, story to Termination end for Storyboard Template Pdf |, that issue, I go back in and begin breaking it down by pages and panels. I try to find those “cliffhanger moments” for page breaks and Termination Of Lease, figure out what pieces of dialogue belong in the same panel so each panel is People! - Client/customer, mini-story, each page is a small story and each issue is a complete story. What you see here is Termination Of Lease, my final draft, and believe me, a lot of Template, edits go into every script. I just make my edits in Pages, not on paper, so there’s no real way to Termination show you that. There is a reason that I letter my own comic. It’s my last pass at the script. Even in Template, this sample you’ll see that the Termination, final page has an extra “joke” in Storyboard Pdf |, there that wasn’t in the original. Ha! We must have been on a wavelength here, both mentioning the Termination Of Lease Letter, page to Invoice Template page story and the cliffhanger page breaks.

Great minds #128521; I tend to avoid full on “drafts” as it feels too much like a rewrite to me. That said, I tend to Letter have a “rolling draft” process when I script. We Know People! - Client/customer! Every time I open the document (or begin a new page) to work I’ll reread either from the Termination, beginning of the Your Internship, issue or the most logical previous break point and Of Lease Letter, do spot editing throughout the writing process. After hitting the last page I do at least two full readthroughs like this just to cover my bases. So while I never have a “draft1, draft2, draft3” I still manage about the People! References, same amount of editing, just in a different order.

He! I wanted to Of Lease Letter improve my script writing. Do you think it’s important or recommended to take a script writing class? Some of these are expensive and if all it takes is a lot of writing sans guidance ( or with minimal guidance), I might not need to How To Dream join up. Having written for other artists, I’d say my style in terms of Termination, formatting is largely dictated by the artists I’m working with. The more capable a storyteller the artist is the more likely I am to shift towards a screenplay style. The less accomplished they are at story telling the more I’ll give panel breakdowns. How To Calculate California! I always do page breaks as in any printed comic these are absolutely CRUCIAL for reveals. The page turn is a mighty force for tension and you want to make sure it is preserved as much as possible. Termination! I also time scene changes this way, and try to make most large scene changes on Calculate page turns just like a standard reveal.

It’s not always possible or necessary, but I think it very subtly sinks in with the reader as they go, “Every time the page turns, something happens or I go somewhere new.” Beyond that I prefer to work without panel descriptions, instead giving a brief summary of the primary action of the page (each page should have it’s own narrative, beginning, middle and end) and list any secondary actions taking place (for talking head scenes this is usually to activate an otherwise stale scene action wise) and Termination, then list the Examples, dialog screenplay style with notations referring back to the initial summary for when action beats occur. Of Lease Letter! The one thing that I would caution about working without at least page breaks is that it’s very easy to paint your artist (or yourself) into Blank ~ Ipralatam, a corner with too much text in dialog heavy scenes. Termination! Keep in mind that the average comic page has about Your - Dummies, 500 characters of Termination Letter, text, and Calculate California Tax Withholdings, the heavy dialog pages range up to 1000. Past that you are treading into Alan Moore territory (and you’re not Alan Moore, stop trying to be Alan Moore, no really, just stop) and Termination, the art is going to Land be further and further complicated by the wall of Of Lease, text. Usually some serious “kill your precious babies” editing will solve this, but it’s an Dream Internship, easy hard and fast check to make sure you haven’t just tried to Termination Of Lease Letter do straight prose in Storyboard, a comic book. I’d recommend checking out some of Termination Letter, Robert Kirkman’s script pages as many of them are reprinted in the various trade paperbacks of his work. Aside from the 3 act structure I’d take it a step further and check out the Dream, “Hollywood formula” version of this. Termination Letter! I’ve mentioned it here before but you can find out more about, that here:

I can’t tell you how much of a help that outline has been to me writing my current story. Termination! It’s really helped to crystallize what was at first a very sprawling, disconnected tale and Blank ~ Ipralatam, turn it into a much tighter, more character driven story. Right now, I have to Letter admit that I don’t have much of a process when it comes to writing scripts, which is something I’m really trying to work on. Since I’m just drawing the prologue of Everdusk right now, I think I’m also going to use this time to plot out the main storyline very, VERY thoroughly in Template, an outline so I don’t get lost and have some sort of “home base” to make changes from. Having an emotional timeline is also an excellent idea, something I hadn’t really thought of–I think that should help me figure out where to insert more character-/emotion-based scenes. One thing that I notice I have a problem with when I write anything is Of Lease, I just want to get all the information out there at Calculate California Income Tax Withholdings once! I was just working on the next chapter script yesterday, actually, and caught myself doing this. I think having an outline will help this–by knowing when characters are introduced and certain events happen, I can more efficiently plot out when information is introduced to my readers in Termination Of Lease, a (hopefully) sensical way. However, even though I’m definitely trying to revise how I approach my script-writing, one thing that probably won’t change is how I envision the pages as I write.

I definitely write first and Essay Examples, then form the Termination Of Lease Letter, comic pages around what I write; I typically don’t attach words to panels until I start thumbnailing. I may make script changes from there to better fit flow and such, but nonetheless, my script is generally written without initial regard for panelling. Chris Oatley says. That’s a real challenge – trying to resist doing a big “information dump” at How To Your Internship the beginning. But all of the good “fantasy world” stories just drop the audience right into the story and Termination Of Lease Letter, they learn as they go. As long as you don’t alienate the California Income, audience, I think that’s the Of Lease Letter, better choice. I just write everything in Word.

I learned about proper formatting in college but it always felt clunky to me, worrying that everything looked how it was supposed to, that I was using the right type of font or terms. Now I don’t worry about it, and the writing comes faster. How To California Tax Withholdings! Having a program like Final Draft might help, but I don’t have anything like that. I have an overall outline that I’m still tweaking, divided into Letter, chapters or where I’d like the chapters to break. Then I just write out the chapters, divided into We Know - Client/customer, pages, and Termination, those pages divided into panels. I even tell myself which page is the right or left page, as if it’s printed, so I can add those mini-cliffhangers too and pace accordingly. I have a brief description of action or emotion for We Know People! - Client/customer References, each panel, and any dialogue I just indent. Termination Of Lease Letter! I even change the font of dialogue to the one I use in my comic so I can easily read how a conversation goes. It’s not at all conventional (I don’t even use that typewriter font), but it’s quick and Blank ~ Ipralatam, fluid and it works for Termination Of Lease, me. Sometimes pages still change even while I’m drawing them. Definitely one of the best parts of doing webcomics is writing and formatting and planning however you want. #128512;

Chris Oatley says. Yeah, I would only use a screenplay format if that’s already what you’re used to. I think Lora writes in Pages for the Mac. Joel, Zach and I have done a bunch of outlines in Google Docs. Before I dive into a new chapter I try to isolate the How To Your, theme I’m exploring in it, as well as the Termination, major events. However, for How To - Dummies, the actual scripting, I never write more than a scene at a time.

The reason for this is that it keeps things fresh for me. Termination Of Lease Letter! When I first started trying to write comics in…uh…2000 (I think?) I tried to Dream follow the “professional” standard. The result? By the time I finished the full story, I no longer wanted to draw it. It didn’t hold any surprises for me anymore.

I write by scene, but with the Of Lease, benefits of a very significant buffer (up to 3+ months of material). Invoice! This means that if I discover something that needs changing, down the line, I still have a good window to fix it before it goes “live” online. Case in point: On this page I originally had no dialog. Of Lease Letter! 20 pages later, I realized I’d wasted an opportunity to characterize one of my villains.

I was able to go back and change the scene before it ever hit the How To Land, web. This method has worked very well for Termination Of Lease Letter, me for several years, but the dangers are that it makes writer’s block even more excruciating. How To Your Dream! I can’t work ahead, or skip a section and come back. I am bound to figuring things out in a linear fashion. When the flow is good, it makes the process a grand adventure. Termination Of Lease! When the flow stagnates…It’s like being stuck on a raft in the middle of the Handwritten, ocean. Chris Oatley says. Robin, you might just try outlining in 25 page arcs. Even if you just outline loosely and give yourself room to change your mind along the way. You might find that you write more decisively.

Just a thought… It’s definitely worth a try. Termination Of Lease! When I first start a chapter and We Know, lay out my theme timeline, it’s akin to an outline, but not as structured. It’s easier when the character groups are smaller. Right now I’m juggling a cast of Letter, seven different characters, most of, which are paired off in sets of two. Termination Of Lease! Some of them I know really well, but others are fairly new to me and the readers.

I’m running into Pdf |, the issue of Of Lease, “What to characterize NOW?” Do I find a way to show that my hardened assassin has a weak spot for Pdf |, kids, or highlight his cavalier attitude towards conflict due to his POW experiences? Can I do both? SHOULD I do both? What might fit in better in a different setting? Having written this out, I think I need to re-focus on the themes I set out for this chapter at the start, particularly as they relate to the MAIN cast.

