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positive or negative, shaping the way a person lives life. Strategy - Product Blog. Tom Tykwer’s film ‘ Run Lola Run ’ and Dorthea Mackellar’s . poem ‘My Country’. Both convey the impact and effect of situations and encounters have on Presentation (ppt, a person. Run Lola Run by Blog, Tom Tykwer’s post-modern film incorporates several effective elements to 60 Minutes) convey numerous ideas and themes. Strategy - Product Strategy Blog. Tykwer implements numerous motifs such as clocks to emphasise the importance of time which is Blank Baby Bingo Cards Printable Download Baby Boy immediately eminent in the opening sequence. The audience observes the. Audience , Australia , Franka Potente 1000 Words | 2 Pages. In the Strategy - Product Strategy film, Run Lola Run , there are many different symbols, etc that are used.

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Antagonist , Protagonist , Run Lola Run 630 Words | 2 Pages. represented in ' Run Lola Run ' by Tom Tykwer, who utilises this post modern film as a means of challenging and . questioning our preconceived views on several ideas and themes. Tykwer applies recurring motifs and symbols such as clocks to emphasise the Income Calculator Apps importance of time . Time is an important theme within the film as the Product Strategy Strategy protagonist, Lola is on a game like mission to save her boyfriend, thus introducing the idea of game theory. This is creatively seen through the use of animation where Lola is Charts | Products given three. Alice in Wonderland , Alice's Adventures in Wonderland , Franka Potente 969 Words | 2 Pages. way, Mehta only enhances her decidedly hopeful themes. Run Lola Run (Editing Review) In the film, much cutting . was used during scenes that represented the action/thriller genre.The fragmented cuts kept the audience in Product Strategy Strategy the action by incorporating the feeling of Cassette Tape Band Flyer | Alternative Style, And suspense, for the audience doesn’t know what would come up in Blog the next cut. Run Lola Run’s plot order differs from the basic narrative order and instead had one story retold three times with different outcomes. Printable Baby. The director uses a recurring.

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This is greatly evident in the 1998 German thriller film . “ Run Lola Run ” directed and Cassette Tape Band Flyer Flyer Template written by Tom Tykwer together with the poem “Summer Rain” by John Foulcher. Through the use of strong images these two texts manage to express their main ideas such as chaos and - Product Strategy Blog its relationship with time . In “RLR” we witness the protagonists facing dilemma due to these two aspects of the world, seeking to overcome them with determination. Franka Potente , Idea , Mind 647 Words | 2 Pages. Run Lola Run is a movie directed by Cassette Tape Band Flyer | Alternative Flyer Template And, Tom Tykwer. Three different alternatives Lola's thoughts makes the Product Strategy movie more . interesting.

By the minor events during Lola's run make people think a lot about the movie. Coincidences play the most important role in the movie and next is luck and random events. The beginning of the movie starts with the needs DEM 100,000 from Lola's boyfriend- Manni in 20 minutes, since he loses the money belong to his boss on a train. A homeless man picks it up but he was unable. American films , Black-and-white films , Causality 855 Words | 2 Pages. English Essay Distinctively Visual Kurt. distinctively visual texts emphasises the ways that individuals respond to significant aspects of life such as love, time and hope through . various tools and techniques. In Tom Tykwer’s motion picture Run Lola Run , the aspect of love and Calculator how we will do anything for it is emphasised through techniques such as split screen and symbolism.

Tykwer also demonstrates the significant aspect of time and how it is Strategy Blog a consuming and influential force that rules us all, through techniques such as camera angles and recurring. English-language films , Love , Run Lola Run 1252 Words | 3 Pages. freedom will lead to social progress through virtuous, self-controlled work, creating a better material, political, and Income - Android Play intellectual life for all. Modernism . dealt with the notions of justification, system, proof, and the unity of science. In this time period, people needed justification and proof of all things. They would not just believe things just because someone said that it was true. People needed reasons why certain things happened in order to Blog be able to Band Flyer Style, Flyer And believe them. One famous modernist. Cinema of Germany , Modernism , Postmodern philosophy 1267 Words | 3 Pages. Multi-draft narrative of Mr Nobody. dazzling manner.

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12And what does he . say? “Come and listen to me, sons; I will teach you the fear of the Lord,” (Ps 33[34]:12). 13“ Run while you have the light of life, that the darkness of death may not overtake you.” (John 12:35). (St. Benedict, Prologue Page 1) This is just one of the many examples in the Prologue but they all have the same three parts of listening, understanding. Affect , Benedict , Benedict of Nursia 2562 Words | 6 Pages. of a parallel world struck Tykwer as fascinating and became his first inspiration in film making. Peter Pan sparked an imaginative streak in Tykwer which . Charts. entranced him for almost 30 years. His imagination is Strategy - Product Blog what defines his earlier films, such as Lola Rennt and True, two movies which expanded the realms of reality through innovative techniques and Retirement - Android Apps Play unique narrative structure. In regards to curiosity every single one of Tykwer’s movies, short and long, reflect a high level of experimentation and risks. Art , Creativity , Film 2255 Words | 6 Pages. Run Lola Run and Related Text Kill Bill.

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1998 in film , Franka Potente , Low-key lighting 627 Words | 2 Pages. args) What is | Products | . the result of attempting to - Product Strategy Blog compile and Templates Sample Example Format English run the program? a) Print ABC b) Print ABCC c) Print CBA d) Print ABCBCC e) Runtime error f) Compile time error Answer d) Q2. Which access modifier is used with class name a) Class can be public and protected b) Class can be public and Product - Product Strategy Blog default c) Class can be private and default d) Class can. Compile time , Compiler , Link time 469 Words | 4 Pages. adds another 30 minutes to overall downtime, it makes sense then to Calculator - Android Apps try to minimize as much idle time as possible by Product - Product Strategy Blog, coordinating when the bin . has to be changed at EXTRACTION with the filter change at FILTRATION. In order to meet the processing requirements; each orange size must be processed at least once per day, and Biographical Essay Outline Template The all three sizes must be processed equally during the week. If we change the bin (4) times each day with one size twice per day for Product, the 6 days, we can satisfy both requirements. What’s. 2007 albums , Change , Order theory 898 Words | 3 Pages.

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Children's Literature and Red Tree. Red Tree By Shaun Tan-Related Text For Run Lola Run Shaun Tan's The Red Tree almost defies any rational . classification. To the ear it reads as a sparsely written children's book, but to the eye the book's lavish depictions of isolation and despair require a much deeper analysis. The basic story of a little girl having a particularly horrid day is not uncommon in children's literature. What separates this book from | Products | others of the same genre is Shaun Tan's wholly idiosyncratic artwork.

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capm vs apt essay The Capital Asset Pricing Model ( CAPM ) . was first developed by William Sharpe ( 1964 ) . and subsequently extended and clarified by John Lintner ( 1965 ) and Fischer Black ( 1972 ) . Four decennaries after the birth of this theoretical account. CAPM is - Product, still accepted as an appropriate technique for measuring fiscal assets and retains an of import topographic point in both academic bookmans and Free Example Format English, finance practicians. It is used to gauge cost of capital for houses. measuring the public presentation of managed portfolios and besides to find plus monetary values. Since the origin of Product, this theoretical account there have been legion researches and empirical testing to measure the strength and the cogency of the theoretical account. Several fluctuations of the theoretical accounts have been developed since so ( Wei 1988. Stein. Fama #038; A ; Gallic 1993.

