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Mrs. Murchison#039;s 8th Grade Science and Biology Classes. Monday : Memorial Holiday: No School. Tuesday: Work on 5+ Sample Recommendation - Free Sample,, Final Exam Review or the “540 Final Exam Project” Wednesday: Work on Final Exam Review or the “540 Final Exam Project” Thursday: Work on Final Exam Review or the “540 Final Exam Project” Friday: Work on Final Exam Review or the Exercise Log Template. Exercise Log, “540 Final Exam Project” Monday: Complete your PSA’s in Lab #5.
Presentations start tomorrow. Tuesday: PSA Presentations. Wednesday: Complete PSA Presentations. Intro to Project 540. PLEASE USE THE PROJECT 540 PPT TO REVIEW THE REQUIREMENTS OF THIS PROJECT AND DUE DATE. USE IT ALSO TO SIGN UP FOR A PRESENTATION TIME SLOT.
USE [email protected] to get into the sign up sheet. Thursday: Project 540 (in class project). Final Exam Review uploaded below: Hard copies will be handed out today. Week of April 15, 2013 – April 19, 2013: Monday: Depending on the Oceans. Students do notes over 5+ Sample Example our dependence on Oceans. Read the following article on Template, Artificial Reefs: Review th PPY on Reefs below: Read Chapter 14, Sec 3, 4, 5 of 5+ Sample Recommendation Sample, Example 8th grade textbook and do end of Sec Review Questions for homework for Sec 3 and 5. Read only about Artificial Reefs in For Jobs And Resume Maker sec 4.
Tuesday: Review for Living Systems and Environment Test. Wednesday: Test: Living Systems and the Environment. Friday: Plant Trees for Earth Week. Week of Recommendation - Free Example April 8, 2013 – April 12, 2012: Monday: Modeling Food Webs. Budget Template. Students create a Human Food Web. Wednesday: Habitat 101: L.A.N.D.S.
Activity. Receive and go over 5+ Sample Sample, 8th Grade Science STAAR Reference Review Packet. STAAR Science Test: April 24, 2013. Thursday: Activty: Changing Populations. Students explore how long and short term environmental changes have affected organisms and traits in subsequent populations. Read Chapter 14, Sec 3, “Life at the Ocean’s Edge” and complete the Sec Review Questions, p. 493. 5+ Construction Budget Template Template. Read Chapter 14, Sec 4, “Coral Reefs,”pp. 496-497. Read Chapter 14, Sec 5, “Resources from the Ocean” and Tenant, complete Sec Review Questions, p. 506. DUE FRIDAY.
Friday: 1. Go over homework questions. Format. Do Activity: “Depending on Oceans”: Students explore human dependence on ocean systems and how human activities such as runoff, artificial reefs, or use of resources have modified these systems. Finish the article http://floridakeys.noaa.gov/artificialreefs/arethere.html for homework if not finished in class and list the advantages and diadvantages of artificial reefs. Week of 5+ Sample Letter Sample, Example April 1, 2013 – April 5, 2013: Monday: Correct Chemistry Tests in class.
Living Systems and teh Environment (Ecology) End of For Jobs | Resume Section Review Questions due FRIDAY: 6th grade textbook: Chapter 8, Sections 1 and 3 and 8th grade textbook, Chapter 18-1 and 19-3. Write each question before answering. Tuesday: No Class. STAAR TESTING. Wednesday: No Class. STAAR TESTING. Thursday: Begin the Living Systems and the Environment Unit-Food Chains, Webs and Energy Pyramids. Friday: Modeling Food Webs. Week of 5+ Sample - Free Example March 18, 2013 – March 22, 2013: Monday: How to Balance a Chemical Equation. Students learn how to balance chemical equations.
Homework, “Completing Equations” Practice. Handouts given in class. Tuesday: Use manipulatives to identify 4 types of chemical equations: synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double-replacement. 11+ Menu Order Form. Homework: Finish the in-class assignment, “Identifying and 5+ Sample Sample, Example, Balancing Chemical Equations.” Wednesday: Lab: Conservation of Mass. Hand out TEST REVIEW. Sample. UNIT TEST ON MARCH 27 OR 28 (WHICHEVER DAY YOU DO NOT ATTEND THE FIELD EXPERIENCE). Thursday: Lab: “Effect of Temperature on Rate of Reaction.” Homework: Complete lab write-up if not completed in 5+ Sample Recommendation Sample, Example class. Friday: Lab: Silly Polymers.
Classwork: “Polymers and Composites.” Homework: Read, “Degradable Plastics” and be ready to discuss the article on Monday. The article will be handed out in 11+ Menu Template class. Week of Letter - Free Example February 25-March 1, 2013: Monday: In conjunction with a ppt about Valence Shell Electrons and Chemical Reactivity, Students did a card sort of Bohr Atomic Models to establish a pattern between th e number of valence shell electrons in Activity Log Template Exercise an atom and the atom’s chemical reactivity. Both are uploaded below: Tuesday: Using the above ppt and reactivity cards, students looked for additional patterns in 5+ Sample Tenant Sample, Example the periodic table and labeled their own periodic tables. Homework: Students should read Chapter 1, Sec 1 and 2 of the textbook. Wednesday: Fluor Daniel Engineering Program in the library.
Thursday: IONS. Students taek ppt notes over IONS and learn nmeumonics devices for Exercise Activity Log Template Exercise, remembering them. See ppt’s below. Color Coding the Periodic Table. 5+ Sample Letter Sample,. Students will begin to color code their periodic tables and learn about each family of 11+ Menu | Retail-Resumes elements. Friday: Students will complete color coding their periodic tables. www.ptable.com is an excellent site to explore the periodic table of elements.
Week of February 18 – February 22, 2013. Tuesday: “Cut it up” Activity. Notes: History of the Atom. Black Bottle Activity. 5+ Sample Tenant Example. Zoom in on the atomic structure of a cola can. Resume | Resume Format And Resume. Homework: Answer the (2) questions below and prepare to turn the assignment in tomorrow, Wednesday, Feb. 5+ Sample Recommendation Sample,. 20: 1.How did Rutherford use techniques similar to the black bottle methodology to help describe and discover what he could not see? 2. Additionally, what did the techniques help Rutherford discover about the atom? Wednesday: Review Rutherfor’s Gold Foil Exp. Findings. “Atomic Field” Video Clip.
Stripping Electrons Activity (see below). 021813 PPT Notes over Atomic Structure, Aromic Mass, and Atomic Number (uploaded below). HOMEWORK: DO ONLY THE 1ST PAGE OF THE WORKSHEET: “PARTS OF AN ATOM (uploaded below). Thursday: o21813 PPT Notes, Day 2 (Isotopes, Valence electrons and Bohr Models); Bohr Model Guided Practice. Pages 2 and 3 of “Parts of an Of Sale Atom” individual practice (uploaded above).
Friday: Complete Bohr Model Notes, “Drawing Bohr Models” and last page of “Parts of an Recommendation - Free Sample, Atom.” Practice WS. for | Budget Template, Homework, “Atomic Basics” WS. Week of 5+ Sample Example February 11, 2013 – February 15, 2013: Monday: Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion: Water Bottle Rockets. Change of plans due to weather: WE WILL NOT BE ABLE TO LAUNCH OUR ROCKETS UNTIL FRIDAY DUE TO RAINY/WET/COLD WEATHER. THEREFORE, Unit Test will be on Thursday, February 14, 2013. Quiz on Wednesday. Lm2000 Sample. Review for Unit Quiz over Force, Motion, Energy and Simple Machines, Mechanical Advantage, Potential and 5+ Sample Tenant Sample,, Kinetic Energy. Tuesday: Rocket Launch POSTPONED UNTIL FRIDAY. Review for Unit Quiz over Force, Motion, Energy and Simple Machines, Mechanical Advantage, Potential and Kinetic Energy.
Wednesday: Unit Quiz over Force, Motion, Energy and Excel Inventory Spreadsheet Template, Simple Machines, Mechanical Advantage, Potential and Kinetic Energy. JEOPARDY GAME TO REVIEW FOR UNIT TEST ON THURSDAY. Thursday: Unit TEST: Force, Motion, Energy. Week of February 4, 2013 – February 8, 2013: Monday: Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion: Activity: Marshmallow Capapults. You data and 5+ Sample, analysis are due today. homework: Acceleration Problems. Unit Test Review handed out. Unit test date to Format Format Maker be announced – not this week.
Tuesday: Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion: Action/Reaction. 5+ Sample. Begin Water bottle Rockets. Students watch 3 short videos describing and illustrating how to construct the rocket from Lm2000 Reports 2 liter plastic soda bottles. Students get into groups of 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation (4), get a rubric and “Guide to building the Rocket” and Template | Budget, begin building their rockets. Wednesday: Continue building rockets.
Thursday: Finish building rockets. Friday: CAREER DAY ALL DAY. Week of January 28, 2013 – February 1, 2013: Monday: Speed, Velocity, Acceleration. Complete PPT, Speed and Acceleration and discuss motion graphs. Tuesday: Balanced vs Unbalanced forces. Lab: Domino Dash. Homework: CSI: Solving a CSI Murder Mystery: Due Wednesday for 5+ Sample Letter Sample, Example, a grade.
Wednesday: Work to complete Domino Dash and turn it in for a grade.. Wrestling to differentiate between balanced and unbalanced forces. Homework: 1. 5+ Construction Budget | Budget Template. Complete the 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter Example, write-up for Lm2000 Sample Reports, Domino Dash (turn it in on Thursday for a grade). 2. 5+ Sample Letter - Free. Read article below: “Hidden Dangers in your Car.” Make sure you can name three events going on inside a car and how each relates to Exercise Exercise Activity Log Template Exercise Log one of Tenant Letter - Free Newton’s three Laws of Motion. Be ready to discuss and take a quiz on Sample Of Sale | Notary Letter, it on Letter - Free Sample, Example, Friday. Uploaded below: Thursday: Newton’s 1st Law of Motion: “Inertia” Lab: Speedy Soccer (if we can get outside on the tennis court – weather may be an issue) or Lab: Arm Wrestling to Free Stock Software Excel differentiate between balanced and unbalanced forces. Tenant. Go over and discuss the article, “Hidden Dangers in Your Car.” Homework: Practice Sheet: Balanced/Unbalanced Forces.
Friday: Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion (F = ma). Lab: Mouse Trap Marshmallow Catapult. Format For Jobs And Resume Maker. Build Catapult. Homework: Vector’s worksheet. Week of January 21, 2013 – January 25, 2013: Monday: MLK Day Holiday. Your Phantom TollBooth Project must be uploaded to turnitin.com by 11:59 tonight.
I.D. #’s and 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter, passwords to join your science class are listed below: 1st Period: 5950154; science1. 2nd Period: 5950169; science2. 3rd Period: 5950194; science3. 4th Period: 5950201; science4. 6th Period: 5950205; science6. Tuesday: Force, Motion, Energy: Read Chapter 3, Sec 1: Motion, Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration. Wednesday: Complete the Inventory Spreadsheet Template, write-up for the Speed Walking Lab done in class. Due Friday, January 25, 2013. Complete practice problem hand-out: “Determining Speed, Time, and Distance.” – Due Friday, Jan.
25, 2013. Thursday: Field Experience to TAMU and George Bush Library. Week of January 14, 2013 – January 18, 2013: Monday: Science Fair Project Presentations. Tuesday: Science Fair Project Presentations. Wednesday: Science Fair Project Presentations. Back to Lab #5 to 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Example complete the Phanton TollBooth Project – due from Jan 18 at 9:00 a.m. 11+ Menu Order | Retail-Resumes. – Jan 21 at 11:59 p.m. The project should be uploaded to Recommendation Letter Sample, Example turnitin.com. The map should be turned in on Tuesday, Jan 22, 2013. Thursday: Lab #5 to complete the Sample Of Sale, Phanton TollBooth Project- due from Jan 18 at 9:00 a.m. – Jan 21 at 11:59 p.m.
The project should be uploaded to turnitin.com. The map should be turned in on Tuesday, Jan 22, 2013. Friday: Lab #5 to complete the Phanton TollBooth Project- due from Jan 18 at 9:00 a.m. Recommendation Letter Sample, Example. – Jan 21 at 11:59 p.m. The project should be uploaded to turnitin.com. The map should be turned in on Tuesday, Jan 22, 2013. Week of 5+ Construction Budget Template January 7, 2013-January 11, 2013: Tuesday through Friday: Work in Letter - Free Sample, Example the Lab on the Phantom Toll Booth Project. See uploads below for the Phantom Toll Booth Project. Science Fair Rough Drafts of Research Paper Due Tuesday, January 8, 2013. FINAL PROJECT DUE MONDAY, JANUARY 14, 2013.
PRESENTATIONS BEGIN ON MONDAY. (SEE YOUR PINK TIMELINE). Week of December 10, 2012 – December 14, 2012: Monday: Plate Tectonic Tests back. DAC Scores back. Papers back. Go over Ocean Currents, Weather Patterns: “Phantom Tollbooth Project in Of Sale | Notary Letter class and 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter - Free Sample,, hand out project papers. this project will be done in class and Exercise Log Template Exercise, final chapter copies completed at Recommendation Letter home at night, at lunch in teh computer room, or a tutorials after school. I will stay each afternoon for anyone who wants to work on the project. Due date: Monday, December 17, 2012.
HANDOUT REVIEW FOR 2012 FALL FINAL EXAM: Homework: Begin Chapter one. Tuesday: Work in Template lab #1 on Ocean Currents, Weather Patterns: The Phantom Toll Booth Project. Students will research the historical significance of the 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample,, names of the wind belts and understand their importance in determining weather patterns STUDENTS WILL WATCH A HEAT TRANSFER VIDEO CLIP TO REVIEW HEATING OF THE ATMOSPHERE BY CONVECTION AND USE HISTORICAL INFORMATION AND MARITIME TERMINOLOGY ALONG WITH WEATHER CONCEPTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR PHANTOM TOLL BOOTH PROJECT. FINAL PROJECTS ARE DUE ON MONDAY, DECEMBER 17, 2012. Continue to work on ther Phantom Toll Booth Project in Lab #1. Homework: Complete “Types of Exercise Log Template. Exercise Log Weather Fronts” Handout and 5+ Sample Tenant Letter, bring to Lab #1 on Exercise Exercise Log Template Log, Wednesday. Finish oceans/weather research and complete Chapter Two (at least one place, one antagonist and one gift). Wednesday: CAREER DAY SURVEY.
Continue to work on the Phantom Toll Booth Project in Lab #1. Homework: Complete chapter 3 (at least 2 places, characters, and 5+ Sample - Free Sample, Example, gifts). Thursday: Students will watch a Coriolis Video to review the reason why winds and currents curve as they traverse the Bill For Car | Notary Letter, globe. Recommendation. they will continue to work on their Phantom Toll Booth Project in Format | Resume And Resume Lab #1. Recommendation Letter Sample, Example. Complete chapter 4 (at least 3 places, antagonists, and gifts). Friday: Ocean Currents, Weather patterns. Students should be close to Budget | Budget completing their Phantom Toll Booth Project. We will continue to work in lab #1. 5+ Sample Tenant Letter Sample,. Homework: Complete chapter 5 (4-5 places, antagonists, and gifts). Finalize worksheets that must be turned in with the final project. Inventory. Review your check list and make sure FINAL PROJECTS ARE DUE ON MONDAY, DECEMBER 17, 2012.
Week of 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation - Free Sample, December 3, 2012 – December 7, 2012: Monday: In-Class Activity: The Speed of Lm2000 Reports Earthquake Waves. Go over review and go over differences in topographic maps and satellite maps. Test tomorrow over Plate Tectonics. Tuesday: Unit Test: Plate Tectonics. Wednesday: Weather Unit: Watch Phanton Toll Booth in class as a preface to the Weather Project. Thursday: PPT: The Phantom Toll Booth. Go over in class and 5+ Sample Letter - Free Sample, Example, continue to watch the video. Friday: Weather and Oceans PPT in class. Lm2000 Sample. Finish the Tenant Recommendation - Free Example, Phantom Tollbooth in Stock Inventory class. Discuss Project.
Week of November 26, 2012 – November 30, 2012: Monday: Notes: Chapter 9 Plate Tectonics: review notes done prior to the Museum Exhibition. Sample, Example. Hand out Unit Test Review: Due Monday, December 3, 2012. Lm2000. Test on Tuesday, December 4, 2012, Chapter 9, Plate Tectonics. Homework: Complete: Plate Tectonics Worksheet. Sample,. Due Tomorrow. (Notes, answers and Blank Review uploaded below): Tuesday: DAC Test (District Assessment). Stock Software Spreadsheet. Worksheet: Plate Boundaries and 5+ Sample Letter - Free Sample, Example, Earth’s Land Features if you did not finish it in Free Inventory Software Template class (due Wednesday).
Read Chapter 4, pp. 5+ Sample Letter Example. 154-156, “Seismic Waves” and Chapter 9, pp. 348-349, “Faults and Faulting” – Total: 3 pages. Wednesday: In-class Activity: Modeling Faults. Powerpoint and Activity uploaded below. Exercise Log Template. Exercise Activity Exercise Log. Homework: Read Chapter 4, pp. 5+ Sample Letter. 154-156, “Seismic Waves” and Chapter 9, pp.
348-349, “Faults and Faulting” if you did not read them last night. Total 3 pages. Thursday: Finish In-class Activity: Modeling Faults. Do handout, “Analyzing a Model of the Interior of the Earth” Do this in-class activity when your faults model is completed. Friday: In-class activity, “Investigating the 11+ Menu Order Form | Retail-Resumes, Speed of Letter - Free Sample, Example Earthquake Waves” COMPLETE YOUR REVIEW FOR TEH TEST ON TUESDAY. Week of Free Inventory Spreadsheet Template November 5, 2012 – November 9, 2012:
Monday: COIN Career Day Survey and Preparation. How the Earth Work’s Museum Project Handouts, Choose Teams, Watch Video. BRING SUPPLIES FOR MUSEUM PROJECT! Homework, “Gradients 1 Practice Problems” Notes from Friday uploaded below for your use. Tuesday: Go over Gradients 1 Practice Problems. BRING SUPPLIES FOR PROJECT. Begin work on Museum Projects. Exhibition on Tuesday, November 20, 2012 in Tenant Example the QVMS Library.
Wednesday: BRING SUPPLIES FOR PROJECT. Work on Museum Projects. For Jobs | Resume And Resume. Exhibition on Tuesday, November 20, 2012 in the QVMS Library. Thursday: Work on Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free, Museum Projects. Exhibition on Tuesday, November 20, 2012 in Exercise Exercise Exercise the QVMS Library. Friday: Test over Topography Maps, Gradients, Depressions, Profiles, and Scales. Week of 5+ Sample Sample, October 22, 2012 – October 26, 2012. Monday: Unit Test: Sun, Moon, Earth System. Tuesday: Cornell Notes – Topographic Maps.
Activity A and B. The Topographic Map Notes are uploaded below for your use. They have been revised to include interval information about depressions. Order Form. Please add slides 11 and 12 to your notes. Wednesday: Topographic Profile Construction and Vertical Exaggeration. PPT uploaded below for your use. Homework: Drawing Profiles. Thursday: The Contour Model Lab Activity – 3D Raised Relief Mapping.
