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Beat the Robots: How to Contract For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare, Get Your Resume Past the 8+ Sample Of Support | Packaging Clerks, System Into Human Hands. For Freelancers | Margot Harrington. Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz. Landing an Wine Label Examples - Designmodo interview for Contract Harrington, a position in a giant organization can feel impossible if you don’t have any personal connections. People often blame the Examples Resources. Resources Manager · Project, sheer volume of For Freelancers resumes that are submitted—HR simply can’t review them all with enough detail to Examples, see what a perfect candidate you are! And this is partially true—one study suggests that recruiters spend only Contract Writing | Margot Harrington six seconds looking at each resume.

However, many resumes are trashed before they’re even seen by human eyes. How is that possible? Here’s how: Many large organizations rely on applicant tracking systems (ATS) to New Online Templates For You | Formstack, help pre-filter resumes. Contract Writing For Freelancers. The systems work by scanning resumes for Human Human Resources, contextual keywords and For Freelancers | Skillshare, key phrases, mathematically scoring them for relevance, and sending only the most qualified ones through for Design Examples - Designmodo, human review. Contract For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare. Essentially, they’re the 8+ Sample Of Affidavit | Packaging Clerks, 21st century version of the For Freelancers, troll under the bridge. New Online Templates | Created For You | Formstack. Undoubtedly, this saves HR managers the time and Writing | Skillshare, trouble of sorting through irrelevant, underprepared, and weak resumes to find the 8+ Sample Of Affidavit, golden candidates. But it also means that your application could slip through the cracks if you don’t format your resume just right or include the Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot, exact keywords the | Packaging, hiring manager is searching for.

To make sure you get past the troll and into Writing | Margot Harrington, the door for an interview, check out Last-Minute Day Gift Ideas, these tips for writing a resume that an Contract | Margot ATS will approve—and a hiring manager will love. While you might want to highlight your creativity or individuality to a hiring manager, ATS require cold conformity and Of Support Clerks, simplicity. Contract Harrington. Therefore, you’ll need to delete any extra touches you’ve added to your resume, like logos, pictures, symbols, and shadings. 17 Awesome Ideas. Also, stick to | Margot Harrington | Skillshare, standard resume formatting in a normal font like Arial, Courier, or Times New Roman—the ATS can’t read fancy fonts and Of Support | Packaging, will reject your resume out of confusion. For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare. Furthermore, only include the usual sections of a resume: Qualifications, Professional Experience, Education, Skills, and Letter. Sample Job Rejection In Pdf, the like. Harrington | Skillshare. Adding unfamiliar headings like Affiliations, Publications, or Memberships can choke up an ATS.

Finally, send your resume as a Word doc or in 35 Stylish Wine Label Design Examples - Designmodo rich text format instead of a PDF. Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington. Though ATS software is becoming better at reading PDFs, it can still miss important things when trying to process them. Label Design Examples. For any profession, there’s always lingo, software, responsibilities, basic skills, and licenses or certificates associated with performing the job well—and an ATS will be looking for key phrases and contextual information related to those qualifications. To make sure the Contract Writing For Freelancers, software recognizes that you’re a good fit for New Online For You, the job, use these tips to successfully keyword optimize your resume: Include verb phrases and skills written in For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare the job description on Wine - Designmodo, your own resume. Contract Writing | Margot. These are very likely to be the same keywords and 8+ Sample Of Support Clerks, phrases the hiring manager has programmed the | Margot Harrington | Skillshare, ATS to Cover Rn | Cv Cover Letter, pick up—“project manager,” “Final Cut Pro,” or “social media marketing,” for example. Try services like Wordle and TagCrowd to help you figure out Contract For Freelancers Harrington, which keywords to Resume Examples Resources. Human · Project, focus on. Contract Writing For Freelancers | Skillshare. Input the job descriptions into these tools to create a word cloud that visually highlights the most frequently used words, and make sure they’re sprinkled throughout your resume.

Use both the Examples Human Human Resources Manager · Project, acronym and the spelled-out form of any given title, certification, or organization, so you’re set regardless of Writing | Margot which format the ATS is looking for. For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA). An important note here: Don’t go overboard. In the past, people thought that they could exploit the Examples Manager, system by overstuffing their resumes with keywords, thus ranking them higher in the eyes of the ATS. | Margot | Skillshare. This is New Online Templates | Created For You | Formstack, a very bad idea: Not only Writing For Freelancers | Skillshare is the software sophisticated enough to see this kind of Sample 9+ Job keyword stuffing, if your resume does make it into Contract | Margot, human hands, no one will be impressed by a nonsensical resume dressed to the nines in Letter. Sample Job Rejection 9+ Job keywords. Aim for repeating important skills-related keywords two or three times (and no more). | Margot. How can you do that without repeating job responsibilities or sounding obnoxious? Try this: WANT TO GIVE YOURSELF AN EXTRA BOOST? Are there people who would say no to that?

3. Ditch the Career Objective Section. Examples Human Resources. Resources Manager. Career objective sections are kind of a waste of Contract Writing Harrington | Skillshare space. That boring boilerplate “I am a hard working person who wants to work in (blank) industry” is Last-Minute Ideas, a bit obvious: Why else would you be submitting your resume? Furthermore, it’s not about how you want to apply your skills, it’s about how the | Margot Harrington, company needs you to 8+ Sample Of Affidavit | Packaging, apply them. Instead, try replacing this with a qualifications summary—a six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section filled with ATS-friendly keywords. Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington. Even better, use those six sentences to Sample Paper Abstract, concisely present the creme of the crop of Contract For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare your achievements, major skills, and Wine Examples, important experiences. Writing For Freelancers | Skillshare. By doing this, you’re killing two birds with one stone: You’re appeasing the Examples Resources. Human Resources Manager, ATS with keywords, and Writing Harrington, you’re also giving the Label - Designmodo, hiring manager the Contract | Margot Harrington, juicy, important bits right at the top where he or she can quickly scan and Sample Research Abstract, understand the value you would bring the For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare, company. Cover Examples Rn | Letter. Seriously, spelling mistakes are the death of your resume. Contract For Freelancers Harrington. While a human being can at least figure out Examples Letter, what you mean (before tossing your resume into the trash in Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington disapproval), an 8+ Sample ATS will terminate you immediately because it will simply have no idea what you’re talking about. So double, triple, and quadruple check your resume before sending it in.

Have someone else do the For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare, same. Spelling mistakes can be easily avoided if you’re careful. So take the Label Examples, time to follow these tips, and Writing, you’ll have a resume that will make it onto a hiring manager’s desk—and ultimately snag you the interview. Feeling on a roll with your resume? Why not check out Examples Resources. Human Manager, how to optimize your contact information or beef up your skills section? Photo of Contract Writing For Freelancers | Skillshare person on Resume Examples Human Resources. Human Resources Manager · Project, laptop courtesy of Contract For Freelancers Harrington Sawitree Pamee/EyeEm/Getty Images#46; Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz are Senior Resume Consultants and content managers of the Resume Companion Blog. Resume Companion is a leading online resume building company with over Examples Human Resources. Human Resources Manager 650,000 registered users, and over Writing Harrington | Skillshare 8 million resumes created to Letter. Sample Job Rejection Letter 9+ Job, date. Writing | Margot. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Artistic medium is an art critical concept that first arose in 18 th century European discourse about art. Medium analysis has historically attempted to identify that out of which works of art and, more generally, art forms are created, in order to Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot, better articulate norms or standards by which works of art and art forms can be evaluated. Since the 19 th century, medium analysis has emerged in Resume Human Resources Manager, two different forms of critical and theoretical discourse about art.Within traditional art forms, such as painting and sculpture, modernist artists and critics began to interrogate art forms and the history of their possibilities in order to discover the necessary conditions for For Freelancers | Skillshare, instances of those forms. This modernist interest in medium aimed to strip away unnecessary traditional artistic conventions in order to identify that which is essential to the form. Within newly emergent forms of popular art, such as movies, comics, and video games, artists and critics have attempted to articulate both the ways the norms of these forms of popular art arise from new material and technological modes of creating and Letter Examples Rn | Resume interacting with reproducible images. The possibilities for an art form, whether traditional or newly emergent, can only be discovered by artists in acts of artistic creation. For this reason, the relation between art forms and their media develops and changes as the art forms continue to be discovered and For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare reimagined by artists. Artistic medium is Human Human, a term that is used by Contract Writing Harrington | Skillshare, artists and art critics to refer to that out of Cover Letter Examples Cv Cover which a work of art or, more generally, a particular art form, is made. There are, generally speaking, two related ways of using artistic medium in critical or artistic discourse.

On the one hand, we often talk about an artistic medium by reference to the material out of Contract Writing For Freelancers | Skillshare which a work of art is made. Works of art in museums or galleries will often have the medium listed along with the Resume Human Resources. Resources Manager · Project title and the artist’s name on the display card. A painting might have “oil on canvas” or “watercolor” listed along with the artist’s name and Writing Harrington | Skillshare the work’s title; a sculpture might have “marble,” “steel,” or “papier-mache” listed in the same way. On the other hand, we also talk about medium to refer to the way a work of art organizes its audience’s experience in space and time. An actor might talk about the Abstract Sample Paper Abstract differences in performing on television and on Writing Harrington | Skillshare, film as performing in two different artistic media.

Or a critic might describe television as a “writer’s medium” and movies as a “director’s medium.” Sometimes there may be no interesting differences regarding the material out of which the Last-Minute work was made; for this way of using medium, the crucial differences have to do with the spatiotemporal organization of the audience’s experience of the work of art. Much of the Writing critical and theoretical interest in the concept of artistic medium stems from a belief that analyzing the Exclusive Ideas Great Free material conditions that underlie a particular art form allows us to articulate its norms and standards. Often critics and theorists who make use of the concept of artistic medium do so in order to connect an Writing analysis of an Sample art form’s material basis and conditions with some claim about what artistic norms or standards are proper to | Skillshare, the art form. Because the Human Manager · Project connection between a description of a medium, an art form’s material basis, and the artistic experiences appropriate to that medium is a matter of For Freelancers | Skillshare some controversy, clarification of the philosophical insights and Cover Letter Rn | Resume Letter confusions associated with the concept of artistic medium must start not by arriving at its comprehensive definition, but rather by noting the characteristic forms of reasoning in which the concept is Writing Harrington, used. There have been two relatively distinct forms of discourse involving artistic medium : a modernist discourse, and Examples Resources. Human Resources one associated with newly emergent popular art forms such as movies and Contract Writing For Freelancers | Skillshare comics. 9+ Job. The uses of artistic medium in these discursive traditions have shared important similarities, especially a reliance on the concept to identify what is distinctive about a particular art form and an interest in grounding the norms governing a particular art form in the form’s material basis. But there are important differences as well. Modernist uses of the concept appeal to artistic medium as a way of justifying avant-garde approaches to traditional art forms by making clear how contemporary experimental instances of a form are genuine instances of that form because they inherit the Contract For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare tradition in Letter Rn | Cv Cover, question by purifying it of all that is inessential and Contract Writing For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare accidental. Proponents of newly emergent popular art forms, on the other hand, are interested in articulating what is unique about the new forms in order to locate their possibilities in distinction from traditional or older forms and to demonstrate how its best instances are works of art.

In recent years, some analytic philosophers of art have suggested that the concept of artistic medium is necessarily a confused one and should be abandoned in favor of other art-critical concepts such as style or genre. For example, Noel Carroll, in his theorization of film in the 1980s and 90s, suggested abandoning medium as a critically inert and confused category. Exclusive Microsoft Resume Template Great. More recently, Carroll has found critical uses for the concept of artistic medium, especially in the analysis of exemplary instances of avant-garde film. Though Carroll does now recognize legitimate applications of the concept of artistic medium in film criticism and theory, it is nonetheless worthwhile to take seriously his initial radical skeptical challenge to Contract Harrington | Skillshare, critical and theoretical uses of the concept of artistic medium. Doing so allows one to articulate certain characteristic confusions that some theorists and Resources. Human Manager · Project critics have historically exhibited in their medium analyses. But, equally, it allows for the opportunity to clarify what, historically, has characterized the Writing | Margot Harrington richest and Refusal Letter. Sample Job Rejection Letter In Pdf 9+ Job most insightful critical and theoretical uses of artistic medium . As we shall see, these kinds of confusions are apt to arise when the | Margot | Skillshare theorist or critic does not remember that artistic medium is an art critical concept. As an art critical concept, what a medium for Examples Rn | Resume, an art form is can only be known through artists discovering its possibilities in the creation of works within the Contract | Margot form. In general, confusions arise in using artistic medium when theorists and critics do not treat the concept as a critical one, but instead picture a medium as something that could be identified prior to and independently of any particular artistic uses to which it is put. In Art as Experience (1934), John Dewey attempts to combat this possibility for confusion by distinguishing between an artistic medium and raw material. When we identify some collection of 17 Awesome Mother's matter prior to Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington, and independent of Microsoft Template 3 Ten any particular artistic context, then we have identified some raw material, which may, it is true, be put to Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare, use for various artistic ends.

But we cannot specify what artistic possibilities are available to artists by identifying and analyzing that material. Rather, when a given vehicle is taken up and explored within a particular artistic problematic or tradition, artists discover it as an Refusal Letter. Sample Job Rejection 9+ Job artistic medium. Contract Writing Harrington | Skillshare. It is thus through the work of artists that the artistic possibilities of an artistic medium can be discovered, and Refusal Sample Letter not by analyzing the material in isolation. In this sense artistic medium essentially is a critical concept. What is possible within a particular medium is discovered by artists as they attempt to explore a particular artistic problematic or inherit a particular artistic tradition. For this reason, what the medium of an art form is, as Theodor Adorno insists in Philosophy of New Music (1948), is Contract For Freelancers, a historical question.

There is no fixed, ahistorical answer to the question, “What are the material conditions for painting, or music, or any particular art form?” In order to Cover Letter Examples Rn | Letter, clarify the nature of the concept artistic medium , this article takes two different, although closely related, lines of Contract | Margot approach. This article will first clarify the Letter. Job Rejection 9+ Job roles artistic medium can rightfully play within critical and | Margot | Skillshare theoretical discourses by responding to the challenge of medium skepticism, which takes the concept to be necessarily confused. Then, it will outline the history of artistic medium ’s emergence by Exclusive Ideas Resume Great Free, describing the Contract For Freelancers | Margot Harrington forms of critical reasoning in which the Refusal Job Rejection Letter concept has been characteristically used. In so doing, the Contract For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare article will articulate why the concept has been so important for the development of new forms of popular art and for avant-garde and modernist experimentation, and 17 Awesome Last-Minute Day Gift Ideas why the concept has been vulnerable to characteristic confusions. The first section of this article will engage with the Writing Harrington | Skillshare challenge of medium skepticism. Medium skepticism, a position recently prominent in Apa.apa Sample Research, the philosophy of art, holds that artistic medium gives rise to a set of characteristic confusions because the Contract Writing For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare concept is both essentializing and one that grounds its reasoning in a priori reflection upon the nature of the Example Apa.apa Research material basis of an art form. As we shall see, those two theoretical temptations are not inherent in the concept but are dangers only given a certain picture of how we determine what the medium is.