Merton 1973 ) . The Arbitrage Pricing Theory of Capital Asset Pricing formulated by Stephen Ross ( 1976 ) and Richard Roll ( 1980 ) offers a testable option to the CAPM. Both of these plus pricing theories have gone through intense empirical and theoretical examination with multiple researches back uping or rebuting both the theoretical accounts. The intent of this paper is to through empirical observation look into the two viing theories in visible radiation of the US Stock Market in comparatively stable economic times. The first subdivision will look at the logic and theoretical facets of the viing plus pricing theoretical accounts. Free. The 2nd subdivision analyses and discusses the bing literature and - Product Strategy, empirical analyses on both the theories. In the 3rd subdivision I explain the information and the proving methods employed to through empirical observation analyze the theories. The 4th subdivision explains the consequences derived from the trials.

The last subdivision includes the decision and discusses the bounds and deductions of | Products, my research. Section I: CAPM and APT. Capital ASSET PRICING MODEL ( CAPM ) Sharpe’s ( 1964 ) CAPM is built upon the theoretical account of portfolio pick by Harry Markowitz ( 1959 ) . - Product Strategy Blog. Harmonizing to his theory. investors choose “mean-variance-efficient” portfolio. This fundamentally means that they choose portfolios that minimize the discrepancy of portfolio return. given expected return. and maximise expected return. given discrepancy. In add-on to these premises. the CAPM makes several other cardinal premises. They assume that ( 1 ) all investors are risk averse and looking to maximise wealth in a individual period and can take portfolios entirely on Retirement Income Calculator - Android On Google Play the footing of mean and discrepancy. ( 2 ) revenue enhancements and dealing costs do non be. ( 3 ) all investors have homogenous positions sing the parametric quantities of the joint chance distribution of Strategy - Product Strategy Blog, all security returns. and ( 4 ) all investors can borrow and impart at a risk-free rate of involvement ( Black et al. 1972 ) . The CAPM is an equilibrium theoretical account that explains why each different security has its ain distinct expected returns.

It provides a method to quantify the hazard associated with each plus. One cardinal premise of the CAPM is that it assumes that all the diversifiable hazard can be and is eliminated in an efficient ‘market’ portfolio. An single security’s idiosyncratic hazard will be compensated for Training Presentation (ppt,, by another stock. So the hazard associated with each security is its systemic hazard with the market. This is measured in the CAPM by its beta ( its sensitiveness to the motions in the market ) . There is a additive relationship between the security’s beta and its expected returns. Formally the CAPM equation can be written as follows ERi= Rf+?i ( ERm- Rf ) ( 1 ) ERi = Expected return on the capital plus. Rf = Risk Free Rate ( Usually of 6 month Treasury measure ) ?i = beta which is the - Product Blog sensitiveness of the expected extra plus returns to the expected extra market returns. Biographical Essay. Biographical Essay The. Formally. the market beta of an plus I is the covariance of - Product Blog, its return with the market return divided by the discrepancy of the market return. ?i = Cov ( Ri. Rm ) ?2 ( Rm ) ( 2 ) Rm = Expected return of the market.

A zero beta plus in the CAPM has an |, expected return equal to the hazard free rate. The betas can be estimated utilizing assorted statistical and Strategy Strategy, econometric techniques. The three most normally used techniques are the Free Example English “market model” ( This is the most common one. I will be utilizing this for my testing ) . Scholes-Williams. and Dimson calculators. Product - Product Strategy. There are legion advantages/benefits every bit good as some defects in all the beta gauging techniques. Analyzing that autumn outside the field of this paper but the restriction subdivision looks at the jobs of the different techniques really briefly. In order to compare the two theoretical accounts. 51 Teacher Templates Example. remaining consistent with the appraisal techniques will be sufficient regardless of their defects or prejudices. ARBITRAGE Pricing Theory. The APT is the Product - Product Strategy Blog alternate theoretical account for plus pricing foremost developed by Ross ( 1976 ) . This is a really appropriate theoretical account as it agrees absolutely with what appears to be the intuition behind the - Android Play CAPM. It is based on a additive return bring forthing procedure as a first rule. Besides it is more sophisticated that the CAPM because it takes into history more systematic factors that might be relevant.

It examines other macroeconomic variables besides the market hazard. doing this theoretical account more sophisticated. It captures other factors that might hold been ignored by the CAPM. Formally the APT can be stated as follows. Product - Product. rj=Erj+bj1F1+ bj2F2+…+bjnFn+?j ( 3 ) E ( rj ) is the jth asset’s expected return. Fk is a systematic factor ( assumed to hold average nothing ) . bjk is the Essay. Biographical Essay Template The sensitiveness of the jth plus to factor k. besides called factor burden. and ?j is the hazardous asset’s idiosyncratic random daze with average nothing. The APT provinces that if plus returns follow a factor construction so the following relation exists between expected returns and the factor sensitivenesss: Tocopherol ( rj ) = rf+bj1RP1+bj2RP2+…+bjnRPn ( 4 ) RPk is the hazard premium of the factor. releasing factor is the riskless rate. That is. the expected return of an plus J is a additive map of the Strategy - Product Strategy Blog assets sensitivities to the n factors. There are two cardinal differences between the Charts | Products APT and the CAPM – “Firstly. the APT allows more than merely one bring forthing factor ( CAPM allows merely for the market factor ) and secondly. the APT demonstrates that since any market equilibrium must be consistent with no arbitrage net incomes. every equilibrium will be characterized by a additive relationship between each asset’s expected returns and its return’s response amplitudes of burdens on Product Blog the common factor” ( Roll and Ross 1980 ) . It is of import to Cassette Tape Flyer | Alternative Style, And, observe that the APT is Strategy Strategy, based on three cardinal premises – ( 1 ) Capital markets are absolutely competitory. ( 2 ) Investors ever prefer more wealth to less wealth with certainty. ( 3 ) the stochastic procedure bring forthing plus returns can be represented as a k-factor theoretical account of the Training Presentation (ppt, 60 Minutes) signifier specified above in equation 3 ( Reinganum 1981 ) . ( 4 ) persons agree on both the factor coefficients ( beta ) and the expected returns. ( 5 ) equation 3 non merely describes the Strategy Blog ex-ante single perceptual experiences of the returns procedure but besides that ex-post returns are described by the same equation ( Roll #038; A ; Ross 1980 ) . There are other theoretical differences between the two theoretical accounts but a more thorough theoretical analysis falls outside the range of Retirement Calculator On Google, this paper and is an country of research that has been extensively scrutinized every bit good.

SECTION II: LITERATURE REVIEW. There has been legion surveies theoretical and empirical testing on both CAPM and the APT because of Product, its high relevancy in the finance industry. This subdivision is divided into two sub subdivisions – ( a ) Studies on CAPM. ( B ) Studies on 51 Teacher Free Sample English APT. and ( degree Celsius ) Comparative surveies on CAPM Vs APT. Product Strategy - Product Strategy. The 2nd and the 3rd subdivision intersect with each other. (ppt,. Because APT was developed in response to the CAPM. tonss of trials on Strategy - Product Blog APT expression at it from a comparative position. A. Surveies on CAPM.

Although. the Sharpe ( 1964 ) and Lintner ( 1965 ) version of CAPM has been a major theoretical force. it has non been an empirical. Most trials of the Income Play CAPM are based on three deductions of the relationships between the expected return and the market beta of the security – ( I ) Betas and the expected returns are linearly related and no other variable has explanatory powers. ( two ) beta premium is Strategy - Product Strategy, positive ( this besides implies that higher betas means higher returns ) and ( three ) assets uncorrelated with the market have the same expected returns as the hazard free rate ( Rf ) ( Fama #038; A ; Gallic 2004 ) . Although the CAPM is challenged by Blank Baby Shower Printable Download, many surveies. the influences of Strategy Strategy, some earlier surveies still remain and the beta is still considered to be an of import variable in the pricing and evaluating of assets ( particularly in the context of an Retirement Income Calculator Apps On Google Play, efficient portfolio ) . It is of import to observe here that all the Product Strategy - Product Strategy Blog surveies examined below utilizations some kind of | Products, portfolio allotment to prove for risk-return relationships. Fama and Macbeth ( 1973 ) tests the relationship between mean returns and Product - Product Blog, hazard for New York Stock Exchange ( NYSE ) common stocks ( from 1935 – 1968 ) . Free Sample. They employ the “two-parameter” portfolio theoretical account and theoretical accounts of market equilibrium derived from that theoretical account to prove for three chief hypotheses of the Product Strategy - Product CAPM. They test for the relationship between the expected return on a security and its hazard in any efficient portfolio and Biographical Essay Outline The, happen a statistically important positive linear relationship as implied by the theoretical account. They besides find that no other step of hazard in add-on to the portfolio hazard. - Product. consistently affects the expected returns of the security ( beta is the lone explanatory variable ) . And they find via residuary analysis that the risk-return arrested developments are consistent with an efficient capital market – a market where monetary values of securities to the full reflect the available information.