Homework: Mt. St. Helens Activity. Friday: Building Topographic Maps Models. Week of Tenant Recommendation October 15, 2012 – October 19, 2012. Monday: Test on Log Template. Exercise Activity Log Template Log, Monday, October 22, 2012 – Sun, Moon, Earth System. Tuesday: Test Review Uploaded Below. The review is due on Tenant Recommendation Sample, Example, October 22, 2012 for a grade:
The Sun’s Path PPT has also been uploaded for you to Sample Bill Of Sale | Notary Letter use as you study: Homework: The D-Day Invasion: When, and Why Then? Due on Thursday, October 18, 2012. Wednesday: Complete your D-Day homework activity. Letter - Free Example. It is due Thursday. Friday: Puppet Show in class to 5+ Construction Budget Template model the Seasons, Day and Night, Phases of the Moon, Tides, and 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation - Free Sample,, Eclipses.
Week of October 8, 2012 – October 12, 2012: Monday: Your Reflective Essay about: The Reason for the Seasons is tomorrow. I have attached the powerpoint that we went over today and a link to an Angle of Insolation Review. For Car Letter. Use the review to 5+ Sample Tenant Letter Sample, help you answer teh questions on Bill Of Sale For Car | Notary, the powerpoint as you study your latituesgraphs, Angle of Insolation Lab and Example, Reason for 11+ Menu Order Template, the seasons Lab. Tuesday: Essay: Reflectiona bout Reason for the Seasons. Use the Tenant Recommendation Letter Example, ppt above, study it, and use it to answer teh questions on Of Sale For Car | Notary, sun’s path and Tenant Sample,, seasons review handout. Thursday: Modeling the phases of the Moon Activity. Friday: Determining Which Way the Resume, Moon Revolves Around Earth. Week of September 24, 2012 – September 28, 2012.
Monday: 1. The Universe Test Review is 5+ Sample Tenant Sample, Example posted here for your use. Remember, it was handed out Friday, Sept. 21 in Format For Jobs | Resume Format Maker class, but you may prefer to complete a typed copy. Complete it and have your parents sign it for two bonus points on the test. It is due the day of the test.
2. 5+ Sample Example. Today’s class assignment is a Galaxy Card Sort. I have uploaded the document below: Homework: Read Chater 8, Sections 4 and 5, and complete Cornell Notes (uploaded under Week of Sept 10 -14 – Friday) See below. Tuesday: Black Hole Activity: Complete a Black Hole activity by simulating the formation of Resume Format For Jobs a Black Hole to understand what a black hole is and how it is created. Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Example. Watch video clip: Wednesday: History of the Universe: Universe Expansion Lab (in class activity).
Homework: Study for your Universe unit test on Friday. Thursday: Jeopardy Review for Universe Test (in class activity). Template. Homework: STUDY FOR UNIT TEST: UNIVERSE ON TOMORROW. Friday: UNIVERSE UNIT TEST. Week of Recommendation Letter Sample, Example September 17, 2012 – September 21, 2012. Monday: Characteristics of the Stars – light Years. Light Years Activity Write-Up This is our lab in class today. Complete the analysis questions for Log Template. Exercise Log Template, homework if you did not do so today in class and 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter Sample, Example, turn this lab in tomorrow.
Light Year Worksheet This is homework tonight. It is due tomorrow. Show your work! Tuesday: Characteristic of the Stars – Parallax. Parallax Lab This lab will be done in class and turned in on Thursday. Wednesday: Classifying Stars – HR Diagram: You will create an HR diagram in class by plotting stars according to temperature and brightness or magnitude. Homework: Read Chapter 8, Sec 3 of textbook. Make sure your Cornell notes are completed for that section. Thursday: Complete your HR Diagram. The assignment is uploaded below:
Handout and Budget | Budget Template, warm up: Life Cycles of Stars: Star cycles Handout stars life cycle Answer these questions: 1. What will happen to our sun when it begins to die? 2. Tenant Letter - Free Sample, Example. Why won’t our sun become a black hole? Friday: Black Hole Activity: Complete a Black Hole activity by simulating the formation of a Black Hole to understand what a black hole is and how it is created. Homework: Read chapter 8, Sec 4, “Star Systems and Galaxies” and make sure you complete the Cornell Notes for 5+ Construction Budget Template | Budget, that section. Week of September 10, 2012 – September 14, 2012. Monday: Study for your Safety and Scientific Method Quiz – Tomorrow.
Study the following: S.M. Notes, Measurement Worksheet, Safety Notes and Worksheets, Read the 8th grade on-line textbook, “What is Science,” pp. 10-16, Controls and Variables – Sponge Bob Worksheet. The power point is uploaded below: Wednesday: Worksheet: The Hubble Space Telescope: Friday: Chapter 8, Sec 1, Sec 2, and Sec 3 Notes uploaded below. Use the on-line textbook to complete what you did not finish in class. Tuesday: Read Chapter 8, Sec 1 and Sec 2 of the 8th grade on-line textbook. Tenant - Free Sample,. Complete the section review questions at the end of For Jobs And Resume each section.
Week of August 27 – September 1, 2012. Friday is your Safety Test. Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, Example. Use the powerpoint above and your notes and handouts to study for Of Sale For Car | Notary Letter, the test. Week of March 12, 2012 – March 16, 2012: Spring Break. Your Chemistry Unit Test Review is uploaded below:
Monday, February 27, 2012: Worksheet: Finish backside of Sample, Example “Radioactive Elements” if not completed in 5+ Construction Budget Template class. Read Chapter 3, Section 3, pp 120-121, “Specific Heat.” Answer Sec Review #’s 3, 4, and 5+ Sample Recommendation Example, 5, p. 121. Tuesday, February 28, 2012: Complete Specific Heat vs Atomic Structure” Graph for Homework. Read Chapter 1, Sec 3, “Observing Chemical Reactions.” Pp. 39-43. do Sec 3 Review. #’s 1-5. Wednesday, February 29, 2012: None. Thursday, March 1, 2012: Worksheet, “Physical and Resume Format For Jobs | Resume Format And Resume Maker, Chemical Changes.” Friday, March 2, 2012: Complete Cornell Notes (uploaded to my webpage) as a review of patterns of the Periodic Table including Specifc Heat and Radioactive Elements. Week of February 20, 2012 – February 24, 2012.
Monday, February 20, 2012: Study for Chemistry Test on Friday. 5+ Sample Letter Sample, Example. Review uploaded below: Tuesday, February 21, 2012: Study for Test Friday. Practice for Template, Element ADvertisement. Presentations start Wednesday.
Wednesday, February 22, 2012: Study for Tenant Letter Sample,, Test Friday. Practice Element ADvertisement. Presentations on Thursday. Thursday, February 23, 2012: Study for Test Friday. Review turn in for a grade! Friday, February 24, 2012: No Homework.
Monday, February 13, 2012: Complete the “Family Ties” Student Worksheet that is on Free Stock Inventory Spreadsheet Template, the backside of your “Color Coding the Periodic Table” Handout. Tuesday, February 14, 2012: Using your “Color Coding the Periodic Table” Handout, complete color coding your periodic table if you have not yet done so. Wednesday, February 15, 2012: Work on your Element ADvertising Presentation (attached below). Remember, you and your partner must contribute equally to this project. Thursday, February 16, 2012: Work on your Element ADvertising Presentation (attached above). Remember, you and your partner must contribute equally to this project. Friday, February 17, 2012: Work on your Element ADvertising Presentation (attached above). Remember, you and your partner must contribute equally to Tenant Recommendation Sample, this project. PRESENTATIONS BEGIN ON MONDAY! Monday, February 6, 2012: Read 8th grade textbook, Chapter 1, sec 2, “Periodic Table.” Complete the Review Questions, p. 37, #’ 1-4.
Complete Cornell notes on “The Periodic Table” uploaded below: Tuesday, February 7, 2012: “Analyzing Atomic Structure” Worksheet. Wednesday, February 8, 2012: Exercise, Atomic Models (at the end of your Periodic Table Basics Booklet). Element Research Links: periodic table of element research links, 2012: Cornell Notes: The Periodic Table. Use the Budget Template Template, 8th grade textbook, Chapter 1, Sec 2. Friday, February 10, 2012: Mendeleev Goes to the Paint Store. Monday, January 39, 2012: Study for Tenant Recommendation Letter, Force, Motion, Energy Test TOMORROW. Turm in completed and signed review for two bonus points. Tuesday, January 31, 2012: Read Chapter 1, sec 1 od 8th grade textbook, “chemistry” Complete the Sec. Stock Excel. 1 review questions, p. 28., #1-5. Wednesday, February 1, 2012: Atomic Structure Worksheet.
Finish your notes over Atomic Structure and the History of the Atom if you did not do so in class. Using your access login and Tenant, password to the school databases, go onto unitedstreaming and watch the video, “Elements of chemistry: Atoms: The Building Blocks of Nature.” Take notes and bring them to school on Thursday for a quiz. Use the above URL to learn view both macro and micro views of an Aluminum soca can, why you do not buy dented cans of food and how early settlers to this country purified their water! Thursday, February 2, 2012: Go to Log Template. Exercise Activity Log Template Log “Atom Builder” below and Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample,, practice building the atoms that lead you to the Carbon Atom. Friday, February 3, 2012: None. Monday, January 23,2012 – Read Chapter 3, pp. 108 and 109 in Stock Inventory Software Inventory Spreadsheet Template the 8th grade textbbok on energy. Take notes over Example potential energy, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, the formula for kinetic energy (relationship between mass, velocity and kinetic energy). Tuesday, January 24, 2012 – Work on the unit test review.
Unit Test over Force, Motion, Energy next Tuesday, January 31, 2012. The Unit Test Review is uploaded below: Wednesday, January 25, 2012 – Work on the unit test review. Unit Test over Resume Format For Jobs Force, Motion, Energy next Tuesday, January 31, 2012. Thursday, January 26, 2012 – Work on the unit test review. Unit Test over Force, Motion, Energy next Tuesday, January 31, 2012. Friday, January 27, 2012 – Work on the unit test review. Unit Test over Force, Motion, Energy next Tuesday, January 31, 2012. Monday, January 9, 2012: Read Chapter 3, pp.104-107. complete notes: Include words like forces, unbalanced forces, balanced forces, Newton’s 1st, 2nd, 3rd Laws of Motion. Complete the Worksheet on the back of your “Balanced vs Unbalanced Forces” Packet called, “Balanced and 5+ Sample Letter Sample,, Unbalanced Forces.
S.F.People: Work on final project. Turn it in early (this week) for a free 100 daily grade. Tuesday, January 10, 2012: S.F.People: Work on final project. Turn it in early (this week) for a free 100 daily grade. Wednesday, January 11, 2012: Read, ” Hidden Dangers in Your Car” – uploaded here, and be able to explain how these situations relate to Newton’s Law’s of Motion on 5+ Construction Budget Template, Thursday. Newton’s Laws PPT uploaded here for your review: Thursday, January 12, 2012: S.F.People: Work on final project. Turn it in 5+ Sample Letter - Free Example early (this week) for a free 100 daily grade. Friday, January 13, 2012 S.F.People: Work on final project. Turn it in early (this week) for a free 100 daily grade. Week of January 3, 2012 – January 6, 2012.
Tuesday, January 3, 2012 – Read Chapter 3 (8th grade textbook) pp. 102-104 (Stop at Template “Forces” section). Complete notes on what you have read and include definitions of the following terms: Motion, Refernece Point, Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration. Make sure your notes tie these ideas together. Science Fair Research Paper Rough Drafts are due Friday, January 6, 2012. Wednesday, January 4, 2012 – Complete Practice, “Determining Speed, Time and Recommendation Example, Distance.” S.F.
Rough Drafts are due Friday. Thursday, January 5, 2012 – Rough Draft of S.F. Research Paper due TOMORROW. Today’s “Motion Graphs” Powerpoint is uploaded here for your review: Week of December 5, 2011 – December 9, 2011. Monday, December 5, 2011 – Read Chapter 15, Sec 4, “Predicting Weather Change.” Complete Cornell Notes on Sample Of Sale For Car | Notary Letter, the section. Cut-out the Weather Map from the weather section of the newspaper (Chronicle preferred) and bring it to class tomorrow. Tuesday, December 6, 2011 – If you did not bring a weather map yesterday, cut-out the weather map from the newspaper (Chronicle preferred) and bring it to class tomorrow. Wednesday, December 7, 2011 – Complete the 5+ Sample Recommendation - Free, worksheet, “Weather Instruments – What do they Measure?” Begin working on your Final Exam Review. Thursday, December 8, 2911 – Work on your Final Exam Review. Friday, December 9, 2011 – Work on your Final Exam Review.
Week of November 29, 2011 – December 2, 2011: Monday, November 28, 2011 – Complete the “Global Wind Patterns” Activity that we started in Exercise Exercise Activity Log Template Exercise class. Tuesday, November 29, 2011 – Study for your Earth, Ocean and Weather Systems Quiz. PPT uploaded below: Thursday, December 1, 2011 – Read Chapter 14, Sec 4, “Water in the Atmosphere” and complete the Cornell Notes uploaded below:
Friday, December 2, 2011 – Read Chapter 15, Sec 1, “Air Masses and Fronts” and Chapter 15, Sec 2, “Storms” and complete Cornell Notes. FINAL EXAM REVIEW UPLOADED BELOW: Week of November 14, 2011-November 18, 2011: Monday, November 14, 2011: Using the uploaded questions below, take Cornell Notes using the 5+ Sample, 6th grade on-line textbook, Chapter 14, Sec 1 and the 8th grade on-line textbook, Chapter 4, Sec 2. Tuesday, November 15, 2011: Go over your DAC Review to Budget Template | Budget Template prepare for Tenant Recommendation Example, tomorrow’s DAC test. Wednesday, November 16, 2011: Take Cornell Notes on the uploaded questions below using the Resume Format, on-line 6th grade textbook, Chapter 14, Sec 2. Thursday, November 17, 2011: Take Cornell Notes on 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter, the uploaded questions below using the Exercise Exercise Log Template, on-line 6th grade textbook, Chapter 14, Sec 3. Friday, November 18, 2011: None.
Week of November 7, 2011 – November 11, 2011. Monday, November 7, 2011: Complete the 5+ Sample Recommendation Example, contour lines workshet and 5+ Construction, return it Tuesday for a grade. Tuesday, November 8, 2011: Work on your test reviews and begin to study for your unit test on Friday. Wednesday, November 9, 2011: Work on your test eview and study for your test on Friday. Thursday, November 10, 2011: Work on 5+ Sample Tenant Example, your test review and study for your test TOMORROW. Exercise Log Template. Activity Exercise. Return your signed and completed test review for 2 bonus points on the test. Friday, November 11, 2011: None. Week of October 24, 2011 – October 28, 2011. Week of October 17, and Tenant - Free Sample,, BRING BUILDING MATERIALS.
Tuesday, October 18: Work on Research – Audio-Visual Project and BRING BUILDING MATERIALS. Wednesday, October 19: Work on Research – Audio-Visual Project and Lm2000, BRING BUILDING MATERIALS: BUILDING OF THE INTERACTIVE MODEL STARTS TOMORROW. Thursday, October 20, 2011: Work on Recommendation Letter - Free Example, Research- Audio-Visual Project. Format Maker. BRING BUILDING MATERIALS IF YOU HAVE NOT DONE SO ALREADY. Friday, October 21, 2011: None.
Week of October 3, 2011 – October 7, 2011. Monday, October 3: Read Textbook, Chapter 9, Sec 3, pp. 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter - Free. 326-330, “Drifting Continents”. Complete Sec 3 Review Questions, p. 330, #’s 1-4. Lm2000. Read Chapter 9, Sec 4, pp. 331-337, “Sea-Floor Spreading”. Complete Sec 4 Review Questions, p. 337, #’s 1-4. Tuesday, October 4: Read Textbook, Chapter 9, Sec 5, pp. 340-345, “The Theory of Plate Tectonics”.
Complete Sec 5 Review Questions, p. 345, #’s 1-4. Read Chapter 9, Sec 6, pp. 346-353, “Changing Earth’s Surface”. 5+ Sample Tenant Letter Example. Complete Sec 6 Review Questions, p. 353, #’s 1-5. Wednesday, October 5: Activity: “Plate Boundaries and Earth’s Land Features” – Use the “word bank” on Lm2000 Sample, the back of the activity sheet and the uploaded power point below to help you complete this activity.
Thursday, October 6: Activity: Analyzing Earth’s Interior model and Analyzing “Temperatures in the Earth’s Interior” Graph – color the Recommendation Sample, Example, layers of the Earth and Order Form Template | Retail-Resumes, analyze the 5+ Sample Recommendation Sample, Example, temperature graph on the back of the sheet by answering questions 1-8 below the graph. Week of Stock Excel September 26, 2011 – September 30, 2011. Monday, September 26: Worksheet, “What Causes Moon Phases?” TEST FRIDAY OVER SUN, EARTH, MOON SYSTEMS. 5+ Sample Letter Example. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR REVIEW TOMORROW AND IT WILL BE UPLOADED HERE BY TUESDAY. Science Fair Participants: Topics due Thursday for a Grade. Tuesday, September 27, 2011: Read the Resume For Jobs And Resume, 7th Grade textbook, Chapter 9, Sec 2, pp. 309-311, “Eclipses.” Know what the “Umbra” and the “Penumbra” are. Work on the test review. Recommendation Sample, Example. Sun, Earth, moon System test FRIDAY. Science Fair Participants: Topics due Thursday for a Grade. Wednesday, September 28, 2011: Using what you learned from the Compass Learning, “Eclipses” animated video and questions shown in Exercise Activity Exercise Log class today and the 7th grade textbook, pp.309-311, over “Eclipses,” Create a Venn Diagram and Compare and Contrast Solar and Lunar Eclipses.
Due Tomorrow. Recommendation Sample, Example. Work on your test review. For Jobs Maker. Test on Recommendation, Sun, Earth, moon System on FRIDAY. Science Fair Participants: Topics due Thursday for a Grade. Thursday, September 29, 2011: Complete your test review. Sample Of Sale | Notary Letter. TEST TOMORROW ON SUN, EARTH, MOOM SYSTEM! FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 30, 2011: NONE.
Week of Tenant - Free September 19, 2011 – September 23, 2011. Monday, September 19: Read Chapter 8, Sec 5, “History of the Universe.” Take Cornell Notes, pp. 301-304. Complete Sec 5 Review Questions, #’s 1-4, p.304. Tuesday, September 20: STUDY for your unit test over the “Universe” TOMORROW. Don’t forget your signed review. Turn it in for two bonus points the Bill Of Sale For Car Letter, day of the Tenant Recommendation - Free Sample,, test. Wednesday, September 21: NONE.
Thursday, September 22: Read Chapter 14, Sce 2, “Tides and the Lunar Cycle,” p.480-485. Complete the Sec 2 Review Questions, p. 485, #’s 1-5. Exercise Exercise Activity Log Template Log. The “Tides” PPT is uploaded below for 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter Sample, Example, your use when studying: Week of September 12, 2011 – September 16, 2011. Monday, September 12: Read Chapter 8, Sec 2, p. 285-289. Complete the Sec 2 Review Questions, #’s 1-4, p. 289. Tuesday, September 13: Finish your Cornell notes over Sec 3, p. 292-296 if you did not finish in Template Template class and complete the Sec 3 Review Questions 1-5, p. 296.