The order of events is less important than the progression of my main characters, yet I have lost track of that a bit in recent script drafts. Daz Awisreu says. I have a master-outline divided into Of Lease Letter, “chapters” with mini-outlines, and Template Pdf |, I fully write chapters/scenes as I’m in Termination Letter, the mood to. Whenever I get around to Invoice Blank fleshing out a scene, I’ll describe the Termination Of Lease Letter, setting first with any objects/persons that’ll be important to the scene or for foreshadowing. And then I’ll write out the dialogue only.

I’ll act it out Template, as I go along, revising it for different characters, adding in beats for pacing, making little mini-cliffhangers for the end of pages. I’ll just get all the dialogue down first, act it out over and over again, in front of a few people, get feedback, edit, edit, spellcheck, edit, and Termination Letter, get a “final-ish” version. Then I’ll decide what shots will fit with the dialogue, which character’s face I want to show, what angles to work with. I’ll make two or three thumbnails of possible panel placement and work with my favorite to Template make the final page. Sometimes seeing the character’s pose or facial expression helps me to come up with a better line, so, nothing is Of Lease Letter, ever really final. As far as my actual format goes, it doesn’t look anywhere as neat as the both of yours. A line or two describing the setting (if it has changed from the How To Land Dream Internship, last page), dialogue with vague acting cues, and changes in shots marked with “//” on Termination Of Lease Letter a separate line, haha. Chris Oatley says. Daz, I often draw thumbnails and Blank ~ Ipralatam, expressions right on my script.

Or I do post-it sketches and stick those to the script. I have found that I focus on Termination Letter writing the script with the We Know - Client/customer, page/panel in my mind. It slows down the Termination, writing process down considerably as I have too much to concentrate on at once. It’s a habit as I’m always thinking about how to visually tell the story. I’m going to try and just get the story written down and then start to edit figure out panels/page layout after. I also think from reading finished comic scripts where it’s laid out in terms of “Panel 1, Panel 2 etc” I figured that’s how I have to write. Chris Oatley says. I completely agree, Leigh. It’s amazing how much more flow I find when I resist thinking about the visuals for Blank ~ Ipralatam, as long as possible. I never used to bother with “scripting” until I started as an apprentice with Lora and saw how integral it was to plan for pacing and readability.

She’s very conscious of the amount of action on each page, where each individual page is within a scene, and how to use the Termination Of Lease Letter, last panel of each page to pull into the next. I’m still not as calculating as her –– I think it’s second nature to her now, and I’m still getting the hang of it –– but it made a huge difference. Before, I estimated that my book would be about 20 pages per Calculate California Income chapter because I didn’t know how to Termination pace properly… but when I started writing things out, I realized I had a lot of dead space and most of the chapters now average at a lean 14 pages. Handwritten Essay Examples! Crazy! I think if I didn’t figure that out, the story would really drag, and now it’ll take me much less time to complete it. Chris Oatley says. Yes. Lora is a beast. She really is a master of the craft of visual storytelling.

Inspiration conversation you have here! I have never written a script for comics or a graphic novel, though I have written scripts for theater and film (a treatment). I love the ideas listed here and I’ve been toying with a storybook idea which I may produce in the future. If so, I’ll definitely keep my process loose and incorporate some of Termination, these ideas. Thanks! When I write scripts, I break everything down piece by piece.

1. I use the outline to pace out my chapter and plot out the major points I want to Storyboard Template cover (Note: this thing is fairly mutable and often changes in the next step). 2. I take each bullet point of the outline as a scene description and write out Termination Of Lease, each scene in the chapter as a part of Storyboard Template, a whole to Termination Of Lease be pieced together later. They’ll fit into the script based on the pacing in the outline. 3. As I write each individual scene (which I often do out of Handwritten, order), I just plot out Termination Letter, all the dialogue I want first before I stop to think about Invoice Template ~ Ipralatam, visuals or page count. 4. Once I’ve got dialogue I’m happy with, I begin going through the dialogue and establishing page breaks. Like Lora, I try to find the big “cliffhanger” moments for page breaks.

I keep my eye out for key revelations in Termination, the scene or high tension moments like “You are a cylon!” or “Luke, I am your father!” In comedic scenes I keep my eyes out for Invoice, snappy come backs between characters to Of Lease Letter end the Essay, page on a sort of Of Lease Letter, “punchline”. 5. Finally, I begin to think of the visuals. California Income! I dice up the panels and add short panel descriptions to Of Lease give me an Land Your, idea of what the heck I’m going to draw when it comes to execute page. Lesser conversation can be thrown into Termination, one panel whereas big reveals or reaction shots are given their own panels. This is also the Template ~ Ipralatam, time to figure out establishing shots. **My Golden rule of establishing shots: every time I change the location, the first or second panel of the page should be an establishing shot.

Readers need to know where they are at all times.** You can’t believe how timely this post is for Termination, me! I’ve written both novels and Storyboard Pdf |, screenplays before, but I’m just getting started on developing plans for my first webcomic, and Termination, I plan to start writing the script during Script Frenzy in How To Reorder, April. I’m excited and nervous about it, but it’s good to know that Paper Wings has a bunch of folks who’ve been through it before… and Of Lease, succeeded. #128578; I’m not exactly sure how I’ll approach the writing process this time. People! - Client/customer References! Since I’m familiar with screenplay formatting, I may lean toward doing it that way, though I’m sure I’ll experiment with different styles before I finally settle with one. Right now I’m focusing more on character development and Termination Of Lease, plot brainstorming. For some reason, even though I’ve successfully completed many stories, every time I start a new one, I feel like a total noob. In response to signing up for your newsletter, I asked about Storyboard Template Pdf |, script writing…and here it is, already.

Amazing. Letter! It’s like you guys knew what I wanted in References, the future and Termination Of Lease Letter, made it for me in the past. Thanks. Wow! I’ve been studying a lot about scripts and for some reason page numbers tend to mess me up, I’m not sure why. But this really helped! I never considered keeping notes of the characters emotions on paper, however; I have made an interesting “Emotion graph” of how I want the story to play and how I want the readers to react and/or enjoy the story. Invoice Blank! Except my “emotion graph” looks more like a heart rate monitor that hospitals use XD LOL. I jot down words I want my stories or chapters to define, like; action, adventure, drama, suspense, comedy, light romance, EPIC, genuine, etc.

You know things like that. I use these words to help me keep constancy ( unless I want to deviate ). I always go back to basics during my free time, so this really helped. #128578; Kurt Hathaway says. As a long-time comics letterer for just about Termination, every publisher out there, I’ve seen thousands of comic scripts come across my desk. How To! The good ones all have a few things in common….one is clarity. For this reason I wrote a Comics Format guide a few years back. Of Lease Letter! It covers how to format panel description, various balloon styles, plus a chapter on common typos and mistakes. It doesn’t cover story, but covers how to format your story so editors can read it with maximum reaction. You may be surprised by how many sample scripts are unreadable…I know I was. The writer knows what’s going on, but he doesn’t put it on the page.

Anyway, the California Income Tax Withholdings, PDF is absolutely free. Anyone who wants it can reach me at: [emailprotected] Ask for the Comics Format Guide. All your posts are so helpful! I’m a new subscriber and have been chewing through articles and podcasts over the last couple weeks, and Termination, I feel like I’ve learned more about storytelling in these two weeks than I did in three and a half years in Storyboard, film school (didn’t have to take something useless to me like Sound for Of Lease Letter, Film, either). I’ve looked around for a few different ways to write a comic script and had no idea what I’m doing. Chris and Lora, thank you so much for taking concepts vital to comic production and Handwritten Essay, translating them to Termination stuff I understand. I tend to draw the comic first and then figure out the scrip out We Know People! - Client/customer, after.

Although I like doing things this way and find it more free and organic for me, I have noticed that it does mess with characterization. But this post has offered me some more insight into writing a comic script, beyond what had gleaned from watching other artists in livestreams #128578; Usually I just start writing down ideas or story elements in a list, then I expand on Termination Letter those ideas, move stuff around and refine. As far as writing the actual script, I’ve been using Celtx and their comic book script feature for years. I guess it breaks down more like a. “Big 2” script when all is said and done. How To Land Dream! I break it down by page and panel plus add in descriptions for Termination, myself so I can remember what I was thinking when I go to thumbnail everything. Since it’s really only me looking at the script, as long as it makes sense to me it’s all good :).

Adrien Lee says. I know this is an old article but I find this subject really interesting because after reading this, I feel like I’m doing my scripting in a little bit of an unusual way. I’m not really experienced at all with screenplay formatting, only Calculate California Income Tax Withholdings with novel-type prose. I find it really hard to visualize what’s going on if I write in Of Lease, screenplay format. I usually do really big test sketches for each page (a sheet of 9? x 13? newsprint for two pages) and script right as I’m sketching. Of course I go into it knowing what I generally want to happen and certain things I want said. If I don’t like a panel I’ll put a blank post-it note over it and redraw from Pdf |, there. Sometimes I’ll tear off part of Termination Letter, a page if I don’t feel like that half is working and Reorder Your, tape a fresh bit of newsprint on and keep going from there. I’ll write in the gutters if I can’t write small enough for the balloon or if I think of a different phrasing later.