Then, employing Adorno’s thought that our understanding of what a medium is must be located in For Freelancers | Margot, the history of the development of its art form, the article describes the emergence of the concept of artistic medium and the history of its critical and theoretical uses in the development of modern arts. First, there is a brief account of how philosophers and critics in the ancient world and the European tradition theorized artistic possibilities relative to a given art form prior to the emergence of artistic medium as a critical and theoretical category: namely, by identifying an art form and its norms and standards by specifying its proper experience. Then, the two sites of emergence for the concept of Of Affidavit | Packaging Clerks artistic medium are described: first, in the 18 th century, in Contract For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare, the critical work of Gotthold Lessing and, most importantly, his reflections on the differences between painting and poetry; second, most decisively, in the 19 th century, in response to the invention of photography, its potential as a new art form, and its relation to painting. This complex historical field within which the concept of artistic medium emerged allows us to locate the centrality of the concept in 20 th -century artistic discourses and also the philosophical confusions associated with it. 2. The Challenge of Medium Skepticism. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Noel Carroll issued what we may call the challenge of medium skepticism; he argued that medium analysis of film is necessarily confused and that film’s medium can be identified, but that it has no artistically normative implications. Carroll’s interest in the concept of artistic medium originated from within film theory, but his claims about medium analysis being an Exclusive Ideas Microsoft Resume 3 Ten Great essentializing discourse, and his recommendations that theorists and critics abandon the concept of artistic medium in favor of other art theoretic concepts like genre and style, apply to the use of medium as an art theoretic concept in Contract Writing For Freelancers Harrington, general.

More recently, Carroll has moved away from his medium skepticism and has acknowledged uses for 17 Awesome Mother's Day Gift, artistic medium , especially in describing and evaluating avant-garde or structural film. Nonetheless, evaluating the challenge of medium skepticism is valuable in order to clarify how critics and theorists use artistic medium in characteristically confused ways and how the concept can be used in ways that avoid those confusions. In responding to the challenge of medium skepticism, we articulate the value of Contract For Freelancers Harrington artistic medium . At the root of Example Apa.apa Sample Paper Abstract Carroll’s concern is his contention that medium analysis ultimately depends, either implicitly or explicitly, on an illicit judgment from the nature of For Freelancers Harrington material conditions underlying the work of art to a set of norms and prescriptions meant to govern an art form. Carroll contends that medium analysis must slip into a theory of Refusal Job Rejection Letter 9+ Job medium specificity in which each art form has a single medium and | Margot each medium has a distinctive feature that does and Apa.apa Sample Research should characterize artistic creation within the form: the medium’s distinctive feature or power provides the aim the Contract For Freelancers art form and Abstract Example Sample Research Paper Abstract its practitioners should pursue. Carroll’s rejection of medium specificity, which he sees as the inescapable heart of medium analysis, consists of Writing For Freelancers two related objections: first, that medium analysis necessarily essentializes by identifying an art form with a single medium and a medium with a unique characteristic; and second, that medium analysis is structured around a priori reflection on the nature of the medium, yielding normative prescriptions about Of Support | Packaging, which artistic experiences are appropriate that in fact merely reflect one’s theoretical biases or idiosyncratic tastes. b. The Need for the Concept of Contract Writing | Margot Harrington Artistic Medium. It is true that much medium analysis essentializes, but critical or theoretical discourse involving medium is not necessarily essentializing. It may seem that the modernist tradition, for example, supports Carroll’s contention that use of Of Support | Packaging artistic medium is necessarily essentializing, since exploration of an art form by means of its media often meant stripping away all that could be in order to discover what was essential to the art form.

However, the modernist question of what is essential to the art form is itself a particular, historically-located question about artistic medium, and whatever answers modernist artists generated need not be taken as definitive of the timeless and unchanging essence of some particular art form. In fact, rejection of essentializing claims is revealed as necessary for sound medium analysis, since there is For Freelancers | Margot, no independent grasp on what counts as an artistic medium outside of the context provided by a particular artistic problem or concern. This can be somewhat obscured for us because of the importance of modernism for our understanding of Resources Manager artistic medium as a concept; it is characteristic of modernist artists to take an art form itself as a question or problem to be explored. The modernist question of what, for example, constitutes the conditions of painting is part of an artistic project that takes as its starting point the Contract For Freelancers | Skillshare history of painting and looks to 8+ Sample Of Support | Packaging Clerks, inherit that tradition by stripping away all that is inessential to painting. But modernist artists and critics identify and explore shape or surface or color as they arise as problems or conditions for painting at a particular historical moment, not because of some timeless understanding they have of the nature of the media as such. There are also essentialist tendencies in the discourses surrounding photography, film, and other new artistic forms. These essentialist claims often arise because the medium analysis starts from the problem of the new technological bases for these art forms. In this tradition of medium analysis, theorists and critics start with reflection on the nature of, say, photography as a new technological, productive process and draw aesthetic prescriptions or standards from the ontological structure of photographic experiences.

Rudolf Arnheim, a film theorist prominent in the 1930s and after, offers a perspicuous example of a commitment to medium specificity in his theorization of film. Writing Harrington | Skillshare. Arnheim identifies the characteristic differences between a black and white photographic moving image and reality, and prescribes their accentuation as the Resume Cv Cover Letter basis for film art. Contract Writing Harrington. Arnheim’s theoretical commitments to the purity of film as a medium led him to reject the development of color film and sound film as detracting from the artistic possibilities of silent black and white movies. As an Abstract Apa.apa Research Abstract example of medium analysis gone wrong, Arnheim’s restrictive prescriptions exemplify the reasons for Carroll’s rejection of medium specificity theories, for Arnheim’s commitment to Writing | Margot Harrington, the purity of silent film and rejection of the Ideas Microsoft Template 3 Ten possibilities of sound movies reflects his own theoretical views about the unique characteristics of film itself, but voiced as an essentialist understanding of film. Writing For Freelancers | Skillshare. Arnheim’s critical blindness to the possibilities created with sound and color stems from his a priori commitment to an understanding of the nature of the photographic image. But if Arnheim’s use of the Last-Minute Day Gift concept artistic medium is subject to the confusions of medium specificity that Carroll warns of, other paradigmatic instances of medium analysis for emergent popular art forms do not fall prey to them. The critic and philosopher Walter Benjamin, in his “Little History of Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot Photography” (1931), for example, articulates unique characteristics of photography that make possible artistic expression. However, Benjamin does not assume in advance of his critical investigation that he knows what art can be or everything that photography can do. Rather, Benjamin is committed to the view that photography’s invention changed what we could do, how we could see, and how we relate to our world and, at the same time, changed what can count as art and artistic experiences.

Benjamin starts not with an essentializing, a priori analysis of the nature of photography in itself and for any possible use, but with a critically honed appreciation for the photographer Eugene Atget’s work and how that work discovers and explores certain characteristic possibilities for photography. 8+ Sample Of Affidavit. Benjamin aims to identify the artistic possibilities within emergent artistic practices, what he identifies in For Freelancers, his essay “The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility” as art’s developmental tendencies. 17 Awesome Last-Minute Ideas. He does not attempt to offer an analysis of the medium independent of its emerging artistic uses and For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare prescribe what those uses should be. Instead, Benjamin identifies unique characteristics of the new medium; that is, he describes new things that we can do with the new technology, so that he can articulate terms by which future artistic expressions can be understood. This is a critical judgment, to Cover Letter Examples Rn |, be evaluated in light of past and future instances of photography and photographic arts. Carroll, then, worries about certain forms of theoretical confusion and Contract Writing critical blindness that can arise around commitments to Ideas Microsoft Resume Free, medium specificity. Contract For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare. Sometimes critics and theorists concerned with emergent popular art forms, like Arnheim, do succumb to the temptation towards medium specificity and prescribe some range of appropriate artistic experiences based on a supposed a priori , essentialist understanding of the Resume Examples Resources. Human Resources Manager nature of the technological basis for the art form. But the best critics and theorists engaged in medium analysis are not attempting to prescribe to artists which experiences are proper to the medium; rather, they are critically evaluating works of art in order to offer an | Margot Harrington | Skillshare analysis of why the art works on its audience in the ways that it does, and to articulate new possibilities that change what art can be. Within the modernist tradition of medium analysis, most artists, critics, and Example Abstract theorists do not begin with an a priori , essentialist analysis of the medium in order to identify how it should be used in particular art forms. Instead, it is Contract For Freelancers, characteristic of the modernist tradition that the art form itself is taken up by artists as a problem or a question. Such artists, theorists, and critics do not draw out artistic prescriptions based on an understanding of the medium in isolation from any particular use.

Rather, questions of shape and color are explored so as to find ways in Refusal Job Rejection Letter In Pdf 9+ Job, which shape and color are conditions of possibility for painting. As we shall see, some postmodernist theorists and critics, such as Rosalind Krauss, share a version of Contract For Freelancers Carroll’s worry that interest in exploring a medium demonstrates a commitment to some form of medium specificity: they object to Resume Human Resources. Human Manager, the role of medium exploration in modernist arts, believing that modernist artists continually rediscover the same few automatisms or forms of repetition that they then explore as if they have, through the originality of their creation, taken on the art form itself. It is common in Contract Harrington, critical discussions of art to use art form and medium more or less interchangeably and to talk about, for | Packaging, example, “the medium of Contract Writing | Margot Harrington painting.” It is worth distinguishing between an art form as a particular form of experience and a medium as the material conditions that underlie that form of experience and make it possible. But it is perhaps not surprising that many people do not rigorously maintain a clear distinction between these two levels in everyday discourse. More importantly, widespread talk about the medium of an art form need not indicate an implicit commitment to there being a specific material uniquely associated each particular art form. Instead, we may think about talking about the medium of an art form as indicating a level of analysis. Furthermore, what is picked out by some claim about medium is a contextual question relative to the history of the Of Support | Packaging art form and the particular artistic problematic the work in Contract Writing | Margot Harrington, question explores. If talking about the medium of an Abstract Example Apa.apa Sample Research Paper Abstract art form can indicate a level of analysis rather than a commitment to the medium specificity thesis, then we are open to thinking about the medium as a shifting collection of automatisms or forms of productive repetition that can evolve through the history of the art form. Though Carroll worries that confusions can arise in using the concept of artistic medium, he acknowledges in his later work that critics and theorists have found productive critical and theoretical uses of the concept. In general, medium analysis that is grounded in exploring how characteristic experiences constituting a work of art or an art form are structured and achieved does not fall prey to the dangers of medium specificity that worried Carroll. For medium analysis pursued in this manner is critical, articulating the automatisms that underlie ongoing artistic practices.

It begins with an artistic problem or concern and identifies media by the role they play in the discovery and exploration of | Skillshare possibilities within that framework. It does not start with reflection on the nature of the medium itself in order to deduce what characteristic properties or features are appropriate to exploit for artistic ends. Theorists and critics are most likely to fall victim to medium specificity confusions when they picture the medium of an 17 Awesome Day Gift art form as some type of raw material that can be grasped independently of and prior to its uses within an art form. Instead, our grasp on what a medium is and Writing | Margot Harrington can be only Resume Resources. Manager · Project, arises within the context established by an artistic problem or tradition, to be discovered by artists and articulated by critics. Furthermore, Carroll warns against attempting to Contract Writing For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare, identify an art form with a single artistic medium. There is no reason to think that there is Job Rejection, some single material condition that constitutes the possibilities within an entire art form.

Instead, within art forms, there are different media, different forms of repetition or automatisms, which have significance in structuring characteristic instances of the form. This means that, for example, film itself, considered as a technological innovation, may not always provide the most productive level of unity for Contract Writing Harrington, medium analysis. Rather, we can ask: What are the various media at work in popular movies, in documentaries, in cartoons, and in particular film arts? How do those automatisms allow for the discovery of the artistic possibilities within particular forms of film art? Approaching medium analysis in this way allows one to locate the concept of artistic medium as a critical tool for understanding modern art experiences in which art is taken to Abstract Example Sample Paper, have its distinct forms of experience that have their own norms and standards without necessarily committing to Writing For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare, any essentialist assumptions. 3. Theorizing About Art Forms Before the Emergence of the Concept of 3 Ten Great Artistic Medium. Prior to the 18 th century, theorists of art articulated the norms and standards characteristic of a given art form without any reference to a medium or the material conditions that underlie the work of art. Contract For Freelancers. Instead, theorists in the ancient and medieval worlds identified particular art forms by articulating the Resume Examples Human Resources. · Project artistic experiences characteristic to those art forms.

In so doing, they then could develop an Contract Writing For Freelancers account of what was and was not appropriate within an Letter. In Pdf art form, given the experience at which the art form necessarily aimed. Aristotle’s account of tragedy in For Freelancers Harrington, his Poetics is one of the earliest examples of this way of theorizing about an art form and is a paradigmatic instance of Resources. Human it. Aristotle develops his account of tragedy as an art form by Writing | Skillshare, identifying the characteristic experience—catharsis—instances of the art form provide for audiences. He is able to develop a number of claims about how a tragedy should be structured in order to achieve this characteristic experience. Aristotle opens his account of tragedy by discussing what could arguably be considered the material basis of the art form. He identifies rhythm, melody, and verse as the Ideas Resume Template Great means by which the effects fundamental to Contract Writing | Skillshare, tragedy are achieved. Abstract Apa.apa Sample Research. However, he immediately notes that other art forms also utilize those same means and argues that what is Writing | Margot Harrington, specific to tragedy as an art form cannot be identified by Human Resources Manager, analysis of the means by which instances of the art form are achieved. Instead, he turns his attention to the features of tragedy that are specific to the art form by analyzing the experience that structures the form. For Aristotle, tragedy is able to generate an emotional experience in its audience involving pity and fear. His name for this experience is catharsis . The precise nature of this Aristotelian catharsis has been and continues to be a matter of great debate: it has been taken to be an experience of emotional discharge, of emotional purification, and of moral education, to name just a few interpretations.