Universe Unit Test Review Uploaded below: Wednesday, September 14: Read Chapter 8, Sec 4, “Star Systems and Galaxies,” pp. 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter - Free. 297-300. Do Cornell notes over Software Spreadsheet sec 4 and complete Sec 4 Review Questions, #’s 1-4, p. 300. Thursday, September 15: Work on your Universe Test Review. The unit test will be on Wednesday, September 21. Friday, September 16: Work on your Universe Test Review. Recommendation Letter - Free Example. The unit test will be on Wednesday, September 21. Week of September 5, 2011 – September 9, 2011: Monday, September 5, 2011: Labor Day Holiday. Tuesday, September 6, 2011 – Read Chapter 8, Sec 1 of the 8th grade textbook, pp.
274-280. Bill Of Sale | Notary. Complete Sec 1 Review, #’s 1-4, p. Recommendation Sample,. 280. Read Chapter 8, Sec 2, pp. 283-289. Free Stock Software Inventory Spreadsheet. Complete Sec 2 Review, #’s 1-4, p. Tenant - Free. 289. Work on your 2-5-8 Menu Safety Project: Due September 9, 2011. Worksheet, “The Hubble Telescope” uploaded below: Wednesday, September 7, 2011 – Complete the Lm2000, “Emission Spectra” Worksheet if you did not complete it in class.
Uploaded below. Work on your 2-5-8 Menu Safety Project: Due September 9, 2011. Thursday, September 8, 2011 – Complete “Light Year” Worksheet if you did not complete it in class. Uploaded below. Work on your 2-5-8 Menu Safety Project: Due September 9, 2011 (TOMORROW). Friday, September 9, 2011 – No Homework. YOUR 2-5-8 MENU SAFETY PROJECT IS DUE TODAY!
Monday, August 29, 201: Complete the Scientific Method Controls and Variables worksheet. Tuesday, august 30, 2011: Complete “Experimental Design” Wednesday, September 1, 2011: Work on your 2-5-8 Menu Safety Project: Due September 9, 2011. Thursday, September 2, 2011: 1. 5+ Sample Letter - Free. Finish the Format For Jobs And Resume, “Gum Lab” write-up and graph if you did not finish it in class. Letter - Free Example. Due Tomorrow.
2. Work on your 2-5-8 Menu Safety Project: Due September 9, 2011. Friday, September 2, 2011:Work on Exercise Exercise Activity Log Template Log, your 2-5-8 Menu Safety Project: Due September 9, 2011. Friday: You will receive an out-of-class safety project (uploaded here and to 5+ Sample Recommendation - Free Sample, Example gaggle BY FRIDAY). PLEASE PRINT THE PROJECT , CHOOSE THE PIECES THAT YOU WILL DO (MUST ADD UP TO 10 POINTS), AND BEGIN WORKING ON YOUR SAFETY PROJECT. THE DUE DATE IS SEPTEMBER 9, 2011. Thursday, August 25, 2011 – If you have not done so, pelase set up your binders, log on to the on-line textbook and Lm2000, Gizmos, study for Recommendation Sample, Example, your Safety Test tomorrow, return your Mrs. Murchison Letter, (signed acknowledgement portion), and have your parents email by tomorrow so they go on the science distribution list.
Wednesday, August 24, 2011 – Parents should email by Friday so that they are included on the science distribution list. Study for your Safety Test on Friday. Tuesday, August 23, 2011 – The Safety Powerpoint is attached below. Please use it to study for your Safety Test on 11+ Menu Order Form, Friday. Additionally, please return the 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Sample, Example, signed acknowledgement piece from theh Mrs. Exercise Exercise Exercise Log. Murchison Expectations Letter, have your parents email me so I can add them to Letter Sample, my distribution list, and set up your science binder – tab titles are posted – go to the “Posts” page. Wednesday, May 25 and 11+ Menu Template | Retail-Resumes, Thursday, May 26, 2011 – we will be studying The processes of 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free Sample, Mitosis and Meiosis.
You will find a powerpoint below for your use: Additionally, the Lm2000 Reports, attached notes will be completed using the Tenant Recommendation Example, slide show: Week of May 2, 2011- May 6, 2011. Monday – Friday: Water Quality Testing. The assignment for Monday and Tuesday, “Water Quality: Preparing to Test for It” is Resume For Jobs Maker attached below. We will be in Lab 4 on Monday and 5+ Sample Tenant Letter Example, Tuesday to prepare for an authentic field experience on Friday, May 6. We will learn about Water Quality and what impacts it. We will also research the Oyster Creek Watershed, look at maps and Log Template Log, determine what industrial, agricultural, and urban runoff impacts the water quality of the Creek.
We will We will investigate what the “Texas Commisssion on 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample,, Environmental Quality” is doing to improve and maintain water quality in Oyster Creek. Once we have completed our tests and Format Format, analyzed our data, we will revisit the commisssion to 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free Example determine if enough is being done to ensure the Sample Of Sale For Car, quality of Letter Example water in our local waterways like Oyster Creek. Wednesday and Thursday: We will prepare our test kits by reading about Format each test and how to perform it, and by sorting our reagents and gathering equipment. Friday: field Experience. We will start out at a Mexican Restaurant where we will converse in Spanish and end up at Oyster Creek to 5+ Sample Tenant - Free do Water Quality Testing. Reports. What a great day and Tenant Letter - Free Sample, Example, wonderful learning opportunity!
Week of March 28, 2011 – April 1, 2011. Monday – Friday: We will be working on an Ecology project entitled, “Heredity vs Environment.” This is a 2-phase project. First, students will complete research using the Heredity vs Environment Websearch document. They will research traits and/or adaptatons in organisms and determine if heredity , the Log Template. Activity Log, environment, or both played a role in the development of the trait/adaptation. They will research natural selection, look at classic examples of the process and investigate the reasons why organisms become endangered or extinct (both human and natural events). The second part of the project will require groups of 2-3 students to select one of the researched topics and Tenant Letter Sample, Example, create a presentation that will be delivered to the class. The due date for this project will be Tuesday, April 12. Sample Bill Of Sale For Car Letter. Presentations will begin that day. The Websearch Document and the Rubric for the Websearch as well as the Presentation piece are uploaded below: Week of March 7, 2011 – March 11, 2011. Monday: Read Chapter 2, Sec.1, pp.
68-75, Polymers and Composites. Complete Sec 1 Review, p. 75, #1-5. Work on Test Review. Chemistry Test on Wednesday. Review uploaded below: Tuesday: Complete Test Review, have a parent sign it, and turn in on 5+ Sample Letter - Free Sample, Example, Wednesday for 5 bonus points on test. Test Tomorrow. Friday: None. Have a fun and safe Spring Break! Week of Order Form Template | Retail-Resumes February 28 – March 4, 2011.
This week in science we will be in lab doing chemical reactions and learning how to balance chemical equations. Monday: Reach Chapter 1, Sec 4, “Writing Chemical Equations.” do Section Review Questions, p. 53, #’s 1-5. Wednesday: “Counting Atoms” Worksheet. Thursday: “Reading An Equation” and “Balanced Equation or Not” Week of February 14 – February 19, 2011. This week we will work tocomplete our adopt-an element project. An on-line version of the project is below: Week of February 7, 2011 – February 11, 2011.
Monday: Complete the Tenant Letter - Free Example, activity: “Building an Atom” Tuesday: Complete the Lm2000 Sample, “Atomic Structure” Worksheet. Wednesday: Read Chapter 1, Sec 2, “The Periodic Table.” Complete the Sec Review Questions, p. 37, #1-4. Thursday: Read and study the handout, “The Periodic Table of Elements.” Week of January 31, 2011 – February 4, 2011. Lab, “Law and Order” You will use a toy car and Tenant Letter Sample,, ramp and collect and record data to investigate Newton’s Three Laws of Motion. Unit Test: Force/Motion/Energy on Wednesday, Feb 2, 2011. 11+ Menu Order. Review sheet below: Tuesday: You will complete the 5+ Sample - Free Example, lab activity from Monday and work on Resume Format | Resume And Resume Maker, your unit test review as you prepare for the test on 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Example, Wednesday.
Science Fair Participants will set up in the library. Wednesday: Unit Test: Force/Motion/Energy. Sample Bill Of Sale For Car | Notary Letter. SCIENCE FAIR TODAY IN TEH LIBRARY. Tenant Recommendation - Free Sample, Example. Congratulations and Resume For Jobs And Resume Maker, Good Luck to our 21 entries. Thursday: Pre-Test: Chemistry. We begin our chemistry Unit today. Homework: Read Chapter 1, Sec 1 of 8th grade textbook, “Inside an 5+ Sample Tenant - Free Sample, Example Atom” do Section 1 Review, p. 11+ Menu Order Form Template | Retail-Resumes. 28, #1-5. Friday: Activity: Creating a Model Atom – “How Far Away are those Electrons Anyway. ” Week of 12/6/10 – 12/10/10: We will work on 5+ Sample Tenant Letter Sample,, our Weather Scrapbooks everyday this week in class.
On Friday, we will take n Earth’s Oceans and Weather Systems Unit Test and continue working on our Weather Scrapbook. the review for this unit test is uploaded below: The Fall Final Exam is Resume Format For Jobs | Resume And Resume scheduled for next week. 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter Example. You will eceive a review document on Template, Tuesday in Recommendation Letter Example class. I have also uploaded it here for your convenience. an updated Scrapbook Guidelines Packet has also been uploaded below. It contains example tables and charts for weather map analyses and Of Sale For Car, predictions. Week of 11/29/10 – 12/3/10: Monday: The attached Cornell Notes will be completed in the Library using the Tenant - Free Sample,, on-line textbook. Sample Reports. Homework: Complete any notes or summary if not completed in class. BRING WEATHER MAP FOR THURSDAY’S ACTIVITY.
Tuesday: The attached “Hurricane” GIZMO will be completed in Tenant Recommendation Sample, the Library during class. Homework: Please complete at home if not completed in Exercise Activity Log Template Exercise Log class. Due: Wednesday, Dec.1, 2010. BRING WEATHER MAP FOR THURSDAY’S ACTIVITY. Wednesday: Lab: Sling Psychrometer and calculating Humidity. Complete lab write-up for homework if not completed in class. Due: Thursday, Dec.2, 2010.
BRING WEATHER MAP FOR TOMORROW’S ACTIVITY. Thursday, In-Class: Reading a Weather Map Activity. WE WILL ALSO GO OVER AND DISCUSS THE WEATHER SCRAPBOOK PROJECT THAT BEGINS ON FRIDAY: WE WILL USE A CLASS SET OF THE “WEATHER SCRAPBOOK PROJECT GUIDELINES” WHILE WORKING IN CLASS. IF YOU WOULD LIKE YOUR OWN COPY SO THAT YOU CAN WORK AT HOME, PLEASE DOWNLOAD THE FOLLOWING DOCUMENT: THE HURRICANE TRACKING CHART IS ALSO ATTACHED:
Homework: Study for Recommendation Letter - Free, Quiz tomorrow. Friday: Quiz over Exercise Activity Exercise Log “Earth’s Oceans and Weather Systems.” WEATHER SCRAPBOOK: WE WILL BEGIN THIS 5 DAY ASSIGNMENT TODAY AND WILL WORK ON IT IN CLASS THROUGH THURSDAY, DEC. 9, 2010. ALL DOCUMENTS WILL BE UNLOADED BY THURSDAY OF THIS WEEK. PLEASE WORK ON FOR HOMEWORK IF YOU FALL BEHIND. OTHERWISE, THIS IS AN IN-CLASS ASSIGNMENT. Week of 11/15/10 – 11/19/10: Monday: Complete Chapter 14, Sec 3 Review, Questions #1-4.
6th grade on-line textbook. Tuesday: Science Fair Research and Forms Due Friday. Work on your 5 paragraphs and citations. forms listed on 5+ Sample Sample,, your PINK Timeline. forms found on Form Template | Retail-Resumes, Science Fair Page of this website in the uploaded rules and guidelines packet. Wednesday: Complete your “Global Winds Patterns” Activity and turn in Thursday if not completed in class. Thursday: Science Fair Research and Forms Due Friday. Work on 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Example, your 5 paragraphs and citations. TURN IN TOMORROW. Week of 11/8/10 – 11/12/10. Monday: Complete your Cornell Notes after Reading Chapter 14, Sec 1 – 6th grade text on-line – “Energy in the Atmosphere.” Answer these two questions and turn them in on Tuesday:
1. Why is the sky blue? 2. Why are sunsets often red? The following powerpoint has been uploaded for your use to complete your notes and to 11+ Menu Order answer these questions: Tuesday: Finish your lab write-up and graph, Heating the Earth” Turn it in on Wednesday. Wednesday: Read Chapter 14, Sec. 5+ Sample. 2, “Heat Transfer” Thursday: Use the above attached powerpoint to complete your Cornell Notes on Heat Transfer if you did not complete them in class. Friday: Work on your Science Fair Research and 5+ Construction, Science Project Introduction Page that includes your 5 paragraphs of research and MLA Citations. This and forms 1A, 1B, Checklist for Adult Sponsor and Research Plan Instructions are due on Friday, November 19, 2010, for all projects that were not considered special approval projects. Week of 11/01/10 – 11/05/10.
Science Fair Research: Special Approval Forms for 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free Example, “special approval” projects due Wednesday, November 3, 2010. District Deadline! Complete your GIZMOS if you have not done so. As you know, the due date for any unfinished GIZMO’s is Monday, November 1, 2010. Unit Test (open book and notes) on Friday! Science Fair Research. Special Approval Forms for Sample Bill | Notary, special projects due Tomorrow – district deadline. Science Fair Research.
Worksheet, “Lunar Phases” Due: Thursday. Science Fair Research. Study for your Open Book and Notes Unit Test, “Sun, Moon, Earth System” – Test Tomorrow. Science Fair Research. Week of 10/25/10 – 10/29/10. Monday: Read Chapter 14, Sec 2, “Tides and the Lunar Cycle,” PP. 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter. 480-484. Complete the Section Review, p. 485, #’s 1-5. RESEARCH YOUR SCIENCE FAIR TOPIC: DUE WEDNESDAY.
Tuesday: RESEARCH YOUR SCIENCE FAIR TOPIC AND TYPE IT UP (SEE YOUR PINK TIMELINE) DUE TOMORROW! Wednesday: SCIENCE FAIR RESEARCH. Thursday: Read and Review “Eclipses” in the 7th grade on-line textbook, Chapter 9, Sec 2, pp. 309-311. SCIENCE FAIR RESEARCH. Friday: WORK ON SCIENCE FAIR FORMS OVER THE WEEKEND (SEE PINK TIMELINE AND YOUR RULES AND GUIDELINES PACKET – REMEMBER, THESE ITEMS ARE ON-LINE WITH ACCESS TO ON-LINE FORMS ON THE SCIENCE FAIR PAGE OF THIS WEBSITE). Week of 10/18/10 – 10/22/10. Monday: Debrief: The Children’s Museum of Sample Of Sale | Notary Letter “How the Earth Works.” Handout: Test REVIEW – “Earth’s Forces in Recommendation Nature Unit Test” The review for this test is attached below. The test will be on Thursday, October 21, 2010. Return the completed review, signed by a parent or guardian, teh day of the test for 5 bonus points (3 points of completion, 2 points for parent signature). Tuesday and Wednesday: Activity: Faults and Topography.
Students complete a model depicting strike-slip, reverse, and normal faults. Sample Reports. (Chapter 9, pp. Tenant Sample,. 3348-350. Thursday: UNIT TEST: Earth’s Forces in Nature. Friday: Start new unit: Pre- test: Sun, Moon, Earth System. Week of 10/4/10 – 10/8/10. Monday: Finish Audio-Visual Presentation and Exercise Log Template. Activity Log Template Exercise, work on Tri-Board. Tuesday: Finish Audio-Visual Presetnation and Recommendation Letter - Free, work on Tri-Board. Handout – “Review” for Friday’s Quiz. 5+ Construction | Budget Template. The review is 5+ Sample Tenant - Free Sample, uploaded below: Wednesday: Complete Audio-Visual Presentation and Tri-Fold Boards – grade on Thursday.
Thursday: Grade Audio-Visual Presentations and Tri-Fold Boards. Free Software Excel Inventory Template. Start on Interactive Models. Friday: 15 Question Quiz, Chapter 9. Continue working on Interactive Models. Week of 09/27/10 – 10/01/10: Monday: Work on Research/Pictures for Audio-Visual Presentation for Museum Project. UPLOAD TO H:Drive. BRING SUPPLIES FOR MUSEUM MODEL.
Work on Research/Pictures for Audio-Visual Presentation for 5+ Sample Letter - Free Sample, Example, Museum Project. Bill Of Sale | Notary Letter. UPLOAD TO H:Drive. BRING SUPPLIES FOR MUSEUM MODEL. Work on Research/Audio-Visual Presentation for Museum Project. UPLOAD TO H:Drive.
BRING SUPPLIES FOR MUSEUM MODEL. Work on Research/ Audio-Visual Presentation for Tenant Recommendation - Free, Museum Project. UPLOAD TO H:Drive. BRING SUPPLIES FOR MUSEUM MODEL. BRING BUILDING MATERIALS IF YOU HAVE NOT ALREADY DONE SO.
CONSTRUCTION OF OUR MODELS STARTS ON MONDAY, 10/04/10. Audio-Visual Presentation and Tri-Fold Board: Due: October 7, 2010. Interactive Model: Due: October 14, 2010. Week of 09/20/10 – 09/24/10: Monday, 09/20/10: Read Chapter 9, Sec 5 and 6 and complete the section review questions at the end of each section. Due Tuesday. Do the SUMMARY for Resume | Resume, the cornell notes for Chapter 9, Sec. 1, 2, 3, 4 (notes given to 5+ Sample - Free Sample, Example you today in Format | Resume Format class – you need only Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, Example, review them and complete the summary section. Tuesday, 09/21/10: Do the SUMMARY for the cornell notes for Chapter 9, Sec 5 and 6 (notes given to Template | Retail-Resumes you today in class – you need only review them and complete the summary section.
Wednesday, 09/22/10: Work on “Plate Boundaries and Earth’s Landforms Worksheet” Due Friday, 09/24/10. Thursday, 09/23/10: Complete your Museum Analysis, “What Distinguishes A Children’s Museum From Other Museums?” if not completed. Complete “Plate Boundaries and Earth’s Landforms” if not completed. Due: Friday, 09/24/10. Week of 08/30/10 – 09/03/10: Monday, 08/30/10: Read Chapter 8, Sec 1 and 2 of the on-line textbook, “Tools of Modern Astronomy” and “Characteristics of Stars.” Tuesday, 08/31/10: Complete Cornell Notes begun in class for Chapter 1, Sec 1. DUE: WED, 09/01/10. Thursday, 09/02/10: Complete Cornell Notes on 5+ Sample Recommendation - Free Example, Chapter 8, Sec 2, “Characteristics of Stars” DUE: FRI, 09/03/10. Tuesday, 09/07/10: Read and complete Cornell Notes – Chapter 8, Sec 4, “Star Systems and Galaxies” Due: Wednesday, 09/08/10. Wednesday, 09/08/10: Read and complete Cornell Notes – Chapter 8, Sec 5, “History of the Universe.” Due: Thursday, 09/09/10.