The benefit for me is Termination Of Lease Letter, that I get the How To Reorder - Dummies, composition down with the speech bubbles, and I can coordinate the characters’ expressions and their words right there and then. Plus the whole thing is disposable enough that if I need to rewrite anything, I just tear away the offending pages and draw again. The whole thing’s pretty ugly but it works for me well enough–any thoughts? Maybe disadvantages to doing it this way that I never thought of? I did something similar but I didn’t like how when I had to change something I had to go and Termination Of Lease Letter, resketch it.

But that’s probably because my initial script wasn’t good enough. Handwritten Essay Examples! I plan to Letter have a more detailed script and then go into doodling the storyboard. If you don’t mind redrawing stuff over and if it works then stick to it. The one thing that I am thinking about now is why not try a digital approach to the sketches? It might be easier to edit. Land Dream! I haven’t tried it yet but I’m going to and I think it will work. Nice! I see potential here for Termination Of Lease Letter, helping me with my short film! In The DC Guide To Writing Comics book by Dennis O’ Neil, I read that Archie Goodwin would sketch out on typing paper the California, panels of the Termination Letter, story and then right his script on another piece of paper. Which would help him control pacing for both sides. I really liked that method and inspired my own method.

For my first full story, I wrote an Land Your Internship, outline for it using the three act structure. Then I would break down everything that happened into index cards and Termination, draw the panels on How To Reorder Your - Dummies the back. Termination Letter! I would number them and then on sheets of paper I would order them. Then do a storyboard with it. Midway through it I had to change the process.

So instead I would take printing paper and split it into nine boxes and do the same thing with that paper that I did with the index cards. Storyboard Template! The index cards were too small for Termination Letter, me to see. After reading this post and Invisible Ink I probably am going to change my approach, however. Going to go and Your Bar Supplies, spend more time on a script that’s more like a screenplay. Termination Letter! Then do a storyboard similar to Archie. This way I can make changes to the story much easier as my main problem with sketching it out was it took a lot of trouble to change things since I had to We Know People! resketch. Thanks for Of Lease Letter, another great post guys! Appreciate how you continue to share your knowledge with us!

I’ve been working on a graphic novel during my last term at Invoice Blank university, and I’ve continued to work on it since I’ve left. Of Lease! It’s been an interesting process because, although I have worked on comics in the past, I tried some different techniques and processes this time around. In the past, I have written scripts but always found them too constrictive (once I had my final script, I always felt I had to stick to it precisely). So this time I tried a different approach and after writing a full detailed storyline which followed the hero’s journey structure, I went straight into People!, drawing the story as small thumbnail pages. I always draw these as double page spreads, so that I can see how the two adjacent pages work together. This worked quite well for me overall, and I got a first draft put together which, although crudely drawn, was a fully readable version of the story.

This was the Of Lease Letter, point I was at when I left uni, and after coming home I looked over the first draft again, and Essay, filled it with sticky notes detailing changes to the action, dialogue, composition, etc. I’ve just finished drawing out a thumbnailed second draft and will soon be ready to Letter read it over. As I said before, getting straight into drawing quickly has worked well overall for me, I think because I’m a very visual person and this method also holds my interest better. The issues I’ve had mainly stemmed from the fact that this began as a uni project and really quickly became bigger than I intended. This meant that I was quite rushed to get the first draft done and ready for my tutors to see. It also meant that the plot outline wasn’t quite ready either, so as a result I found that my first draft lacked clarity and closure, particularly for People! - Client/customer References, the characters personal arcs, and I’ve been fixing these issues in the second draft. What I’ve got now is looking a lot clearer and more engaging than the first draft, but I’ll have to wait until I’ve properly read over the second draft before I can confirm that haha. It’s certainly been a learning experience so far, and will probably continue to be right up til I finish the Of Lease Letter, final page of the How To Reorder - Dummies, book for real. The main thing I’ve learned from this is that I really need to Termination make sure that I address and resolve my characters story arcs with as much clarity and closure as the major story arc. Handwritten Examples! I need to make sure I revise my detailed written story line, as that would help to ensure I don’t end up having to fix those issues during the sketching stages like I did this time. In hindsight, if I hadn’t been on a very tight university deadline, I wouldn’t have jumped into Termination, the thumbnailing stage as quickly as I did, and Examples, would have done more written drafts first.

Sorry, that turned into an essay! I also hope it actually makes sense, it’s quite late here haha #128578; Hmm, there is an issue I’m battling with right now. I wanted to make a webcomic because it’s a great blend of Of Lease, storytelling and art, both of which I love. During the We Know People! - Client/customer, course of my plotting (that is still going on) I switched the main characters because the Termination Of Lease Letter, side characters looked more solid and much more interesting. One of the Calculate California Income, main characters is Termination Of Lease, a blind person and I thoguht, since this work was made with an aim to be inclusive, that it would be ridiculous not to have the Invoice Template, story in braille. Termination Letter! This would mean that my comic would need a novel adaptation. Since English is not my first language, I already planned on writing my comic in How To Your - Dummies, two languages (two versions), this would also translate to having the novel in two languages and braille in two languages. For now, I’m unsure if I should start with the comic or with the novel. I’ve got more experience in Termination Letter, story-writing than in comic-drawing so I am trying to decide which to tackle first.

All your links to are broken. Is it possible to People! - Client/customer References find the info elsewhere? Thanks, John. Brock Hanke says. I write oddly, in that I write snippets of dialogue first, copying them down as notes when they occur in my alleged brain. Then the visuals start to Termination Of Lease come, and the dialogue bits start to arrange themselves into a plot. At that point, I write a loose, sample full script, which becomes the foundation for my outline.

That is, making an outline is Your Bar Supplies - Dummies, actually my first editing pass. Termination Of Lease! This has worked just fine for me for ages, although it makes writing up a two-page pitch a nuisance, since I have to write about Template Blank ~ Ipralatam, half the Of Lease, story before I can summarize it to that short length. Oh, just so everyone knows, my background is in theater directing. I can’t act, and I’ve never written a play, but I can direct, and Examples, I can tell that it’s the Termination, same part of my brain that comes up with the dialogue and visual bits. In terms of structure, I’ve noticed that newspaper comic strips tend to run to How To Your Dream Internship one panel, three or four. This makes logical sense. A three-panel goes premise, counter, resolution. Four goes premise, counter, false resolution, true resolution. Of Lease Letter! Basic syllogisms. You “nest” those, so the California Income Tax Withholdings, first three-part is the Termination Letter, premise, the next one is the How To Income Tax Withholdings, counter, and the third is the resolution. Basic 9-panel comic book page, which becomes the premise for the next level of nesting.

My stories end up with that structure, which I figured out in grad school is also how most “literature” plays are written. Andy Leavy says. This was a really helpful. I have an awesome idea for a few comics but there is one in Termination Letter, particular that I am most excited about, the main problem was that I have never written a comic before and did know what process to take. This article has eased my worries considerably. Handwritten Essay! I still have lots to Termination Letter learn but this has helped put me on the right path. How To Calculate California Tax Withholdings! Thank You. One question though, I cannot draw like at all and I don’t know anyone who would be a good Comic artist, I know great artists but none that’d be able to draw comics. What should I do? Adrian Traeye says.

I am beginning to Termination Of Lease start scripting the Bar Supplies - Dummies, storyline for Of Lease Letter, my graphic novel. I have yet to find an artist, but I am inquiring about the actual process, and if the Examples, steps I am taking are good steps. I have written the story, not in great detail, but the basics of the Of Lease, storyline. At this point, should I begin to write the script word for - Dummies, word or try to storyboard it and write the Of Lease Letter, exact script once I find the artist? alice,peter pan ,and jerry the mouse comic strip please i need help. Gametroller Prime says. Well, I mostly plan the Your, story as I go. It probably takes longer than most ways but it works for Of Lease, me. Land! I’m not an official writer yet, so this is just my learning and practice phase: So I’m writing this Justice League vs Darkseid comic book series called Justice League: Galaxy War.

I just finished writing issue/chapter 1 called “War of Karcel”. It’s sort of the Of Lease, prologue to the main story. I have the overview of everything in my head. Main Overview: Green Lantern upsets Darkseid, Darkseid attacks the Sol System, Justice League Reforms and joins up with The Titans, they fight his army on various planets, Superman returns, He and Darkseid fight on every planet, Superman kills him, everybody retires. Then I have the individual overviews of Handwritten, each chapter in Termination Of Lease, my head once I get to How To them. Sub Overview: (issue 1 for Of Lease, example) Green Lantern and How To Reorder Your, Sinestro go to Karcel and blow it up. But that’s it for planning. I just write the actions, dialogue and stuff as I go afterwards. Termination! Gives me more creative control then just planning everything out before hand.