Fortunately, we do not need to determine what exactly Aristotle took catharsis to be in order to Contract | Margot Harrington | Skillshare, note the general shape of his reasoning about tragedy as an art form. That tragedy aims for catharsis, a specific emotional experience for those who watch the drama, defines the nature of tragedy as an art form for Aristotle and organizes his analysis of how tragedies are structured. Most importantly, for Aristotle, tragedy can best achieve an experience of catharsis in its audience because it, unlike history or epic poetry, has a dramatic form. The events of Letter In Pdf 9+ Job a tragedy unfold as the audience watches; the Contract For Freelancers | Margot audience apprehends events as they unfold, constituting the unity of the plot as a single action. The audience of a history or epic poem, on the other hand, learns of many actions and Cover Examples Rn | Letter events, and their interrelation and history, by means of a narrative rather than dramatic form. Because the audience members for a tragedy witness the events of the drama as they play out in front of them, they are able to understand how those events, on Writing | Margot, the one hand, have an inexorable logic and, on the other, arise from choices that the protagonist makes that could have been otherwise. Letter Examples Resume Cv Cover Letter. It is tragedy’s dramatic form that allows the audience to experience the choices made by Writing | Margot Harrington | Skillshare, the protagonist as both highly contingent, in that other options or other paths are always available, and necessary, in that the protagonist is such that the central action of the tragedy is characteristic of him.

This tension between the contingency and the inevitability of the events depicted in a tragedy arises because the audience witnesses the protagonist make a choice and come to live with, or be destroyed by, its consequences. There is, therefore, an intimate connection between the dramatic structure of tragedy as an art form and Cover Letter Cv Cover the emotional cathartic experience available only to tragedy’s audiences. Tragedy’s characteristic experience of Contract Writing For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare emotional catharsis for the audience accounts for a number of 17 Awesome Last-Minute Mother's features of the art form. Take, for example, Aristotle’s claim that the protagonist of a tragedy is characteristically of a higher station or social status than its audience members are. On his view, audience members who recognize the protagonist as their social better are in position to achieve the appropriate emotional catharsis because the events that unfold are understood to Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare, be the result of the protagonist’s choices and not merely to be the result of intractable or unfortunate circumstances; the heights from which the protagonist falls clarify the consequences of his action. Whether or not we agree with Aristotle about the 17 Awesome Last-Minute Mother's Day Gift reasons he offers for Contract For Freelancers | Skillshare, the fact that Greek tragedies characteristically centered on royal figures or even demigods, we can see that he is identifying the art form’s characteristic experience in order to Cover Letter Rn | Cv Cover Letter, explain why the Contract | Margot Harrington art form has the Ideas Resume Free features it does. Other features of tragedy that Aristotle accounts for Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare, include the extent to which the central action is grounded within basic familial structures and tensions and the role of the protagonist’s ignorance in the completion of the action.

Further, Aristotle’s account of tragedy has normative implications arising from his understanding of the form as aiming for a characteristic experience. In articulating the characteristic experience for the audience at which the art form aims, Aristotle identifies and explains why certain features, such as the high social status of its protagonist and the protagonist’s ignorance, aid in producing catharsis. Resume Template. Thus, his account of tragedy and Writing | Margot Harrington | Skillshare how it is structured outlines a set of norms and standards that arise from the Sample Job Rejection In Pdf aim of achieving the art form’s characteristic experience. b. Aristotle and Horace as Models for Theorizing Art. Aristotle’s analysis of tragedy as structured by the aim of achieving a characteristic experience in its audience is paradigmatic of artistic analysis and theory in the ancient Greek and Roman world and then again in Europe up through the 18 th century. Writing | Skillshare. Horace’s Ars Poetica , for 17 Awesome Ideas, example, identifies poetry by its characteristic experience, namely, an experience of apprehending unity of Writing | Margot Harrington action. 17 Awesome Day Gift. Beginning in the Renaissance, Europeans began more extensive theorizing about art and art forms and they relied on Writing For Freelancers, Horace and, to a lesser extent, Aristotle, in order to justify a variety of accounts of art forms and the characteristic experiences that establish their norms and Cover Letter Examples standards. For example, literary theorists such as Lodovico Castelvetro and Julius Caesar Scaliger, writing in 16 th century Italy, both defended poetry as an imitative art (following Horatian principles) and argued for the legitimacy of literature produced in popular, vernacular languages. Such arguments were soon adopted across Europe by theorists such as Joachim du Bellay and Philip Sidney, who developed largely Horatian-style defenses of vernacular poetry as an imitative art.

In the 17 th century, Aristotle’s Poetics achieved a kind of prominence as a model for theorizing the norms of art forms; especially in France, dramatists such as Pierre Corneille and literary figures associated with the Academie francaise, took Aristotle to argue for the unity of action, of place, and of time as fundamental to For Freelancers Harrington, dramatic structure. 17 Awesome Mother's. Although it is For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare, certainly possible to identify appeals to medium within this tradition of literary criticism inspired by Aristotle and Horace, most obviously in the arguments made in favor of works written in vernacular language as a legitimate means of artistic expression, by and large this Horatian tradition of Resume Human Resources. Resources · Project poetics centers around analysis of the art form’s norms and standards by reference to an artistic aim, characteristically imitation, which structures the particular type of artistic experience. By contrast, theorizing about music, both in Contract | Margot Harrington, the ancient world and in the European tradition prior to Resume Human Resources, the 18 th century, did make appeal to what we might think of Contract Writing | Margot Harrington | Skillshare as the Cover Rn | Resume Cv Cover medium of music in articulating the norms underlying musical practices. Contract Writing For Freelancers Harrington. However, what was identified as music’s medium itself changed over time. This is not a weakness of these theoretical accounts but rather an illustration of Adorno’s contention, noted above, that our understanding of the nature of the medium of some art form is itself a product of the history of that form: there is 8+ Sample | Packaging Clerks, no fixed, ahistorical characterization of music’s medium because what musical experiences are is not fixed but continually discovered in Contract Writing, composing and playing music. The earliest theories about the nature of music within the Western tradition held that music is the Resume Examples Resources. Manager expression of a set of natural ratios that are equally expressed macroscopically in | Skillshare, the movement of the 8+ Sample Of Affidavit Of Support | Packaging celestial spheres and microscopically with the harmonies of the human soul. Pythagoras and his followers placed mathematical and musical knowledge at | Skillshare, the center of their studies and influenced Plato and Microsoft Template 3 Ten other ancient philosophers.

One prominent example of this ancient tradition of Contract Writing theorizing music as an expression of natural harmonies is Boethius, a Roman statesman and Neoplatonist philosopher from the 6 th century C.E. In his De institutione musica , Boethius distinguishes between three types of Of Affidavit Of Support | Packaging Clerks music: music of the spheres, music of the human spirit, and instrumental music. Boethius’ account of music as the Writing For Freelancers expression of the natural macro and microscopic harmonies of the universe was important through the European Middle Ages. As the musical possibilities within the European tradition developed from monophony to polyphony in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance and then, during the Baroque era, to Mother's Day Gift, more complex contrapuntal forms of Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot composition, theorizing about the nature of music also changed. Much medieval theorizing was directly inspired by Boethius and oriented around practical instructional concerns for composers and musicians. Refusal Letter. Sample Job Rejection 9+ Job. Indeed, much of the history of Western musical theory is bound up with theories of tuning.

By the 16 th century, there emerged in the work of theorists such as Gioseffo Zarlino, a new theoretical category—temperament—which made possible accounts better suited to describe the innovations in polyphony and counterpoint composition. Another strand of European music theory that emerged during and after the Contract For Freelancers | Margot Harrington Renaissance drew on concepts from ancient rhetorical theories in order to Examples Rn | Letter, describe the space of musical possibilities. By the end of the 18 th century, such rhetorical analysis had largely been supplanted by a new type of analysis of Writing For Freelancers | Skillshare musical forms, such as the sonata, in the work of Heinrich Koch and others. These theoretical developments around the nature of musical experience were responsive to the evolving nature and increasing complexity of music composition and performance in the 18 th and 19 th century. The preceding is Resume Human Resources., not meant to Contract For Freelancers Harrington, be a comprehensive overview of theorizing about art and art forms in the ancient and European traditions prior to the 18 th century.

Importantly, theorizing about artistic medium did not have the central place in Letter Rn | Resume Letter, theorizing about art forms more generally that it came to occupy beginning in the 18 th and 19 th centuries. As art established itself as a relatively autonomous region of experience, the concept of medium emerged as a critical means of understanding distinct types of artistic experience. Thus while we can, in retrospect, identify candidates for music’s medium, there is something anachronistic about thinking of them as examples of theorizing about artistic medium , since theorists like Boethius, for example, did not categorize music as one type of artistic experience among others. As Europeans began to Contract | Skillshare, conceive of art as a distinct region of Abstract Apa.apa Sample Research Paper Abstract experience, the Aristotelian and Horatian model for articulating the Writing | Skillshare norms of an Apa.apa Research Paper art form by reflection on its overall aim was fundamentally modified with the introduction of sustained consideration of the medium as the means for achieving a particular type of artistic experience. 4. Gotthold Lessing and the Problem of Harrington Art in 17 Awesome Last-Minute, the 18th Century. With his Laocoon: An Essay on the Limits of Painting and Poetry , published in 1766, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing is often identified as the first theorist or critic to engage in medium analysis. In that essay, he articulates the standards by which painting and poetry should depict bodies in action through an analysis of the spatiotemporal conditions under which the art forms are experienced. For Freelancers Harrington. Many later theorists and critics identify Lessing’s essay on painting and poetry as an inspiration for their own attempts at medium analysis. Before examining the particulars of Resources. Human Resources · Project Lessing’s own analysis of painting and poetry, it will be helpful to note something of the wider context of Contract art and art criticism in 18 th century Europe. By the mid-18 th century in Europe, art had become its own distinct realm of experience, the culmination of a long and complex process in which artistic creation gradually decoupled from religious expression.

It is a reflection of art’s new status as a distinct form of experience that the 18 th century in Europe saw the emergence of art history and Last-Minute Mother's art criticism as intellectual practices and aesthetic experience became an important topic for philosophers. For Freelancers Harrington. Johann Winckelmann, for instance, developed the first comprehensive account of ancient art, distinguishing between Greek, Greco-Roman, and Roman art, and explicitly took up the Greeks in Cover Rn |, particular as a model for contemporary artists. Denis Diderot, among his many other accomplishments, began, in 1759, writing critical reports on the biennial Paris Salons for a German newsletter, offering evaluations of particular artists and paintings and, equally, developing a critical account of the experiences at which painting should aim. It is in this context that we should locate Lessing’s contributions to medium analysis. Contract Writing For Freelancers. In writing his Laocoon essay, Lessing shared with Winckelmann and Diderot (all three writing more or less concurrently in the 1750s and 1760s) an awareness of Resume Examples Resources. Resources art as a distinct form of experience and thus as posing its own particular questions and distinct problems. Lessing, like Winckelmann, held that art, inasmuch as it was distinct from Contract | Margot Harrington | Skillshare religious experience, should take beauty as its ultimate aim. Further, the ancient Greek, Hellenic, and Roman artists provide the best model for contemporary artists in large part because, being pre-Christian, their work reflects an unadulterated focus on artistic beauty for beauty’s sake.

Later Christian artists were, on this view, required to maintain a sort of double allegiance to the demands of beauty and the teachings of the Church, to the detriment of their work artistically. Like Diderot, Lessing was interested in art’s ability to generate an experience of a kind of moral or spiritual beauty in its audience. Both Diderot and Lessing believed that painting, for example, can show moments of beauty that are not exclusively visual in nature by encouraging audiences to imagine moral and spiritual possibilities that we do not ordinarily encounter or recognize in our everyday lives. Cover Letter Cv Cover. The aesthetic aim means that painters should choose a revelatory moment within the Writing | Margot | Skillshare action depicted that offers the chance to Example Apa.apa Sample Abstract, think through the Contract Writing For Freelancers Harrington nature of that action. Lessing’s work of medium analysis in the Laocoon essay begins with an art historical question: did the Laocoon Group , a statue excavated in Rome in 1506 and currently on display at Abstract Apa.apa Sample Research Abstract, the Vatican, precede or come after Virgil’s account of Laocoon and his death in the Aeneid ? In the Aeneid , Virgil recounts the story of Laocoon, a Trojan priest, who warns against bringing the Greek offering of a giant horse statue into Troy. Snakes sent by the gods kill Laocoon and his sons; the Trojans interpret this a sign from the Contract For Freelancers | Margot gods that Laocoon should not be heeded and 17 Awesome Mother's Day Gift Ideas bring the offering into the city, ensuring their ultimate doom. The question Lessing sets out to answer, whether the Writing For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare sculptors inspired the poet or vice versa, serves as a jumping-off point for Lessing’s broader interest in establishing the Abstract Sample Research different norms and standards that govern painting and poetry. Lessing characterizes painting and Writing | Margot Harrington | Skillshare poetry in quite abstract and Letter. Letter In Pdf capacious terms. Contract Writing | Margot Harrington | Skillshare. He defines poetry as any art form that unfolds in time and painting as inclusive of all art forms that are visual in Apa.apa Sample Research Abstract, nature.

Distinctions between the different materials out of which works of art (between marble and oil paint on canvas, say) are not relevant for Lessing’s analysis: he abstracts away from what will later be thought of by Contract For Freelancers, some critics and theorists as distinct artistic mediums in order to Exclusive Ideas Microsoft 3 Ten Great, characterize painting and poetry in terms of the spatiotemporal experience of the audience in apprehending the work. This stands in contrast with later analysis of artistic medium, which often centers on the particular matter out of which works of art are made. In fact, though often (rightly) credited as the Contract For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare first critic to Letter. Sample Letter 9+ Job, offer an analysis of artistic medium, Lessing himself does not describe painting and poetry as artistic mediums. It is worth noting that there was no widespread appeal to a concept of artistic medium until the middle of the 19 th century, when a term that had its home in scientific contexts was extended into Writing | Margot Harrington | Skillshare artistic contexts. So, although Lessing is correctly credited with the first developed medium analysis, he describes painting and poetry as different methods for Abstract Example Apa.apa Abstract, achieving a particular artistic experience. Lessing’s account of painting and poetry as distinct methods for achieving a particular artistic experience modifies the mode of analysis within which theorists about art since Aristotle had worked. That Aristotle-inspired mode of analysis developed an account of the norms and standards governing an art form by identifying the experience characteristic of the art form and generating an account of the Contract Writing For Freelancers | Skillshare features of the forms in light of their contribution to the overall experience aimed at. Similarly, Lessing’s analysis of 8+ Sample Of Affidavit | Packaging painting and poetry takes as its starting point a particular artistic aim; namely the audience’s imaginative apprehension of bodies in action as beautiful, and distinguishes between two different methods for achieving that experience. Unlike Aristotle, Lessing has in mind a general type of experience, the imaginative apprehension of bodies in For Freelancers | Margot Harrington, action as beautiful, achieved by two different methods.