Black. Jensen. and Scholes ( 1972 ) supply some extra testing of the theoretical account in the same clip period ( 1926 – 1966 ) for NYSE listed common stocks every bit good. It corrects some of the old proving jobs by utilizing more powerful time-series proving as opposed to merely cross-sectional trials and finally comes up with a two factor theoretical account utilizing both transverse sectional and time-series proving. They besides modify the original CAPM theoretical account by loosen uping the premise of riskless adoption and loaning chances and therefore beef uping the Baby Shower Cards Download Boy theoretical account. Product Strategy - Product. The decisions and consequences of their trial confirm the positive additive relationship of the beta and the expected returns of the Essay. Template stock but differ with Fama and Macbeth’s decision sing the intercept of the CAPM additive arrested development. Both these surveies provide empirical grounds back uping the CAPM. Since the earlier surveies. more empirical research has shown how the Blog CAPM does non reasonably represent the hazard return relationship it implies.

Basu ( 1977 ) evaluates the | investing public presentation of common stocks in relation their price-earnings ratio. He uses the CAPM theoretical account. keeping beta changeless to Product Strategy - Product Strategy, see if the P/E ratios of the security contribute towards the expected return. He finds that there is a higher return for 51 Teacher Resume Sample English, assets with lower P/E when beta is held changeless. An deduction of his consequence poses a serious challenge to Product Strategy Strategy Blog, the cogency of the Capital Asset Pricing Model. Because CAPM says that there is no other hazard nowadays in the stock when it is Outline, put in Strategy Blog, the portfolio ( since all diversifiable hazards are eliminated ) . no other factor besides the Charts | Products | market hazard should be present. Basu ( 1977 ) finds that P/E ratios besides influence the monetary value. non merely the market hazard. Strategy Blog. The theoretical account fails to wholly qualify the equilibrium risk-return relationship during the period he studied ( NYSE houses from 1956 – 1971 ) . It besides implies that the CAPM might be mis-specified because of the skip of Blank Shower Bingo Download Boy, other relevant factors. Cheng and Grauer ( 1980 ) provide an alternate trial to the CAPM. They address the ambiguity in old trials of Strategy - Product, CAPM ( Roll 1977 ) which chiefly examined the security market line to look at the risk-return relationships by using the Invariance Law trial. Although this is non as intuitively delighting as the standard SML trials. it addresses the ambiguity jobs with them.

Their consequences strongly reject the CAPM on Charts many evidences. They find statistically important tendencies in estimated values of the intercept as regressors are added ( CAPM implies a inactive intercept – the riskless rate ) . They fail to Strategy Strategy Blog, reject the void hypothesis that the beta is statistically different from nothing in 25 % of the instances. Their new frame work of proving farther challenges the empirical cogency of the Retirement - Android Apps On Google Play CAPM. Reinganum ( 1981 ) further investigates whether securities with different estimated betas consistently experience different mean rates of Strategy - Product Strategy Blog, returns. In his survey. he uses all the three beta appraisal techniques to build his beta ranked portfolios ( market theoretical account.

Sholes-Williams. and the Dimson calculator ) . Essay. Essay Template. The restrictions of the beta appraisal methods are discussed in the restrictions subdivision below. The information he looks at Blog, is the NYSE common stocks day-to-day and monthly returns from Templates English 1935 to 1979. His consequences besides show that there is Blog, no positive relationship between the houses or the portfolios’ beta and the average returns on Biographical Biographical Outline The a statistically important degree. This consequence holds true regardless of the beta appraisal technique used and for both day-to-day every bit good as monthly returns. - Product Strategy Blog. This research provides farther grounds against the empirical cogency of the CAPM. Biographical Essay. Essay Outline Template. B. Surveies on APT. There have been a figure of surveies proving the Product Strategy empirical cogency of the APT since its origin. One of the first surveies that tests the APT through empirical observation was by Roll and Ross ( 1982 ) . Band Style, And. They look at single securities from 1962 to 1972 listed in the NYSE or American Exchanges. They perform the maximal likeliness factor analysis to find the no. of Strategy - Product Blog, factors and the corresponding factor analysis. And so. they perform a cross-sectional analysis utilizing general least squared arrested developments. The cross sectional portion of this testing and portfolio allotments is really similar to most of the trials on CAPM.

Their research finds four of Income - Android, import systemic factors influences the return of a peculiar security – ( 1 ) Unanticipated Inflation. ( 2 ) alterations in degrees of industrial production ( 3 ) displacements in Product, hazard premiums. and ( 4 ) motion in the form of the term construction of involvement rates. Retirement Income Calculator. They find that betas are statistically important and have explanatory effects on Product extra returns. This besides through empirical observation proves the 51 Teacher Resume Templates Free Sample Format English additive relationship between the returns and the systemic factors. This survey nevertheless recognizes that its trial is still a weak one and farther testing is needed. T?rsoy.

G?nsel and Rjoub supply some farther empirical trials of the Arbitrage Pricing Theory. Blog. They examine 13 macroeconomic variables ( factors ) on 11 different industry portfolios of the Istanbul Stock Exchange ( 2000 – 2005 ) to detect the effects of those variables on stock’s returns. They employed the ordinary least square ( OLS ) technique to make this. Although they do non happen strong R2 for any of the Essay. Template The portfolios ( R2 ranges from. 19 to. - Product Strategy Blog. 36 ) . they do happen a batch of variables to be statistically important in different portfolios. For illustration they find unemployment rates to be important in the portfolios of fabrication of basic metal industry. Resume Templates Free Format. wood production and Strategy - Product Strategy, furniture. fabric metal merchandises. transit and 51 Teacher Resume Example Format English, communicating.

Because of the big no. of variables employed and the incompatibilities in statistical significance of the different betas in different portfolios. this does non state us much about the strength of the APT. Poon and Taylor ( 1991 ) use the same methods employed by Chen. Product - Product. Roll and Ross ( 1986 ) to Charts |, reconsider their consequences and besides to see if their consequences were applicable to Product Strategy Blog, the UK Stocks. They find that variables similar to those of the Roll and Shower Bingo Cards Printable Baby, Ross trials do non impact portion monetary values in Product Strategy - Product Strategy, the UK in the mode described. Charts | Products |. They conclude that it could be that other macroeconomic variables are at work or the methodological analysis of the Product Strategy - Product trials employed by Ross and Ross is unequal for observing such pricing relationships. They besides note some of import unfavorable judgment about the methodological analysis used by Ross and Roll. First. it challenges the premise that market monetary values assets in a precise. systematic. additive mode even though the exposure of the stock returns to the macroeconomic factors might non be statistically important. Second. it notes that the two measure arrested development analysis is sensitive to the figure of independent variables in the arrested development – adding more variables consequences in loss of statistical significance of Biographical Outline The, old betas. Third. it notes that Ross and Roll did non see any lead/lag relationships between the plus pricing and the macroeconomic public presentation.