Thursday, 09/09/10: Lab Activity: “H-R Diagram” Finish Diagram and Conclusion Questions if not completed in Free Stock Inventory Software Inventory Spreadsheet Template class. Due: Monday, 09/13/10. Week of Tenant Recommendation - Free September 13 – September 17: Monday, September 13, 2010: Big Bang Balloon Activty. Sample Bill For Car. Complete your write-up for homework if you do not finish in 5+ Sample Recommendation - Free class. Due: Tuesday. Tuesday, Septermber 14, 2010: Topographic Map Activity.
Complete the lab write-up for Of Sale, homework if you do not finish in class. 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free Sample, Example. Due: Wednesday. Wednesday, September 15, 2010: FINISH YOUR TEST REVIEW, HAVE IT SIGNED BY A PARENT/GUARDIAN, AND RETURN IT ON THURSDAY FOR 5 BONUS POINTS ON THE TEST. STUDY FOR YOUR “CHARACTERISTICS OF THE UNIVERSE” TEST TOMORROW! Thursday, September 16, 2010: “Characteristics of the Universe” Test. The test review was handed out to students on Thursday, Sept. 9. It has been uploaded below as well. Students receive 5 bonus points on the test for completing the review and 11+ Menu Form, having it signed by 5+ Sample Tenant - Free Example, their parents/guardians and returned the day of the Budget Template, test. Homework Thursday night: Read Chapter 9, Sec 1 and 2. 5+ Sample Letter - Free Example. Complete Sec 1 Review, p. 322, #’s 1-4 and Exercise Activity, Sec 2 Review, p. Tenant Recommendation Sample,. 325, #’s 1-5 on a sheet of notebook paper. Due: Friday.
Friday, September 17, 2010: Read Chapter 9, Sec 3 and 4. Order Form Template. Complete Sec 3 Review, p. 330, #’s 1-4 and Sec 4 Review, p. 337, #’s 1-5 on a sheet of notebook paper. Due: Monday.
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Dec 11, 2017 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, Example,
Analog Circuit Design Engineer Resume. Posted on: 2008-09-12. This button will open the login/register page in a new tab. After logging in, come back to this page and Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Example refresh your browser. Member, The Analog VLSI Lab, The Ohio State University, Columbus. IEEE Student member, Communications, Circuits and Systems Societies. Format For Jobs Format Maker! E-mail: (email hidden) Phone: (phone hidden) Residence: D, Worthington Ave, Columbus, Ohio-, USA Web page : bala.co.nr. 5+ Sample Tenant - Free! Goal- To be a part of Resume | Resume Maker a team of highly motivated designers in 5+ Sample - Free a company that provides excellent learning opportunities and in turn. satisfy the thirst for knowledge. Stock Excel Inventory! Keywords - Analog Circuit Design, VLSI, RF Circuit Design, High Speed Analog to Digital Converters, Phase Locked Loops, VHDL, RTL, Logic Design, Cadence, Layout Design, Clock and Data Recovery, TSMC .um, DNA Classification, bio-technology, image processing..
MASTER OF SCIENCE (M.S.) Aug’ – Dec’ (Expected) • Majoring in Analog VLSI. Pursuing M.S. at Recommendation Sample, Example, The Analog VLSI Lab, The Department of Electrical and Computer. Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA. CGPA: . / (Up to 11+ Menu Order Form Template, quarters; Joined OSU in Fall. ). 5+ Sample Recommendation Example! TOEFL CBT Score: / GRE Score: / (Verbal: /, Quantitative: /, Essay: ./) BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING (B.E.) July’ – May’ • B.E. From Misrimal Navajee Munoth Jain Engineering College, Anna University, Chennai, India.
Rank in the. Department of ECE: th out of Activity Log Template Log students. • Cadence (Virtuoso, Spectre, Analog Design Environment and 5+ Sample Virtuoso Layout Editor), TopSpice. 11+ Menu Order Form! • Advanced Design Systems (ADS) from Agilent for RF Circuit Design. • FPGA system design using Altera Quartus, AHDL, VHDL, Modelsim; RTL and 5+ Sample Tenant gate level design. • Technologies worked on: .um CMOS from TSMC, .um CMOS from TSMC and .um CMOS from NCSU. • Microsoft Windows (., , , ME, XP, Vista) • Macintosh OSX (basic knowledge) • Linux (Ubuntu, Red Hat) RELEVANT COURSE WORK. • Introduction to Lm2000, Analog Integrated Circuits, Introduction to Recommendation Letter Sample,, Digital Signal Processing, Microwave Circuits. Winter’ Jan’ – Mar’ • Low Power Mixed Signal VLSI Design, Microwave Transistor Amplifiers and Oscillators, Digital Logic Lab. 5+ Construction Budget | Budget! Spring’ Apr’ – June’ • Introduction to RF Integrated Circuits, Digital and Mixed Signal VLSI Design, Analog VLSI Design, Seminar on Bio. • Advanced Computer Design. • Thesis: A -bit, Gsps Sub-ranging Flash ADC in .um CMOS with digitally controlled speed and power.
Research Interests Aug’ - Dec’ High Speed Analog to 5+ Sample Letter - Free Sample, Example, Digital Converters, Phase Locked Loops, Bio-Technology, Image Processing. Spreadsheet! Member of the. research group of 5+ Sample The Analog VLSI Laboratory founded and directed by Professor Mohammed Ismail. CURRENT AREAS OF WORK. Flash Analog to Digital Converter: • Developed a High Speed CMOS subranging Flash ADC for UWB applications. stage sub ranging bits . Gsps Flash. consuming mW with digital speed and power setting. Phase Locked Loops: • Developed and optimized the phase locked loop for Bill Of Sale For Car | Notary Letter, a clock and data recovery circuit working at Gbps and a clocking. frequency of GHz in a .um CMOS technology for a Clock and Data Recovery System. IEEE RECOGNISED PUBLICATIONS. • Balasubramanian Sivakumar, Athreya Vydhyanathan, Mohammed Ismail, (), “A . Gsps -bit Stage Pipelined. Flash Analog to Digital Converter for UWB Applications Targeting stage Time Interleaving Architecture”, MNRC. , Ottawa, Canada, October -, . [Also selected at WASET , Venice, Italy; ICACTE , Pukhet, • Balasubramanian Sivakumar, Shankar Thirunakarasu, (), “Current Pumping and Tenant Sample, Example Voltage Pulling, an Application to. Budget Template | Budget Template! a . Gsps Flash ADC”, published at ICACTE , Pukhet, Thailand, December -, . [Also selected at.
WASET , Venice, Italy]. • Balasubramanian Sivakumar, Bharath Anand, Winston Paul, (), “Development of Protocol for Multi-User Wireless. CDMA Computer Network with Variable Data Rate and Dynamic Code Length Allocation in Ad-Hoc Mode”, ICCIMA, Sivakasi, India, Dec -, . • Balasubramanian Sivakumar, (), “Image Encryption Using Infinte Series Convergence”, The International. Conference on Systems Engineering, (ICSENG’), University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA, Aug.-, . • Developed a . GSPS, bit pipelined flash ADC aimed at time interleaved architecture having eight levels of. interleaving, developed layout, performed corner and Monte Carlo simulations. Recommendation Letter - Free! • Constructed a Narrow Band Filter at . Format Maker! GHz, with a bandwidth of MHz, for 5+ Sample Tenant - Free Example, an . filter. • Constructed a Class F Amplifier for a microwave circuit operating at GHz. • Developed the protocol, software(in Matlab) and Order Form Template | Retail-Resumes simulated the hardware(in VHDL) for a wireless computer network. working with symbol synchronous CDMA technology in Ad Hoc mode with dynamic code and code length allocation. for variable data rates for my final year project in under graduate. Tenant Recommendation Letter Sample,! • Constructed a low power, medium range FM signal and speech transmitter for the rd semester mini project in under. | Budget Template! • Image processing in 5+ Sample Recommendation Example medical imaging, to detect fractures, tumors etc. Image encryption through scrambling using an. 11+ Menu | Retail-Resumes! infinite series and its convergence value as an encipher algorithm which was developed. This algorithm produces zero. error decryption. It has a reciprocal key of variable length, depending on image size and user input. It is usually around. bits, i.e. an bit key. • Data compression using polynomial, Gaussian, Bessel function approximations of data and Tenant Recommendation Example positions. These processes. are only very good approximations but not accurate. This method promises to provide a compression ratio such that it. requires only around coefficients in the place of data lengths much larger than .*^. • Author for the Matlab tutorial for Electronz, the ECE department News Letter in MNMJEC. • Author and Log Template. Exercise Log Template Log Judge for the C Coding Challenge in Electronz, the ECE department News Letter in MNMJEC. • Received an invitation to Tenant - Free Sample,, join the International High IQ Society, after securing an Exercise Log Template. Activity Log Template IQ Score of Letter - Free Sample, . Order! • Editor for 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation - Free Sample,, Electronz, the ECE department News Letter in MNMJEC. • Organizer for the LAN games for the ECE department symposium in MNMJEC. • Member of IEEE, member of Circuits and Systems and Communications societies. SUMMER INTERNSHIP Jun’ – Sep’ Summer Internship at The Integrated Systems Lab at Anna University, India worked under Prof.
P.V.Ramakrishna. Worked on optimization of PLLs, Matlab modeling of filters, matching networks for Low Noise Amplifiers and Lm2000 Sample bio-technology. References: Prof. Mohammed Ismail. 2017, Women's Job List LLC.
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Dec 11, 2017 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, Example,
economics aqa essays 1010 N HANCOCK ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19123, USA. Copyright 2017 ghostwritingessays.com. Economics Aqa - Ghost Writing Essays. This Answers book provides answers for the questions asked in the workbook. They are intended as a guide to give teachers and students feedback. The candidate responses supplied here for the longer essay-style questions are intended to give some idea about how the exam questions might be answered.
The examiner commentaries (underlined text) have been added to give you some sense of what is rewarded in the exam and which areas can be developed. Again, these are not the only ways to answer such questions but they can be treated as one way of approaching questions of these types. Topic 1 The firm: objectives, costs and Recommendation Sample,, revenues 1Both private and public companies are privately owned capitalist business enterprises. The difference stems from their ownership. Private companies are owned by private shareholders who can choose the buyer of their shares. Public company shares are listed on the stock market, which means that they have to comply with the rules of the stock market and any member of the public can buy shares in the company. An excess of 11+ Menu Form Template | Retail-Resumes, sales receipts over the spending of a business during a period of time, which can be calculated using the formula: profit = revenue – costs. 3At any level of output, revenue is calculated by multiplying output by the price at which each unit of output is sold. In perfect competition, because it is always possible to increase sales revenue by Recommendation selling more units of output, the revenue-maximising level of output does not exist. In other market structures, including monopoly and oligopoly, marginal revenue falls as more units of the good are sold.
Revenue maximisation occurs at the level f output at which marginal revenue is zero (MR = 0). By contrast, in all market structures, including perfect competition, profit maximisation occurs at the level of output at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost (MR = MC). 4An entrepreneur decides on questions such as how, what, where, how much and when to produce. Entrepreneurs decide how to employ the factors of Sample Reports, production, and Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, Example, they bear the business’s financial risks. In small businesses, the entrepreneur is often the Exercise Log Template Exercise Log founder of the firm, building the business by investing his/her own time and money. The entrepreneur directly manages the business and takes the Recommendation important decisions about its direction and strategy.
5The management could control information and take decisions without the shareholders being able to influence the decision or even being aware of an issue. 6The key difference between the short run and Resume For Jobs And Resume Maker, the long run relates to whether factors of 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation - Free Sample, Example, production are fixed or variable. In the Exercise Activity Log Template Exercise short run, at least one factor of production (usually assumed to be capital) is fixed. Labour is assumed to Letter Example, be variable. In the long run, all factors of production are variable and none is fixed. This question is the obverse of Lm2000 Sample Reports, question 6. A fixed factor of production is 5+ Sample Tenant Letter Sample,, one that cannot be increased in the short run, normally land and capital. A variable factor of For Car, production, normally labour, can be increased in 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, Example, the short run. 8The law of diminishing returns sets in when units of a variable factor of production, such as labour, are added to fixed factors of production. Eventually the extra output (marginal returns) produced by the marginal worker falls to be less than the marginal product of the previous worker added to the labour force. (i)The firm increases the Budget Template | Budget Template scale of production and experiences a more than proportionate increase in output. 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free. (ii)The firm increases the scale of production and Resume For Jobs | Resume And Resume, experiences a proportionate increase in output. (iii)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a less than proportionate increase in 5+ Sample Tenant Example, output. 10 [pic] 11Average variable costs are total variable costs divided by the size of output. Average total costs are total costs divided by 5+ Construction Budget Template the size of output.
A firm’s average total costs can also be calculated by adding its average fixed costs to its average variable costs. 2Technical economies of Recommendation Letter Sample, Example, scale occur when a firm’s production methods benefit significantly from increasing to a larger scale. The productivity increases experienced by a firm in Lm2000, traditional economic theory stem from the 5+ Sample Letter - Free Example larger scale of production allowing for a greater division of labour and 11+ Menu Order Template | Retail-Resumes, improved specialisation. Hence the firm experiences a technical improvement in production and more than proportionate output gains. An example is provided by Henry Ford’s adoption of assembly-line production in 5+ Sample Recommendation - Free, his car factories in the early years of the 20th century. A bulk-buying economy of scale occurs when a firm gets a discount as a result of buying raw materials or capital goods in bulk. For example, a school may be able to Resume Format Format Maker, buy 100 computers at ? 300 each, whereas a single computer would be priced at ? 600. 13(i) If a firm in a perfectly competitive market sets its price above P1, the ruling market price, it will not sell any of its products. This is because its products are identical to those of its competitors, and buyers who possess perfect market information and will buy from the cheaper rival firms selling at the ruling market price. ii) If the firm sets its price below P1 it will sell all of 5+ Sample Recommendation - Free, its output, but it will not be maximising profit.
There is no sense in doing this, given that an infinite number of Format | Resume And Resume, customers are willing to buy the good at 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation the higher price of P1. 14You can understand this question by referring back to the answer to Lm2000 Reports, question 3. As long as marginal revenue is positive (at all levels of output below Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Sample, Example producing and selling more. But when marginal revenue is negative (at all levels of output above Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and selling less. Exam-style answers (essay) 01The laws of diminishing returns and returns to scale are both parts of 5+ Construction Template | Budget Template, production theory. (The law of diminishing returns is also known as the law of diminishing marginal productivity. ) Production theory explains the relationship between inputs into the production process and the output of goods or services that results. The inputs are the services of the factors of production that the firm employs. The basic nature of production is shown in the diagram below. [pic] Production theory divides into short-run production theory and long-run production theory. The law of diminishing returns is a short-run economic law, whereas returns to scale occur in the long run. The law of diminishing returns has the status of an Tenant Example, economic ‘law’, because in 5+ Construction Budget Template | Budget Template, the short run at least one of the factors of Tenant Letter - Free, production (usually assumed to be capital) is held fixed. This means that the only way a firm can increase output in the short run is by Resume Format | Resume Format And Resume adding more variable factors, e. g. labour, to fixed capital. Tenant Recommendation Letter. Eventually, as labour is Exercise Exercise Activity Exercise, added to fixed capital, an extra worker (the marginal worker) gets in Tenant Letter - Free, the way of the already existing labour force and the additional output attributable to the marginal worker begins to fall.
This is when the law of diminishing returns has set in. Returns to scale by contrast occur in the long run when all the factors of production increase. The firm increases its scale or size of operation. If a doubling of all the inputs (factors of production) leads to a less than doubling of output, decreasing returns to scale have set in. (Other possibilities are increasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale. ) To understand the 11+ Menu Order | Retail-Resumes relationship between the law of diminishing returns and Recommendation - Free Sample, Example, short-run cost curves, consider the diagram on the next page. The upper panel of the diagram shows the marginal and average returns (or productivity) of labour. Resume Format | Resume And Resume Maker. Diminishing marginal returns begin at point A. Increasing marginal productivity of labour (or increasing marginal returns) is shown by the positive (or rising) slope of the marginal product curve, while diminishing marginal returns are represented, beyond point A, by the curve’s negative (or falling) slope. But once the law of diminishing returns has set in, short-run marginal costs begin to rise. This is shown by the upward-sloping section of the MC curve in the lower panel of the diagram.
And as soon as MC rises through the average variable cost (AVC) curve (and later the average total cost (ATC) curve), the 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation - Free Example two average cost curves begin to rise. This means that the AVC and the ATC curves are U-shaped. Order. [pic] Just as short-run cost curves are derived from the short-run law of diminishing returns, so long-run cost curves result from the nature of returns to Tenant - Free Sample,, scale. When a firm changes the scale of all the factors of production in the economic long run, it is usual to assume that to start with it benefits from increasing returns to scale but that eventually decreasing returns to scale set in. Given this assumption, the firm’s long-run average cost (LRAC) curve is U-shaped, as shown in the diagram below. However, other assumptions about the impact of returns to scale on Order Template | Retail-Resumes long-run production would lead to different possible shapes of the LRAC curve. [pic] The mark scheme for the first part of an Tenant Letter Example, essay question is ‘issue based’. The mark scheme sets out all the issues deemed to be relevant to the question and indicates the 5+ Construction Budget Template | Budget Template maximum marks that can be awarded for Sample,, each issue. When added up, the total available mark is usually higher than 15 (the maximum mark for the first part of an essay question). When an answer scores more than 15 marks, the actual mark awarded is constrained to the maximum of 15. This is the Lm2000 Sample Reports case with this answer. All four parts of the question are addressed accurately, earning well over 15 marks. The maximum mark of 15 is 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter - Free Sample,, awarded.
02Large firms are sometimes and perhaps often better than small firms, but they are not always better. Sample. The main reason why large firms can be better than small firms stems from the fact that in Recommendation - Free Sample, Example, many industries, e. . mass car production, firms benefit from increasing returns to scale as the size or scale of the Sample firm increases. As the final diagram in the answer to question 01 indicates, increasing returns to scale translate into economies of scale when measured in terms of long-run average costs of production. Economies of scale are defined as falling long-run average costs of production, whereas diseconomies of Letter - Free Sample, Example, scale are rising long-run average costs of production. Increasing returns to scale mean that as plant size increases, a firm can combine its inputs in a technically more efficient way. As a result average costs of production fall.
This means that large firms, particularly in Inventory Software Excel Inventory Spreadsheet, manufacturing, can benefit from technical economies of scale. Many types of plant or machinery are indivisible, in the sense that there is 5+ Sample Example, a certain minimum size below which they cannot operate efficiently. A firm requiring only Exercise Log Template. Exercise, a small level of output must therefore choose between installing plant or machinery that it will be unable to use continuously, or using a different but less efficient method to produce the 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Sample, smaller level of output required. Large firms can also benefit from volume economies of scale. With many types of capital equipment (for example, metal smelters, transport containers, storage tanks and warehouses), costs increase less rapidly than capacity. When a storage tank or boiler is doubled in dimension, its storage capacity actually increases eightfold.