Lessing is able to offer an account of the Examples Human Human Manager · Project different artistic norms governing painting and poetry because he takes them up as different means by which a kind of artistic experience can be achieved, where each means is constituted by a distinct spatiotemporal structure. According to Lessing, because signs contiguous to other signs best represent objects contiguous to other objects, painting’s appropriate subject matter is Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare, bodies at a single moment of time. Similarly, because signs that succeed one another best represent objects that succeed one another in time, poetry’s appropriate subject matter is Of Support, actions unfolding in time. Lessing argues that the material conditions of the method determine what is appropriate to that art form: If it is true that in its imitations painting uses completely different means or signs than does poetry, namely figures and colors in space rather than articulated sounds in time, and if these signs must indisputably bear a suitable relation to the thing signified, then signs existing in space can express only objects whose wholes or parts coexist, while signs that follow one another can express only objects whose wholes or parts are consecutive. Objects or parts of objects which exist in For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare, space are called bodies.

Accordingly, bodies with their visible properties are the true subjects of painting. Objects or parts of objects which follow one another are called actions. Accordingly, actions are the true subject of poetry. (78) Some subsequent critics and theorists have read Lessing here as offering two distinct tasks for painting and poetry, depicting bodies and depicting action. But Lessing considers these to be two different methods for achieving a single effect; namely, getting the audience to imagine bodies in action.

For he completes the thought by noting “painting too can imitate actions, but only by suggestion through bodies…. Poetry also depicts bodies, but only by suggestion through action.” (78) Because Lessing is Abstract Apa.apa Sample Paper Abstract, interested in painting and poetry inasmuch as they are different methods for encouraging audiences to experience beauty through imagining bodies in action, he immediately goes on to outline the norms that govern these different methods. Poets should construct their descriptions of actions by referencing each body participating in Contract For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare, the overall action in terms of a single characteristic as it makes its contributions to the action. That allows the Last-Minute Mother's Ideas audience to imagine each body’s role in the overall action and so not be distracted by unnecessary detail or description. Painters should, according to Lessing, choose to depict the For Freelancers | Margot Harrington single moment of an overall action that encourages the audience to best imagine the action and one that offers the audience particular insight into what is at Cover Letter Examples Cv Cover, stake in Contract For Freelancers | Skillshare, the action. Homer and the sculptors who created the Laocoon Group are exemplary artists in Lessing’s view because they grasp the norms at work in Clerks, their respective art forms. Homer’s mastery in part stems from his ability to Contract Writing For Freelancers Harrington, offer descriptions of scenes that are centered around and grow out Refusal Sample In Pdf 9+ Job, of an action, as when he describes Agamemnon’s armor and regalia as he is in the act of donning it. Writing | Margot Harrington | Skillshare. According to Lessing, Homer’s usual practice is not to Example Sample Paper, linger on description for its own sake but only to describe objects in the midst of action and only in terms of Writing For Freelancers Harrington a single distinct characteristic, so as to encourage the audience’s imagination: for Exclusive Ideas Microsoft Resume 3 Ten Great, example, he evokes black-prowed ships skimming over a wine-dark sea. Likewise, the sculptors of the Laocoon Group are exemplary inasmuch as they have chosen a moment before the Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare snakes have crushed and broken Laocoon and he has started to scream. Instead, they show his resistance to his suffering, the way in which he is enduring the pain and suffering that will inevitably overwhelm him. In this way, the audience is able to Template Free, imagine both the enormity of his suffering and the spiritual beauty of his resistance in Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington, the face of immense suffering.

Lessing’s analysis of painting and poetry, therefore, identifies them as distinct methods for Of Support, exploring a shared artistic problematic and considers them insofar as they constitute the aimed-for artistic experience. He is Contract Harrington, able to articulate a set of critical norms and standards for the art forms by reflecting on their different underlying spatiotemporal conditions. Lessing’s analysis establishes the dependence of the Resume Human Resources. Manager · Project norms of painting and poetry on the spatiotemporal conditions of the experiences of those works of art. For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare. This dependence is the result of his choice to begin not with the material conditions of the art forms, but by locating those art forms as participating in a particular artistic aim, that is, the demand that painting and poetry encourage their audiences’ imaginative apprehension of the beauty possible for 8+ Sample Of Affidavit | Packaging, bodies in action. In turn this aim determines painting and poetry as methods and gives Lessing’s normative recommendations the force they have. Lessing’s theorization of artistic medium proved influential as questions of art and aesthetic experience moved to Contract Harrington | Skillshare, the center of philosophical thought at the end of the 18 th and 8+ Sample Of Affidavit Of Support the beginning of the 19 th century. Johann Herder, for example, in his Sculpture: Some Observations on Form and Shape from For Freelancers | Margot Harrington Pygmalion’s Creative Dream (1778) extends and complicates Lessing’s approach to Abstract Apa.apa Abstract, artistic medium by denying that painting and sculpture could, as Lessing held, be understood in the same terms because they both offer a single moment of an action up to Writing | Margot | Skillshare, the audience for contemplation. Instead, Herder holds that painting and sculpture are not subject to the same norms and standards because they constitute different artistic media. Most decisively, the Human Resources. concept of artistic medium plays a central role in the thought of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, arguably the most influential philosopher of the early 19 th century. On Hegel’s view, the norms and ideals that structure human interactions develop out of and so are made explicit in the history of | Margot human political development, intellectual development, and Refusal Letter. Letter In Pdf 9+ Job artistic development.

Artistic production in its various forms is humanity’s attempt to express the ideals structuring human life, especially those ideals particularly associated with beauty. But if this is case, then the question arises: Why are there different art forms, given that they all are structured around a shared, if at times inchoate, desire? Hegel’s answer to this question, most developed in his Lectures on Aesthetics (published posthumously in 1835), is Contract For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare, that different artistic media serve as the basis for and so give rise to the possible forms of Last-Minute Mother's Day Gift Ideas expression within particular art forms. Contract Writing For Freelancers. In Hegel’s work, we have perhaps the clearest example of the consequences of Letter Examples Rn | Letter conceiving of Contract Writing | Skillshare art as a distinct form of human experience, separate from religion and Examples Rn | Resume Cv Cover politics for For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare, example. In thinking of Of Affidavit Of Support art as a general field of experience within which we can distinguish distinct art forms, the concept of artistic medium is critical in allowing Hegel to maintain the unity of art in | Margot Harrington, general while still distinguishing clearly between particular art forms and the norms and standards that govern them. 5. The Invention of 17 Awesome Last-Minute Day Gift Ideas Photography and the Discovery of Harrington | Skillshare Its Artistic Possibilities.

a. The Etymology of the Term “Artistic Medium” As noted above, Lessing does not describe his analysis of painting and Human Resources. Resources Manager · Project poetry as an analysis of artistic medium. He talks about painting and poetry as different methods for achieving an Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington experience. Refusal Sample 9+ Job. Indeed, it was not until the middle of the Writing For Freelancers 19 th century, almost 90 years after Lessing’s Laocoon essay, that medium began to be used in artistic contexts, referring to the material conditions out of which works of art are made. The Oxford English Dictionary notes that the earliest use of medium in an artistic context, signifying the raw material out of which a work of art is made, is from 1861. Exclusive Microsoft 3 Ten Free. This new use of medium in an artistic context grew out Contract For Freelancers, of an earlier use that describes the substance (such as oil or water) that painters mix with pigment to 8+ Sample Of Support | Packaging, create paint. We still speak of oil paint as a distinct medium that differs from watercolor; this use is an extension from an Writing For Freelancers Harrington earlier one that identifies oil and water as media in which pigments are mixed.

While the first uses of medium in artistic contexts often referenced the material out of which paint and then paintings were made, the timing of this development is likely connected to a radical problem that gripped the art world of the 19 th century; namely, the emergence of technologies that reproduced images: first lithography, and then photography, which reproduces images of our world now past. In the 1820s, Nicephore Niepce developed the first photoetching process; in Of Affidavit, the 1830s, a number of inventors, most prominently Niepce’s partner Louis Daguerre and Writing Harrington | Skillshare William Fox Talbot, worked independently on developing photographic processes that were capable of 17 Awesome Day Gift Ideas capturing images mechanically with much shorter exposures. Contract For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare. By the end of the 1830s, both Talbot and Daguerre had publicly debuted their technology for mechanically capturing and reproducing images from the world. The invention of photography was widely felt as a challenge to the received understanding of what could be art and what artistic experiences were proper to painting specifically. But the debates surrounding photography and painting in the 19 th century largely centered on whether or in what ways photography could serve as the means of artistic expression.

The new photographic technology was, in Cover Letter Examples Letter, many cases, quickly distinguished from processes by which works of art were produced and dismissed as being incapable of producing art. The most prominent argument made against Contract Writing | Margot, the possibility that photography could be art was based on the mechanical nature of the photographic process. William Fox Talbot, for example, claims in the introduction to his Pencil of Nature (1844) that photographs are drawn by nature using light. Talbot’s view that photography was the production of natural images by mechanical means alone, without the intervention of any human artistry, was widely shared in the 19 th century and taken to be grounds that photography could not ultimately be an artistic medium. Cover Letter Examples Letter. If the photograph is made by the interaction of natural processes of For Freelancers | Skillshare light and chemicals, then it cannot be a work of art, any more than a tree or a sunset could be. The 19 th century debates about the Sample Research possibility of photographic art seem, from our 21 st century vantage point, hopelessly misguided. But this is largely because we are the Writing For Freelancers recipients of an Exclusive Template 3 Ten understanding of what can count as art that has been altered by Contract | Margot, the development of reproductive technologies like photography and film. Throughout most of the 19 th century, it seemed obvious to a large number of critics that the mechanical nature of photography excluded it straightforwardly from consideration as art. Charles Baudelaire for Examples Human Human Manager · Project, example, in his Salon of 1859, worries that the public is starting to confuse photography for art by mistakenly taking a mechanical means for Writing For Freelancers Harrington, image reproduction as capable of inspiring imagination. Photographers, on this view, were mere technicians, only capable of reproducing natural images by exploiting the laws of nature.

Because there was no human creativity at work in producing the photographic images, those images could not be art and the photographers were not artists. Those who argued that photography could be art generally took two lines of response. On the Letter. Job Rejection In Pdf one hand, many held that, while photography was ultimately a mechanical process, it could be artistic inasmuch as it is able to mimic painting and the artistic experiences of which painting is capable. Contract | Skillshare. On the other hand, some took the opposite tack and argued that photography’s artistic possibilities lay in exploiting photography’s unique features. On the first line of response, photography was artistic by Cover Resume Letter, the extent to which it was able to look like painting or otherwise reproduce it.

On the second, photography was seen as artistic by the extent to which it distinguished itself from painting’s artistic possibilities by taking advantage of the features that only For Freelancers, it possessed. Photographers attempted to imitate painting in Cover Examples Resume Letter, several ways. One of the earliest uses to which photography was put was the reproduction of paintings in Contract For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare, order to disseminate widely what would otherwise require a pilgrimage to see. Further, some early photographers took photographs that were essentially reproducing the subject matter of earlier paintings by staging scenes reminiscent of those paintings. These genre photographs are the primary objects of Baudelaire’s denunciation of photography as essentially lacking in human creativity. Finally, some photographers began to produce photographic experiences that mimicked experiences recognizable from painting, utilizing soft focus, for example. Julia Margaret Cameron’s photographic work exemplifies many of these quasi-painterly techniques and is deeply influenced by pre-Raphaelite painting. On the other hand, many photographers and critics, beginning with the earliest instances of photography, emphasized aspects of photographic production that were taken to be unique to it and therefore unlike painting.

In announcing Daguerre’s invention to the French Academy of Sciences in Exclusive Microsoft Resume Template Free, 1839, Francois Arago emphasized the precision of the photographic image and its ability to allow its audience to see aspects of their world that they would otherwise be unable to see. During the 19 th century, photographic practices evolved to capture moments and aspects of the world that are fleeting. Eugene Atget, for example, developed his photographic productive practice around capturing aspects of Parisian life that were disappearing as the city continually modernized, memorializing scenes from a form of life that was fading away. Walter Benjamin, looking back at Contract For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare, the development of Resume Examples Manager · Project 19 th and early 20 th century photography from the vantage point of the 1930s, articulates photography’s unique features in terms of its ability to allow us to become conscious of what otherwise passes before our eyes unrecognized. Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington. On Benjamin’s view, photography’s ability to Cover Examples Rn | Cv Cover Letter, reveal what he terms the Contract Writing Harrington | Skillshare optical unconscious constitutes its distinctive power and its value as an artistic medium. c. Accounting for Photography’s Artistic Possibilities. The problem posed by photography and its relation to Apa.apa, art generally and painting specifically led to an approach towards questions of artistic medium distinct from the approach pioneered by Lessing. Lessing’s approach starts with an artistic aim and then identifies the distinct norms arising from different methods for achieving it. Photography instead presented itself as a problem: the question is not how best to achieve a particular artistic experience with a mode of expression or set of material conditions, but instead, to what extent, if any, can this new mode of expression be artistic?

The emergence of this new technology raised a pressing question: Can it serve as the basis for artistic creation and, if so, what aspects or features of it are most appropriate for Contract Writing | Margot, creating art? This approach to medium analysis begins by Resume Resources. Resources · Project, identifying a particular medium and its unique features or characteristics and determining what artistic experiences artists using the medium should pursue. Both the early defenders and objectors to photography’s artistic value follow the same basic template for analyzing medium. First, the critic identifies the medium (the photographic technology that constitutes a new mode of expression) and determines its unique features. Then, the Contract | Margot Harrington | Skillshare theorist or critic evaluates the ways in which those unique features can generate artistic experiences. Abstract Sample Research Paper Abstract. There are two ways this evaluation can happen.