Fourthly. Roll and Product Strategy - Product Strategy Blog, Ross fail to take any seasonality associated with associated with the industrial production series. This survey provides some empirical grounds that invalidates the Arbitrage Pricing Theory by demoing how the factors found to Presentation (ppt,, be relevant and influential in Ross and Roll’s ( 1980 ) survey are non statistically important when applied to Product - Product Blog, the UK Stocks – the betas associated with those macroeconomic factors are statistically undistinguished. Reinganum ( 1980 ) supply some more empirical consequences of the Resume Free Example Arbitrage Pricing Theory. He argues that a minimal demand for an alternate theoretical account of capital plus pricing ( CAPM ) should be that it explains the empirical anomalousnesss which arise within the Strategy - Product Strategy Blog sample CAPM. One such anomaly he observes is when portfolios are formed on the footing of house size ; little houses consistently experience mean rates of returns about 20 % more per twelvemonth than those of big houses. Blank Shower Cards Printable Boy. He looks at the stock informations ( NYSE and Product - Product Strategy Blog, American Exchanges ) from Bingo Cards Printable Download 1962 to 1978 to look into whether an APT theoretical account can account for the differences in the mean returns between little houses and big houses. He uses a three. four and Strategy Strategy Blog, a five factor theoretical account of APT to Training Presentation 60 Minutes), carry on these trials and finds that none of Product Strategy, those theoretical accounts histories for the empirical anomalousnesss that arise within the CAPM. Biographical Biographical Outline The. However. he does indicate out that although the consequences do non back up the APT. the beginning of mistake can be attributed to other factors. Regardless of that. his trials show that APT is non an Strategy Blog, equal theoretical account to find the risk-return equilibrium in a statistically important degree. C. Comparative Studies on APT Vs CAPM.

Bower. Bower #038; A ; Logue ( 1984 ) expression at the public-service corporation stocks in the NYSE and American Stock exchanges from 1971 to 1979. Retirement Calculator - Android Apps Play. They used Ross #038; A ; Roll’s four factors as its systematic influences. They performed time-series analysis and cross sectional arrested developments to happen the betas and the hazard premium sassociated with each factor to finally come up with a multiple arrested development additive theoretical account reflecting the risk-return relationship. They besides find the market beta and the security market line for Product Strategy Strategy Blog, the same securities ( CAPM risk-return equation ) . They find two really contrasting sets of consequences from the two theoretical accounts. They found that APT to be a better theoretical account than the CAPM.

The R2 for the APT was higher for all the portfolios when indiscriminately grouped. Resume Free Example English. when grouped by industry and when grouped by market beta every bit good. The unexplained discrepancies were higher for Product Strategy - Product, CAPM in all the portfolios every bit good. They besides perform a weak Theil’s U2 and happen the APT’s U2 to be much lower than CAPM ( the lower the U2. the better predictor the theoretical account is ) . This paper provides strong empirical grounds in favour of APT when compared to the CAPM theoretical account. SECTION III: Methodology. The information I look are all United States informations from 51 Teacher Resume Templates English 1980 – 1997 ( monthly ) . I chose this clip period because there were no important long term dazes in the market or the economic system during this clip. The stock market clang of - Product Strategy Blog, 19th October 1987 is an exclusion but the market recovered comparatively fast and there were no important long term macroeconomic alterations. Charts | Products. Besides. I chose this clip period because it is the most recent period sing comparative stableness in the fiscal markets. There was the point com bubble 1997. recession after 9/11 in 2001 and the fiscal crisis at 2008. Product Strategy Blog. A expression at the S #038; A ; P graph below ( figure 1 ) shall show that.

Figure 1: S #038; A ; P 500 Index ( 1975-2006 ) I looked at 51 Teacher Sample Format English, monthly monetary values and returns for Product Strategy Strategy, 160 companies from the Income - Android Apps Play S #038; A ; P 500. I use the - Product Blog adjusted information for this intent. I chose adjusted shutting monetary values and non the nominal shutting monetary values because the Baby Shower Bingo Cards Baby adjusted shutting monetary value histories for Strategy Blog, any corporate actions that might alter the Retirement Income monetary value dramatically. For illustration a 2:1 stock split would half the monetary value of the stock in a twenty-four hours and later falsify my consequences. 16 companies were chosen indiscriminately from Strategy each industry groups.

The industry groups were Energy. Cassette Tape | Alternative Style, Flyer Template And. IT. Industrials. Strategy - Product Strategy. Materials. Blank Shower Printable Baby Boy. Utilities. Strategy Blog. Consumer Discretionary. Consumer Staples. Financials. Telecommunication. and Healthcare. The other variables were rising prices. alterations in the term construction of involvement rates. overall industrial production. and hazard premiums for the same clip period.

Change in Presentation (ppt, 60 Minutes), the term construction of involvement rates was the difference between the 10 twelvemonth Treasury Bond and the 6 month T Bill rates. The Hazard Premium was the Product - Product difference between monthly S #038; A ; P 500 returns and the 6 month T Bill returns. The beginning of the informations for each variable is listed in table 1. I employ three portfolio allotments to prove and analyze each theoretical account. The first allotment method will prove the Cassette Band Flyer CAPM theoretical account merely. 9 portfolios are constructed harmonizing to the beta. I calculate the market beta for each company utilizing the OLS arrested development method and so rank the companies harmonizing to their beta.

Portfolio 1 has the lowest beta and Portfolio 9 has the highest beta. Strategy. The mean betas for each portfolio can be seen in Tape | Alternative Flyer, Table 2. Table 2: Portfolio Allotment I Harmonizing to CAPM. Strategy - Product Strategy. securities with different betas consistently experience different mean returns. Higher betas would give higher norm returns ( Reinganum. 1981 ) . This is the On Google Play relationship I will be proving in the Portfolio Allocation I. Product Strategy Blog. I would anticipate to On Google, happen a statistically important positive relationship between beta degrees of the portfolio and the mean returns. The first allotment will non be proving the APT. In Portfolio Allocation II.

I constructed 10s industry portfolios. - Product. There are 16 companies in each portfolio. I perform an OLS trial for each portfolio to happen the market betas ( for CAPM ) and betas for the 4 factors of APT. The four factors I chose are rising prices. hazard premium. industrial production and alterations in term construction of the involvement rate. I chose these factors because they were the most influential factor Roll and Ross ( 1980 ) found in their factor analysis. I looked at the statistical significance of the 60 Minutes) betas of each factor to see how valid APT was. Finding statistical important betas for APT implies that CAPM is non equal. This is Product - Product Strategy, because harmonizing to CAPM. there is Blank Bingo Download Baby Boy, no other systemic hazard besides the market hazard. Or in other words. no other systematic factors affect the monetary values and later the returns of the stock.

I besides looked at R squares for both the theoretical accounts to analyze which theoretical account was a better tantrum or which theoretical account explained the discrepancy better. In Portfolio Allocation III. I constructed 10 random portfolios. Each security was given assigned a random figure and so sorted consequently. I performed the same sorts of proving employed in Portfolio Allocation II and looked at the same variables. This method would assist extinguish any systematic prejudice the industry that the Product Strategy - Product Strategy Blog stock belonged to would hold on the stock returns.

This method of portfolio allotment is | Products, used in many surveies analyzing the two theoretical accounts ( Reinganum ( 1981 ) . Strategy - Product. Dhankar ( 2005 ) . Tursoy. Sample Example Format. Gunsel. Rjoub ( 2008 ) . Black. Jensen. and Scholes ( 1972 ) ) . Section IV: Consequence. A. Portfolio Allocation I Results. Table 3: Beta Vs. Returns. The consequences for the Portfolio Allocation I are displayed in Table 3. Strategy - Product Blog. 4 and figure 2. Consequences from the arrested development analyzing the Tape Band Flyer Template relationship between beta and returns are shown in Table 4. Looking at the assorted returns for the portfolios. there is no peculiar relation between the Product - Product Strategy beta and the returns at first expression.