In the writing I came up with Doomsday blowing it up, Kilowog dying, Darkseid Elite attacking them and a chase through a prison. I have found that, for me, figuring out the pacing is the most difficult part. So as soon as I know my full 3-act structure, I go to an outline stage that is already divided by pages. For each page, I list my intent with the page, the setting, the basic plot points, and any key dialogue or visual images. How To Dream! This really helps me keep in mind how much can actually fit on a page as I develop the story, so that I’m not trying to cram too much into Of Lease Letter, any particular page. Your Dream Internship! This is Termination Of Lease Letter, particularly helpful when there is a page-limit to my stories, so I can see whether I’m trying to Essay Examples cram too much into Of Lease Letter, each issue. I’ve also found that this method of Storyboard Template, outlining helps me a lot when I go to write the full script. By keeping in mind my intent for each page, and the key dialogue and visual elements, it’s pretty simple (at least for me) to Termination Letter break each page up into How To Calculate Income Tax Withholdings, its corresponding panels. They sort of flow naturally from Letter, what needs to happen on the page. Of course, sometimes when I break a page down by panels, I find that I’ve underestimated how many panels a particular action may need, in order to be clear and satisfying to a reader.

When that happens, I go back to the outline stage and see what I can move around, or cut, in order to make more room. I found that everything mentioned here is pretty similar to an older book I read by Template Syd Field called Screenplay The Foundations of Screenwriting. Termination Of Lease Letter! It details all the same elements that can be applied to comic writing. Quite informative and full of How To Calculate Tax Withholdings, examples of very successful films. The pacing and idea that each page of script is a minute of film can translate to each page of your script can be a piece of Letter, sequential art I found.

None the less, I really enjoy seeing how others approach their own individual concepts and flesh them out. I use screenplay style so I and Template, the artist can is the white space for thumb nails. For newer writers, I’d also make a point that PLOTTING your script is not the Termination Letter, same thing as WRITING your story. Plotting a story prior to writing it is kind of death. It results in some of the worst writing you’ll encounter in the modern era.

When he talks here about plotting your comic (hopefully) he’s talking about after the story has already been written. Plotting as it pertains to formatting is important because in film, plays, teleplays and comics you’re limited by the format. You should account for beats, etc. But that is *after* (for the love of God) you’ve told your story.

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essay on japan A Case Study of Tokugawa Japan through Art: Views of a Society in Transformation. Tokugawa Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Marcia Yonemoto, University of Colorado at Boulder. Sir George Sansom’s history of Japan was first published in 1932 and Letter, used in How To California Income, U.S. Termination Of Lease? college classrooms into the 1980s. In it, he described the Tokugawa period (1603-1868) as an era of oppressive “feudal” rule. In this view, hierarchical divisions between samurai, peasant, artisan, and merchant were strictly maintained.

Sansom described a system in which swaggering samurai used their swords to cut down commoners. Miserable peasants barely eked out a living, and urban merchants were scorned as unethical profiteers. According to Sansom, change was loathed. The government kept the Your Bar Supplies - Dummies, rest of the world out, denying “themselves all the gifts which the West then had to offer.” This move, said Sansom, “arrested the cultural development of Japan” (Sansom 1932, 455, 457). Scholars today largely dismiss this view. Yet it remains pervasive. Films and Termination Of Lease, manga comics glorify samurai bravado. But they ignore much else about the period. Thus, even the well-informed often are surprised when they read more recent histories of the period.

Such newer works describe the political system as a rational “integral bureaucracy.” This system was “not merely a samurai institution.” Rather, it depended on non-elite “commercial agents and activities” (Totman 1981, p. 133). Newer histories call the era “a time of extraordinary social growth and change. In terms of population and How To, production, urbanization and commercialization, and societal sophistication and elaboration, the century was one of unparalleled development.” What should readers make of these discrepancies? What do teachers and students really need to know about the Tokugawa period?

This brief essay addresses these questions by Of Lease, (1) sketching the outline of Tokugawa history, touching on politics, economics, society, and culture; (2) introducing some historical debates regarding the Tokugawa period; and How To Land, (3) giving references for further reading on important topics. The Tokugawa Political Settlement. The first Tokugawa shogun was Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616). He came of age in an era of Termination Of Lease Letter, violence and conflict. During the Warring States period (c.1467-1590), centralized political authoritythe imperial court and the military government (shogunate, or bakufu )had lost its effectiveness. How To Calculate California Income Tax Withholdings? Practical political power had passed into the hands of approximately 200 local warlords, or daimy#333; . The daimy#333; controlled their own territories. These territories were called domains.

By the end of the period, some daimy#333; had become extremely powerful. Each commanded large swaths of territory and tens of thousands of Termination, warriors. One such leader was Oda Nobunaga (1534-82). Nobunaga was a daimy#333; from the province of Owari in Invoice Template ~ Ipralatam, central Honshu. Using strategic alliances and brutal military tactics, Nobunaga brought about one-third of the country under his control. When he was assassinated in 1582, his most able general, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-98), took his place. Hideyoshi was a brilliant military and political tactician.

His talent and ambition had allowed him to rise from Termination Of Lease Letter, a humble peasant background. Building on Nobunaga’s achievements, Hideyoshi brought all of Japan under his control by about 1590. Two problems marked Hideyoshi’s later years. One was his growing belief that his power was unlimited. This megalomania was reflected in unsuccessful attempts to invade Korea and China. The second problem was his difficulty in producing an heir. At his death in 1597, he had only one infant son. He entrusted his son’s fate to five trusted allies. People! - Client/customer? Each swore to protect the heir and help ensure the Toyotomi clan’s future. Among these allies was Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Ieyasu controlled significant territory in northeastern Honshu. Ieyasu’s castle headquarters was located in the city of Edo (now Tokyo). Hideyoshi had been dead scarcely three years when Ieyasu turned on Termination, his former lord. In 1600, his forces defeated the Toyotomi. In 1603, Ieyasu established a new shogunate in his family’s name. He went to Essay Examples war once again in Termination, 1615 to completely wipe out the Toyotomi and their allies. Invoice Blank ~ Ipralatam? From then on, the Tokugawa maintained political authority for 253 years without resorting to military combat. The primary political goal of Tokugawa Ieyasu and his heirshis son, Hidetada (1578-1632) and grandson, Iemitsu (1604-1651)was to cut off the roots of potential dissent and rebellion.

In the Termination Letter, late 1630s, Tokugawa Iemitsu expelled Portuguese and Spanish Catholic missionaries and traders. This decision was motivated more by the political threat posed by converts, especially daimy#333; converts, than by dislike of Christian doctrine or the foreign presence in Japan. The early shoguns were wary of How To Calculate California, other daimy#333; . Termination Of Lease Letter? Many of these daimy#333; were recent allies who were not totally committed to Tokugawa rule. The Tokugawa shoguns built on the ideas and tactics of Nobunaga and Hideyoshi. They developed a form of political rule that was authoritarian but not dictatorial. This can be seen in the way the early shoguns distributed land to their daimy#333; allies. The Tokugawa kept only about a quarter of the land available for redistribution for themselves. Of the remaining lands, the shogunate allocated about 10 percent to blood relations (known as the collateral, or shinpan daimy#333; houses).

Another 26 percent went to longtime loyal allies, the fudai daimy#333; . The remaining 38 percent went to the most recent, less stable allies. These allies were the “outside,” or tozama daimy#333; . The early Tokugawa shoguns’ use of land distribution to both win the allegiance and encourage the dependence of daimy#333; illustrates the blend of Letter, resourcefulness, pragmatism, and foresight characteristic of Tokugawa political rule. In its policies, the shogunate was careful to balance demands on daimy#333; with privileges granted to them. For example, the Storyboard Pdf |, shogunate never directly taxed the daimy#333; . Instead, it exercised indirect levies such as requiring daimy#333; to supply labor and raw materials for the construction and maintenance of castles, roads, post stations, and the like. The shogunate also forced all daimy#333; to commute between their home domains and the shogunal capital of Edo, a time- and resource-consuming practice. The shogunate exercised authority by Letter, compelling the wives and People!, children of all daimy#333; to Of Lease Letter reside permanently in Edo. There, they were under the shogun’s watchful eye. Daimy#333; were also required to secure shogunal approval before marrying. Income? At the same time, daimy#333; were for the most part free to govern their domains as they saw fit. Letter? They issued their own law codes and How To Land Internship, administered justice. Some printed and circulated their own currency.

The shogunate intervened only if requested to do so. In these ways, the Tokugawa governing system balanced authority and autonomy. Economic Growth and Social Change. Studying the Of Lease Letter, Tokugawa era reveals many seeming contradictions. Of these, perhaps none is more striking than the contrast between the Tokugawa rulers’ vision of the ideal economic system and We Know - Client/customer, the reality of economic growth and change. With a few notable exceptions, the shogunate and Termination Letter, daimy#333; viewed the economy in California Income, simple agronomist terms. In this view, the peasant’s role was to produce basic foodstuffs.

Peasants were to give a good portion of their products in tax to support the ruling classes. Termination Letter? Artisans used their skills to craft necessary non-food items. Reorder Your? Finally, goods that could not be acquired through any other means could be purchased from merchants. Merchants were deemed the necessary evil of the economic system. In fact, however, the early Tokugawa period (until about the mid-eighteenth century) saw rapid and sustained economic growth. Of Lease? This growth occurred first in the agricultural sector. But growth also occurred through merchant-driven trade and market activity. The concentration of population in cities served as a major impetus for growth and change. Yet many Tokugawa authorities clung to their old notions of a static, agrarian-based economy.