One can reflect on the nature of the medium and Contract Writing For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare the unique features of its productive process and try to deduce an Example Apa.apa Paper Abstract absolute a priori claim about its artistic possibilities independently of critical examination of the works produced; this approach generates confusions or, at best, tendentious critical prescriptions. Alternately, one can engage in a critical investigation of work that utilizes the unique features of the medium in order to articulate how new artistic possibilities are being generated. Baudelaire’s dismissal of photography’s potential for | Margot | Skillshare, artistic value exemplifies the Last-Minute first possibility. Benjamin’s critical examination of Atget’s work exemplifies the latter. 6. Modernism as the Discovery of Medium. As modernism transformed almost all traditional art forms more or less simultaneously during the first half of the 20 th century, artistic medium became one of the Contract Writing Harrington | Skillshare crucial art critical concepts not just for theorists and critics but for artists as well. Cover Letter Resume. For modernist artists, inheriting traditional art forms meant querying the conditions of possibility underlying the art form in order to determine, through discovery and exploration, the necessary conditions for contemporary instances of the art form.

For this reason, modernist arts often seemed to critics and some artists to be exercises in Contract For Freelancers | Margot, shedding, as some things taken to Examples Human · Project, be essential to the form earlier in the tradition are discovered to be mere conventions and For Freelancers | Margot thus no longer conditions for contemporary instances of the art form. There are too many important modernist artists across a wide variety of traditional art forms to 8+ Sample Of Affidavit Of Support, give a comprehensive survey of them here. However, it is worth identifying a few of them in order to emphasize the modernist concerns that were deeply shared by artists across a broad swath of different art forms. Contract Writing | Margot. In dance, for Exclusive Ideas Resume Template Free, example, Isadora Duncan, the American dancer, rejected the inherited tradition of ballet techniques and thought of her own practice as the exploration of dance’s medium, the human body in its freedom of movement and gesture. In his “Ornament and Crime” (1913), Adolf Loos, an Austrian architect, critic, and theorist, argued against unnecessary architectural ornamentation in ways that heralded the modernist emphasis on Contract For Freelancers Harrington, purity of 17 Awesome Last-Minute Day Gift Ideas form and design.

The modernist architectural commitment to form following function in design and the general dictum that buildings should be “machines for living” culminated in the work of architects such as Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. In literature, the work of Gertrude Stein, James Joyce, and Franz Kafka, to name only a few, all differently exemplify modernist commitments. Contract For Freelancers Harrington. In Joyce’s work, for example, we can see a broad modernist development from an exploration of the history of forms of literary expression in Ulysses (1922) to an obsessive examination of the expressive possibilities of Letter Resume Letter language itself in his final book, Finnegans Wake (1939). b. Modernism and 20th Century Music. The history of composed music during the first half of the 20 th century illustrates this same modernist problematic. By the 1920s, a number of composers began to explore new and unconventional forms of composition, including serial and atonal composition. Among the most prominent of Contract For Freelancers | Margot these modernist composers was Arnold Schoenberg, who developed twelve-tone technique or row composition.

Other notable modernist serial composers included Anton Webern and Karlheinz Stockhausen. These new forms of composition were theoretical accomplishments and also new ways of organizing musical elements such as melody and harmony. Not only did these developments in composition provide new systems of musical organization, but they readjusted audience’s understanding of older forms of composition now thought of as, for example, limited to tonal relations in contrast with modernist atonality. As Theodor Adorno observes, Schoenberg’s twelve-tone technique, for example, stands in contrast with 19 th century composers who manipulate and transform the repetition of certain basic musical relations. In Schoenberg’s compositions, however, there is no room for repetition. Rather, the Of Support | Packaging Clerks composer moves through a series of distinct relations between pitches. Usually these rows of related pitches do not get repeated but explored once, and then a new row is generated.

No longer are composers straightforwardly exploring relations between melody and harmony by the repetition and manipulation of a few themes or motifs. Instead, serial composers such as Schoenberg are generating new relations between pitch intervals without recourse to the repeated exploration of some theme. Thus, in the modernist exploration of music’s possibilities, the medium of music itself undergoes radical developments. In other words, modernist composers no longer took for granted compositional techniques or assumptions that had for Contract | Skillshare, prior generations seemed obvious or unproblematic. Instead, modernist composers aimed to generate an entire system of composition and so too a theoretical articulation of the constraints and rules by which their particular system of composition operates. As these modernist questions gripped more composers, the Microsoft Resume 3 Ten Great Free possible compositional systems and their accompanying theoretical justifications proliferated.

c. Fried on | Skillshare, the Value of Modernism. Why modernism should have taken hold in a number of traditional art forms more or less simultaneously in the early part of the 20 th century remains an important question, one that cannot be answered directly in this article. We will simply note that it did happen and that although many artists and Letter. Sample Letter In Pdf 9+ Job critics embraced the modernist moment with traditional art forms as the promise of clarifying what was truly necessary for those arts, the modernist moment also clearly marked a kind of crisis for those traditional art forms, in which that which had previously been accepted as the possible basis for serious work within the form no longer satisfied artists or audiences. The logic of modernism is important for understanding the concept of artistic medium because the exploration of the Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington art form’s medium in its purity was central to Refusal Job Rejection In Pdf 9+ Job, it. This article will focus on one clarifying example, the critical discourse analyzing and justifying modernist painting in the 1950s and 1960s, in order to bring out the characteristic structure of reasoning about medium in artistic modernism.

Three critics in particular, Clement Greenberg, writing in For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare, the 1940s and 1950s, and Stanley Cavell and Michael Fried, writing in the 1960s, championed the modernist project in American painting and sculpture; their work offers a perspicuous example of the logic of modernism as an exploration of artistic medium. Greenberg’s “Modernist Painting,” in particular, is an early statement of critical purpose, justifying the modernist project of medium exploration for its own sake. Resume Examples · Project. Greenberg saw the modernist project as akin to the Kantian commitment to critical philosophy: like Kant, modernist artists, on Greenberg’s view, engage in a project of | Margot Harrington criticism, reflecting on Cover Letter Letter, the nature of the form in its purity by | Margot | Skillshare, discovering and articulating its limits. Cavell, in his “A Matter of Last-Minute Day Gift Ideas Meaning It” (1969), identifies modernism as the realization of an art form’s artistic media through the discovery of its contemporary conditions of possibility. The work of the modernist artist, according to Cavell, is to Writing For Freelancers | Margot, find the criteria for an instance of an art form in the act of inheriting that form. The dominance of this modernist problematic was challenged in the 1960s as minimalist or conceptual art on the one hand and pop art on the other developed alternative artistic possibilities to be explored.

These alternative artistic programs competed with modernist painting by rejecting painting and sculpture altogether as forms for artistic expression. Instead, the aim was to cultivate forms of experience in ways not bound by painting’s forms, its problematics, and its media. For example, pop art was interested in exploring the image and contemporary experiences of images as such, rather than posing the image as a problem situated merely within the history of painting. This confrontation between modernism on the one hand and pop art, minimalism, or conceptual art on the other was felt as a crisis involving the very existence of Last-Minute Mother's Day Gift painting and sculpture as art forms by a number of artists and critics. Contract For Freelancers | Skillshare. Michael Fried, in “Art and Objecthood” (1967), offers perhaps the strongest critical polemic on behalf of modernist painting and sculpture. Fried identifies recent developments in painting as responding to a conflict between minimalists and modernists about how shape should function as an artistic medium: What is at Microsoft Resume Great Free, stake in this conflict is whether the Contract | Margot paintings or objects in question are experienced as paintings or objects, and what decides their identity as painting is their confronting of the demand that they hold as shapes. Otherwise they are experienced as nothing more than objects. This can be summed up by saying that modernist painting has come to find it imperative that it defeat or suspend its own objecthood, and that the crucial factor in this undertaking is shape, but shape that must belong to painting—it must be pictorial, not, or not merely, literal. (151)

Fried here identifies the minimalist project as taking what he terms a literal approach to shape, for example, in which shape on its own is apparently explored for Day Gift, its artistic possibilities. By contrast, for Fried the modernist project takes the art form itself as an artistic problematic or a contemporary question and Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington the medium exploration is in Cover Letter Resume Cv Cover Letter, service of the Writing Harrington | Skillshare exploration of that problematic: What now are the conditions of painting? Fried’s objection in condemning conceptual artists and minimalists as literalists is that exploration of the medium as such loses connection with what is Exclusive Microsoft Resume Template Great Free, possible within traditional art forms like painting and sculpture; namely, an aesthetic experience. Painting and sculpture aim at the production in their audiences of a shared moment of Contract Writing | Margot Harrington judgment, a moment of Of Affidavit Of Support | Packaging Clerks judgment that audiences together take pleasure in extending and contemplating. The literalists, on the other hand, construct for their audiences experiences that cannot be shared in Writing, a single moment of judgment but are necessarily individual explorations of objects within a space over some duration. Fried thinks conceptual and minimal artists offer audiences theatricalized experiences, unfolding for each individual in time without the possibility of a shared moment of aesthetic judgment. Example Sample Paper Abstract. For Fried, it is not possible to arrive at | Margot, the unity of an aesthetic experience simply by the exploration of material conditions in themselves, cut loose from any artistic problematic or aim. In contrast, modernist artists committed to the traditional art forms are interested in discovering the material conditions for experiences that demand aesthetic judgment. The modernist worry, articulated by Fried and Cavell, is that the possibility for authentic experiences of art are lost when the questions of artistic medium no longer arise in 17 Awesome Mother's Day Gift, relation to an existing art form and its traditions. Substituting theatricalized experiences for serious artistic experiences will mean that people no longer have experiences that are both aesthetic and ascetic.

Grounding one’s explorations within the history of an art form in | Skillshare, order to offer a contemporary instance of the art form calls for Examples Human Resources. Human Resources, an appropriately serious response on the part of the beholder, a response that demands self-work on the part of the beholder in ways that enrich both the Writing For Freelancers | Skillshare experience and the beholder. In contrast to aesthetic literalism, the modernist project thus involves the cultivation of aesthetic judgment; through contemplation, better understanding of the Cover Letter Examples Rn | Resume Cv Cover Letter relation between the present instance of the form and the history of the Contract | Margot | Skillshare form is achieved. For those artists and critics committed to modernist art, the task at hand was the survival of traditional art forms through a radical exploration of what is most essential to 3 Ten, a particular form. Contract Writing. In so doing, the modernist artist aims to continue the art form by an original contribution to the tradition and creating work that discovers artistic possibilities on behalf of the art form. But to those artists and critics that emerged in the wake of the Resume Examples Resources. Resources Manager modernist moment, this stance of the Contract Writing heroic artist revealing possibilities for an art form through creating new instances of the | Packaging Clerks form came to seem inappropriate and a bit self-aggrandizing. Postmodern critics and artists in the 1970s and after developed new approaches to the history of traditional art forms.

Rosalind Krauss in “The Originality of the Avant-Garde” (1981) argues that modernists and avant-garde artists imagine that they make themselves the new origin of the art form as they continuously discover its essential conditions. Such modernist artists continually rediscover a few prominent automatisms, forms of repetition, as if they were the essence of painting and their discovery were an act of artistic originality. | Margot Harrington | Skillshare. Krauss argues that rather than discover the essential material conditions of the art, modernist artists returned again and again to Resume Examples Human Manager, a fundamental form of repetition activated throughout the Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare history of Of Affidavit Of Support | Packaging Clerks painting; namely, the grid. Avant-garde and modernist artists from this point of view do nothing but treat the various forms of repetition and automatisms that constitute the history of the art form as original individual discoveries of the grid and its possibilities for painting. Postmodern art is characterized by a change in relation to an art form’s tradition. Rather than attempt to investigate the necessary material conditions for Contract Writing For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare, contemporary expression within the art form, the postmodernist attempts to otherwise activate a tradition’s discarded conventions through exaggeration, juxtaposition, and unabashed repetition. Resources. Resources Manager · Project. Modernism’s approach to tradition is to strip away everything conventional and Contract For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare inessential in order to discover the fundamental conditions of the art form.

Postmodernism instead approaches an art form’s tradition as a collection of automatisms to be explored and activated again through conscious repetition. Rather than discarding all that is unnecessary, the postmodern artist juxtaposes or exaggerates disparate conventions and so hopes to rediscover possibilities within forgotten automatisms that modernism would have discarded. From the point of view of postmodernism, Fried’s attachment to the experience of Research Paper working on oneself in order to better behold modernist works of art looks like a self-aggrandizing response analogous to the modernist artist’s “genius” in laying bare the conditions of painting as such. Contract Writing | Skillshare. On the other hand, if Benjamin is correct that the invention of lithography and subsequent technologies that produce and reproduce images irrevocably accelerated European art’s transition from forms of Exclusive Microsoft Resume Template 3 Ten Great Free experience centered around cult value to forms of experience centered around exhibition value, then modernist commitments to Writing For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare, the possibilities of aesthetic-ascetic experience in inheriting traditional art forms may be seen as late attempts to sustain the possibilities of art with cult value. Modernism coheres around the concept of artistic medium, for the aims of modernism are to 17 Awesome Mother's Day Gift Ideas, discover the possibilities and thus the limits, the strengths, the tensions, the contradictions within an art form and For Freelancers | Margot Harrington its history by discovering how the form’s material conditions can be transformed into new and newly definitive instances of the form. Because postmodern artists return to Microsoft Resume Template 3 Ten Great, the history of the form to discover its discarded conventions and automatisms rather than discarding them, they no longer think of media in terms of the essence of an art form. But although medium is Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare, not central to postmodern art, it is nonetheless still useful in critically evaluating works of art. Postmodernism emerged in the wake of modernism; the break with the history of traditional art forms that constituted the Examples Manager · Project modernist moment was a break from conventions that no longer provided conviction for Writing | Margot, artistic expression.

Medium remains a productive concept for artists and critics, even if there is now little interest in exploring an art form’s possibilities through discovery of its most essential media. 7. Human Resources. Resources · Project. New Forms of Popular Art in the 20th Century. The 20 th century saw the emergence of a succession of new forms of popular art, including movies, comics, and video games. These new popular arts inspired discussion about medium between artists and critics as the forms developed. Especially early in the lives of new popular art forms, questions of medium and medium analysis seem pressing to both artists and critics. This is because new art forms grow by borrowing artistic problems and aims from related earlier forms and by exploring a different material basis that makes new forms of artistic expression possible and in Contract Writing | Margot, which artistic questions and interests can be pursued, critiqued, or otherwise engaged. Movies and film criticism are an exemplary instance of a new form of Letter. Letter In Pdf 9+ Job popular art generating elaborate and often productive discourses about medium.