Portfolio 1. which has the Baby Bingo lowest beta. has a higher return than Portfolio 8 ( 2nd highest beta ) . This goes against the logic of CAPM. Table 4: Beta vs Return Regression. Table 4: Beta Vs Returns Regression. The arrested development besides goes on to demo that there is non statistically important relationship between the beta and their returns as advocated by CAPM. A expression at a simple spread secret plan ( Figure 2 ) besides shows how there is no existent trend/relationship between the beta and Product - Product Strategy Blog, the return and Retirement Calculator - Android Apps On Google, if there is Product Strategy Strategy Blog, one. it is a negative 1. The first portfolio allotment trial shows that CAPM’s market beta does non find the returns that the security will see. Figure 2: Beta vs. Returns Scatter Plot.

B. Portfolio Allocation II Results. Consequences for Portfolio Allocation II are as follows. Training Presentation (ppt, 60 Minutes). Table 5 displays the arrested development consequences for APT. Product Blog. Table 6 displays the arrested development consequences for CAPM and Table 7 displays the R squares for both the theoretical accounts. Table 5: CAPM Consequences for Industry Portfolios. The CAPM Coefficients ( Betas ) for all the industry are extremely statistically important ( at Retirement Income On Google Play, a 99 % assurance ) . This shows that market has a really important influence on Product Strategy the returns of the stocks. These consequences support the CAPM and turn out Blank Bingo Download Baby Boy that CAPM passes the empirical trial. However. CAPM besides implies that no other variables should hold a important explanatory consequence because any other systematic hazard would be eliminated through variegation of the portfolio. An illustration here would be helpful to derive an intuitive apprehension of how the diversifiable hazard is eliminated.

If a peculiar stock has a strong positive relationship with industrial production ( for e. g. a steel company ) . Product Strategy - Product Strategy. one can happen another stock that has a negative relationship with industrial production ( unemployment insurance company etc ) . This will call off out the systemic influence that industrial production might hold on the plus of the monetary value of a peculiar security when it is grouped in the individual portfolio. Looking at the APT consequences ( Table 6 ) . we find that there is in fact other variables that statistically influences the returns of the stocks. Table 6: Apt Consequences for Industry Portfolios. For the Baby Shower Cards Printable Boy IT portfolio. the betas for the hazard premium and Strategy Blog, the industrial production factors are important. This means that those variables have explanatory effects on the stock returns. For the Consumer Staples portfolio. all the factors except rising prices have a statistically important explanatory consequence. A expression at the consequences will demo industrial production has a important coefficient in all 10 portfolios. hazard premium in Cards Printable Boy, all 10 portfolios every bit good.

Changes in term construction have a statistically important coefficient in eight out of the 10 portfolios and rising prices in four out of the 10 portfolios. These consequences provide empirical grounds for the cogency of APT. It shows how different macro economic factors have a statistically important influence on the returns of the stock. Strategy Blog. An deduction of this consequence is that CAPM is non equal since it finds that there are other sorts of hazard besides the Training Presentation market hazard. I looked at the R squares of the two theoretical accounts to Strategy - Product Blog, see which theoretical account does a better occupation explicating or accounting for the discrepancies in the return. Table 7 lists the R squared for the different portfolios. Table 7: Roentgen Squares for CAPM and APT Models. Resume Templates Free Example. Industry Portfolios The R squares are higher with the CAPM theoretical account for most of the portfolios. - Product Strategy. This shows that market hazard does capture more hazards built-in in the portfolio than other macro economic variables that were tested. Looking at the R squares by itself would take you to believe that CAPM is Template, a better theoretical account. However since other macroeconomic variables do hold a important consequence on the returns.

CAPM is proven to be unequal. Further deductions of these consequences are discussed in Section V. C. Strategy - Product. Portfolio Allocation III Results. Consequences for Portfolio Allocation III are as follows. Table 8 displays the CAPM consequences for all 10 portfolios ( portfolios are indiscriminately constructed ) . Table 9 expressions at the APT consequences for the same set of portfolios and Table 10 shows the 51 Teacher Templates Free Format English R squares utilizing CAPM and Product Strategy, APT for (ppt, 60 Minutes), all the portfolios. Table 8: CAPM Consequences for Strategy, Random Portfolio Allocation. The consequences from the CAPM arrested developments for all 10 portfolios are statistically important at Baby Bingo Cards Printable Boy, a really high degree ( 99 % ) . These consequences are similar to the 1s found in Product - Product Strategy Blog, the industry portfolios. It provides farther grounds that market betas are important even when the industry prejudice is removed. In other words. market hazard is reflected in the returns of the portfolios.

However for CAPM to keep land based on empirical grounds. APT should be shown as statistically undistinguished. Biographical Essay Outline. There should be no other explanatory variable or no other systematic hazard that affects the Strategy - Product Blog returns of the portfolio. The Apt consequences are shown below. Table 9: Apt Results for Random Portfolio. Allocation The consequences indicate that industrial production. hazard premium and alterations in term construction have statistically important betas in Biographical Essay. Outline Template, all the portfolios. The beta for Product Strategy - Product Strategy, rising prices is statistically important in four out of the 10 portfolios.

These consequences provide empirical grounds for the cogency of the APT. It besides implies that CAPM is non equal as it fails to take into history some of the other macroeconomic hazards. These consequence shows that market hazard is non the lone variable that influences returns as implied by the CAPM. Table 10: Roentgen Squares for CAPM and Tape Band Flyer | Alternative And, APT Models. Random Portfolio Allocation The R squared is somewhat higher when CAPM is employed as opposed to Strategy Blog, the APT. This consequence is once more congruous with the 1s found in the industrial portfolios.

It shows how the market overall explains the discrepancies better than other macroeconomic factor. Blank Bingo Boy. Looking at Strategy, the R squares might demo that CAPM is Biographical Biographical The, a better theoretical account. However. as mentioned earlier. R squares do non capture the Product Strategy whole image. 60 Minutes). Deductions of these consequences are discussed below. Section V: IMPLICATIONS. LIMITATIONS. AND CONCLUSION. The consequences shown above demonstrate a twosome of Strategy - Product, things about each theoretical account. Presentation 60 Minutes). The first consequences from portfolio allotment prove that beta does non find the returns.

It provides empirical grounds rebuting the CAPM theory. Although CAPM is falsified in the first trial. the other two trials ( Portfolio Allocation I and - Product Blog, II ) show that market hazard is significantly reflected in the plus returns. The proving for APT in these two trials shows that other macroeconomic hazards are besides reflected in the stock return. The two theoretical accounts can non both be right because CAPM says that merely market hazard is apparent in the plus and no other systematic hazard variable exists. Statistically important betas for APT in both the 51 Teacher Example English portfolio allotment trials show that there are other macroeconomic variables that account for the returns of the security. turn outing CAPM inadequate. The better R squares for CAPM shows that market hazards and motions explain the discrepancy in the stock returns better than all the macroeconomic factors in the APT theoretical account. Although it explains the - Product Blog discrepancy better. it ignores other important hazards present in - Android On Google, the stock returns. This can be debatable when ciphering the stock monetary value and doing investing determinations.

These consequences show that the APT might hold a little border over the CAPM merely because it is non falsified and the consequences for it were statistically important. However it’s weaker R squared values ( although non significantly weaker ) show that it can non explicate the discrepancies in the returns every bit good as the CAPM can. Fiscal practicians should utilize both the theoretical accounts in junction and non take one over the other. Although my consequences show APT is stronger and CAPM is Product Strategy - Product Blog, unequal. CAPM’s better R sq. and the statistical significance of its betas should non be ignored. B. Restrictions. There are some restrictions in Essay Outline Template The, this whole research 1 must maintain in head. Get the better ofing these restrictions will beef up the research but the consequences of the trials I have done are still valid and supply insightful empirical grounds that has serious and Strategy - Product Strategy, meaningful deductions. The first large restriction of this paper is the deficiency of econometric edification. For illustration the usage of more complicated theoretical account than the OLS arrested development theoretical account like the GARCH would give more accurate consequences. It would account for Charts | Products, the noise nowadays in Product Strategy Blog, the fiscal information.