The samurai class, who were forbidden from engaging in profitable trade or farming, were disadvantaged by Tokugawa policies and attitudes toward the We Know People! References, economy. The ruling class was prevented from taking advantage of Letter, economic growth. At the same time, substantial benefits went to merchants and even to market-savvy peasants. Economic growth thus contributed to the inversion of the status hierarchy enshrined in the “four class system.” An increasingly wealthy, educated, and powerful commoner population was created. Meanwhile, samurai, especially those of Invoice ~ Ipralatam, low rank, steadily became economically weaker. Growth in Agricultural Production and Population. During the Warring States period, agricultural production grew. Production increased by about 70 percent overall between 1450 and 1600. Termination? Growth continued into the early Tokugawa period. How To Reorder Your - Dummies? Tokugawa policies that promoted land reclamation and Of Lease, land clearance supported increased production.

In addition, the Bar Supplies, disarming of Termination Of Lease Letter, peasants and local religious communities that came with the “Tokugawa peace” put more people back on the land. ~ Ipralatam? The net result was a 140 percent increase in land under cultivation between the years 1600 and 1720. Of Lease Letter? Peasants not only farmed more land, they also increased the California Income Tax Withholdings, intensity with which they worked it. Through careful monitoring and the spread of information about cropping patterns, fertilizers, and the like, Japanese peasants in the Tokugawa period continued to Of Lease Letter increase their land’s productivity. The overall growth in agricultural productivity caused a rise in the general well-being of the Storyboard Template Pdf |, people. Termination Of Lease Letter? This trend can be seen in the significant rise in population during the Handwritten Examples, seventeenth century. Although scholars argue over exact figures, Japan’s total population around the year 1600 was most likely 12 to 18 million. The population at the time of the first reliable national census taken by the shogunate in Termination Of Lease Letter, 1720 was around 31 million.

These data indicate that the population more than doubled in a little over 100 years. For a number of Handwritten, reasons, including family planning and voluntary limitation of family size among the peasantry, population growth leveled off in the eighteenth century. Japan’s population grew at Letter, a negligible rate between the early eighteenth and late nineteenth centuries. The economy, however, continued to grow, leading to an economic surplus. That surplus was a key factor in Japan’s rapid industrialization in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Growth in Markets and Trade. Increased agricultural production and population growth provided the base for subsequent growth in trade. Increases in trade were also enabled by such developments as the creation of reliable and effective transportation networks. How To Income Tax Withholdings? The road system in Termination Letter, particular was expanded and People!, improved under Tokugawa rule. Shipping networks on sea routes were also expanded, especially those linking the major commercial centers in western and Termination Of Lease Letter, eastern Japan.

Along with growth in trade came growth in the use of Calculate California Income, money. Tokugawa Ieyasu and his immediate successors worked to systematize the minting and use of coinage and to standardize currency. In turn, this greatly facilitated domestic trade. These factors comprised the building blocks for a well-developed local and national economy. Regional and Termination Of Lease Letter, domainal capitals were linked by good roads. Smaller market towns and settlements grew along these roads.

Local areas developed specialty goods and products. These goods were shipped to and through Japan’s growing cities in an increasingly integrated national economy. Growth of Cities. During the Warring States period, local lords began to Invoice Blank gather their warriors around them in Termination Of Lease, headquarters centered on fortified castles. This tendency was formalized by Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who demanded that their retainers live in Dream Internship, the capital cities rather than in their domains. As a result, so-called castle towns ( j#333;kamachi ) sprung up in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.

Some 90 new towns appeared between 1572 and 1590 alone. The number continued to grow in subsequent decades. The emergence of Letter, castle towns and later of Your Internship, cities had a significant economic impact. Building cities required assembling, equipping, feeding, housing, and supervising huge numbers of laborers and technical specialists. Termination Of Lease Letter? It also required importing vast amounts of resources: soil, stone, lumber, thatch, kilns for baking roof tiles, charcoal, and the like. From the late sixteenth century on, these labor forces came to number in the tens of Template, thousands. Of Lease? As a result, as castle towns grew, laborers and service personnel settled in and around towns. Samurai settled near the castles of their lords.

The commoners who served the Invoice ~ Ipralatam, samurai moved into Termination adjacent areas. Over time castle towns evolved into urban areas. Development of the city of Edo is a prime example of the urbanization process. When Ieyasu made it his capital in 1590, Edo was a swampy backwater of a few hundred residents. Out of this unpromising location, Ieyasu built a magnificent shogunal capital.

Laborers cut down forests, leveled hills to fill in wetlands, rerouted rivers, and dredged creeks and canals. They built bridges and Storyboard Pdf |, walls, erected shrines and temples, and constructed buildings. Among the buildings erected were opulent daimy#333; mansions and the magnificent castle of the shogun. Warehouses, storefronts, and Of Lease, common dwellings were also built. By 1600, Edo was a town of some 5000 dwellings. By 1610, it was reportedly a clean, well-organized city of about 150,000 people.

As samurai retainers of the shogun and of daimy#333; flooded into the city in the early seventeenth century, the population zoomed upward. By 1657, Edo had about 500,000 residents. By 1720, it was the Reorder Bar Supplies, world’s largest city outside of China, with a population of about 1.4 million. Half a million of these residents were samurai. Edo was the shogunal capital, so its population was exceptionally large.

But smaller, regional castle towns also grew significantly. Kanazawa, headquarters of an extensive domain on Termination Letter, the Japan Sea coast, was a town of 5,000 in 1580. How To Tax Withholdings? It grew to 120,000 in Termination Of Lease Letter, 1710. Nagoya, a small town in the early seventeenth century, had become a regional center of 64,000 residents by 1692. Osaka, always a major city, grew from 200,000 people in 1610 to 360,000 by 1700. It hit a peak of half a million by the late eighteenth century.

Growth was good for the economy in ~ Ipralatam, general. It affected different classes differently, however. In particular, merchants benefited from the increase in trade, markets, and urbanization. Samurai suffered from Termination Letter, those same phenomena. Why did the samurai lose out? First, samurai were paid in fixed stipends, disbursed in rice. These stipends were based on Your Internship, an individual’s rank and office and did not increase at Termination Of Lease Letter, a pace equal to the rise in Invoice Blank ~ Ipralatam, prices. Second, with the growth of the market and monetization of the economy, samurai had to trade their rice stipends for cash. This process was controlled by merchants in Edo and Osaka.

It put samurai at the mercy of both the unstable market price for rice and the greed of merchant moneychangers. Finally, samurai were forbidden by law from Termination Of Lease Letter, engaging in farming or commerce, which might have afforded them some economic relief. All of these factors made it almost impossible for Handwritten Essay Examples samurai to benefit from the growth occurring in the economy. Letter? As samurai became increasingly impoverished, they began to borrow on future stipends to meet present needs. Thus they put themselves in debt to merchant lenders. Having samurai at their mercy not only earned the merchants a measure of profit, it also gave them significant symbolic leverage over their samurai superiors. For the samurai, being indebted to lowly merchants was extremely galling. Reorder Your Bar Supplies - Dummies? Many low-ranking samurai whose stipends gave them barely enough to get by Termination Of Lease, felt they had to scrimp and save while merchants prospered.

Matters were made worse by the fact that samurai had to Essay Examples keep up appearances. Letter? Protocol deemed that they dress properly, live in good style, and engage in the social activities (which involved expensive gift-giving) that were required of them, but were increasingly beyond their economic means. Tokugawa authorities were aware of the Invoice Template Blank, problems facing samurai. They repeatedly tried to shore up the political and moral order by elaborating on the unique role of samurai as moral exemplars and scholar/administrators. By definition, commoners could not fulfill those roles. Through the Ky#333;h#333; Reforms of the early eighteenth century and the Kansei Reforms at the turn of the nineteenth century, the shogunate enacted measures aimed at Of Lease, stabilizing and How To Your Bar Supplies, strengthening the economic and political status of the samurai.

But the Of Lease, authorities’ reassertion of proper political order could not change reality. Neither shogun nor daimy#333; could offer much practical help to financially strapped samurai. We Know - Client/customer References? More broad-minded thinkers such as the philosopher Ogy#363; Sorai (1666-1728) proposed radical reforms. Of Lease Letter? One such reform was returning the samurai to the land so they could farm. Another was overhauling the office and rank system so that lower-ranking “men of talent” could rise to We Know People! - Client/customer References positions of power. These men often languished in idleness while less deserving sons of high-ranking families inherited their fathers’ positions.

In the end, economic growth in the Tokugawa period favored commoners over the elite. The Emergence of Commoner Culture. While they were not shy about commenting wryly on the state of society, urban commoners were not political activists. Peasant protests did break out in Termination Letter, the eighteenth century, largely due to authorities’ failure to How To Bar Supplies - Dummies provide relief during times of crop failure and food shortage. Termination Of Lease? But the new urban bourgeoisie did not attempt to overthrow the warrior government. Rather, urban commoners tended to turn away from the troublesome world of politics. They used their newfound wealth to fashion a new style of life and art.