Much of the early history of film criticism and film theory is marked out by exploration of a number of questions related to film as a medium. As film theory began to Contract For Freelancers Harrington, establish itself as an academic field of interest in the early 1970s, interest shifted away from questions of medium. But early in the development of the movies as an art form, film’s potential for artistic expression was a prominent critical conversation between theorists and artists. In the 1920s, Soviet filmmakers and critics such as Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, and Dziga Vertov were engaged in a critical discourse about film’s potential for popular art in writing and with their movies. Eisenstein, for example, argued that film’s unique and characteristic feature was montage, the juxtaposition of images through editing into a sequence.

His own movies, such as Battleship Potemkin (1925) and Ivan the Terrible (1945), have elaborate montage sequences and editing choices that encourage political recognition. Likewise, Pudovkin claims that montage and juxtaposition of images through editing can change the meaning of images. For both, the emphasis on Resume Resources. Manager · Project, montage as a unique and characteristic feature of film being central to its possible artistic experiences stems from their interest in the ways in which juxtaposing images can generate both abstract judgments and strong emotional responses. | Margot Harrington. Dziga Vertov’s exploration of the Ideas Template Great photographic and mechanical basis of the film image was central to his artistic and political project of discovering new ways of allowing his audiences to Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare, understand the world around them. He emphasized film’s ability to reveal minute features and gestures, otherwise unseen or unnoticed, so that the audience is able to recognize them as characteristic of the overall environment. One exemplary instance of Vertov’s exploration of the nature of film as a medium of expression is his experimental movie, Man with a Movie Camera (1928). A number of early film critics developed an analysis of film’s artistic and political promise around its photographic basis. In “The Work of Art in the Age of Example Research Paper Abstract Its Technological Reproducibility,” (1939) Walter Benjamin emphasized photography’s ability to make visible minute aspects and gestures so as to display the character of people and environments.

Similarly, popular movies offer the opportunity to develop new habits of perception that allow audiences to recognize fraught meaningful gestures. Walter Benjamin’s medium analysis is exemplary, for Benjamin explicitly asks of all reproductive technologies that have developed after lithography not, “What features of these material conditions are unique and thus capable of artistic experiences that take advantage of those features?” but rather, “How does the existence of Contract Harrington these new reproductive technologies change what art can be?” Benjamin’s form of medium analysis is historically and In Pdf 9+ Job critically grounded in For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare, successful instances of emergent forms of popular art. Rudolf Arnheim, also writing film criticism in the 1920s and 1930s, offered an analysis of film’s potential as an artistic medium. Unlike Benjamin, who emphasizes film’s ability to Resume Resources, reveal the optical unconscious, Arnheim identifies the Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare ways in which the 3 Ten Free film image differs from everyday images and derives from those features the norms that should serve as the Contract For Freelancers Harrington basis for film art. Arnheim’s critical blinders and Of Affidavit Of Support Clerks commitment to an idea about purity of medium led him to argue against the possibility of For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare film art that includes sound because film and sound are distinct media and should not be mixed. Another early theorist committed to a medium analysis of film and photography is Siegfried Kracauer. Kracauer’s critical articulation of film’s artistic possibilities stems, like Benjamin’s, from the Cover Examples Rn | unique capabilities of photography and film, and so he identifies and encourages film’s documentary and Contract For Freelancers democratizing impulses. Andre Bazin, a midcentury French film critic who championed the Italian neorealists and cultivated a generation of French film critics and filmmakers, developed an analysis of film’s photographic basis. Bazin emphasizes photography’s ability to 8+ Sample Of Affidavit Of Support | Packaging, satisfy absolutely the desire to preserve the world as the basis for a critical understanding of film and its possibilities. In so doing, he locates film’s ontological basis in photography and photography’s ability to place us in relation to our world, now past. This tradition of exploring the meaning of film’s ontological status as photographic includes Stanley Cavell’s work, especially his The World Viewed: Reflections on the Ontology of Film (1971).

Cavell critiques and extends Bazin’s account of the ontology of film and photography in part by focusing his own medium analysis upon a specific artistic problematic. The World Viewed offers a medium analysis not of film as such, but of popular Hollywood movies. Contract Writing. In analyzing the medium of movies, according to Cavell, prior to Examples Resume Letter, the 1960s popular movies explored the For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare possibilities and tensions within a problematic of modern action that emerged in Last-Minute Day Gift Ideas, the 19 th century concerning the Writing | Margot possibilities for urbane, stylish, and productive action, but by the late 1960s, a new problematic concerning the contemporary possibilities for Ideas Resume Template 3 Ten Free, action simpliciter was emerging. Writing | Margot Harrington. The World Viewed was written in observance of Abstract Research Paper Abstract this transition within popular movies and draws on the conceptual tools of medium analysis in order to Contract | Skillshare, register the fact of this transformation. If the beginning of the 1970s saw the emergence of a new problematic for Resume Examples Human Resources. Resources Manager · Project, popular movies to discover and explore, it also saw the establishment of film theory as an Contract Writing For Freelancers academic discipline. In academic film studies, medium analysis had a few early prominent practitioners. Leo Braudy’s The World in a Frame: What We See in Films (1976), for example, offers an analysis of film’s artistic possibilities by distinguishing between the Mother's Day Gift ways in which movie worlds are both closed off from and Contract Writing Harrington | Skillshare open to and interpenetrate with our world.

This tradition of medium analysis of film’s photographic basis within film theory and criticism is well represented by Victor Perkins, who identifies minute, meaningful, characteristic gestures as fundamental to the movies’ artistic possibilities. Perkins’ commitment to the fundamental role that artistic medium has within his critical practice points to an intimate nexus of considerations of medium and artistic experience within the creation of movies and artistic practices more generally. However, soon after film theory and criticism found an academic home within film studies in the 1970s, theorists and critics moved away from sustained medium analysis of film or the film arts. Instead, academics developed alternative interpretative frameworks, prominently Lacanian, feminist, and Marxist ones, that displaced the prominence of medium analysis within film theory. In analytic philosophy, as philosophy and film established itself as a domain of inquiry, instances of medium analysis gave way primarily to cognitive science approaches to theorizing film and film experiences. Medium analysis depends on the unity of the aesthetic experience to Resume Examples Human Human Resources Manager, which the medium in Harrington, question is able to contribute. A cognitive science approach to the effects possible in certain modes of filmmaking need not concern itself with the unity of aesthetic experience. In the 1990s, Noel Carroll, a leading advocate of the cognitive-science approach in analytic philosophy and film, argued that medium was necessarily a confused category and should be eschewed by philosophers interested in theorizing movies and other film arts. In the Abstract Example Sample Research Paper Abstract mid-2000s, Carroll adjusted his view and acknowledged uses for the concept of medium, especially in For Freelancers, describing the practices of certain experimental or avant-garde film artists. Regardless, for many years since its inception, indeed until the mid-1970s, one prominent form film theory has taken is 17 Awesome Mother's, medium analysis.

Comics, as they have developed as an art form, have also developed critical and theoretic discourses that participate in some form of medium analysis. Much of the most prominent medium analysis has been by artists adopting a critical and theoretic stance with respect to their own artistic practices. Contract For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare. Prominent instances of 8+ Sample | Packaging this medium analysis of comics by comics artists include Will Eisner’s Comics and Sequential Art (1985) and Scott McCloud’s Understanding Comics (1993). Both Eisner and McCloud offer paradigmatic instances of medium analysis, in that both are theorizing the particular ways in which comics, as an Contract | Margot | Skillshare art form, are able to achieve forms of aesthetic unity in relating image and action. Video games and 21 st century gaming offer another instance of an emergent popular art form that has inspired early practitioners, critics, and theorists to engage in medium analysis. Much of the academic discourse analyzing gaming grows out of film studies and necessitates some medium consideration as terms and Ideas Template 3 Ten interpretative frameworks are applied in new contexts or, alternatively, theorists attempt to distinguish clearly between experiences that are proper to movies and other narrative visual forms and experiences that are proper to games and gaming. Medium analysis has been an important aspect of developing theoretic and critical discourses about gaming in which game creators and theorists are in conversation. Currently within academia, medium analysis is largely pursued in media studies and disciplines exploring the emergence of new media.

In philosophy, medium analysis has recently been utilized in numerous ways within the Contract For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare philosophy of gaming and video games. Given the Abstract Apa.apa Research Paper Abstract ways in which screens and screen technology continue to interpenetrate contemporary reality, we can anticipate further recourse to | Margot Harrington | Skillshare, medium analysis in theorizing these new forms of experience. Even if the collapse of interest in modernist projects in the arts has moved contemporary theorizing about art away from medium as a central concept, academic theorists of new media and new popular arts still participate in a discourse of medium analysis. Artistic medium continues to be a productive critical concept as well for working artists and critics interested in articulating the means by Mother's, which an artistic experience is structured and organized. That theorists and critics attempting to theorize medium should run into characteristic confusions in defining and theorizing medium stems from the picture they share of medium as an object. Contract For Freelancers | Margot. They take their task to be identifying the object that is the medium in order to deduce and Examples Resume Cv Cover prescribe its appropriate artistic experiences.

But working critics and Writing | Margot artists are less likely to think of artistic medium as an object to be studied for its own sake. For such critics and artists, thinking about medium is thinking about how something functions in creating a particular effect or in Resume Human Resources. Human Manager · Project, structuring a particular form of experience. For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare. What photography, for example, can be is to be discovered by artists as they pursue particular projects or lines of exploration. In this sense, artistic medium is a critical concept; we can only say what media are constitutive of an art form by critically examining instances of the form. This way of approaching medium analysis, as necessarily a critical pursuit, conceives of artistic media as the capacities for organizing and structuring the audience’s experience as the means of exploring and discovering the possibilities and 17 Awesome Mother's Ideas tensions within an artistic problematic. Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington. These capacities for organizing artistic experience are forms of repetition or automatisms that have significance as the means by which a form of artistic experience is Examples Human Resources, structured. Medium analysis emerged with, and has developed in response to, modern art. As critics and theorists began to argue for art and the aesthetic as a distinct form of experience in the 18 th century, independent of its former subservience to religion and able to For Freelancers | Margot, dedicate itself to Exclusive Microsoft Resume Template, aiming only at beauty, medium analysis developed. First developed in Lessing’s work, medium analysis is a critical tool for understanding the norms constituting a capacity for structuring an artistic experience. The value of artistic medium in theoretical and Contract Writing Harrington | Skillshare critical discourse is realized when medium is approached not as some raw material to be investigated in advance of its possible artistic uses but as a means by which artists discover and Last-Minute Day Gift explore possibilities within a particular artistic problematic.

Discovery of Harrington a medium’s possibilities happens by artists in the creation of new instances of an art form, and by audiences and critics in the experience of particular instances of the art form. Theorists can avoid confusion by Example Sample Research, remembering that medium is an essentially critical concept, in Writing Harrington, that what is possible within a medium is discovered by artists as they continue to create and explore.

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Edited Mar 24, 2015 at 12:26 UTC. Contract Writing Harrington. Travis5295 Mar 25, 2015 at 2:26 UTC. Of Affidavit Of Support | Packaging. Steve (Greenview Data) wrote: This is another example of Contract Writing, why Cloud antispam is Sample Letter In Pdf, now the most effective protection against email threats. Traditional and even appliance-based antivirus only scans the | Margot | Skillshare, downloaded malware, which changes faster than they can keep up. Cloud antispam can examine the entire delivery mechanism (header, subject, body, links, etc). and 17 Awesome Last-Minute, can analyze global email traffic to Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare detect spam. Thanks for the heads up.

Steve (Greenview Data) Mar 30, 2015 at Resume Human Resources Manager 2:05 UTC. Steve (Greenview Data) wrote: This is another example of why Cloud antispam is now the most effective protection against email threats. Traditional and even appliance-based antivirus only Contract Writing scans the Example Sample Research Paper, downloaded malware, which changes faster than they can keep up. Cloud antispam can examine the Writing For Freelancers | Skillshare, entire delivery mechanism (header, subject, body, links, etc). and can analyze global email traffic to detect spam. Resume Human Resources. Human Resources · Project. I do try very hard to avoid empty marketing lingo. Yes, my company is Contract For Freelancers | Skillshare, here to promote our products and services, but mainly by providing useful, substantive information to the community. Sometimes it is difficult to avoid sounding like a marketing or sales person, but I do try.

I know how annoying that can be (Marketing Directors are people, too). As an antispam provider, we are especially sensitive to the subject and go out of our way to Refusal In Pdf avoid spammy communications.Take a look at the privacy page on Contract Harrington | Skillshare, our websites and Resume Examples Resources. Human Resources, you'll see what I mean. Also, I hope I'm not one of those marketers who tries to make the Cloud sound like a magic end-all solution to every problem facing humanity. Contract Harrington. However, Cloud based email providers like us do have the ability to gather and analyze data (like traffic patterns) from a global perspective that, for example, an IT admin running their own in-house spam filter can't (even if they had the time). Resources.. ?As for this particular thread, email-borne malware protection has become a hot topic and Cloud antispam (notice I didn't limit it to our company's product) does have an Contract For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare ability to protect email recipients from zero-day threats that traditional antivirus providers don't have, despite their efforts to keep up. It's not their fault, just an inherent difference in Letter. Sample Letter In Pdf how the two products work. (On the other hand, they can protect regardless of the delivery mechanism, we are limited to email-based threats - such as links and attachments).

I don't want to go into Contract For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare, the details here, but you are welcome to read my blog post on the topic. Anyway, I do appreciate the comment. Letter.. I am not here to spam or otherwise annoy anyone in this community. I agree that does not go over well, nor should it. Travis5295 Mar 30, 2015 at 2:18 UTC. Thanks for an honest, straightforward reply. Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare. Could you maybe explain how an online provider has better/more coverage than the local admin can get using RBL lists from companies like Barracuda? Steve (Greenview Data) Mar 30, 2015 at 3:08 UTC. You're welcome.

Good questions. I don't like to call out other companies by name (another guideline I try to adhere to). All of us antispam providers are basically trying to protect customers from threats and work hard to Sample Letter In Pdf 9+ Job do so. We just approach it differently, but think we provide better overall protection. Our goal is to block spam without blocking legitimate email, to the extent that you don't need to constantly worry about Writing For Freelancers Harrington, either. Whether you and your coworkers are seeing spam in your inboxes or (worse) by Resume 3 Ten Great sifting through your quarantine, you are still looking at spam, which puts everyone and your company at Contract For Freelancers | Skillshare risk. We think we achieve that goal. Apa.apa Paper. In a typical month, fewer than 1% of Writing | Margot Harrington | Skillshare, our customers even bother *checking* their quarantines, and fewer find a legitimate email there.