Since heat loss depends on the area of the | Resume Format And Resume Maker container’s walls (which will only have increased fourfold) and not upon volume, a large smelter or boiler is technically more efficient than a small one. Volume economies are thus important in industries such as transport, storage and 5+ Sample Letter Sample,, warehousing, as well as in Lm2000 Sample Reports, metal and chemical industries, where an increase in the scale of plant provides scope for the conservation of heat and energy. When there are substantial economies of scale available to a firm, its LRAC curve will look like the one in Tenant Recommendation Sample, Example, diagram (a) of the following: [pic] When firms can benefit from substantial economies of Format For Jobs And Resume, scale (and economies of large-scale production), this will benefit firms. The gain in productive efficiency achieved from a large scale of operation means that profits will be larger for 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation, large firms than for small firms. However, the opposite will be true if diseconomies of scale set in early on as a firm increases its size. Economies of Exercise Activity Exercise Log, small-scale production (as depicted in diagram (b)) show that small firms producing at Q1 are more productively efficient than large firms. This is Recommendation - Free Example, likely to be the situation in personal service industries such as building customised furniture for clients. A range of other issues are also relevant to this question. Firms may grow large in 11+ Menu | Retail-Resumes, order to exploit the monopoly power that large size often gives to firms. The firms may benefit from monopoly profit, but their consumers suffer from unnecessarily high prices, restricted choice and general consumer exploitation.
The large profit and market power that large firms often enjoy may be used to finance innovation and the benefits of dynamic efficiency which, if passed on to consumers, means that they also benefit. On the other hand, this might not happen; large firms may simply enjoy an easy life, content with a degree of X-inefficiency (unnecessary costs of Tenant Recommendation - Free Sample, Example, production). In conclusion, the answer to the question depends on the assumptions made about whether economies of scale are possible, the 11+ Menu Order Template | Retail-Resumes motives of firms, and the extent to which they can exploit monopoly power to the detriment of consumers. It is Tenant Letter - Free, useful to divide large firms with monopoly power into 11+ Menu Order Form | Retail-Resumes those that are fully unified and technically integrated firms and - Free, those that are not. A fully unified or technically integrated firm is one that grows because it organises production in a productively efficient way in order to reduce average costs and increase profits. If monopoly power results, it is almost by accident. | Notary. Providing it ‘behaves itself’ when large size gives it monopoly power, the firm, consumers and the public interest all benefit.
By contrast, if a firm grows (usually by takeover rather than through organic growth), its main motive may be to exploit consumers. Clearly such firms are not ‘best’. The mark scheme for the second part of an essay question is ‘level of skill based’. Having read the - Free Sample, Example whole answer, the examiner places the answer in one of five levels. These are: • Level 1 — very weak Level 2 — weak with some understanding • Level 3 — reasonable including some correct analysis but very limited evaluation • Level 4 — good analysis but limited evaluation or reasonable analysis and reasonable evaluation • Level 5 — good analysis and good evaluation This answer has been awarded a mark at the top of Stock Inventory Software Inventory, level 4 in the AQA mark scheme. 5+ Sample Tenant Example. The levels descriptors in the mark scheme are used for the second parts of 11+ Menu Form Template | Retail-Resumes, all essay questions (and also all part 03 and 06 context data response questions at A2).
The level 4 descriptor is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 4 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Limited but showing some | |17–21 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free, logical chain of |appreciation of alternative | |(mid-point 19) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning |points of Format | Resume Format Maker, view | | | | |There is Tenant - Free Sample,, good awareness of | | |Good analysis but limited | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | |Some good application to |economic issues | | | | |issues |Largely relevant and well |Reasonable, showing an | |or |Good throughout much of the |Where appropriate, some good|organised with reasonable |appreciation of alternative | |Reasonable analysis and |answer with few errors and |use of data to support |logic and coherence |points of 11+ Menu, view | |reasonable evaluation |weaknesses |answer |There is some awareness of | | | | | |the interrelatedness of | | | | | |economic issues | | The answer displays both good analysis and good evaluation, but does not quite reach level 5. Although analysis of economies and diseconomies of scale is 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample,, excellent, the For Jobs | Resume Format And Resume analysis on monopoly is Letter - Free Sample,, too thin, based on assertion rather than rigorous development and application of economic theory. Stock Software Spreadsheet. Hence the answer is placed at the top of level 4 rather than level 5. Topic 2 Competitive markets 1It is impossible for human beings to possess perfect information about what is happening in a market. With the possible exceptions of currency and share markets, it is unrealistic to assume that all goods and services are identical, uniform or homogeneous. 2Motorists can research similar car models in Sample, Example, trade magazines and on the internet to get a picture of the Sample Bill Of Sale For Car price of cars depending on age, mileage, condition and availability. Letter Sample, Example. 3Whenever marginal revenue exceeds marginal cost (MR gt; MC), selling an extra unit of output always increases total profit. The extra unit adds more to revenue than it does to costs. But whenever marginal revenue is less than marginal cost (MR lt; MC), selling an extra unit of 11+ Menu | Retail-Resumes, output always reduces total profit. The extra unit adds more to costs than it does to revenue. Tenant Example. It follows that only when marginal revenue equals marginal costs (MR = MC) are profits maximised.
Normal profit is the Lm2000 Sample Reports level of profit made by 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, Example a firm that provides just sufficient incentive to stay in the market. As a profit level, it is not high enough to attract new firms into the industry to compete with existing firms, or low enough to force firms out of the market. Supernormal profit is excess profit over and above normal profit. If there are no significant barriers to market entry, supernormal profit will attract new firms to enter the market and compete for Order Form | Retail-Resumes, customers. This should drive prices down until surviving firms make normal profit only. 5When the price of a good is greater than the marginal cost of 5+ Sample - Free, production, the result is allocative inefficiency because the price charged by Bill Of Sale firms will be greater than the cost of making the last unit. This indicates that the firm is over-charging consumers. Hence not enough of the good is demanded and society’s scarce resources are not properly allocated between competing uses. Allocative inefficiency occurs when P gt; MC or P lt; MC.
For any given employment of resources and any initial distribution of income and wealth among the population, total consumer welfare can increase if resources are re-allocated from markets where P lt; MC into those where P gt; MC, until allocative efficiency is achieved when P = MC in all markets. 6Price competition occurs when firms seek to 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter, reduce costs and gain customers by offering products at the lowest possible price. By offering the good at a low price they hope to create an Free Stock Inventory Software Excel Spreadsheet, incentive for the consumer to buy the product. Quality competition is when a firm seeks to sell a product to consumers on the grounds that it is superior quality when compared to Tenant Recommendation - Free Sample, Example, rival products. In this case the firm’s product may be more expensive than rival goods but the Template firm’s business strategy aims to attract consumers by offering better quality, whether this be in design, materials, service and/or build quality. 7The internet breaks down geographical frontiers, which enables buyers and sellers to engage in national and Recommendation Letter - Free, international markets. This has made some markets bigger and helped fulfil the assumption that there are a large number of Budget Template Template, buyers and sellers.
Internet search engines and comparisons have allowed both business and consumers to move closer to the perfect information assumption. Consumers can more easily compare prices and this has helped to increase competition, although human decision making is still bounded by limited time and constraints on the level of detail that comparison websites provide. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Perfect competition is a market that meets all the six conditions that define the market structure. 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free Example. These are: (i) a very large number of buyers and sellers; (ii) each with perfect market information; (iii) each able to buy or sell as much as it wishes at the ruling market price determined in he market as a whole; (iv) individual buyers and sellers unable to influence the ruling market price through their own actions; (v) a uniform or identical product; and Template | Retail-Resumes, (vi) an absence of barriers to entry into and exit from the market in the long run, i. e. complete freedom of entry and exit. A barrier to entry prevents new firms from entering a market. Taken together, these conditions tell us that a perfectly competitive firm, whose AR and MR curves are depicted in panel (a) of the diagram below, faces a perfectly elastic demand curve for its product. The demand curve facing the firm is 5+ Sample, located at Lm2000 Sample the ruling market price, P1, which itself is Recommendation Letter - Free Example, determined through the interaction of market demand and market supply in the market as a whole, which is illustrated in panel (b) of the Bill Of Sale For Car Letter diagram. [pic] The assumption that a perfectly competitive firm can sell whatever quantity it wishes at the ruling market price P1, but that it cannot influence the ruling market price by its own action, means that the firm is a passive price-taker.
Condition (iii) of the conditions of 5+ Sample, perfect competition tells us that a perfectly competitive firm can sell as much as it wishes at Free Stock Software Inventory Spreadsheet Template the market’s ruling price. But, given that it can sell as much as it desires at the market’s ruling price, how much will it actually wish to produce and sell? Providing we assume that each firm’s business objective is solely to maximise profit, the Tenant Example answer is shown in panel (a) of the Exercise Log Template. Activity Log next diagram: [pic] Panel (a) in the diagram above adds the perfectly competitive firm’s average total cost (ATC) curve and its marginal cost (MC) curve to the revenue curves shown in the earlier diagram. Point A in panel (a) (at which MR = MC) locates the profit-maximising level of output Q1. At this level of output, total sales revenue is shown by the area OQ1AP1. Total cost is shown by the area OQ1BC1. Supernormal profits (measured by subtracting the total cost rectangle from the total revenue rectangle) are shown by the shaded area C1BAP1. Referring back again to the list of the conditions of perfect competition, we can see that although firms cannot enter or leave the 5+ Sample Example market in the short run, they can do so in the long run (condition (vi)). Suppose that in the short run, firms make supernormal profit.
In this situation, the ruling market price signals to firms outside the market that an incentive exists for new firms to enter the market. The next diagram shows what might then happen: [pic] Initially, too many new firms enter the market, causing the supply curve to shift to the right to S2 in Exercise Exercise Activity Log, panel (b) of the Tenant Recommendation - Free Example diagram. This causes the price line to fall to P2, which lies below each firm’s ATC curve. When this happens, firms make a loss (or subnormal profit). But just as supernormal profit creates the incentive for new firms to enter the market, subnormal profit provides the incentive for marginal firms to leave the market. In panel (b) the market supply curve shifts to the left and the market price rises. Eventually, long-run equilibrium occurs when firms make normal profit only. Sample Reports. For the market as a whole, this is shown at output Q/// and 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter Sample,, price P3.
This answer is similar to Log Template Exercise, the answer written for the Topic 1 exam-style essay question in that it includes more than enough coverage of issues to earn all the available 15 marks. 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation - Free Sample,. The candidate starts the answer with a list of the conditions of Order Form, perfect competition. 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample,. Weak answers frequently go no further than this. However this answer uses the conditions as prompts for developing the analysis required of a good answer to this question. Further good points are devoting more or less equal space to both the whole market and to Free Software Excel Inventory Template, one firm within the market, and to the use of relevant and accurate diagrams to illustrate the analysis. Example. The maximum 15 marks are awarded. 02In economics the word ‘efficiency’ has several meanings. For example: Technical efficiency.
A production process is technically efficient if it maximises the output produced from the available inputs or factors of Reports, production. Productive efficiency or cost efficiency. To achieve productive efficiency, a firm must use the techniques and factors of 5+ Sample Letter - Free Example, production that are available, at lowest possible cost per unit of output. In the short run, the Stock Inventory Software Inventory Template lowest point on the relevant short-run average total cost curve locates the most productively efficient level of output for the particular scale of operation. 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Example. X-efficiency. 5+ Construction Template Template. This occurs when a firm has eliminated all unnecessary costs of production, which means that it must be producing on and not above its average cost curve. Allocative efficiency.
This occurs when it is impossible to Sample,, improve overall economic welfare by reallocating resources between industries or markets (assuming an initial ‘fairness’ in the distribution of Sample, income and Recommendation Sample, Example, wealth among the population). For resource allocation in the whole economy to be allocatively efficient, price must equal marginal cost (P = MC) in each and every market in the economy. Dynamic efficiency. All the forms of efficiency mentioned above are examples of static efficiency, i. e. efficiency measured at a particular point in time. By contrast, dynamic efficiency measures improvements in Order Form Template | Retail-Resumes, technical and productive efficiency that occur over time. Improvements in dynamic efficiency result from the introduction of better methods of producing existing products (including firms’ ability to benefit to a greater extent from economies of scale), and also from developing and marketing completely new products.
The diagram below shows that a perfectly competitive firm achieves both productive and allocative efficiency in 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter Sample, Example, the long run, but only Software Inventory Spreadsheet, under the assumption that there are no economies of scale. The firm is productively efficient because it produces the optimum output at the lowest point on the ATC curve, and it is allocatively efficient because P = MC. In long run or true equilibrium, a perfectly competitive firm must also be X-efficient. The reason is simple. If the firm is X-inefficient, producing at a level of unit costs above its ATC curve, in the long run the firm could not make normal profits. In a perfectly competitive market, to survive and make normal profits, a firm has to eliminate organisational slack or X-inefficiency. [pic] The first sentence in the previous paragraph asserted that perfect competition is Letter - Free Example, efficient provided there are no economies of scale.
Consider now a situation, shown in the final diagram below, in Budget | Budget Template, which the 5+ Sample Recommendation - Free Sample, market is too small to allow a large number of Stock Inventory Excel Template, firms each to achieve all the economies of scale that are possible. Tenant Recommendation - Free Sample, Example. [pic] For a firm to Format For Jobs | Resume Maker, benefit from economies of scale to the full, and 5+ Sample Recommendation - Free, hence to be productively efficient in the long run as well as in the short run, its short-run cost curve would have to be positioned at SRATCN, or indeed further to the right than this. The problem is that the Sample Bill Of Sale For Car Letter market is too small to allow both full economies of scale and the large number of firms required for perfect competition to be achieved. Long-run productive efficiency requires a monopoly market structure (natural monopoly). By contrast, perfect competition requires each of a very large number of firms to be producing on a short-run average cost curve such as SRATC1. Tenant Recommendation Sample, Example. On such a curve, the perfectly competitive firm is indeed productively efficient in the sense that it achieves short-run productive efficiency, but it is producing way below the level of output that is productively efficient in Free Stock Software, the long run when scale economies are benefited from to the full. In conclusion, a perfectly competitive firm can be efficient when judged against the criteria of productive, X, and allocative efficiency, but only in the short run. Unlike a monopoly, a perfectly competitive firm cannot achieve long-run productive efficiency through the pursuit of economies of scale. Finally there is Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Example, another argument, so far not considered, which may mean that perfectly competitive firms fail to produce the allocatively efficient level of output. True allocative efficiency requires that the price charged for a good by a firm should equal the marginal social cost of production and not the marginal private cost incurred by the firm, i. e. P = MSC and not P = MPC.
This means that when externalities, negative or positive, are generated in the course of production, a perfectly competitive firm will not produce an allocatively efficient level of output. Nor will the whole market. This is Order Form Template | Retail-Resumes, clearly a level 5 answer which earns full marks. The level descriptors for level 5 are: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of - Free, economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 5 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Good with a clear final | |22–25 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of |judgement | |(mid-point 24) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning | | | | | |There is good awareness of Format Maker, | | |Good analysis and good | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | | |economic issues | | The question focuses solely on efficiency criteria and not on welfare criteria, namely the consumer surplus members of Tenant Letter, households enjoy in perfectly competitive markets. Pleasingly, the answer starts with relevant definitions but while a couple of marks are available for definitions, this list is really too long. Note that the concept of X-efficiency is not in the Unit 3 specification, though good answers frequently make use of the concept. 5+ Construction Template. Topic 3 Concentrated markets Water companies such as Thames Water are pure monopolies in the supply of tap water since their customers have no other companies from which they can buy tap water. The supermarket industry is oligopolistic because over 90% of market share is controlled by four large firms. 2The John Lewis Partnership is a firm that has grown primarily through organic growth.
Halifax Bank of Scotland (HBOS), which is now owned by Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, Example the Lloyds Banking Group, is a firm that primarily grew through takeover and merger. 3British Gas and Thames Water. Natural monopoly occurs when there is only room in the market for one firm benefiting to the full from For Jobs | Resume, economies of Tenant Example, scale. In the past, utility industries such as water, gas, electricity and Lm2000 Sample Reports, the telephone industries were regarded as natural monopolies. 5+ Sample Recommendation - Free. Because of the nature of their product, utility industries experience a particular marketing problem. The industries produce a service that is delivered through a distribution network or grid of pipes and 5+ Construction Budget Template | Budget Template, cables into Tenant Letter - Free Sample, Example millions of separate businesses and homes. Competition in the provision of distribution grids is extremely wasteful, since it requires the duplication of For Jobs | Resume Maker, fixed capacity, therefore causing each supplier to incur unnecessarily high fixed costs.
Until quite recently, utility industries were generally monopolies. High barriers to entry prevent new firms from entering the market and competing for profits with the monopoly. Barriers to entry will often take the form of high sunk costs, i. e. billions of pounds of capital investment which enable the firm to operate at the bottom of the long-run average cost (LRAC) curve. Monopoly firms can also be protected by legal restrictions imposed by the government. For many decades, but no longer today, the Royal Mail enjoyed a privileged position in the delivery of mail.
Patent and copyright law protects intellectual property rights. Tenant Recommendation. 5A cartel or price ring is an informal agreement between firms in a market to keep prices artificially high. This allows firms to exert monopoly power through collusion and Order Template | Retail-Resumes, make supernormal profits by overcharging consumers. This allows poorly managed and inefficient firms to continue to Letter - Free Example, make profits and deprives consumers of the lower prices that could be offered by more efficient firms that have more innovative production methods and Free Excel, are less wasteful. Under UK, EU and US law, cartels are often illegal and can be punished with large fines and, in the USA, by imprisonment of 5+ Sample Tenant Letter Example, company directors. Cartels can, however, provide benefits to the public.
If a cartel can protect firms from the 5+ Construction Budget Template pressures of competition and allow firms to invest in research and development to invent new products, it can be extremely beneficial to the public. Large pharmaceutical companies, for example, have argued that pricing agreements have allowed them to raise finance to invest in expensive scientific research and drug development which they could not do if they were constantly fighting aggressive price wars with rivals. 5+ Sample Sample,. 6Cartels are usually illegal because their behaviour results in higher prices for consumers and 11+ Menu Order, they allow members of the 5+ Sample Tenant - Free Sample, cartel to operate inefficiently. Lm2000 Sample Reports. In the case of the 5+ Sample Sample, cement industry cartel broken up by the European Union competition authorities, firms were able to charge customers artificially high prices for Sample Bill For Car | Notary, cement, which pushed up the costs of production for the construction and building industry. This meant that government contractors had to spend more of their taxpayers’ money to purchase cement for investment projects such as school buildings, hospitals and roads. Private sector companies also had to pass on higher prices to businesses and households, which depleted levels of 5+ Sample - Free Sample,, household disposable income and reduced households’ ability to spend on other goods and Format Maker, services. Most cartel members benefited significantly from the supernormal profits they made. Managers and the owners of the businesses would have benefited, but not the general public. Furthermore, the supernormal profit did not encourage managers to 5+ Sample Recommendation - Free Sample, Example, look for efficiency savings, invent new products or innovate new production methods. As a result, prices remained high as consumers paid too much for products. These market distortions resulted in consumers facing wrong prices signals, which in turn led to a misallocation of scarce resources.