While the new style borrowed aspects of elite “high” culture, it was in many ways utterly new to Handwritten Essay the early modern urban scene. By the Genroku period (1688-1703), one could see in Edo and other cities a flourishing merchant class that was developing a cultural style all its own. Merchants flaunted their wealth, building enormous houses and dressing in finery that exceeded that of samurai. The shogunate was not at Of Lease, all happy about this. It repeatedly issued laws forbidding merchants to wear fine silk clothes and restricting the construction of large and Storyboard Template, showy homes in merchant quarters. However, such laws were difficult to Termination enforce. Various sources show repeated examples of merchants’ conspicuous consumption. By the mid-eighteenth century, popular representations abounded of the poor samurai pawning the clothes and swords off his back for a little extra cash.

Then a merchant redeemed them and How To, paraded around the city in the purchased finery. Such sights enraged samurai. Yet they had to suppress their anger and keep up the façade of reserve and prosperity appropriate to their status. As a popular saying of the time went, “if a samurai is starving, he uses a toothpick all the same.” Despite their economic plight (or perhaps to gain relief from the misery of it), samurai frequented the entertainment areas originally created by Termination, and for merchants. These areas consisted of theaters, teahouses and restaurants, brothels, and street entertainersfortune-tellers, jugglers, and story-tellers. Brothels were a new feature in the cultural life of cities. Prostitution had a long history in Japan. Not until the Tokugawa period did the government seek to control it through licensing and surveillance.

Legal brothel activity was confined by the government to certain geographic areas in Calculate California Income, most of Japan’s cities. These areas were referred to as the licensed quarters. Letter? Of course, there was also much illegal prostitution in cities. The shogunate could scarcely control it, much less eradicate it. The high-ranking courtesans ( y#363jo ) of the Yoshiwara were not common prostitutes. Apprenticed as young girls, they trained intensively in various arts, most notably music, dance, and singing. They were ranked according to their level of training and experience, much like the geisha that still exist today. The most famous courtesans were respected as artists and professionals. They were also made famous through their depiction in Invoice, plays, fiction, and the visual arts.

Indeed, many became movie-star-like trendsetters. Men wanting to meet with a high-ranking courtesan had to go through an elaborate and expensive process of courting her before he could even lay eyes on her. Termination Of Lease Letter? Technically, the pleasure quarters were enclaves for commoners. Samurai were banned on the grounds that they were supposed to be upright, moral, and Examples, frugal characters with no time for crass indulgences. In spite of the warnings to stay away, samurai were frequent clients in the pleasure quarters. They attempted to disguise their identities by removing their swords and hiding their faces behind large straw hats. The themes of honor and sacrifice inherent in such highly dramatic stories made commoners feel their culture had something in common with that of the elites. Yet there is a distinct commoner twist to these ideas.

This twist both honors and degrades the great samurai tradition of self-sacrifice. Actual incidents of love suicide seem to have proliferated in the late 1600s, perhaps becoming even more common in the 1700s. They became a cultural fad encouraged by the romanticization of the act on stage. In 1722, the Of Lease, shogunate forbade the treatment of shinj#363 on stage, seeing it as an offense against proper family order. The phenomenon of love suicideboth actual and stagedbrings to the fore the issue of cultural fads and their spread: How, exactly, did ideas circulate? Literacy, Education, and the “Library of, Public Information” Assessing popular literacy before the advent of modern universal education is Of Lease Letter, difficult.

Historians use many techniques to estimate the nature and How To Calculate California Income Tax Withholdings, level of literacy in pre- and early-modern societies. Still, their findings are often tentative. Among the most common techniques is analyzing signatures on official documents (wills, marriage records, etc.) as a measure of people’s ability to write. Other techniques include studying educational infrastructures and determining school attendance rates. Historians also look at Of Lease, data on cultural phenomena such as publishing and circulation of books and other printed matter. In Tokugawa Japan, as in many parts of the early modern world, literacy varied widely.

Variations occurred by class and occupation, by geographic region, and, to some extent, by Bar Supplies, gender. The ruling elites, Buddhist and Shinto clergy, and commoner intellectuals on the fringes of the Of Lease Letter, elite (Confucian scholars, doctors, and minor officials) tended to be quite learned. They possessed considerable knowledge of Japanese and Sino-Japanese (or kanbun , the style of writing derived from - Client/customer, classical Chinese, which was used in formal discourse). They also knew the classical works of both the Japanese and Chinese literary and philosophical traditions. By the end of the Termination Of Lease, seventeenth century, literacy and learning were beginning to spread more widely. Rural village headmen and well-to-do urban townsmen and women were becoming literate and, as time went on, impressively learned. Storyboard? These people became the primary consumers of Termination Of Lease Letter, popular literature and of the arts. The infrastructure for popular education developed considerably in Handwritten Essay Examples, the Tokugawa period. Learning moved out of the religious establishments and private academies and into much more accessible venues. In these venues, commoner children were able to gain basic functional literacy and often much more. The demand for books was thus extremely high.

Publishers in Termination Of Lease, the major cities churned out How To Calculate, texts of all sorts. While Buddhist and Termination Letter, Confucian texts remained the mainstays of highbrow publishing, many more publishers produced for the general reading audience. Illustrated fiction and poetry were popular. So were nonfiction manuals, primers, encyclopedias, travel guides, almanacs, and maps. As printed materials circulated among ever-greater numbers of readers, they conditioned in people certain patterns of thought and ultimately of behavior. How To Bar Supplies? As one scholar has put it, there emerged in Tokugawa Japan a broad-based and widely read “library of public information,” which produced commonly held forms of social knowledge (Berry 2006, 13, 17). When faced with the question of precisely what percentages of what sorts of people were literate, historians do not give a precise answer. The data simply is not conclusive. The best we can do is point to figures that may serve as broad indicators of the dimensions of literacy. Among samurai, who made up 6 to 7 percent of the population, literacy was almost universal and generally of a very high level. The degree of learning varied, however, according to rank, office, and wealth.

There are accounts of illiterate samurai, especially later in the Tokugawa period. These cases occurred among the lowest, most impoverished ranks. Though it is unclear how prevalent samurai illiteracy was, it was probably rare. It was certainly the source of Termination Of Lease, great shame for the unlettered individual and his family. High literacy is How To Dream, common in an elite ruling class. Termination Letter? As we have noted, however, commoners in the Tokugawa period practiced considerable self-governance.

The Tokugawa state was very bureaucratic. Its officials, samurai and commoner alike, were required to keep detailed records. They also had to write a great deal of correspondence. Handwritten Examples? Official duties thus demanded high levels of literacy not only among samurai, but also among the upper strata of urban and rural commoner populations who held such responsible positions as city ward official or village headman. Recent research indicates that, by the end of the seventeenth century, the rural elitenumbering some 200-300,000 out of a total population of around 30 million, or less than 0.1 percent of the populationpossessed “extraordinarily high literacy and numeracy” in order to fulfill their many administrative duties (Rubinger 2007, 30). Below the rural elite were the landowning farmers. Letter? Their numbers varied over time and by region.

They probably comprised about 50 percent of the overall farming population. The farming population constituted about 90 percent of the total population. People! - Client/customer References? Most landowning farmersagain, roughly half of the totallikely possessed “high functional literacy.” They could read and understand tax accounts computed by village officials. They could file grievances and petitions to authorities when necessary. Literacy among urban commoners, who were fewer in number than their rural counterparts, was almost certainly higher. Educational opportunities were more accessible and educational texts more available to urban-dwellers. Of Lease? Literacy among urban commoner women in particular probably far outstripped that of rural women. Literacy and education were by no means monopolized by the elite in Tokugawa Japan. Common knowledge and common culture spread widely among the common people. This widening of the Handwritten Essay, knowledge base greatly facilitated the subsequent development of the Of Lease, modern industrial nation-state. The Discontented and the End of an Era.

In other times and places, learning among the common people has been a recipe for dissent. Eventually, learning among commoners has led to the overthrow of aristocratic governments. This was not true in Reorder Your Bar Supplies - Dummies, Tokugawa Japan. Unrest did occur. Peasant protest in Of Lease Letter, particular was widespread and sometimes intense in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

Ultimately, however, those responsible for overthrow of the Tokugawa regime were members of the We Know People!, ruling class itself: the samurai. This kind of Of Lease Letter, “aristocratic revolution” is unusual in world history. Samurai grievances were compounded by the events of the early decades of the We Know References, nineteenth century. Bad crop harvests in the 1830s resulted in widespread famine, disease, and death. The problems were especially acute in Termination Of Lease, the poor northeastern part of the country. When officials failed to provide adequate relief, peasant protests skyrocketed in number and severity. At the same time, Japanese leaders watched nervously as the great Qing empire in China was decimated by the British in the first Opium Wars of 1839-1842. China was thereafter “carved up like a melon” by the other Western powers.

The Japanese had already fended off advances by Template Pdf |, the Russians in the 1790s and Termination Of Lease Letter, early 1800s and by the British in How To Reorder Your Bar Supplies - Dummies, the 1820s. Termination Of Lease? By the 1840s, it seemed likely that the Americans would try their hand at “opening” Japan. In 1853, a U.S. naval delegation led by Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived with demands from U.S. Handwritten Examples? President Millard Fillmore. Fillmore demanded that Japan agree to trade and diplomatic relations with the United States. The shogun was given a half-year to consider Perry’s request. Observers, especially powerful daimy#333; , saw that the shogunate had no new ideas about how to handle the foreign threat, much less the Letter, domestic problems wracking the country.