To your question about RBLs and protection. We go against the mainstream on this one. Due to 17 Awesome Last-Minute Day Gift Ideas automation and other factors, we feel that RBLs produce too many false positives for business antispam. You may have seen the numerous posts from Spiceheads whose companies' outbound emails are being blocked by one RBL or another and have trouble getting de-listed. Those are all false positives - legitimate emails that might never reach their destination - or cause recipients to look at more spam in For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare their quarantines. Simply put, we do not rely on Letter. Sample Job Rejection Letter 9+ Job, RBLs for blacklisting. Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare. We make a few available to Apa.apa Paper our customers, but discourage their use and turn them off by default (the RBLs, not the Contract For Freelancers, customers). Instead, we do conservative blacklisting and Exclusive Microsoft Resume, only block servers that we determine are *owned* by spammers, not those being temporarily abused. Keep in mind that we do not rely on Bayesian Heuristics. SpamStopsHere was developed by us, including the way we determine which servers to blacklist. During 2014, our IP blacklist blocked about 42% of the spam.

Our other filters (URL, then Phrase, then Pattern) each knock out a chunk of Writing | Skillshare, spam while producing almost no false positives. The end result is 99.5% spam blocking with fewer than 0.001% false positives (without graylisting, either). That does require 24/7/365 live spam reviewers (aka threat analysts) to block the threats that automation can't because spam is largely a you know it when you see it thing, and software still can't see too well. We also update our spam filters every TWO minutes 24/7/365. Letter Examples Rn | Resume Letter. I've heard of update rates on the order of 45 minutes for one appliance-based vendor and see others brag about blocking a campaign within 30 minutes. That's an eternity these days as far as spam goes. I hope that provides you with some more insight.

Edited Mar 30, 2015 at 4:55 UTC. Writing | Margot | Skillshare. Travis5295 Mar 30, 2015 at 4:29 UTC. Thank you! That's the kind of information I (hopefully we) really like to see, and we just won't get elsewhere. Steve (Greenview Data) Mar 30, 2015 at 4:57 UTC. Thank you! That's the kind of information I (hopefully we) really like to see, and we just won't get elsewhere. Abstract Example Apa.apa Sample Research Paper Abstract. You're welcome. A lot of our marketing is like that.

Check out our blog and the rest of our website some time. We try to be substantive and helpful. This discussion has been inactive for over a year. You may get a better answer to your question by starting a new discussion. A daily dose of today's top tech news, in brief. You need to hear this. Writing For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare. Dropbox announces facelift Dropbox announced a complete visual redesign today, promising a more visually appealing platform with a whole lot more color. It's first major reva. Exclusive Ideas Microsoft Resume Template Free. Being local admins is part of the For Freelancers | Margot, company culture.

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Cooperative Extension Publications. Bulletin #3101, Recipe to Market: How to Start a Specialty Food Business in Writing | Skillshare, Maine. Prepared by Extension Food Science Specialist and Associate Professor Beth Calder and Professor Emeritus Alfred Bushway. For information about UMaine Extension programs and resources, visit Do you have a recipe that has been passed through your family for generations? Do family and friends rave about a food product that you make and encourage you to Examples Resources. Resources start your own food business? Are you an entrepreneur who sees a niche market for your food product? Are you a small-scale farmer who wants to develop value-added food products? Are you a caterer or restaurant owner who would like to provide one of your signature products to the retail market? Specialty food producers—often operating home-based microenterprises—are a growing Maine industry.

Yet starting a Maine home-based food business will require you to face challenges including licensing, food safety, and Writing For Freelancers | Margot, building business skills. Letter Rn | Resume Letter? In addition, some recipes and food products for sale may need to be sent to Contract For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare UMaine for Exclusive Microsoft Resume Template 3 Ten Great testing. We have developed this publication to Contract Writing | Margot answer the questions that we are most frequently asked about starting a small food business in Maine. 1. Is starting a food business right for me? It’s okay to decide against owning a food business after reading this publication. Starting a food business is Resume Examples Resources. Resources · Project, a huge commitment of time, capital, and energy. Also, not all food products can be easily converted to retail items. Marketing research may show that your food product will not have a strong enough demand. But if you choose to proceed, having the right personality and a solid business plan will help you to be successful!

“How do I start, and where do I turn as I begin the process of starting my own food business?” When cooking for family and friends, most cooks have their recipes memorized, or they use a pinch of this or that. When developing a food product for customers, you have to Harrington | Skillshare develop standardized recipes with exact measurements, temperatures and times noted during the process. Recipes should be formulated on a weight basis to ensure batch-to-batch consistency. A scale will help you to convert cups and 8+ Sample Clerks, teaspoon measurements to Writing | Skillshare grams, ounces or pounds and Examples Resources. Manager, the scale should have an accuracy of 0.1 grams. 3. What sort of Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington license do I need to sell my food product? A state food license is required for everyone who sells a food product in Maine. The two common food licenses are: a home food processor or commercial food processor license. If you are interested in Of Affidavit Of Support | Packaging, selling at the farmers markets, a mobile food vendor license will be required in addition to your other food license. Food license applications can be obtained online from the Maine Department of Contract | Margot Harrington | Skillshare Agriculture, Conservation, and Forestry, Quality Assurance and Examples Resources. Resources Manager · Project, Regulations: Licenses and Permit Forms.

If your water source is from a well, the Writing For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare license application requires water test results for Template Great coliforms, nitrates and nitrites. For a list of certified laboratories in Maine that offer water testing, please visit the Maine Health and Environmental Testing Laboratory website. If you have further regulatory questions, please feel free to contact Steve Giguere, Maine Department of For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare Agriculture, Quality Assurance and Regulations at 207.287.3841 or [email protected]; additional contact information is available at Cover Letter Examples Cv Cover Letter, Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation, and Forestry: Quality Assurance and Regulations. You can contact Steve Giguere if you are interested in having the inspector in your area assess your home or commercial kitchen prior to Contract Writing | Margot Harrington | Skillshare making investments in renovating your space and help answer your questions prior to Ideas applying for a home or commercial kitchen license. 4. Where do I get my food license? What are the food laws and Contract For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare, rules for my product? The Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation, and Forestry Division of Abstract Example Apa.apa Quality Assurance Regulations issues food licenses/permits, provides food inspections before and after you start your food business, and provides information about state food regulations. Inspectors are also available to conduct pre-inspections to look at your kitchen or space and to Harrington discuss ideas before you renovate. For more information on their inspection programs, visit Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation, and Of Affidavit | Packaging Clerks, Forestry: Inspections.

To view the Contract For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare Maine statutes and rules for maple syrup, beverage redemption information, and other food laws and rules, see The Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation, and Forestry: Statutes and Rules. If you are interested in selling foods from a mobile food cart, starting a restaurant, Bed and Breakfast or Inn, or becoming a caterer, the Maine Department of Health and Human Services, Health Inspection Program issues licenses to Abstract Sample Paper Abstract food producers selling or providing foods for immediate consumption to their customers. Contract Writing For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare? Here is a link to access more information or to obtain a license application form. We highly recommend that you obtain a copy of the State of Maine Food Code (pdf) early on from the Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation, and Forestry (207.287.3841). Day Gift? This guide ultimately helps you to Writing For Freelancers | Margot follow the FDA’s Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMPs), including proper sanitation, employee hygiene, and certain facility requirements. You must follow CGMPs by law. Keep in Examples Human Resources. Human Resources Manager, mind that these regulations are in place to For Freelancers | Margot Harrington make sure that you are producing foods under sanitary conditions. These sanitation fact sheets help outline the Letter Letter proper sanitation practices that you also need to follow: Basic Elements of a Sanitation Program for Food Processing and Food Handling and Basic Elements of Equipment Cleaning and For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare, Sanitizing in Food Processing and Handling Operations (PDF). If you decide to Last-Minute Mother's Ideas use bleach as a sanitizer, only use unscented bleach labeled as germicidal bleach that includes an Contract Writing For Freelancers EPA registration number. Follow the directions for sanitizing food contact surfaces.

Never exceed a concentration of 200ppm. Abstract Sample Research Paper? Use test strips to check the effectiveness of your sanitizer and never use hot water when diluting bleach, as it will reduce its effectiveness. Germicidal bleach can be purchased at Home Depot, Lowe’s or other hardware stores and test strips can be purchased online or through restaurant supply stores. Peroxyacetic acid is another approved sanitizer for For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare food contact surfaces and is approved for organic processors. Keep in mind, that anything that comes in contact with the Letter Letter food product and/or your ingredients must be made of food grade materials (especially plastic). Contract Harrington | Skillshare? If using food grade plastic, be sure it is in acceptable working condition.

Scratches in Of Affidavit Of Support | Packaging, plastic are great areas for Contract For Freelancers bacterial biofilms to form, which are extremely stubborn and Refusal Letter. Sample, no amount of cleaning or sanitizing will adequately clean cracks. If you see scratches forming in Contract Writing | Margot | Skillshare, plastic containers, it is time to Of Support purchase new ones. You should also become familiar with the current food safety regulatory changes and requirements that will be affecting the entire food industry. The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) is the most widespread changes to Writing For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare food laws the industry has experienced in decades. For more FSMA information, see FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). All of Resume Examples Human Human Manager these regulations and Writing | Margot Harrington, best practices are for the health and well-being of your customers! 5. Can I produce my food product at home? Depending on the type of product that you want to sell, you may be able to obtain a home food processor license and produce non-perishable food products (foods that do not require refrigeration or freezing) and Exclusive Ideas Free, are considered shelf-stable foods in For Freelancers | Skillshare, your home kitchen. Jams, jellies, pickles, relishes, sauces, marinades, most candies/confections and baked goods (unless the finished baked goods have butter/cream cheese frostings or custard fillings) are examples of Refusal Letter. Job Rejection 9+ Job products that can be safely processed in your home kitchen. Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation, and Forestry defines perishable products as “potentially hazardous foods.” If your food product falls into this category, you will need to obtain a commercial food processor license and create a separate room or building as a commercial processing area or facility, hire a co-packer, or find another commercially licensed facility or shared-use kitchen to produce your food product. 6. What makes a food “potentially hazardous”?

This term may seem strange, but it’s actually the Writing | Skillshare label for Ideas Template food products that are dependent on refrigeration or freezing to reduce microbial growth. A food is categorized as potentially hazardous based mainly on its pH and Contract Writing For Freelancers Harrington | Skillshare, its water activity value (a w ). A perfect example is pesto. Cover Letter Cv Cover? Fresh pesto has a pH above 4.6, has an a w of greater than 0.85, and requires refrigeration to minimize microbial growth. Writing | Margot Harrington? If you were interested in producing fresh pesto, you would have to produce it in a commercial facility, not in Abstract Sample Research Abstract, the home kitchen. If you have further questions, please contact the Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation, and Forestry. For more information on potentially hazardous foods, please visit the Food and Drug Administration: Safe Practices for Food Processes. 7. When do I need to send in Writing Harrington | Skillshare, my food product for testing at Last-Minute Mother's Day Gift, UMaine? If you are a Maine food processor, most baked goods (that do not contain dairy-based frostings/fillings), plain, berry-based jams/jellies (raspberry, blueberry and strawberry jams/jellies), and candies/confections, dry spices/rubs or dry mixes do not need to For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare be sent to UMaine for food testing. However, jams and jellies that have combinations of Cover Examples Resume Cv Cover fruit, or do not contain fruit (wine, spice or pepper jellies) have to be tested. If you have questions if your food product requires testing at UMaine before it is sold, please contact us. Most all canned/bottled, shelf stable foods, such as acidified canned foods (pickles, salsas, marinades, dressings), dessert sauces (caramel/chocolate sauces), and dehydrated fruit/vegetable products with minimal processing are a few examples of food products that do require food testing.

The Process and Product Review Testing is conducted at the School of Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare Food and Agriculture at the University of Maine. Dr. Beth Calder, Dr. Jason Bolton, and Kathy Davis-Dentici provide a team approach to conduct food testing on Abstract Example Sample Research, a part-time basis and Contract Writing, write review letters to determine whether your food product falls under the appropriate food safety guidelines and/ or standards of Examples Human Resources · Project identity. For example, 21 CFR, Part 150 outlines the Contract Writing | Margot standard identity for fruit butter, jams, jellies, and preserves. Human Manager? A letter is sent back with your test results and an individualized, comprehensive review that will include suggestions on how you can improve your food product and/or process if it does not meet certain guidelines. Food tests typically include: water activity (a w )—to determine the amount of “free” water in baked and other foods available to support bacterial growth; pH—to measure the acidity of pickled foods and Contract | Skillshare, salsa (most bacteria will not grow in acidic foods and reduces the risk of Ideas Resume Template 3 Ten Great botulism); Brix—to determine the concentration of dissolved sugars in Writing | Margot Harrington, jams, jellies, and syrups and Job Rejection In Pdf, dessert sauces; titratable acidity—to measure the actual amount of Contract | Margot | Skillshare acids in 17 Awesome Day Gift Ideas, vinegars or fermented foods; and Writing | Margot, water phase salt—to determine the percentage of salt in Letter. Sample Job Rejection Letter, smoked or dried seafood and fish products. Please view UMaine’s food testing website for more information on how to Writing For Freelancers | Margot send in a product for testing. Questions on submitting a sample? Please contact Beth Calder at 207.581.2791 or [email protected] or Jason Bolton at 207.581.1366 or [email protected] Note: If you make any changes to your packaging, recipe or process later on, you must resubmit that food product and information to UMaine for Of Support another review.

Your review letter is written just for you in regards to your product, process and package. You must review the letter carefully, as changes may have been made to your formulation or processing methods to ensure the microbiological safety of your products. You must follow the critical factors (for example, maximum pH levels, and processing methods outlined in your letter). If you cannot meet these critical factors, you must immediately contact us. You must keep these review letters in your records in case you need to refer back to the letter or if your inspector has future questions during inspection. 8. Are there special considerations for producing acidified and low-acid canned foods? The answer is yes! Improperly processed canned foods can present life-threatening hazards. Acidified foods are defined by Contract For Freelancers Harrington, the FDA as low-acid foods (cucumbers, peppers, green beans, onions, etc.) to which acid (vinegar or lemon juice) and/or acid foods (tomatoes) are added to Examples Human Resources Manager reduce the equilibrium pH below 4.6. We recommend when producing acidified foods to aim for Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot a pH level of 4.2 or below as an Cv Cover extra precaution.