7In the original ‘prisoner’s dilemma’, two prisoners are jointly charged with a serious crime such as armed robbery and are held in isolation from each other. The prosecutor, hoping to have his task simplified, knows that a confession from one will convict the other, but he also knows that the Stock Software Excel Spreadsheet Template available evidence is insufficient to ensure a conviction. If both prisoners plead not guilty, they are likely to go free. Hoping to ensure two guilty pleas, the Tenant Recommendation - Free Sample, Example prosecutor visits each prisoner in Sample Bill, his cell and Letter Example, offers a deal. The prosecutor informs each prisoner that he will receive one of two possible outcomes, depending on how he pleads: (i) if both prisoners plead guilty, each will go to prison for one year; and (ii) if one prisoner pleads guilty and the other not guilty, the prisoner pleading guilty will be freed and receive a reward — if he gives evidence to convict the Stock Inventory Software other prisoner — whilst the other prisoner gets a five-year jail sentence.
Each prisoner faces the 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter dilemma that if he pleads not guilty but the other prisoner pleads guilty and shops him, he will get the worse possible outcome, namely being banged up for five years. Shuddering at this possibility, both prisoners plead guilty and get the second best outcome: one year in jail. Lm2000 Reports. However, the best outcome for each prisoner, namely going free and possibly earning a reward, is not achieved. The prisoner’s dilemma scenario can be used to model the behaviour of competitive duopolists, for example those in the arms industry. A British and a French company are competing to secure an arms deal to 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free Sample, Example, sell a billion pounds’ worth of weapons to Iraq. By paying bribes of $100 million to government ministers in Iraq, the British company believes it will get the whole deal. However, earning ? 1 billion depends on 11+ Menu Order | Retail-Resumes the actions of the French company, the Tenant Recommendation Letter Example only other likely supplier of the arms. If both companies bribe Iraqi ministers, the deal is likely to be shared between the two suppliers. The British company’s profits will then be much less than if it alone pays bribes and gets all the business. The chief executive officer of the British company thinks it a pity to For Jobs Format And Resume Maker, pay out $100 million, but if they did not and the French company did, the French would get all the business and Tenant Letter Example, the UK company would make zero profit. In the absence of collusion, there are two strategies available to each firm: (a)Pay the bribe, while the other firm does not bribe.
Outcome: (i)for the firm paying the bribe: a net income of $900 million (ii)for the firm refusing to bribe: nothing (b)Both pay the bribe. Outcome: The sale is shared: each firm nets $400 million. Sample Bill For Car. To avoid losing all the business and 5+ Sample Recommendation Sample,, making zero profit, both rivals decide to pay the bribe. 5+ Construction. In this scenario, paying the bribe is each firm’s dominant strategy, i. e. the strategy to 5+ Sample Sample,, be pursued whatever rival firms do. Paying the bribe makes the British company better off, whatever the French do, and vice versa. 8When natural barriers to Template | Retail-Resumes, market entry are low or non-existent, incumbent firms (i. e. firms already in the market) may set low prices, known as limit prices, to deter new firms from entering the market. Incumbent firms do this because they fear increased competition and loss of Tenant Sample,, market power. With limit pricing, firms already in the market sacrifice short-run profit maximisation in Log Template. Exercise Log Template Exercise, order to 5+ Sample Sample, Example, maximise long-run profits, achieved through deterring the entry of Budget Template Template, new firms. By contrast, predatory pricing occurs when a firm cuts the 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, Example price of Inventory Software Spreadsheet Template, its product to a loss-making level in order to Letter - Free Sample,, force a rival firm out of business. This strategy is normally used by large firms that can subsidise losses using profits from another part of their business empire to force smaller rivals out Free Stock Excel Inventory Template of the 5+ Sample Letter - Free Sample, Example market. 9Firms undertake price discrimination in order to maximise profits.
This arises when different customers have different elasticities of demand at different prices. If one customer has a highly inelastic demand and another an elastic demand, the firm will be able to sell them the same product but at Sample different prices. Train companies will typically price discriminate by Recommendation Sample, charging different fares to different customers and also varying the Budget Template | Budget Template price of 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, Example, a ticket at Free Inventory Software Excel Inventory Spreadsheet different times of the day to send price signals and 5+ Sample Tenant Sample, Example, create incentives and disincentives to travel. Price discrimination occurs when firms charge different prices to different customers based on differences in the customers’ ability and willingness to pay. Those customers who are prepared to pay more are charged a higher price than those who are only willing to pay a lower price. Price discrimination allows firms to increase profit by Reports taking consumer surplus away from consumers and converting it into extra monopoly profit or supernormal profit. Providing the increase in sales revenue resulting from price discrimination is greater than the extra costs incurred when charging different prices to Tenant Recommendation Letter, different customers, it is in firms’ interest to indulge in this form of pricing.
10The gamer’s consumer surplus is ? 0, being the Free Inventory Inventory Template difference between the maximum price he was prepared to Sample,, pay and the actual price he paid. The store owner’s producer surplus is ? 2, being the Lm2000 Sample Reports difference between the lowest price he was prepared to 5+ Sample Recommendation Sample, Example, accept and the actual price paid. 11Expensive capital equipment and Budget, sunk costs, and patent and copyright laws. 12A patent is the legal protection given to an inventor or producer which grants exclusive rights to a product for up to 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free, 20 years. This legal protection allows firms to make supernormal profits because they are effectively monopoly producers. For Jobs | Resume Format Maker. Patent protection creates a strong incentive for firms to invent new products and create new technologies or pharmaceutical products which significantly improve social welfare.
Thus patent protection drives dynamic efficiency. Invention and Tenant Letter - Free Sample, Example, new product design frequently require high levels of research and development which burden firms with significant sunk costs and risk bankruptcy if the Budget Template new product fails. Hence the incentive of making supernormal profits over a 20-year period encourages firms to invent, seek dynamic efficiencies and take risks. Exam-style answers (data response) Competition and 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free, monopoly in the EU airline industry 01Air France enjoys a domestic market share of 80%, whereas the | Budget domestic market share of Flybe is 5+ Sample Recommendation - Free Sample,, just under 30%. There is thus a difference of just over 50% between the domestic market shares of the two airlines. A significant feature of the data is that only one airline, SAS, leads the domestic market in more than one country. SAS’s market share in Budget, Norway is about 43% while its market share in Sweden is about 37%. The first part of the context data response question in Letter, ECON 3 and in ECON4 will usually be in two parts. The first part requires a calculation (often a percentage calculation). The second part asks for identification of one other significant point of comparison, or in this question where there is only one data series in 11+ Menu | Retail-Resumes, Extract A, one other significant feature of the data.
Some future exam papers may revert to asking for two significant points of comparison (or features), without a preliminary calculation. For this question, the answer picks up 3 marks for the calculation and 3 marks for identifying a significant feature in the data, constrained to the maximum mark of 5 available for Recommendation Letter - Free Example, the question. | Resume And Resume. 02The term ‘monopoly power’ does not mean quite the 5+ Sample Letter - Free Sample, Example same thing as monopoly. Whereas pure monopoly occurs when there is only one firm in the market, monopoly power exists even when pure monopoly does not. The term applies to a situation in which firms within the market possess the power to Budget | Budget, reduce output, raise the price, and make supernormal profit. By using strategies such as product design, brand imaging, persuasive advertising and protecting themselves through patents, firms can exercise a degree of monopoly power even when there are many firms in the market. Although Air France is not a pure monopoly in the French market, it may be a monopoly for flights between particular airports. In any case, even when not a pure monopoly, Air France possesses a large amount of monopoly power which it may choose to exercise.
As the diagram below shows, on Tenant Recommendation Example routes where its monopoly power is complete, it may hike up the price it charges to P2, compared to a competitive market price of P1. It does this by Sample Reports restricting the number of 5+ Sample Recommendation Example, flights to F2, compared to F1, which would be the number of flights if the For Jobs And Resume market were perfectly competitive. [pic] In the latter case, market equilibrium would be determined at 5+ Sample Tenant - Free Sample, Example point A on the diagram. But when Air France acts as a pure monopoly, point B (where MR = MC) determines the level of output, with Air France then able to Template | Budget Template, charge a price of P2. Air France could also use its monopoly power in other ways. 5+ Sample - Free Example. The airline could indulge in price discrimination, charging higher prices to customers who are prepared to pay more for a flight. Resume For Jobs Format And Resume. Alternatively, and presumably requiring the support of the French government, Air France might charge limit prices or even predatory prices. A limit price is a price set deliberately low to discourage competitor airlines from entering the market.
A predatory price is set even lower, below average costs, with the intention of driving rival airlines that have dared to enter the market, out of the Recommendation market. However, perhaps the main way Air France might exercise its monopoly power is by gaining control of landing and take-off slots at French airports, to make it uneconomic or impossible for 5+ Construction Budget Template | Budget, rivals to use the Example airports. As with the first part of context data response question, in ECON 3 and in Sample Bill For Car Letter, ECON4 the second part of the question divides into two parts. The first part (worth 4 marks) asks candidates to 5+ Sample Letter Example, explain the meaning of an Resume Format For Jobs Maker, economic term (in this case ‘monopoly power’). The follow-on part (worth 6 marks) tests the more demanding skill of economic analysis. An answer is constrained to a maximum of 6 marks if only the explanation or analysis is attempted. This answer is 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter, more than sufficient to Activity Log, earn all 10 marks. In fact, the candidate is in danger of spending too much time on an 02 question, which would leave too little time to develop an answer to the last part of the question. 03A cartel is a collusive agreement by firms, usually to 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free Example, fix prices. Sometimes output may also be fixed.
In the diagram below, five firms jointly agree to charge a price to keep firm E, which is the least efficient firm, in the market. In a competitive market, firm E would have to reduce costs or go out of business. Cartel agreements therefore enable inefficient firms to stay in business, while other more efficient members of the price ring enjoy supernormal or monopoly profit. By protecting the 11+ Menu Order Form inefficient and enabling firms to enjoy an easy life protected from competition, cartels display the disadvantages of monopoly (high prices and restriction of choice) without the benefits that monopoly can sometimes bring, namely economies of scale and Tenant Example, improvements in dynamic efficiency. Although cartels can achieve a better outcome for all firms concerned, they are not likely to 5+ Construction Budget | Budget Template, be good for the consumer.
For this reason, cartel agreements are usually illegal and judged by governments as being anti-competitive and against the public interest. Nevertheless, some forms of cooperation or collusion between oligopolistic firms may be justifiable and in the public interest. These include joint product development and cooperation to improve health and safety within the 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, industry, or to 5+ Construction, ensure that product and labour standards are maintained. Such examples of 5+ Sample Recommendation - Free Sample,, industry collaboration are normally deemed to be good, in contrast to price collusion, which is regarded as bad. [pic] Currently, within the European Union, cartels are usually deemed to Stock Excel Inventory Spreadsheet, be illegal, both by national competition authorities such as the Competition Commission in the UK, and by EU competition policy. In both national and 5+ Sample Tenant, EU competition policy, a cartel agreement is treated as an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice, collectively undertaken by the member firms of the cartel. Within the UK, the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) can refer collective restrictive agreements and Free Stock Inventory Software Inventory Spreadsheet, practices to a court of Tenant Letter Sample,, law, the Restrictive Practice Court (RPC). Exercise Log Template. Exercise Activity Log. Arguably, policy towards collective restrictive practices is more effective than other aspects of competition policy because a court enforces the 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation policy. A firm that ignores an RPC ruling may be found guilty of contempt and fined. Nevertheless, the punishments that the RPC can hand out are quite weak — usually a fine of Exercise, just a few thousand pounds.
Restrictive trading practice policy would be much more effective if fines of millions rather than thousands of pounds were imposed, and if the authorities were given more power to detect secretive collusive agreements. European Union competition policy, including policy aimed at cartels, is based on the principle of subsidiarity. This principle means that EU policy is 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Sample,, activated only when firms operating within the EU adversely affect or distort trade between EU member states. Thus a cartel agreement between a number of (probably small) UK companies, operating solely within the UK and not competing with firms from other EU countries, would not attract the Resume And Resume attention of the Tenant Letter Sample, Example EU Competition Commissioner, who is in Free Stock Software Spreadsheet Template, charge of EU competition policy. In practice, EU and Tenant Recommendation - Free Example, national competition authorities complement each other and should not be regarded as alternatives. It is Bill For Car | Notary, also the Tenant Letter Sample, Example case that the EU Competition Commissioner imposes heavier fines and more draconian punishments on firms found to be operating anti-competitive cartel agreements, than do strictly national competition authorities. This is evidenced by the case study in Extract C in Log Template. Exercise Exercise, the question. The case study reported that the EU fined 11 national airlines about ˆ800 million for fixing the price of air cargo between 1999 and 2006. British Airways was fined ˆ104 million, Air France-KLM ˆ340 million and Cargolux Airlines ˆ79.
9 million. The case study also draws attention to the fact that because cartel agreements are usually hidden, they are often exposed by 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, a dissatisfied member of the cartel ‘blowing the whistle’ on other cartel members. Budget | Budget. Whistle blowers usually get off scot-free (to incentivise whistle blowing in other, as yet unexposed, cartels). Meanwhile, the 5+ Sample Recommendation other cartel members are heavily punished. In conclusion, therefore, I take issue with the word ‘solely’ in the question. National and EU policy should reinforce each other and be treated as complements, rather than as substitute policy options. Perhaps a little harshly, this answer is placed at the top of level 4 (17–21 marks) rather than in level 5. The evaluation is certainly good enough for level 5. However, the analysis is on the thin side. To ensure a level 5 mark, the candidate could have included theory (for example the theory of joint profit maximisation) to analyse how price rings can allow all the colluding firms to enjoy monopoly profit. Often the final part of a data-response question or an essay question contains a word such as must, always, inevitably, or in this case solely. 11+ Menu | Retail-Resumes. Good candidates (such as this one) pick up on these words, arguing (in this case) that EU and UK competition authorities should complement each other and not be seen as alternatives to each other. This is good evaluation.
Topic 4 The labour market 1When households increase demand for goods and services, firms respond by employing more labour to increase production. Workers are demanded, not for the utility or pleasure their employment gives to employers, but because their labour is necessary for profits to be made when the goods or services that workers help to produce are sold. Perfect competition in the labour market is 5+ Sample Letter - Free Example, both similar to, and different from, perfect competition in the goods market. Order Template | Retail-Resumes. In both markets, the ruling market price is set in the market as a whole through the interaction of all the economic agents operating in the market. 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, Example. However, in a labour market, the ruling market price is in fact the ruling market wage, paid by firms and received by 11+ Menu Form | Retail-Resumes workers. This difference illustrates role reversal in the two sets of markets. Households, which are the source of Tenant Letter Sample, Example, demand in the goods market, are the source of supply of labour in the labour market. Similarly, firms, which are the source of supply in the goods market, are the source of demand (a derived demand) in 11+ Menu Form Template, the labour market.
As a result of role reversal, the ruling market price facing each firm in the goods market is its perfectly elastic demand curve for labour, and also the AR and MR curve facing each firm. By contrast, the ruling market wage facing each employer in Sample,, the labour market is a perfectly elastic supply curve of 5+ Construction | Budget Template, labour, and also the average cost of labour (ACL) curve and the marginal cost of labour (MCL) curve facing each employer. 3Transport for London (TFL) bargains collectively with ASLEF, the 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Sample, Example train drivers’ union, and with RMT, the National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers. The energy company EDF also bargains collectively with its workers’ unions. In 1999, the national minimum wage (NMW) came into Lm2000 Sample force in the UK at a rate of ? 3. 60 an hour for workers aged 22 and over. 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free Sample, Example. The current rates (from 1 October 2012) are: ? 6. 19, the main rate for workers aged 21 and over; ? 4. 5+ Construction Budget Template Template. 98, the 5+ Sample Recommendation - Free Sample, Example 18–20 rate; ? 3. Software Inventory Template. 68, the 16–17 rate for workers above school leaving age but under 18; ? 2. 65, the apprentice rate, for apprentices under 19 or 19 or over and in the first year of their apprenticeship. 5(i)Income is an economic flow; it is the payments received by an individual or household in a given time period. 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter - Free Example. Wealth is an economic stock; it is the Stock Template accumulated assets, property and savings owned by an individual or household over time. ii)Welfare benefits are payments transferred to an individual or household by the government via the taxation and social security system, without labour or a factor service being supplied. Tenant Recommendation. Earned income is payments received by an individual or household in exchange for Sample Bill | Notary, labour or interest on saving or the rent of an asset. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Income is a flow while wealth is a stock.
Personal wealth is the stock, or historical accumulation, of everything people own, which has value. By contrast, income is the Letter - Free Example flow of money received hourly, weekly, monthly or annually, some of which (the part saved) can add to or enlarge personal wealth. This is one of the Budget Template | Budget Template links between income and wealth. A second link operates in the opposite 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter Example, direction: the wealthier people are, the more investment income they are likely to earn, which adds to Activity Log Template, their total income. Indeed, the rich benefit from a virtuous circle: wealth increases income, which allows the wealthy to save, and saving adds to wealth, and so on. 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation. By contrast, many of the poor suffer a vicious circle: low income means the poor have to borrow, borrowing adds to Exercise Exercise Log Template Exercise Log, personal debt, income is then spent on debt repayment, consumption falls, and Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, Example, any wealth the poor possess disappears. 11+ Menu Order | Retail-Resumes. As in other countries, income and wealth have always been unequally distributed in the UK. Even when economic growth creates full employment, the incomes of the rich tend to increase faster than those of the Tenant - Free Sample, Example poor. Three of the main causes of inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth in the UK are old age, unemployment, and the low wages of many of those in work.
Old age causes income inequality (and also poverty) largely because many old people rely on the state pension and lack a private pension. Before the early 1980s, the state pension rose each year in line with average earnings. This meant that pensioners, albeit from Reports, a lower base, shared in the increase in national prosperity delivered by economic growth and higher real earnings. However, since the early 1980s, the state pension rose first in line with the retail prices index (RPI) (and latterly in line with the consumer prices index (CPI)), rather than with average earnings. This has kept the real value or purchasing power of the state pension at or near its early-1980s level, while the real earnings of those in work have continued to rise. Pensioners reliant solely on the state for a source of 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample,, income have especially suffered.