Besides for my APT testing. I use Ross #038; A ; Roll’s ( 1980 ) factors. I could execute my ain factor analysis to come up with the Training 60 Minutes) macroeconomic variables relevant for my informations which would beef up my APT consequences. Product Strategy - Product. Again. due to deficiency of my edification in econometrics and Training Presentation (ppt,, Stata. I could non utilize this measure. Strategy - Product Blog. However. these macroeconomic factors ( rising prices. industrial production. alterations in term construction. hazard premiums ) are used in other surveies excessively ( Poon #038; A ; Taylor. 1991 ) and still present valid grounds for the strength of the theoretical account. Another restriction of my paper is the beta appraisal technique I use. specially for the CAPM theoretical accounts.

I use the clip series OLS arrested development to gauge betas ( this is the market theoretical account ) . Using the market theoretical account calculator might be debatable for day-to-day returns of unsynchronized trading jobs. And if nontrading is Outline Template, a serious job this might take to prejudices in the appraisal which would impact the consequences ( Reinganum. 1981 ) . Other two appraisal methods are However. even the Product - Product Blog Scholes Williams calculator might be biased and inconsistent if nontrading is a serious sufficiency job harmonizing to Dimson. Using all three appraisal techniques would hold led me to come to a conclusive reply ; my reply is Cassette Band Flyer Flyer, limited merely to the market theoretical account. The prejudice evident in the market theoretical account gauging technique is present in my consequences and should be eliminated by utilizing these other appraisal method. On a broader position. my research looks at stock market informations for a really specific clip period. The external cogency of this research is merely application to developed stock markets during times of stableness.

The findings of this paper would non be applicable to developing stock markets or when the stock market demonstrates utmost volatility or experiences other sorts of Product - Product, exogenic or endogenous dazes. In the existent universe. markets experience these fluctuations. hence ballads my biggest restriction. 51 Teacher Resume Format. There has non been adequate testing of these theoretical accounts for times of crisis and dazes in the fiscal markets. This is an country where more empirical analysis and proving are warranted. C. Concluding Remarks. The consequences have shown that both theoretical accounts are non perfect. APT is better because it takes into Product Strategy Blog, history systematic hazards other than the Calculator Apps On Google market hazard as opposed to the CAPM which merely histories for the market hazard. The empirical cogency of the APT refutes the adequateness of Strategy - Product Strategy, CAPM as an plus pricing theoretical account. But the greater R squared demonstrated by the CAPM should non be forgotten every bit good.

The hazard averse and the rational investor would profit utilizing both theoretical accounts and coming to the most sound determination. Market hazards should non be ignored but neither should other macroeconomic hazards. Further research in more realistic market status is |, needed to Strategy Blog, see which theoretical account is better for changing market conditions. The pick of the Blank Cards Baby Boy theoretical accounts will hold serious effects for the investor every bit good as for the market as a whole. Possibly. there will be a theoretical account that incorporates the strength of both these theoretical accounts and eliminates the failings. but until so both theoretical accounts should be used in concurrence for the best consequences. Recognitions. I would wish to Product - Product Strategy Blog, thank Professor Tymoigne for supplying my some valuable beginnings and steering me through the procedure of Training (ppt,, this research. Product Blog. Professor Schleef for assisting me insight.

Dilara Zhamakayeva. Merica Shrestha and Resume Sample Example Format, Lame Ungwang ( Undergraduate Economics Students ) for assisting me cod and assemble the immense sums of informations. 1. Basu. S. . “Investment Performance of Common Stocks in Relation to Their. Price-Earning Ratios: A Trials of the Efficient Market Hypothesis. Strategy - Product Strategy. ” The Journal of Finance 32. no. 3 ( 1977 ) : 663-682. 2. Black. Fischer. Michael Jensen. and (ppt, 60 Minutes), Myron Scholes. “The Capital Asset Pricing Model: Some Empirical Trials by Michael Jensen. Fischer Black ( deceased ) . Product - Product Strategy Blog. Myron Scholes. ” Traveling to seek. 51 Teacher Resume Free Example. hypertext transfer protocol: //papers. ssrn. - Product Strategy. com/sol3/papers. cfm? abstract_id=908569 #038; A ; rec=1 #038; A ; srcabs=350100 ( accessed December 4. 2010 ) . 3. Bower. Dorothy H. . Richard S. Baby Shower Bingo Download Baby. Bower. and Dennis E. Logue. “Arbitrage Pricing Theory and Utility Stock returns. ” The Journal of Finance 39. no.

4 ( 1984 ) : 1041-1054. 4. Cheng. Pao L. . and Robert R. Grauer. “An Alternate trial of the Strategy Blog Capital Asset Pricing Model. Cassette Style, Flyer. ” The American Economic Review 70. no. Product Strategy - Product Strategy Blog. 4 ( 1980 ) : 660-671. 5. Dhankar. Raj S. . “Arbitrage Pricing Theory and the Cpital Asset Pricing Model – Evidence from the Indian Stock Market. ” Journal of Financial Management and Analysis 18. no. 1 ( 2005 ) : 14-27. 6. Fama. Eugene. and James MacBeth. “Risk.

Return. and Equilibrium: Empirical Trials. ” The Journal of Political Economy 81. |. no. Product Strategy Blog. 3 ( 1973 ) : 607-636. 7. Fama. Eugene F. . and | Products, Kenneth R. Product Strategy Blog. French. “The Capital Asset Pricing Model: Theory and Evidence by Eugene Fama. Flyer | Alternative And. Kenneth French. ” SSRN. hypertext transfer protocol: //papers. ssrn. com/sol3/papers. cfm? abstract_id=440920 #038; A ; rec=1 #038; A ; srcabs=2358 ( accessed December 4. 2010 ) . 8. Febrian.

Erie. and Aldrin Herwany. “The Performance of Asset Pricing Models Before. Strategy - Product. During. and After an Emerging Market Financial Crisi: Evidence from Indonesia. ” The International Journal of Business and Finance Research 4. no. 1 ( 2010 ) : 85-97. 9. Huberman. Blank Baby. Gur. and Zhenyu Wang. “Arbitrage Pricing Theory. ” Columbia University. hypertext transfer protocol: //www0. gsb. Columbia. edu/faculty/ghuberman/APT-Huberman-Wang. pdf ( accessed November 1. 2010 ) . Product Strategy Strategy Blog. 10. Poon.

S. . and S. J. Taylor. | Alternative Style, Flyer Template. “Macroeconomic Factors and the UK Stock Market. ” Journal of Strategy - Product, Business Finance #038; A ; Accounting 18. no. 5 ( 1991 ) : 619-636. 11. Reinganum. Essay. Outline The. Marc R. . “The Arbitrage Pricing Theory: Some Empirical Results. ” The Journal of Finance 36. no. 2 ( 1980 ) : 313-321. 12. Reinganum. Marc R. Strategy - Product. . “A New Empirical Perspective on the CAPM. ” diary of fiscal and quantitative analysis 16. no. 4 ( 1981 ) : 439-462. 13.

Roll. Blank Baby Shower Bingo Cards Download Baby Boy. Richard. and Stephen Ross. “An Empirical Investigation of the Arbitrage Pricing Theory. Product Strategy - Product Strategy. ” The Journal of Finance 35. no. Biographical Outline. 5 ( 1980 ) : 1073-1101. 14. Roll. Richard. and Stephen Ross.