Equilibrium pH is the final pH in the food product after the Contract Writing | Margot Harrington acidic brine (usually vinegar) acidifies and balances with the other ingredients. For more guidance on acidified and Resume Human Manager · Project, low-acid canned foods, please visit the FDA’s website. If you are producing acidified foods, you will need to file additional paperwork with the FDA before your food product will be sold outside of Contract For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare Maine (Guidance for Industry: Submitting Forms). You must also register your facility with the FDA. Guidelines for registering your facility or scheduled process can be accessed at Sample Job Rejection In Pdf, the FDA’s Instructions for Establishment Registration and Contract For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare, Processing Filing for Acidified and Examples Rn | Cv Cover Letter, Low-Acid Canned Foods. Acidified foods need to be tested by Contract Writing | Skillshare, UMaine to ensure that the equilibrium pH is below 4.6, which prevents the potential growth of Clostridium botulinum , the Of Affidavit Of Support bacterium that can produce botulism. You must buy an accurate pH meter to test batches of your food product. Acidified foods need to Contract | Margot Harrington | Skillshare be tested 24 hours after production and the equilibrium pH of each batch documented in your records. Refusal Letter. Sample Job Rejection In Pdf 9+ Job? You will be permitted to Writing Harrington produce acidified foods in your home kitchen if the UMaine testing results show that your product falls within safe ranges (pH of 4.2 or less for every component within 24 hours of thermal processing). For guidance on how to purchase a pH meter, please visit these helpful fact sheets: Cornell University’s purchasing a pH meter (PDF) and the University of Letter Examples Rn | Resume Cv Cover Letter Wisconsin’s Purchasing and For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare, Using a pH meter (PDF). If you are producing a food product with a pH of 4.0 or higher, you must purchase a pH meter with an accuracy rating of 0.01 + pH units.

If producing an acidified food with a pH below 4.0, you can purchase a pH meter that has an Examples Resources. Human Resources · Project accuracy rating of 0.1 +/- pH units. How to Determine Accurate pH Levels. When producing acidified foods for commercial retail, you are required to keep accurate pH batch records for Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare each batch that you produce. It is important to test both the Ideas 3 Ten liquid brine and solids separately when producing acidified foods with large solid pieces. Contract For Freelancers Harrington? For example, your product contains pickled cauliflower, pepper, and garlic cloves. The brine can be tested directly, but the solids will need to be separated and rinsed with 1 quart of distilled water in a colander. After rinsing, the Of Affidavit cauliflower needs to be separated and homogenized in a food processor and the pH tested, the peppers homogenized separately and Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare, pH taken, etc. The pH levels of the liquid brine and Ideas Resume 3 Ten Great Free, solids should not differ more than 0.1 pH units to Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare show that the acid is adequately acidifying the vegetables. These records should be written down for Cover Letter Examples Letter each batch. Any food (other than alcoholic beverages) with a finished equilibrium pH greater than 4.6 and a water activity greater than 0.85, excluding tomatoes and tomato products, is considered a low-acid food. Contract Writing | Margot Harrington? Low-acid canned foods, such as green beans and 8+ Sample Of Affidavit | Packaging, carrots, have to be processed in a commercial facility using a steam retort system.

Although pressure canning is a safe home food preservation method, pressure canning low-acid canned foods in a home kitchen for Contract For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare sale is not allowed in Maine. Be sure to Ideas Resume Template Great register your facility with the FDA, which is required under the Bioterrorism Act for both domestic and foreign facilities that process and/or pack food for human or animal consumption. (Note: farms and Contract Harrington | Skillshare, home-based food processors are exempt, as well as food processors who fall under the jurisdiction of USDA—that is, facilities handling only meat, poultry or egg products.) You can register your facility at FDA Industry Systems, or by calling 800.216.7331 or e-mailing [email protected] If you are considering processing low-acid canned and/or acidified foods, the FDA requires that a supervisor from your operation obtain Better Process Control School certification to ensure that foods are properly processed and container closures are properly sealed. Sample Paper Abstract? This certification course is offered in Orono at the University of Maine every two years. Please contact Melissa Libby, University of Maine Cooperative Extension at 207.581.2788 if you are interested in taking this course. If you have any questions about registering your facility, the acidified food process, the Bioterrorism Act, or any general questions, please feel free to contact Lori Holmquist, Director of Investigations Branch, 781.587.7437 or [email protected] 9. What do I need to have on my food label? All food producers must list the following items on their food labels: the statement of identity (name of food product), net weight of food product (usually measured in both ounces and Contract Writing Harrington | Skillshare, grams or by count), ingredient listing (listed in descending order by weight of ingredients), potential allergens in food product, and name and Abstract Example Abstract, address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor. Refer to the FDA’s A Food Labeling Guide online, or request a copy from the FDA at 240.402.2373.

The eight food allergens that require an allergen statement are milk, eggs, fish, wheat, crustacean shellfish such as lobster and Contract Writing Harrington, crab, tree nuts, peanuts, and soybeans and also includes sulfites. For further guidance on listing allergens, consult the FDA’s Questions and Answers Regarding Food Allergens, including the Exclusive Resume Template 3 Ten Free Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of For Freelancers | Margot 2004 (Edition 4). You can call or e-mail Carol D’lima in regards to questions related to this document at 240.402.1697 or [email protected] If you are using commercially produced foods as ingredients in your food product, you must also include the food ingredients of that product in 17 Awesome Last-Minute Mother's, the label, as well. For example: Water, sugar, Worcestershire sauce [vinegar, molasses, corn syrup, anchovies…]. 10. Am I exempt from the nutrition label requirement? If you are a retailer with less than $500,000 in Contract For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare, annual gross sales, or a food producer who sells directly to Refusal Sample Job Rejection Letter In Pdf 9+ Job consumers and grosses less than $50,000, then you are exempt from nutrition labeling.

You do not have to file a small business nutritional labeling exemption to the FDA under these circumstances. If you sell low-volume products, employ fewer than 100 employees yearly, and sell fewer than 100,000 units in the U.S. yearly, you are exempt from nutrition labeling. You DO have to file a small business nutritional labeling exemption notice yearly with the FDA. However, if you sell (in the U.S. only) even lower volumes—if you sell fewer than 10,000 units and hire fewer than 10 full-time employees yearly—you do not have to Contract | Margot | Skillshare file a small business nutritional labeling exemption notice with the FDA. For more information regarding nutrition label exemptions, or to submit a small business nutritional labeling exemption form, consult the FDA’s Small Business Nutrition Labeling Exemption. If you are interested in selling your food products wholesale (such as to Ideas Resume Great Free grocery stores), you will need to Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare contact GS1 US to obtain a bar code. 11. Where do I send my products for shelf-life testing, nutrition labeling, and ingredient analysis? For environmental microbial and shelf-life testing and nutrition labels in Rn | Cv Cover Letter, Maine, choose one of these certified labs: If you need to have your ingredients analyzed specifically because of nutrient claims (such as label claims that your product is a good source of a particular nutrient), there are several certified labs that can conduct food analyses.

You can first contact Northeast Laboratories or Katahdin Analytical Services in Maine or contact other laboratories, such as Medallion Labs, Eurofins, Merieux Nutrisciences, or EMSL Analytical, Inc, as other options. Food products must have an alcohol content of Writing 0.5% or less or will be subjected to Maine Liquor Licensing Laws and regulated by TTB if sold outside of Maine. Letter. Job Rejection Letter In Pdf? You can certainly add alcohol to Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare your food products, but you should send your products to one of the laboratories above to ensure the cooking method evaporates the alcohol to meet this requirement. Several types of Ideas Microsoft Great Free records should be kept on file as part of maintaining a successful food business. We recommend that you create a recall plan in the event a problem arises with your food product in the future and product needs to be recalled from the Contract For Freelancers | Skillshare marketplace. The FDA has guidelines online: Guidance for Industry: Product Recalls, Including Removals and Corrections.

Currently, the FDA is Examples Rn | Resume, changing food safety laws under the Harrington Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). New requirements on 17 Awesome Mother's Day Gift, food safety recordkeeping will be developed soon and will impact the Maine food industry. We recommend that you stay updated with these new FDA rules and regulations by visiting their website: Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). If you are monitoring certain parameters of Contract Writing Harrington | Skillshare your food product such as pH batch records, water phase salt, and/or microbiological quarterly tests, these records should be maintained and kept for Microsoft Resume 3 Ten Great three years if you are producing shelf-stable (canned) food items. For refrigerated or frozen products, these records can be kept for one (1) year. If you have sent food products to us for testing, these process review letters must be kept in your records in case you or your inspectors have future questions. Depending on what foods you process (seafood, meat, poultry or juice), the FDA or USDA may require you to have a food safety plan called a HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) plan. One requirement is you must attend a HACCP certification workshop, which we offer yearly at UMaine.

You will learn from the workshop that several records need to be created and monitored on Writing Harrington | Skillshare, a set schedule that will be outlined by your HACCP plan. For more information in Ideas Resume Free, regards to HACCP, please visit these websites: FDA’s Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), USDA FSIS HACCP, and Pathogen Reduction HACCP Guidance Documents. 13. Contract Writing | Skillshare? What other services does the Refusal Letter. Sample In Pdf 9+ Job University of Writing | Margot Harrington | Skillshare Maine offer? To view other services that UMaine offers, please visit our supporting resources website . Abstract Apa.apa Sample Research Paper Abstract? We encourage you to visit UMaine’s Dr.

Matthew Highlands Pilot Plant food processing facility, Consumer Testing Center, and commercial kitchen to learn more about our services and how we can assist you with research and Harrington | Skillshare, development. Examples Resume Letter? Fees vary depending upon the scope of your project. Writing | Skillshare? The Pilot Plant is not commercially licensed, but the Commercial Kitchen is a state licensed commercial facility and is available for processors producing shelf-stable food products. We can also help you resource equipment, ingredients, and Refusal Job Rejection 9+ Job, packaging supplies. For a tour of the Pilot Plant, please contact Michael Murphy, Pilot Plant Manager, or call 207.581.3139. UMaine Cooperative Extension offers a variety of food safety and sanitation workshops and other trainings. A list of our educational programs and trainings can be found on our websites: Food Safety and Resources for Small Food Businesses in Maine. Questions about our services? Please contact Beth Calder at 207.581.2791 or [email protected] or Jason Bolton at Contract Harrington | Skillshare, 207.581.1366 or [email protected] 14. 8+ Sample Of Affidavit? Where can I get help with improving my business skills, writing a business plan, and Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington, marketing my food product?

University of Maine Cooperative Extension offers small-business education in selected counties. Examples Resume Letter? Contact your UMaine Cooperative Extension county office or call 800.287.0274 (in Maine) to | Skillshare find your local office. You can also browse UMaine Extension’s Small Business Library and UMaine Extension’s Resources for 8+ Sample Clerks Small Food Businesses in Maine including Recipe to Market Workshops on how to start a food business in Maine. Contract Writing For Freelancers | Margot Harrington | Skillshare? You may be interested in UMaine Cooperative Extension’s specialty foods website Resources for Maine Food Entrepreneurs, which is a comprehensive resource for Sample Paper people interested in specialty foods. Maine Small Business Development Centers (207.780.4420) provide small-business development assistance. New Ventures Maine: can help provide assistance in starting your business. CEI (Costal Enterprises Inc) can provide assistance with starting agricultural and food-based business. You can also consider marketing your food product through the Maine Department of Agriculture’s get real. get maine! campaign.

Hall, Stephen F., 2012. Sell Your Specialty Food: Market, Distribute and Profit from Your Kitchen Creation . Volume 5. CreateSpace, Independent Publishing Platform. Northeast Center for Food Entrepreneurship, 2001. Small Scale Food Entrepreneurship: A Technical Guide for Writing For Freelancers | Margot | Skillshare Food Ventures . Geneva, NY: New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. Includes information on business and marketing, general and specific food products, food safety and sanitation, labeling, processing facilities, and equipment. Are you considering organic certification? Please contact MOFGA Certification Services. 15.

What if I need to Sample 9+ Job find a co-packer, commercial kitchen, or shared-use kitchen in Maine? We have several options in Maine if you are interested in finding a commercial kitchen or co-packer to produce your product: High Mountain Hall has a licensed community kitchenin Camden, 207.236.0003 Cobscook Bay Resource Center and Writing | Margot | Skillshare, Marketplace has a licensed kitchen in Eastport, Contact Elizabeth and Will Hopkins at 207.853.6607. Fork Food Lab offers a shared use kitchen and tasting room in Portland, Contact Neil Spillane or Eric Holstein: Halcyon Grange Community Kitchen has a licensed community kitchen in Blue Hill, Contact Yvonne for more information at [email protected] or 207.664.3487. Abstract Example Paper Abstract? Pemberton’s Foods co-packs shelf stable canned foods in Gray, 800.255.8401. Unity Barn Raisers offers a licensed community kitchen in Writing Harrington, Unity, 207.948.9005. Public Market House has a licensed community kitchen in Portland, 207.274.5279. 8+ Sample Of Affidavit Of Support | Packaging Clerks? Acorn Kitchen offers a licensed shared use kitchen in Kittery, contact Susan Tuveson at 207.332.4425. Other options would be to contact a local restaurant, school, or inn to ask if it might be possible to rent their commercial facility during times when their kitchen isn’t being used and contact the Contract For Freelancers Harrington Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Resume Cv Cover Letter, Forestry to have a pre-inspection of the space to determine if it can be used as a commercial kitchen. Good luck in your food endeavors!

We would be glad to hear from Harrington you if you have any further questions or feedback in regards to Letter In Pdf this fact sheet, please contact Beth Calder at [email protected] or 207.581.2791. Reviewed by Jason Bolton, Associate Professor of Food Safety and James McConnon, UMaine Extension Business and Economics Specialist and Contract Writing Harrington | Skillshare, Professor of Economics. Special thanks to Letter Rn | Resume Letter Steve Giguere of the Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation, and Forestry Division of | Skillshare Quality Assurance and Regulations and Lori Holmquist (Director Investigations Branch, New England FDA District Office). Brand names, trade names, and company names are included for educational purposes. No endorsement is implied nor is discrimination intended against similar products or services. Information in this publication is provided purely for educational purposes. No responsibility is Letter. Job Rejection Letter In Pdf, assumed for Contract Writing Harrington | Skillshare any problems associated with the use of products or services mentioned.

No endorsement of products or companies is intended, nor is 17 Awesome Last-Minute Day Gift Ideas, criticism of unnamed products or companies implied.