The state pension is now regarded very much as a ‘poverty income’. Even though the state pension is index-linked to the CPI, its real value has fallen because the cost of living of the elderly rises by more than any increase in the CPI. Unemployment benefits are also now linked to the CPI and, for similar reasons as apply to the state pension, have fallen behind average earnings. Until quite recently, even if unemployment remained the same, increases in the incomes of the unemployed generally fell below increases in the incomes of those in work. However, since 2008, unemployment has risen rapidly and stands above two and | Budget, a half million. This means that more people suffer from low incomes (just as people living longer adds to the number of Sample, Example, pensioners on low incomes). Free Stock Software Excel Spreadsheet Template. (Before moving on to explain how low wages increase income inequalities, it should be stated that recent events have partially offset the Tenant Recommendation - Free conclusions drawn in the previous paragraphs. Since 2009, the wages and salaries of much of the UK population in Template | Retail-Resumes, work have hardly changed at all, but the state pension and 5+ Sample - Free Example, unemployment benefits have risen by rather more, albeit from a lower starting point. At the same time, because of a series of crises in private pension provision, many people approaching retirement age who had been looking forward to receiving substantial private pensions are now expecting much lower private pensions. ) Moving on to low pay as a cause of widening income differentials, an important factor has been the disappearance of middle-ranking jobs in the private sector. Order Template | Retail-Resumes. An example is in engineering, where skilled jobs have simply disappeared. Many of these jobs have moved overseas, leaving a vacuum in the British labour market.
There is now a worrying gap between low-skilled, low-paid jobs (so called McJobs) at the bottom of the pile, and highly-paid jobs in industries such as investment banking where the rate of Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, Example, pay has risen astronomically in recent years, in Lm2000 Sample Reports, both real and nominal terms. 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free Sample,. This answer scores 14 out of the 15 marks available. It earns the two marks available for definitions. (Because definitions pick up marks, it is | Retail-Resumes, always a good idea to provide two relevant definitions in Tenant - Free Sample, Example, the answer to the first part of an essay question, or to the second part of Exercise Log Template. Log Template, a context data-response question). The candidate lists and then explains three causes of income inequality. The effects of old age and Tenant Letter - Free Sample,, unemployment are explained well. The final explanation of the effect of low wages is sound but a little thin.
It would have benefited from graphical analysis, showing for example that the widening difference between high and low wages is partially caused by different demand and supply conditions in different labour markets: [pic] 2A tax is Sample Letter, progressive if, as income rises, a greater proportion of income is paid in tax. A transfer is the payment of income by the state to a benefit recipient, without the Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, person involved providing any labour in exchange for the income received. It is of course possible for the government to use progressive taxation to narrow the gap between pre-tax and post-tax income, without redistributing income. Exercise Activity Log. The tax revenue could for example be spent on tanks and guns. It is also possible for the tax revenue raised from progressive taxation to be given back to the better-off, for example through subsidies given to 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter, already-rich farmers or by giving gentrification grants to people on high incomes to spend on improving their houses. However, usually when we think of progressive taxation and transfers, the implicit assumption is that the rich are taxed more than the poor and that much of the tax revenue is Lm2000 Reports, transferred and given as welfare benefits to 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free, the poor. There is no doubt that progressive taxation and Sample, transfers provide an obvious way to reduce inequalities in the distribution of 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free Sample,, income and wealth. | Resume Format And Resume. Before 1979, UK governments of all political complexions used progressive taxation and a policy of transfers of income to the less well-off, in a deliberate attempt — with some success — to reduce inequalities in the distribution of income. However, there is a major problem involved if only progressive taxation and transfers are used with this aim in 5+ Sample Tenant Letter Sample, Example, mind.
The reason for this relates to the conflict between two of the principles or canons of Format For Jobs | Resume, taxation: equity and efficiency. Equity means that a tax system should be fair, although, of course, there may be different and 5+ Sample Tenant Sample, Example, possibly conflicting interpretations of Exercise Log Template. Exercise Activity Log Template Log, what is fair or equitable. Specifically, a particular tax should be based on the taxpayer’s ability to pay. This principle is one of the justifications of progressive taxation, since the rich have a greater ability to pay than the poor. Efficiency means that a tax should achieve its intended aim or aims with minimum undesired distortion or side-effects. Arguably, the high income-tax rates that are necessary to make the tax system progressive have an adverse effect on personal incentives. In particular, they may reduce the incentives to work harder, to be entrepreneurial and to take financial risks.
Free-market and supply-side economists believe these disincentive effects lead to a significant slowing down of the Tenant Recommendation - Free Example economy’s rate of Free Software Excel Spreadsheet, growth. The economy ends up being more equal, but poorer overall when compared with competitor countries. Supply-side economists believe that greater incentives for work and enterprise are necessary in order to increase the UK’s growth rate. For free-market economists and politicians, progressive taxation and Tenant - Free Sample,, transfers to Resume For Jobs And Resume, the poor mean that people have less incentive to work harder and to engage in entrepreneurial risk. Moreover, the ease with which the poor can claim welfare benefits and the level at which they are available creates a situation in 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter Sample, Example, which the poor rationally choose unemployment and state benefits in preference to low wages and Lm2000 Sample Reports, work. In this so-called dependency culture, the unwaged are effectively ‘married to the state’, but some of the poor, obviously not enjoying this marriage, drift into 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free Example antisocial behaviour, attacking bus shelters and other public property, as well as privately owned property.
Meanwhile, at the top of the income pyramid, the high marginal rates of Template, taxation, which form a large part of progressive taxation, are a disincentive to the better-off. Tenant Recommendation Example. They stop working, or work abroad, and Exercise Exercise Activity Log Template, many hours are wasted in Recommendation Letter Example, designing and applying complicated systems of tax avoidance — a paradise for accountants. Exercise Log Template. Exercise. Tax evasion (the failure to pay legally due taxes) also proliferates, both at the top and 5+ Sample Letter - Free Example, bottom of the For Car | Notary income pyramid. Illegal tax evasion leads to the growth of the so-called black economy and to activities such as smuggling. Supply-side economists believe that tax and benefit cuts, which are the opposite of progressive taxation and transfers, alter the labour/leisure choice in favour of supplying labour, particularly for 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter Sample, Example, benefit claimants who lack the Resume | Resume And Resume Maker skills necessary for high-paid jobs. They also believe that to 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Sample, Example, make everyone eventually better-off, the Resume For Jobs | Resume poor must first be made worse off. Tenant Letter Sample, Example. Increased inequality is Exercise Log Template, necessary to facilitate economic growth from which all would eventually benefit. Through a ‘trickle down’ effect, the poor would end up better off in absolute terms, but because inequalities had widened, they would still be relatively worse off compared with the rich.
Needless to say, by no means all economists agree with this extremely pro-free market analysis. However, virtually all agree that progressive taxation and 5+ Sample Recommendation, transfers should not solely be used to narrow income differentials. Apart from the pro-free market view just summarised, some economists believe that other forms of intervention in | Resume Format, the free market are necessary. One of Letter Sample, Example, these is the national minimum wage, which in recent years has marginally raised low pay rates. They also argue that governments should extend the provision of merit goods such as free state education and healthcare, in order to improve the Order Form social wage of lower-income groups. The social wage is that part of a worker’s standard of living received as goods and services provided at zero price or as ‘income in kind’ by the state, being financed collectively out of taxation. However, such interventionist policies incur a significant opportunity cost. Tenant Recommendation Letter Sample, Example. They lead to high taxation, with the disincentive effect this brings about, and they may also lead to adverse unintended consequences and to other aspects of government failure. Budget Template. It is important to read the question carefully.
This question does not ask for 5+ Sample Tenant - Free Example, a discussion of whether the distribution of income should be made more equal. Unfortunately, the answer deflects a little too much in this direction. Nevertheless, it is still valid to argue that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to reduce inequalities, because of the disadvantages and unintended consequences of these two fiscal policy instruments. The answer scores 19 out of a possible 25 and has been placed at mid-level 4. Budget Template Template. To achieve level 5, there should have been more focus on 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter the actual set question and more discussion and analysis of policies such as a national minimum wage, for example discussing whether such policies should be better viewed as alternatives or complementary to progressive taxation and transfers. No marks are awarded for definitions in 5+ Construction Template | Budget, answers to the final parts of essay and context data-response questions. Nevertheless, it is still a good idea to define key concepts at the beginning of the Tenant Letter Example answer as this acts as a good launching pad for developing the subsequent analysis and evaluation. Topic 5 Government intervention in the market A public good has three characteristics: it is non-excludable, non-diminishable (non-rival) and non-rejectable. These characteristics mean that (if it is a pure public good — see answer to question 2) it cannot be provided by the market mechanism. Lm2000 Sample Reports. A merit good is provided by the market mechanism and it has the Letter - Free characteristics of a private good. It is excludable, diminishable (rival) and rejectable. Budget Template | Budget Template. A merit good, however, is often undervalued by households and thus under-consumed when provided at a market price by the free market.
There are two reasons for this. First, consumers do not value the positive externalities that result from 5+ Sample Recommendation Sample,, consumption which benefit other people. Second, consumers typically suffer from an information problem which causes them to ignore or undervalue the benefits of consumption which will be enjoyed in the future. 2Public goods can be divided into pure public goods and non-pure public goods. National defence and police are examples of pure public goods — defined as public goods for which it is impossible to exclude ‘free-riders’. However, most public goods (street lighting, roads, television and | Budget Template, radio programmes and Tenant, also lighthouses) are really non-pure public goods (also known as quasi-public goods). Methods can be devised for converting the | Notary goods into 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free Example private goods by excluding ‘free-riders’ (for example, electronic pricing of road use). Non-pure public goods can be provided by markets, but the second property of non-rivalry or non-diminishability means there is a case for providing all public goods free in Lm2000, order to encourage as much consumption as possible.
For public goods, the optimal level of consumption occurs when they are available free of charge. 3For a merit good, the long-term private benefit of consumption exceeds the short-term private benefit of consumption. However, when deciding how much to consume, individuals take account of short-term costs and Tenant Recommendation, benefits, but ignore or undervalue the long-term private cost and benefit. Preventative dentistry provides a good example. Many people ignore the long-term benefit of Inventory Spreadsheet Template, dental check-ups, and 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter Sample, Example, decide, because of the short-term unpleasantness of the experience, not to consume the service. Unfortunately, these people can nd up later in life with rotten teeth or gum disease, saying: ‘If only I had visited the dentist more often when I was younger’. Likewise, school children who undervalue the 5+ Construction Budget Template | Budget long-term private benefit of education say later in life: ‘If only I had worked harder at school, I would now have a better, more enjoyable job with more pay. Tenant - Free Example. ’ 4Property rights in For Jobs And Resume, a market-based economy stem from the 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, Example notion that an individual owns land or a good and can exclude other members of society from entering the land or using the good, unless they are willing to pay for the privilege. 5Regulatory capture is the notion that a firm can exert undue influence over a government agency charged with regulating the Exercise Exercise Log market in which it operates. This can take the form of 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation - Free Example, excessive hospitality, persistent lobbying, aggressive pressure backed up with litigation and, in Exercise, the extreme, bribery.
This results in Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample,, the regulator becoming either too friendly or too scared of the firm to Resume Format For Jobs Maker, fairly regulate its conduct in the marketplace; hence the term ‘regulatory capture’. 5+ Sample Recommendation Sample, Example. 6A cartel is generally illegal because it is an Exercise Log Template. Log Template Exercise Log, anti-competitive trading restrictive practice which protects inefficient firms, raises costs and discourages improvements in Recommendation Letter, dynamic efficiency. As a result of the principle of subsidiarity, UK and EU competition authorities work together. EU policy over-arches UK policy when an EU-wide dimension is involved in relation to For Car Letter, monopolies, mergers and trading restrictive practices. If the issue is strictly national, relating only to the UK, the EU leaves policy implementation to the UK competition authorities. 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter. See also the Lm2000 answer to Topic 3 essay question 03 on pages 15–16 of these answers. 7In 2008 and 2009 many banks in many countries, including the UK, were close to collapse. Some banks did collapse, such as Lehman Brothers in the USA. Banks faced the danger of Sample,, possible collapse as a result of an unexpected fall in the value of their assets, stemming from the Format For Jobs | Resume Format And Resume credit crunch and the sub-prime mortgage problem, which particularly affected US banks. The assets owned by the banks were now much less than their liabilities.
Banks make money by 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter - Free Example lending out Sample Bill Of Sale For Car much greater sums than they receive as deposits from customers. Providing customers with deposits in a bank believe that their deposits are safe and can be paid back on demand, the bank is almost completely safe, with a minimal chance of it collapsing. However, in 2008 and 2009, customers began to withdraw their deposits from banks, leading to a fear of a run on the banks, followed by possible bank collapse. With many industries, government ministers nowadays take the view that failing businesses should be allowed to collapse. However, this is not generally their view with regard to banks. Politicians fear a domino effect in which the collapse of one bank leads to a string of Letter - Free Sample,, collapses in other banks. This fear, let alone actual collapse, can have a devastating effect on confidence in the economy, which may in turn lead to Activity Log Template Log, a collapse in aggregate demand and the creation of 5+ Sample Recommendation - Free, recessionary conditions.
Government ministers also realise the crucial role of banks in providing liquidity to both households and firms. Free Stock Software. When the banking system froze in 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation - Free, 2007–08, firms found they were unable to borrow from banks. As a result, the cash supply to perfectly well-run firms dried up and some of Sample, them went out of business. 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free. All this helps to explain why the Free Inventory Inventory Spreadsheet Template British government bought up a majority shareholding in the Northern Rock bank, RBS and Tenant - Free Sample, Example, HBOS, to enable these banks to continue trading. It was hoped that state ownership would secure the supply of loans both to Template, business customers and to mortgagees, though this hope was only Letter Sample,, partially met. At the time of effective nationalisation, the UK government stated that the nationalised banks would be returned to the private sector as soon as possible. Part of the Northern Rock bank — the so-called ‘good bank’ but not the ‘bad bank’ element which is still state-owned — has been returned to the private sector, rebranded as a part of Virgin Money. 8As the answer to question 7 mentions, part of the Northern Rock bank (which had been nationalised in 2008) was privatised in 2011. Many years earlier, British Telecommunications (BT), previously a nationalised firm since it was hived off from the Royal Mail, was privatised when the business was converted into Order | Retail-Resumes a public limited company (PLC) whose shares were sold to the general public in three tranches, in 1984, 1991 and 1993.
An example of deregulation was a change in Recommendation - Free Example, the law to allow building societies to compete with banks when granting loans to customers. 9In terms of income, equality means that everyone receives exactly the same income. Equity relates to whether the distribution of income between different people is fair or just. Equality is thus a positive concept, since people’s incomes can be measured to see if they are exactly equal. Equity, by contrast, is normative since it depends on people’s value judgements as to what is fair or just. 0In the poverty trap, also known as the earnings trap, low-waged people who pay income tax and national insurance contributions (NICs) to the government and who lose welfare benefits, become trapped in relative poverty when their wages rise. The unemployment trap is 5+ Construction Budget Template | Budget Template, closely related to the poverty trap, since both affect the poor and result from the nature of the tax and benefit systems. But people caught in 5+ Sample - Free, the unemployment trap are out of work — at least in terms of officially declared employment.
The unemployment trap contains un-waged social security claimants who ‘choose’ unemployment because they are better off out of 5+ Construction | Budget, work, living on 5+ Sample Letter benefits, than in low-paid jobs paying income tax and NICs and Sample Reports, losing some or all of their right to claim means-tested benefits. 1Fuel poverty is defined as existing among households who spend more than 10% of 5+ Sample Tenant Letter Example, their income on Lm2000 Sample Reports fuel. In July 2011, the UK government reported that more than a fifth of all households in the UK were affected by fuel poverty in 5+ Sample - Free Example, 2009. Higher fuel bills meant the number of homes affected rose by one million, or 22%, to 5. 5 million, according to the Department of Energy and Climate Change. Exam-style answers (data response) The impact of climate change on the UK economy 01Asian countries emitted 0. 9 billion tonnes of 5+ Construction Budget Template, carbon pollutants in 1990. 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation - Free Sample, Example. This is Lm2000 Sample, forecast to rise to 5. 1 billion tonnes in 2050, an increase of 4. 2 billion tonnes. This is a forecast increase of 5+ Sample Recommendation Example, 467%. One significant feature of the Lm2000 data is that, after 2010, the carbon emissions of emerging market countries is expected to continue to rise, whereas the rate of increase of the emissions of richer advanced countries (OECD countries) is expected to slow down (flatten), though not to fall. After 2010, the carbon emissions of non-Asian emerging market countries are expected to rise from Recommendation - Free Sample, Example, about 1 billion tonnes to about 2. Sample Of Sale For Car | Notary Letter. 7 billion tonnes.
OECD emissions are expected to rise from 5+ Sample - Free Sample, Example, about 3. 5 billion tonnes to about 3. 7 billion tonnes over the same period. Although this is an excellent answer, earning all 5 of the available marks, it is worth reminding you of circumstances in which candidates drop marks unnecessarily when answering this type of question. First, candidates often fail to Lm2000 Sample Reports, read the data carefully and Recommendation Sample,, end up quoting numbers that are too far different from those in the Extract. Second, even when the Form | Retail-Resumes numbers quoted are accurate, candidates fail to Example, include units of measurement (billion tonnes for both parts of this question, and a % sign for the % change in the first part of the answer). Third, in the answer to the second part of the question, it is vital to select a significant feature of the data rather than an insignificant feature. 02A public good, such as national defence, possesses the twin characteristics of non-excludability and non-rivalry. Non-excludability means that if the good is provided to one person it is provided to all.
It is impossible to exclude free-riders, i. e. eople who get the benefits without paying for the public good. Non-rivalry means that when one person benefits from the | Notary Letter good, it does not reduce the quantity of the good available for other people. The gases and pollutants that are emitted into the atmosphere and lead to global warming are both externalities and Recommendation Letter, a form of public ‘bad’. (A public ‘bad’ is the opposite of a public good. People are generally prepared to pay for the removal of Bill Of Sale, a ‘bad’, to avoid the unpleasantness otherwise experienced. But in the case of public ‘bads’, such as rubbish or garbage, payment can be avoided by dumping the 5+ Sample Letter Sample, Example ‘bad’ in a public place, or on someone else’s property. Because of this, polluting gases are also externalities discharged in | Budget Template, the course of production and consumption, for example by power stations and motorists. The unwilling victims of global warming cannot opt out of being adversely affected by the pollutants and they cannot charge a price which the polluter must pay for the emissions discharged into Tenant Recommendation Letter Sample, Example the atmosphere. Taxation and regulation can in principle reduce that rate at which global warming is taking place. However, as Extract B explains, the emission of global-warming gases is different from the emission of many other negative externalities, for example traffic congestion. In the first place, the Inventory Software Inventory emission is international.
No one country acting on its own can prevent other countries from continuing to emit gases. In the second place, the Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, problem is historical. The atmosphere is continuing to warm up as a result of emissions which have occurred in the past, indeed since the beginning of the industrial revolution about two centuries ago. It may be impossible to 11+ Menu Order Template, stop continuing global warming simply by ending any further gas emissions, because pollutants already in the atmosphere will continue to contribute to global warming. And with the rapid growth of the world’s population, it is probably impossible to 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free Sample, Example, keep emissions at their current level, let alone to reduce or to stop them.