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In what ways does gender shape the experience of mental illness? Women and Product Strategy Blog mental health is - Android Play a vast topic and Product we do not presume to Blank Printable Baby, cover all aspects of it within the confines of this essay. We will, however, explore a number of relevant themes in some detail by particular reference to - Product Strategy Blog, peer reviewed literature on Biographical Essay Outline Template the subject. In doing so, we recognise the fact that it is Strategy vital to make a critical assessment of the literature as, in any branch of Essay. Biographical Template, medically related work, it is vital to acquire a firm evidence base. (Berwick D 2005). Much of the literature that we have assessed for consideration amounts to little more than simple opinion on Strategy - Product Blog a subject, and as such, is only of use as an opinion rather than a fact that has been subject to proper scientific scrutiny. (Green Britten 1998). In this essay we take note of opinions but aim to present verifiable facts. We do know that mental illness in the UK is Essay. Biographical Essay Outline associated with a significant burden of both disability and morbidity in general, and this will vary with both the severity of the - Product Blog, illness at any given time and also the nature of the illness itself. (Annandale, E1998). A number of studies have shown that, as a lifetime experience, nearly half of the population will suffer some kind of Charts |, quantifiable psychological or psychiatric disorder. (Bayer, 1987) The actual incidence of morbidity is hard to assess accurately. Firstly because doctors tend to under-diagnose positive psychiatric morbidity and Strategy secondly because there is a general reluctance to Biographical Essay. Biographical Essay Template, seek medical help with this type of complaint.

It has been suggested that only 40% of people with a significant mood, anxiety or substance misuse problem will actually seek help in the first year of the problem becoming apparent. (Boswell G Poland F 2004) In the context of this essay we should note that, in broad terms, the overall rates of psychiatric disorder are approximately equal in both men and women, but the significant differences between the sexes are found in the patterns of how the disorders manifest themselves. (Castle DJ et al 2001) It is also fair to Strategy Strategy, comment that an examination of the literature seems to suggest that the morbidity which appears to be associated with mental disorders has been the subject of more attention and research than the actual determinants and mechanisms that appear to be significant in both the promotion of mental health, and protection against mental illness, together with those factors which appear to give a degree of resilience against stress and other adversities which are gender specific. ( Rogers Pilgrim 2002). We do know that a number of Cassette Tape Band Flyer Flyer, psychiatric illnesses have different rates of Product Strategy Strategy, presentation. Some, such as schizophrenia have gender differential modes of presentation and illness trajectory (Kornstein S Clayton A 2002). Just why should this be?

A number of authors point to various features of gender difference that may account for this difference. Castle (et al 2001) spend a large proportion of their book differentiating the male and female brain in terms of the effect of testosterone on neurodevelopment. While this is undeniably a source of Cassette Style, Flyer Template, difference, it would appear that their argument rather falls apart when other authors point to the fact that the differences that we are considering here are actually better correlated with both gender and culture than actual biological sex. (Pattison 2001) Gender has much deeper socio-economic and cultural implications than simply a sexual consideration. It is gender that is one of the prime determinants of the differential power and status factors that influence the degree of control that both men and women have over their socio-economic situation and social position in their own cultural hierarchy. This, in turn, determines both their susceptibility, and indeed their exposure, to significant mental health risks. Product - Product Strategy? (Busfield J 1996) We have already alluded, in passing, to Charts | Products |, the differential incidence of various illnesses. We know that depression and anxiety related patterns of illness, together with those that have a significant element of somatosisation of their symptomatology, are more likely to Strategy - Product Strategy Blog, occur in women than men with a ratio of about 3:1.

Illnesses such as reactive (unipolar) depression is found to occur with double the frequency in women, when compared to men. Blank Baby Shower Printable Boy? This particular disease process is statistically the Strategy - Product, most common mental health problem that affects women, but it also tends to be more persistent in women both in terms of longevity of the episode and in Shower Cards Printable Baby, frequency of - Product Blog, relapse. (APA 1994) Gender differences are also apparent when it comes to a consideration of substance abuse, however it is usual to find the reverse ratio in Tape | Alternative Style, And, most studies on the subject. Alcohol abuse and dependence will occur 2.5 times more frequently in men than women. It is not certain whether these changes are primarily cultural or biological, as they do vary to a degree between different cultures, but the sex difference is Strategy Blog generally found. (Kraemer S 2000) Unlike the Retirement Calculator - Android, unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, like schizophrenia, has no differential rate of presentation although there are defined differences in the disease trajectory in terms of age at Product Strategy - Product Strategy presentation, the - Android Apps On Google Play, frequency and nature of the first rank psychotic symptoms. This may have a bearing on the longer term sequelae such as social readjustment and long term disease process outcome. (Kaplan HI et al 1991) It is Product Strategy - Product Blog also a demonstrable fact that the degree of Resume Templates Sample Example Format English, morbidity rises exponentially with multiple degrees of comorbidity. In studies on the subject, women outnumber men in this area as well.

This consideration then begs the question, “just what are the gender specific different factors that determine mental health or the susceptibility to Strategy, mental illness?” We have already suggested that many factors are not purely biological, and a number of different papers point to the fact that many of the Charts, triggers and stressor factors which can be associated with mental illness, are also gender specific. The gender based role in - Product Strategy, a particular society ( certainly in the UK), will produce different exposure to different stressors and negative life experiences. Equally it will give different exposure to Charts, the protective effect of a positive life experience. (Moynihan C 1998) We can cite specific examples in Product Strategy, this regard. Women are frequently the domestic target of male-based violence. This factor is Retirement Play probably important in the fact that women have the highest incidence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).(Jewkes R 2002) There is still a gender gap in the earnings tables, both in total lifetime earnings and also in average earning levels. This implies that women tend to Product Strategy - Product Strategy Blog, be less financially independent and more socio-economically deprived (on average) that males. Charts? In many societies this is also translated into Product Strategy - Product Blog lower social status that the male and this is often also associated with fewer social freedoms - all of which may be associated with an increasing psychological co-morbidity. (Gordon G et al 2001) There is also the consideration that in Tape Band | Alternative Template, the majority of cultures, it is the woman who typically bears the major impact of care in the family, not only of the children, but also of the elderly relatives, and this frequently produces constant and unremitting levels of stress, which again, is Product - Product Strategy Blog recognised as a major trigger for psychological morbidity. (Davies TW 1994)

All of these factors, when considered collectively, appear to exert a significant influence on Biographical Essay Outline the overall patterns of gender specific distribution of psychiatric morbidity in the community at - Product large. These factors are generally exacerbated (and the gender differences accentuated), when there are sudden and unpredicted fluctuations in the general income level or the stability of the social strata.(Murray M 1995). We have already alluded to the fact that the rates of diagnosis by the healthcare professionals tend to underestimate the true incidence of psychiatric morbidity in the community. It is likely that the healthcare professional can also skew the results in a different way. We know, from Resume Templates Sample English, a number of studies, that gender bias occurs in Product - Product Strategy Blog, both the diagnosis and Baby Shower Printable Baby treatment of mental conditions. Doctors have been shown to be more likely to Product, make a diagnosis of depression in women than in men even when the cohorts have been previously matched in terms of symptom severity and when the present with matched symptoms. Doctors are also statistically more likely to prescribe psychotropic medication for Bingo Cards Download, women than for Product Strategy Blog, men. (Bhui K et al 1995), Why should this be? Part of the reason is that women have demonstrably different patterns of presentation of psychological morbidity than men. Women are more likely to be open and to disclose their problems to a healthcare professional than a man.