In the end, shogunal officials agreed, in Handwritten Essay Examples, spite of the Of Lease, emperor’s disapproval, to sign trade and diplomatic treaties with the United States. As in China, the terms gave great advantages to the Western powers. Japan was relegated to semi-colonial status. For pro-imperial, anti-shogunal forces, the foreign crises, in particular the signing of the treaty with the United States, were the last straw. Essay Examples? Plans to Termination Letter overthrow the Income, Tokugawa regime began in earnest in the 1860s.

Radical samurai staged direct attacks on foreigners in Japan, resulting in several international incidents. The most serious of these incidents sparked the Of Lease Letter, bombardment of Handwritten Examples, domains in Termination Letter, Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 by Western naval forces. We Know - Client/customer? Finally, in January 1868, combined military forces of the domains of Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 marched into Kyoto, took control of the imperial palace, and proclaimed the restoration of the emperor and the abolition of the Tokugawa shogunate. Court nobles and daimy#333; would form a new government in place of the old. Although its exact structure was unclear in early 1868, the restoration was a clear denunciation of Tokugawa rule. Of Lease? The last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), retreated to Edo. He held out for another few months before officially resigning in April 1868. Remnants of pro-shogunal forces staged a resistance until later that year. They were ultimately defeated.

Although the Your Internship, Tokugawa regime ended in 1868, it bequeathed a deep and rich political, economic, and cultural legacy to modern Japan. One cannot properly understand Japan’s modern history without understanding its Tokugawa past. Indeed, the story of how Japan became modern begins not in 1868, but in 1603. Berry, Mary Elizabeth, Japan in Of Lease Letter, Print: Information and Nation in the Early Modern Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006). Rubinger, Richard, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Calculate California Income Tax Withholdings, Hawai’i Press, 2007). Sansom, G.B., Japan: A Short Cultural History (New York: Century, 1932). Totman, Conrad, Japan Before Perry: A Short History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981). The Tokugawa Political Settlement. For a biography of Oda Nobunaga, see Jeroen Lamers, Japonius Tyrannus: The Japanese Warlord Oda Nobunaga Reconsidered (Leiden: Hotei Publishing, 2001). For a biography of Of Lease, Hideyoshi, see Mary Elizabeth Berry, Hideyoshi (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982).

For a useful and Template, visually rich (hundreds of illustrations, graphs and maps) survey of the founding and development of the city of Edo, see Akira Naito, Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History (New York: Kodansha International, 2003). For more on Christianity in early modern Japan, see Jurgis Elisonas, The Cambridge History of Japan , Vol. 4: Early Modern Japan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); for Letter a study of international relations and diplomacy in the Tokugawa period that refutes the idea that Tokugawa Japan was a “closed country,” see Ronald P. Toby, State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984). Historians have characterized the type of government practiced in the Tokugawa period in various ways: “an integrated yet decentralized state structure,” the “compound state,” and Edwin O. Reischauer’s celebrated oxymoron “centralized feudalism” are only a few of the often awkward terms devised to describe the essential Tokugawa balance of authority and autonomy. How To California Income Tax Withholdings? “Integrated yet decentralized state structure” comes from Eiko Ikegami, The Taming of the Of Lease Letter, Samurai: Honorific Individualism and the Making of California Income Tax Withholdings, Early Modern Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995), pp. 164-176. Ikegami also uses the Termination Of Lease Letter, term “neo-feudal” in a comparative context. “The compound state” is used by Mark Ravina, following Mizubayashi Takeshi, in “State-building and Political Economy in Early-modern Japan,” Journal of Asian Studies , Vol. 54, No. 4 (November 1995), pp. Template? 997-1022. Letter? “Centralized feudalism” appears in Invoice Blank ~ Ipralatam, Edwin O. Reischauer, “Japanese Feudalism,” in Rushton Coulborn, ed., Feudalism in History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956).

Economic Growth and Of Lease Letter, Social Change. When speaking in aggregate demographic or economic terms, it is important to note that growth and - Client/customer, decline, whether in terms of population or economy, varied considerably in terms of geographic region. In general, the most economically advanced and prosperous areas of the country were the Kinai Plain, the area of Termination Of Lease, central-western Honshu surrounding the cities of Kyoto and Osaka; northern Ky#363;sh#363;; and, by the mid-Tokugawa period, the Kant#333; Plain area around the city of Edo. By contrast, the most economically backward and poor areas of Japan tended to be found in the northeast, in what is today called the T#333;hoku region and in Invoice Template Blank ~ Ipralatam, the Tokugawa period was comprised of the Termination Of Lease, large province of Dewa and Mutsu. The Emergence of Commoner Culture. For a partial translation of We Know References, Saikaku’s Life of a Sensuous Man , see Haruo Shirane, ed., Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology, 1600-1900 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), pp. 45-57. A full translation of Chikamatsu’s Love Suicides at Amijima can be found in Termination Letter, Donald Keene, Four Major Plays of Chikamatsu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988). Literacy, Education, and the Library of Public Information.

In his recent study of popular literacy in early modern Japan, Richard Rubinger argues that “the Japanese data demonstrate that in certain circumstances geography may be a more influential variable with respect to literacy attainment than gender.” See Richard Rubinger, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007), p. Template Blank ~ Ipralatam? 7. For an Of Lease Letter absorbing account of a ne’er-do-well samurai in the early 19th century who claimed to Calculate Tax Withholdings have overcome illiteracy in order to write his autobiography of sorts, see Katsu K#333;kichi, Musui’s Story: The Autobiography of a Tokugawa Samurai , translated by Teruko Craig (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988). The definition of Of Lease Letter, 90 percent of Japan’s population as farmers is based on the estimate that by Calculate Income Tax Withholdings, 1700, roughly 10 percent of Japan’s population lived in Termination, cities with populations over 10,000; half of that 10 percent lived in How To Land Dream, cities with populations over Termination 100,000. By comparison, only 2 percent of Europeans lived in cities of over 100,000. This made Tokugawa Japan one of the most urban countries in the world at the time. Figures on urbanization are from Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 23. The Discontented and the End of an Era.

The term “aristocratic revolution” comes from Thomas C. Smith, “Japan’s Aristocratic Revolution,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization, 1750-1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), pp. 133-147. For more on - Client/customer References, the debate on merit, see Thomas C. Smith, “’Merit’ as Ideology in Termination Of Lease, the Tokugawa Period,” in Template Blank ~ Ipralatam, Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization , op. cit., p. 169. Copyright 2010 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado. Permission is Of Lease Letter, given to reproduce this essay for classroom use only.

Other reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the Program for Teaching East Asia.

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essay on Termination Of Lease, speciation Every individual alive today, the highest as well as the Handwritten Examples lowest, is derived in Termination, an unbroken line from the first and lowest forms. - August Frederick Lopold Weismann, German biologist/geneticist (1834-1914) From the remotest past which Science can fathom, up to the novelties of yesterday, that in which Progress essentially consists, is the transformation of the homogeneous to the heterogeneous. - Herbert Spencer, English philosopher/psychologist (1820-1903) What is biological evolution? How are theories of microevolution and macroevolution related? What is a species, and what are the different ways it can be defined? What are the limitations of Template Pdf |, each definition? How is reproductive isolation important to speciation, and what forms can it take?

Why should natural selection reinforce reproductive isolation? Can species be formed in ways other than geographic isolation? The word evolution does not apply exclusively to Of Lease biological evolution. The universe and our solar system have developed out of the Dream Internship explosion of matter that began our known universe. Chemical elements have evolved from simpler matter. Life has evolved from non-life, and Letter, complex organisms from simpler forms. Languages, religions, and Template, political systems all evolve. Of Lease Letter. Hence, evolution is an Land Your Dream Internship appropriate theme for Of Lease Letter a course on global change. The core aspects of evolution are change and the role of history, in that past events have an influence over what changes occur subsequently.

In biological evolution this might mean that complex organisms arise out of simpler ancestors - though be aware that this is an over-simplification not acceptable to a more advanced discussion of evolution. A full discussion of We Know People! - Client/customer References, evolution requires a detailed explanation of genetics, because science has given us a good understanding of the genetic basis of evolution. It also requires an investigation of the Of Lease Letter differences that characterize species, genera, indeed the entire tree of life, because these are the phenomena that the theory of, evolution seeks to explain. We will begin with observed patterns of similarities and differences among species, because this is what Darwin knew about. The genetic basis for evolution only Of Lease Letter began to Calculate Income Tax Withholdings be integrated into evolutionary theory in the 1930's and 1940's. We will add genetics into our understanding of Letter, evolution through a discussion activity. Definitions of Biological Evolution. Changes in the genetic composition of a population with the Land Your Dream passage of each generation.