This is a well-balanced answer, easily earning maximum marks — 4 marks for the snappy explanation of the meaning of a public good and 6 marks for the subsequent analysis of the issue posed by 5+ Construction Template | Budget the question. It is important to remember that only the final parts of context data-response questions and Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free, essay questions test the skill of evaluation. 5+ Construction Budget Template. Evaluation is not required in the answers to earlier sections of the questions, including this part. Do not be misled by the word whether, which you may think implies that answers should include some evaluation. This is not the case. 03Extract C lists a number of benefits and costs that the UK economy may experience in future years as a result of Recommendation Letter Sample,, continuing climate change. Bill Of Sale For Car | Notary Letter. The first of these is 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter Sample, Example, flash flooding. This will exclusively have adverse effects, for example the destruction of property, agricultural land, crops and animals, and the loss of human life.
The second is a decrease in heating bills. If this occurs it will benefit every UK household, though as Extract C states, the benefits are likely to be offset by the increased use of energy to Sample Bill Of Sale For Car, provide the 5+ Sample Tenant Letter Example power for air-conditioning systems which will grow in use if the climate becomes stiflingly hot in summer. The extract goes on to mention that ‘with fossil fuels becoming scarcer, the need to find more environmentally friendly methods of producing energy, such as solar, wind and water power, or geothermal energy, will become ever more pressing’. Order Form Template. It is possible to Recommendation Sample,, take issue with this prediction, on the ground that it is now out of date. In one important way, fossil fuels are not becoming scarcer. Vast quantities of shale gas lie beneath the Lm2000 Sample earth’s crust and the technology now exists to extract and 5+ Sample Tenant Letter - Free Example, use this quite recently discovered source of fossil fuel. Methane extracted from shale gas may soon be used in place of the diminishing conventional supplies of natural gas. Shale gas can be extracted at an economic cost, and it will be used for home-heating, to replace petrol and diesel fuel, and for the provision of electricity. Exercise Exercise. But is this a benefit or a cost?
It is certainly a benefit in that it will enable economic growth to continue and standards of living to rise throughout the world. But it must always be remembered that shale gas is a fossil fuel. Its use will allow global warming to continue, perhaps at an even faster rate than currently or in the past, with all the possible adverse effects on economies and on human life that have been predicted. Its growing use may also help to bankrupt renewable energy industries, particularly wind energy. If this is so, shale gas will bring to a stop, or at Recommendation - Free least slow down, attempts to reduce dependency on Resume Format For Jobs fossil fuels. Air temperature rising by 5°C may spell disaster for human-kind and life as we know it on planet earth. Extract C mentions a number of other ways in which climate change may have an impact on the UK economy. These include the decline of Letter - Free Sample, Example, ski resorts in Scotland, the growth of hotel resorts in the south of the UK, and the effects on clothing sales, everyday food purchases, the construction industry, the types of crops grown in the UK, agricultural methods of production, and on how water is used and stored. However, in my view, all of these are relatively innocuous and are changes to which efficient markets, backed up by sensible government policy, can adapt. Budget Template | Budget Template. In conclusion, at the risk of Recommendation Sample,, being extremely pessimistic, I wish to return to the argument made in the previous paragraph.
Again in my view, the Budget Template | Budget costs which the UK economy (and indeed most other world economies) may experience in 5+ Sample Tenant Sample, Example, future years as a result of 11+ Menu, continuing climate change are likely to be far greater, at least in Tenant - Free Sample, Example, the long run, than any likely benefits. Global warming will almost certainly increase air temperatures to a level at which human life as we have known it cannot continue. It may shift ocean currents in the North Atlantic so as to make the UK climate significantly colder, despite warming elsewhere in Bill Of Sale Letter, the world. Water shortages, if not occurring in the UK, may lead to 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter Example, attempted mass migration of Format | Resume Format Maker, people from poor to rich countries and to wars which destroy economic activity as countries fight over water and 5+ Sample Letter - Free Example, other resources and fight against inward migration of people trying to escape growing poverty and seeking a better life for themselves. The UK is likely to suffer directly or indirectly from all these results of climate change. This answer scores 16 out of Budget Template, 25 marks and is placed at the top of level 3 (10–16 marks). Although the candidate evaluates throughout the answer, and also in a concluding paragraph, the force of the 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter evaluation is weakened because evaluation is not preceded by Form Template | Retail-Resumes strong enough analysis.
The analysis should have focused on diagrams showing the negative and positive externalities produced by global warming. The candidate draws on the prompts in the Extracts, but fails to analyse the implications of the prompts sufficiently. The answer veers on the side of being too superficial. Nevertheless, it is sufficiently sound to merit the top of level 3 and could possibly creep into the bottom of level 4. The grade descriptor for level 3 is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free, terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 3 |Satisfactory but some |Reasonable application to |Reasonably clear but may not|Superficial, perhaps with | |10–16 marks |weaknesses shown |issues |be fully developed and is |some attempt to consider | |(mid-point 13) | |Where appropriate, |perhaps confused in Format And Resume Maker, places |both sides of the issue(s) | | | |reasonable use of data to 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter Example, |with a few errors present | | |Reasonable including some | |support answer |The answer is Exercise, quite well | | |correct analysis but very | | |organised with some logical | | |limited evaluation | | |development | |
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essay history topic The following outline is intended as to provide one example of how to write an essay. Treat it as food for thought, as providing a set of suggestions some of which you might incorporate into your own method for writing essays. It is useful to begin by considering why essay-writing has long been the method of choice for assessment in history. The chief reason is 5+ Sample Example, that no other method provides as effective a means of testing a student's comprehension of a topic. We want you to Sample show us that not only Tenant Letter - Free Sample,, have you acquired a knowledge of the Resume And Resume Maker topic but also that you fully understand the topic and the issues raised by it. 5+ Sample Recommendation? Essays test understanding by asking you to select and re-organise relevant material in order to produce your own answer to the set question. An undergraduate essay need not be particularly innovative in Template | Budget Template, its approach and insights, but it must be the product of the student's own dialogue with the subject. Essays which do not answer the question can only be regarded as demonstrating some knowledge of the topic, they cannot be said to show understanding of the topic.
Essays which plagiarise or merely reproduce what others have said do not even show knowledge of the topic. Letter Example? Plagiarism is thus not merely a matter of theft, it involves an entirely unacceptable subversion of the learning process. 2. Is there a right and 5+ Construction | Budget Template a wrong answer? History essays are less about finding the correct answer to the set question than they are about 5+ Sample - Free Sample, Example, demonstrating that you understand the issues which it raises (and the texts which discuss these issues). With most historical problems (certainly the Budget Template | Budget most interesting ones) it is seldom possible to arrive at a definitive answer. The evidence almost always permits a variety of solutions, and different approaches generate divergent conclusions. There are, however, limits to the field of possible solutions, since they must fit in with 'the evidence'.
Of course, exactly what constitutes 'the evidence' is Recommendation Sample, Example, almost invariably one of the issues under discussion among the historians who are most deeply engaged with the problem, but in general for each historical question there will be a body of Resume Format | Resume, evidence which is recognised as being relevant to it. This body of evidence will typically comprise what the primary sources tell us about the events and phenomena under discussion. A good answer will need to Tenant Recommendation Letter harmonise with all of Free Software Excel Inventory, this evidence, or explain why particular items have been dismissed as having no bearing on the problem. It follows from all of this that there certainly are wrong answers that is, answers which fall outside the field of possible solutions or which fail to take account of Recommendation Sample,, received evidence even though there is no 'absolutely right' answer. Essential steps: select a question; identify the subject of the Resume question; what are you being asked to do - that is, what kind of - Free Example, information will you need to answer the question, and how will you have to treat it?
Circling the key words in Free Software Excel Spreadsheet, the question is sometimes a helpful first step in working out 5+ Sample - Free Sample, Example exactly what you need to do. It is Resume Format | Resume And Resume Maker, useful to note that there is usually a natural way of structuring your answer: that is, a way of 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, Example, organising an answer which follows naturally from the format of the question and which will put the fewest obstacles in the way of the reader: 'Explain' and 'why' questions demand a list of Resume Format | Resume Format And Resume, reasons or one big reason; each reason will have to be explained - that is, clarified, expounded, and Tenant Example illustrated. 'Assess', 'evaluate' and 'define-the-significance-of' questions require judgements supported by reasons, explanation and evidence. You must show why your assessment is the best by considering its merits vis--vis alternative evaluations. It might be useful to define and defend the Resume Format Maker criteria on which your judgement depends. That is, to Letter - Free Sample, explain why they are the best criteria for judging the historical phenomenon at issue. 'What-role-did-X-play-in-Y' questions imply a functionalist approach - that is, they require that you identify the function of Resume | Resume Maker, some phenomenon, group or institution within some specific system. Thus, the subject of the question is the 'Y' rather than the 'X' element.
That is, the 5+ Sample Letter - Free Sample, question requires a discussion of the system as a whole and the consideration of alternative explanations of how 'X' worked within it. 'To-what-extent' questions involve a judgement of Resume For Jobs Maker, measure. 5+ Sample Sample,? One way of answering the question would be set up a series of 'tests', as it were, that can be investigated in turn. This essay will examine five spheres which cast light on the extent of Jewish influence in high medieval France: namely, their role in the commercial life of the towns, the role of Jewish banking in the agrarian economy, their influence on Resume, Christian intellectual life, .. Letter Sample,? [and so on]. The essay would need a conclusion in which you pulled together the 11+ Menu Template | Retail-Resumes results of your test cases: It has been seen that the Jews exerted a profound influence on the intellectual life of the universities but almost none on that of the established monastic orders.. 'Quote-and-discuss' questions require you to 5+ Sample identify the Inventory Template issue at stake and to produce a reasoned response. 5+ Sample Recommendation - Free Sample, Example? You may respond, for example, by agreeing with the quotation in which case you will need to explain why agreement is the best response, why it would be wrong to disagree.
You should consider the merits of Lm2000 Sample Reports, a variety of 5+ Sample Sample,, responses. If possible you should always examine the book or article from which the quotation has been taken in For Jobs Format, order to discover what its author meant by it, to 5+ Sample Tenant - Free Example discover how the author has understood the issues. 'Compare-and-contrast' questions demand the identification of Exercise Log Template. Activity Log Template Exercise Log, similarities and differences. One method of tackling such an essay would be to distinguish five or six areas of similarity and contrast, and to devote a section of the essay to each area - a section in which you would assess the degree of similarity and reach a sub-conclusion. The conclusion would then require a summation of the various 'sub-conclusions'. It needs to 5+ Sample Tenant - Free Sample, Example be stressed that none of Stock Inventory Excel, these types of question calls for a narrative approach . You will never be asked to produce a narrative of what happened.
In rare circumstances, a few sentences of narrative may form part of the evidence cited in support of a point, but the essay as a whole should be organised according to a logical structure in which each paragraph functions as a premise in the argument. The analytical and expository voice will always prove more effective than the narrative mode of writing. The aim of your initial reading should be to 5+ Sample Letter - Free Example identify an argument which answers the question - one which you find plausible and can carry through with conviction. For this purpose, it will be useful to Exercise Log Template. Exercise Log Template read at least two or three items, including a recent book covering the general area in which the topic falls. Articles in 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free, reference books such as an encyclopaedia can provide an Free Inventory Spreadsheet overview, but they rarely provide adequate coverage of the issues. Citing such works will undermine the credibility of your essay. Do not forget to make notes as you go.
Making notes helps you to summarise arguments and ideas, to select points relevant to your essay, to clarify and adjust your understanding of the 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Sample, essay question and of the topic it bears upon. But your main priority should be to discover an argument. Once you have come up with a working argument, you need to draw up a plan to guide the next stage of your research. It should comprise a list of the points which each paragraph will attempt to demonstrate, and rough notes on supporting examples. It may be useful to begin by thinking again what type of question you have chosen and by looking the natural way of answering it. In order to draw up a plan you will need to Log Template. Log evaluate its merits: What points will I need to 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter - Free Example make in order to sustain this argument?
Are there alternative points of view which will have to be considered and refuted in order to make this argument work? Do I have enough examples and evidence to support the points which are crucial to my argument? Do I need to know more about the examples I'm planning to use? Perhaps there is another way of looking at this piece of Order Form Template, evidence which I'll have to mention or even refute? Having decided on the line of argument you intend to Letter use, and identified areas where you need more material, search the reading list and bibliographies of the texts you've been using for books and 11+ Menu Order Template articles which will help you to solve these problems. Go and collect the information, making notes and adding notes to your plan as you go along.
Do not forget to make careful bibliographical notes for every book and article you consult. You will need this information when it comes to footnoting your essay. Inevitably, the previous stage will turn up things you hadn't thought of and books with better things to say about the topic. Tenant? Do not panic. Resume For Jobs Format Maker? Ask yourself: can your argument be saved with a few adjustments? Does the argument need to be re-constructed from scratch? If so, how can I recycle the information I've already begun to collect?
Much will depend upon how confident you now feel about Recommendation - Free Sample,, your argument. Follow your instincts: if the argument feels wrong, look for a better one. It is better to start again than to write an essay that lacks conviction. If complete reconstruction is Sample Bill Letter, unavoidable, go back to '5. Drawing up a Plan'. Having revised you argument (and plan), it's time to write your essay. If you've carried out steps one to five properly, it should be possible to write the first draft up in two or three hours. (a) Writing an Introduction. An introduction should show how you intend to Recommendation - Free Sample, Example answer the question, by (1) indicating the line of argument you intend to take, by Log Template. Log Template, (2) giving an overview of the organisation of Tenant Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, Example, what follows, and by (3) indicating the sort of 11+ Menu Order, material or evidence you will be using.
It is an effective strategy, especially when writing a short essay, to begin with a bold, attention-grabbing, first sentence which shows the marker that you know what you are doing: that is, answer the question as briefly as possible with your first sentence. The second sentence should then enlarge upon the argument indicated by the first. (b) The body of the essay. Intelligent use of paragraphing is crucial to the success of an essay. Often, it is best to organise the paragraphs so that each makes and defends a point or premise essential the argument of the essay. Recommendation Letter - Free Sample,? (By 'premise' is meant a point which is part of and essential to the argument of the essay.) It must be entirely clear how your points fit into the argument: essays which meander around the | Resume And Resume topic leaving the marker to 5+ Sample - Free join the dots to comprise an answer are not acceptable, since they fail to demonstrate understanding. It is a good idea to use 'topic sentences' to signal the subject and make explicit the point of each paragraph. These ought not to be too repetitive in form but should show how the paragraph fits into the argument of the essay as a whole. The following topic sentences (here marked in red for clarity) would, for example, be appropriate as a way of introducing paragraphs that comprised a series of 'tests' in a 'to-what-extent' essay that called for an assessment of the effects of the Black Death on the development of medieval Europe. It is also possible to assess the extent of the catastrophe by Resume Format, looking at the level of demand for 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation Sample, land in the major urban centres.
In Genoa, for example, land prices fell sharply from a high in 1310 of. [several sentences of examples] . The dramatic fall in Template, the prices of land within urban centres implies an equally sharp fall in the numbers of - Free, people wanting to live in cities and, thus also, a sudden decline in the actual number of people living there. Notice how the point briefly introduced in the topic sentence is developed naturally by the second sentence of the paragraph. It is better to avoid trying the explain everything in a single sentence: clusters of sentences that flow from one to another are much more effective! Signposting your evidence will give the essay that all important sense of critical depth and Activity originality: Seapower was a crucial to European expansion. 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation - Free Example? This much is 11+ Menu Order Form | Retail-Resumes, illustrated by the way in which Europe expanded between the tenth and sixteenth centuries. Southwards and - Free Example eastwards expansion in the eastern Mediterranean was heavily dependent upon the availability of effective fleets of warships and Sample Of Sale Letter trading vessels. There were critical moments, such as in the late eleventh-century conquests of Sicily and Sardinia, when. Tenant Recommendation Letter Example? [and so on.] You need to give the marker a sense of Exercise Log Template. Exercise Log Template Exercise, where your opinions end and of where the supporting evidence begins. But remember to vary your signposts: using the same phrase over and over again will distract and Tenant Recommendation - Free bore the reader.
If the supporting evidence is not a well-known and irrefutable fact, it will probably need to be given the additional support of a footnote indicating where you have obtained your information or which historian's interpretation of the piece of evidence being deployed you have chosen to follow. It will sometimes be useful to quote other authors, especially primary sources, but do not overdo it. It is often better to Lm2000 Sample Reports put things in 5+ Sample Tenant Recommendation, your own words while still clearly signalling the Stock Inventory Excel source of the idea and 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter - Free Example using a footnote (e.g. 'According to Mayer the first crusade.'), since this helps to show that you have understood what was being said - providing that you have indeed grasped what was being said! (c) The Conclusion. All essays need a carefully thought out For Jobs Format And Resume Maker conclusion which follows logically from the 5+ Sample Letter - Free points made and affirmed in the course of your essay. It need not rehearse the points you have rejected. Always check to see that the conclusion you have drawn is the Lm2000 Sample Reports one which follows logically from the points and evidence you have assembled.
(d) Footnoting. Opinions differ over whether to footnote after completing the first draft or as you write. 5+ Sample Recommendation Letter - Free Sample, Example? Sometimes, it is best to go back and footnote the essay after you have finished, because inserting footnotes can disturb the flow of your writing. On the other hand, it is useful to consider what will need to Budget Template | Budget be footnoted as you write, since footnotes are part of the rhetorical apparatus of a formal essay and give weight and power to an argument. For the same reason, it is best to put the 5+ Sample - Free notes at the bottom of the page rather than at the end of the essay. It looks more impressive (especially if you cite well and widely), and saves the marker flicking back and forth. Bill Of Sale For Car? The markers, it should be noted, are under instructions to check footnotes. (e) Once you have finished you should compile your bibliography . (f) Now save your essay, print out a text, put it aside for a couple of days, and - Free Sample, Example work on something else. Inevitably, when you come to re-read your essay, you will always think of better ways of putting things. You may even think of supporting evidence you could add to Format For Jobs | Resume Format the text, but make sure that any additions do not spoil the 5+ Sample Tenant Letter Example flow. You may find that some of your points are irrelevant: this material should be disregarded.
You should also ask yourself whether the links between the paragraphs are clear and Exercise Log Template. Exercise Activity Exercise Log logical? Perhaps the essay would be more effective if they were put in a different order? If the essay has been written on a word processor it should be easy enough to Tenant Letter Sample, Example achieve this by cutting and pasting paragraphs. Your essay should have a clear and consistent structure throughout, so that one paragraph follows another logically and carries the argument forward. You will need to 5+ Construction Budget | Budget Template edit: for grammar, spelling and punctuation; to remove unnecessary verbiage, colloquialisms and jargon; to ensure that the footnotes and 5+ Sample - Free Example bibliography conform with the required style sheet; and for the coherence and quality of your writing.
You should always check the printed text of your essay before submitting it. The eye tends to overlook errors on the screen, and spell checkers almost invariably allow a significant number of mistakes to slip through. 'Their' and 'there', for example, will both be accepted as correct by a word processor regardless of which one you should actually have used in a given context. The ability to write good essays does not come to many people easily. It is a skill which requires constant attention and Bill Of Sale For Car practice. It is, however, a skill which will serve you well no matter what you choose to do when you leave university. Effective communication is 5+ Sample Tenant, a key to success in Format For Jobs | Resume, many walks of life.
There is, therefore, every incentive to apply yourself to the development of this art. Credits: This guide was devised and developed by Paul Antony Hayward (2000-2007).