Women tend to disclose problems to a primary healthcare team professional (and therefore be treated in the community), whereas a man is statistically more likely to present to a secondary care specialist (which is possibly why men have a disproportionately high representation of inpatient care) (Boswell G Poland F 2004) This may be due to the general perception of the gender stereotype. It is more “socially acceptable” for a man to Charts, have an alcohol problem. Strategy? Some would argue that Dean Martin made a career out of his drinking. Women are “expected” to be more emotionally labile than men, and the typical male stereotype is to be stoical and unflinching in the face of Sample English, adversity. These patterns of behaviour in both the general public, as well as in Product Strategy Blog, the perceptions of healthcare professionals, go a long way towards perpetuating many of the gender inequalities that we have examined thus far. Tape Flyer Template? It is certainly possible that they may be responsible, at least in part, for the apparent varying susceptibility of the sexes to different illness patterns. (Bandarage A 1997) In this essay we have considered some of the evidence that related to the gender differences in the presentation and trajectory of mental illness. We note that the WHO recognises many of Product - Product Strategy Blog, these factors on Band Flyer Style, Flyer And a global scale and Product - Product Strategy has put forward three factors that it considers to be protective in the development of mental morbidity (especially depression). In the light of our discussion above, it can be seen that, although the WHO addresses the points generally to the whole population, they, arguably, have a greater relevance for women than men, certainly in our current culture in Blank Baby Bingo Printable Download Baby, the UK. Having sufficient autonomy to exercise some control in Product - Product Blog, response to severe events.

Access to some material resources that allow the possibility of making choices in the face of severe events. Psychological support from Templates Free, family, friends, or health providers is powerfully protective. We have established that women represent the greatest element of morbidity in the overall consideration of both psychiatric and psychological pathology. This may a real finding, but we note that there is a considerable element of bias in the figures, both from the differential rates of presentation and also relative gender bias that appears to exist in the healthcare professionals in Strategy - Product Strategy Blog, general. There is also additional bias in the fact that women have a longer life expectancy than men and therefore have more “life chances” to Cassette Tape Flyer Template, present with psychiatric morbidity, quite apart from the fact that the morbidity rates increase with advancing age, primarily associated with the dementias and Product Strategy Strategy Blog various organic brain syndromes (Russell D 1995). On a world wide basis, women are more susceptible to the destabilising effect of Blank Shower Cards Baby Boy, war, economic instability and Product Strategy natural disasters which add to the burden of negative life experiences that are a prime risk factor for the development of mental illness. (Brown GW 1978). We have also identified the fact that the woman’s position in her particular culture or society is also a very significant factor in generating gender differences. There are gender differences in society and therefore it clearly comes as no surprise that these differences are reflected in the gender differences in health generally. The woman, in the majority of cultures is expected to assume a number of different roles (sometimes simultaneously), each with their own pressures. 51 Teacher Templates Free Sample Format? The unremitting role of the Strategy - Product Blog, carer is common and clearly a cause of chronic stress.

This can be both combined with, and exacerbated by, situations of comparative poverty which again magnifies the effect of all of the Biographical Biographical, negative stressors which can mitigate towards mental ill-health. Other factors such as sexual abuse can also play a gender specific role in the aetiology of Strategy - Product, mental illness. In the words of Masson, (J.M. 1986) in his historical overview of the field of psychological disability: There is a positive relationship between the frequency and severity of Biographical Essay. Essay Outline, such social factors and the frequency and severity of mental health problems in Product Strategy Blog, women. Severe life events that cause a sense of loss, inferiority, humiliation or entrapment can predict depression. Some authors point to the difficulty of communication of the patient with the healthcare professional. Training Presentation (ppt,? In areas where there are cultural or perceived socio-economic differences, it is accepted that this may be a significant factor (Platt, FW Gordon GH 1999). If difficulty of - Product Blog, communication is Cassette Tape Band Flyer Style, Flyer And a problem, the conscientious healthcare professional should endeavour to Strategy Strategy, be aware of it and English minimise it’s potential impact with strategies such as a translator or perhaps a more empathetic or understanding approach. One could hope that this would go some way to reducing the burden of Product Strategy - Product Blog, disclosure from a patient who may already have a significant burden of psychological illness themselves. All in all, we can conclude that the whole area of gender, in Cassette | Alternative Flyer Template And, relation to mental health problems, is both difficult, multifactorial and complex.

A significant amount of Product - Product Strategy, work has been done in this field, but there is clearly scope for a great deal more. Annandale, Ellen (1998) The Sociology of Income - Android Apps, Health Medicine A Critical Introduction. Cambridge: Polity 1998. American Psychiatric Association. DSM-IV. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: APA, 1994. Bandarage A 1997. Women, population and a global crisis.

London : Zed books 1997. Bayer, Ronald (1987) Homosexuality and American Psychiatry The Politics of Product Strategy, Diagnosis. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1987. Broadening the view of evidence-based medicine. Qual. Saf.

Health Care, Oct 2005; 14: 315 - 316. Boswell G Poland F 2004. Women’s minds, Women’s bodies. London: Routledge ISBN 0333919696. Brown, George W. Tiril Harris (1978) The Social Origins of Depression A Study of Psychiatric Disorder in Women. New York: The Free Press. 1978. Brown, G.W., S.Davidson T.Harris (1977)

Psychiatric Disorder in London and North Uist. Social Science and Essay. Essay Outline Template The Medicine 11: 367-377. Bhui K, Christie Y, Bhugra D. Blog? 1995. Essential elements in culturally sensitive psychiatric services. Int J Soc Psychiatry 1995;41:242-56. Busfield, Joan (1996) Men, Women and Madness Understanding Gender and Mental Disorder. Band | Alternative Style, Template? London: Macmillan. 1996. Castle DJ, John McGrath, Jayashri Kulkarni (eds) 2001. Women and Schizophrenia.

Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0 521 78617 7 : 2001. Psychosocial factors and relapse of schizophrenia. Gordon G, Welbourn A. 2001. Stepping stones and men. Washington,DC: InterAgency Gender Working Group, 2001. Green J, Britten N. 1998. Qualitative research and evidence based medicine.

BMJ 1998; 316: 1230-1233. Preventing domestic violence. BMJ, Feb 2002; 324: 253 - 254 ; Kaplan HI, Sadcock BJ 1991. Synposis of Strategy, Psychiatry, behavioural Sceinces. Baltimore: Maryland Wilkins Wilkins 1991.

Kornstein S Clayton A (eds) 2002. Women's Mental Health: A Comprehensive Textbook 2002. The Guilford Press, ISBN 1 57230 699 8. The fragile male. BMJ, Dec 2000; 321: 1609 - 1612 ; A Dark Science. Women, Sexuality and Psychiatry in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux. Resume Templates Free Format English? 1986. Moynihan C 1998. Theories in health care and research: Theories of masculinity.

BMJ, Oct 1998; 317: 1072 - 1075. Prevention of anxiety and depression in vulnerable groups. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists, 1995. Pattison H 2001. Women and Schizophrenia • Women and Mental Health. BMJ, Jul 2001; 323: 114 ; Penfold, P. Susan Gillian A.Walker (1984) Women and the Psychiatric Paradox. Milton Keynes: Open University. Product Strategy - Product? 1984. Platt, FW Gordon GH 1999. Field Guide to the Difficult Patient Interview 1999.

Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, pp 250 ISBN 0 7817 2044 3. London: Macmillian Press 1999. Rogers A and Calculator Play David Pilgrim 2002. Mental Health and Product - Product Strategy Blog inequality. London: Macmillan, ISBN 0333786572 : 2002. Russell, Denise (1995) Women, Madness and Medicine.

Cambridge: Polity. Presentation (ppt,? 1995. Showalter, Elaine (1987) The Female Malady. Women, Madness and English Culture 1830-1980. London: Virago. 1987. Skultans, Vieda (1987) The Management of Mental Illness among Maharashtrian Families: A Case Study of a Mahanubhav Healing Temple. Man: Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 22(4):661-679. Szasz, Thomas S.(1971)

The Manufacture of Madness. A Comparative Study of the Inquisition and the Mental Health Movement. London: Routledge. Product - Product Strategy? 1971. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Sociology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

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