The gradual change of living things from one form into another over Of Lease, the course of time, the origin of species and lineages by descent of living forms from ancestral forms, and We Know - Client/customer References, the generation of diversity Note that the first definition emphasizes genetic change. It commonly is referred to as microevolution . Letter. The second definition emphasizes the appearance of new, physically distinct life forms that can be grouped with similar appearing life forms in How To Calculate Income, a taxonomic hierarchy. It commonly is referred to as macroevolution . A full explanation of evolution requires that we link these two levels. Can small, gradual change produce distinct species? How does it occur, and how do we decide when species are species? Hopefully you will see the connections by the end of these three lectures. Today we will discuss how species are formed. But to do this, we need to define what we are talking about. Mimicry complexes supplied further evidence against the concept, as organisms of the same species can look very different, depending upon where they are reared or their life cycle stage (some insects produce a spring brood that looks like one host plant and a summer brood that looks like another). The morphological species concept was replaced by another viewpoint that puts more emphasis on the biological differences between species.

Biological species concept: This concept states that a species is a group of actually or potentially interbreeding individuals who are reproductively isolated from other such groups. Of Lease. This definition was attractive to biologists and became widely adopted by the 1940's. Land Your Dream. It suggested a critical test of species-hood: two individuals belong to the same species if their gametes can unite with each other under natural conditions to produce fertile offspring. This concept also emphasized that a species is an Termination Of Lease evolutionary unit. Members share genes with other members of their species, and not with members of Template, other species. Although this definition clearly is attractive, it has problems.

Can you test it on museum specimens or fossil data? Can it explain the existence of species in a line of descent, such as the well-known lineage of fossil horses? Obviously not. In fact, one cannot apply this definition easily, or at Letter all, with many living organisms. What if species do not live in the same place? What about the hybrids that we know occur in zoos? These problems are serious enough that some biologists recently argued for a return to the morphological species concept. So what is the best way to Invoice Template Blank define a species? Most scientists feel that the biological species concept should be kept, but with some qualifications.

It can only be used with living species, and cannot always be applied to species that do not live in the same place. The real test applies to Termination Of Lease species that have the potential to interbreed. Most importantly, the biological species concept helps us ask how species are formed, because it focuses our attention on the question of how reproductive isolation comes about. How To Your Internship. Let us first examine types of reproductive isolation, because there are quite a few. This suggests a simple and Of Lease Letter, useful dichotomy, between pre-mating or prezygotic (i.e., pre-zygote formation) reproductive isolating mechanisms, and post-mating or postzygotic isolating mechanisms. Remember that a zygote is the cell formed by the union of We Know References, two gametes and is the basis of Of Lease Letter, a developing individual. Ecological isolation: Species occupy different habitats. The lion and tiger overlapped in India until 150 years ago, but the lion lived in We Know - Client/customer References, open grassland and the tiger in forest. Consequently, the two species did not hybridize in nature (although they sometimes do in zoos). Temporal isolation: Species breed at different times. In North America, five frog species of the genus Rana differ in the time of Of Lease Letter, their peak breeding activity.

Behavioral isolation: Species engage in distinct courtship and mating rituals ( see Figure 1 ). Mechanical isolation: Interbreeding is prevented by How To Your structural or molecular blockage of the Of Lease formation of the zygote. Mechanisms include the inability of the sperm to bind to the egg in animals, or the female reproductive organ of Template, a plant preventing the Termination Of Lease wrong pollinator from landing. Storyboard Template Pdf | ** All of the above prevent the formation of hybrid zygotes. ** ** Post-zygotic mechanisms are those in which hybrid zygotes fail, develop abnormally, or cannot self-reproduce and establish viable populations in Of Lease, nature. ** So species remain distinct due to reproductive isolation. But how do species form in the first place? An abbreviated illustration of meiosis, by Blank which reproductive cells duplicate to form gametes. This question is critical, because it is what produces many species from few, and results in evolutionary trees of relatedness. Termination Letter. The most common way for species to Template Pdf | split, especially in animal species (we will talk more about the Letter origin of new plant species later), is when the California Income population becomes geographically isolated into two populations. This is referred to as allopatric (geographic) speciation ( see Figure ). Geographic isolation leads to reproductive isolation. Once two populations are reproductively isolated, they are free to follow different evolutionary paths.

They are likely to differentiate for two reasons: Different geographic regions are likely to have different selective pressures. Temperature, rainfall, predators and Termination, competitors are likely to Bar Supplies - Dummies differ between two areas 100's or 1,000's of kilometers apart. Thus, over time, the two populations will differentiate. Of Lease Letter. Even if the environments are not very different, the populations may differentiate because different mutations and genetic combinations occur by chance in each. Storyboard Template Pdf |. Thus, selection will have different raw material to act upon in each population. In short, physical isolation turns a single population into two, which, because of their lack of connectedness, may follow different evolutionary paths. What happens next? The fate of the populations depends upon time and factors related to their different environments. If the two populations are soon rejoined, they may not differ very much, and likely will become a single population again. Differentiation also depends upon the strength of selective pressures.

Strong selection can cause rapid change. Given time and selection, the two populations become two species. They may, at some later time, spread back into contact. Termination Letter. Then we can ask, are these two good biological species? The real test of the biological species concept is when two populations, on the threshold of becoming two species, come back into contact.

They may simply merge. Essay. They may be so different that they do not even recognize one another as species. Often, though, species may come into contact when not yet fully reproductively isolated. In that event, natural selection should reinforce the reproductive barriers. Why? Because individuals that waste their reproductive effort -- their gametes -- on individuals with whom they will produce inferior offspring are less likely to pass on their genes to the next generation.

Natural selection should reinforce reproductive isolation. Probably, species that are isolated only by Letter post-zygotic barriers will subsequently evolve pre-zygotic barriers. Why should that occur? To review: allopatric (geographic) speciation is the differentiation of physically isolated populations to the point that reunion of the two populations does not occur if contact is re- established. If speciation is a gradual process, species may not yet be fully separated. A continuum must exist from species that are in the process of splitting into two, to species that are fully formed.

Surely we only expect the latter to How To Your Dream Internship behave as good species. We still haven't fully explained the speciation process. In our next lesson, we will examine the theory of natural selection, which helps to Termination Of Lease Letter explain how localized populations become adapted to local conditions. By adapting to Dream local conditions and accumulating genetic differences, isolated geographic races start down the path to becoming separate species and creating another pair of branches on the tree of life. But now I want to point out that there are alternative models of species formation, and finally I want to conclude by linking the Termination concept of species formation to the hierarchical structure of Calculate Tax Withholdings, life. Alternative Models of Species Formation -- Hybridization and Termination Letter, Polyploidy.

Even if hybrids are unable to undergo sexual reproduction because their chromosomes do not sort out properly in meiosis, they may reproduce vegetatively. The total chromosome number also may double by combining the chromosome sets of a single species. Of the 260,000 known species of California Tax Withholdings, plants, as many as half may have originated in this way. Of Lease. Many commercially important plants are examples of polyploidy (e.g. bread wheat, cotton, tobacco, sugar cane, bananas, potatoes). Polyploidy is an example of Handwritten, sympatric speciation defined as species arising within the same, overlapping geographic range. Conclusion: Species Formation and the Hierarchy of Life. There are two ways to Of Lease Letter construct a phylogenetic tree ( see Figure ). We can use a perfect fossil record to trace the sequence from beginning to Storyboard Pdf | end, or we can use similarities and differences among living things to reconstruct history, working from the endpoint toward the beginning.

In this course, we will not consider these two methods in Termination Letter, detail. I introduce them to make the ~ Ipralatam point that, ultimately, we want to understand how evolution produces not just two species from one but the Of Lease Letter entire tree of life. This requires that we make the transition from microevolution to macroevolution. To Darwin, and to modern evolutionary biologists as well, the answer simply is time. Given enough time and successive splittings, the processes that produce two species from one will result in the entire diversity of life.

In reality, deducing the historic record of branching is very difficult. Data are incomplete, scientists debate the pace of Handwritten Essay, change, and sometimes species separated by many branching steps look more similar to one another than those separated by Termination Of Lease one or a few branches. Molecular biology offers exciting new opportunities to address these issues, by looking at similarities and differences in Essay Examples, DNA sequences. From here we will turn away from the Termination Letter macroevolutionary view and look more closely at how small changes occur and accumulate, by Pdf | the processes of Of Lease, natural selection and genetic change. The definition of a species is debatable. Most scientists adhere either to the morphological species concept (members of Invoice, a species look alike and can be distinguished from other species by Of Lease Letter their appearance), or to the biological species concept (a species is a group of actually or potentially interbreeding individuals who are reproductively isolated from other such groups). Both definitions have their weaknesses. Reproductive isolating mechanisms are either prezygotic or postzygotic. These mechanisms ensure that species remain distinct in nature. Species formation can occur either through allopatric (geographic) speciation or through sympatric speciation.

We can construct phylogenetic trees that show the evolutionary relatedness among living things, though the building of Land Dream Internship, such trees is as yet an imperfect science. Futuyma, D.J. 1986. Evolutionary Biology . Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Associates, Inc. Wessells, N.K. and J.L. Hopson. 1988. Biology . Of Lease Letter. New York: Random House. Chapter 43. Rosenzweig, M.L. 1995.

Species Diversity in Space and How To Calculate California, Time . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Copyright Regents of the Of Lease Letter University of Essay Examples, Michigan unless noted otherwise.