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book report ideas Your instructor is expecting a book report due in a few days. You’ve read the book, but you’re just so bored by British Application Form, the prospect of writing another book report that you don’t even feel like starting. Templates Free. Description. It doesn’t have to British Council Application Form be this way. Book reports can be a great way to Form For 2012 Aˆ“ 2013 - Office Of University show some creativity and British Application Form — dare I say it — can even be fun . Ideas For Creating Plan. Go ahead, roll your eyes. British Council Form. Talking about Commons book reports can sound like this: But after you’re done doubting, take a look at some of the book report ideas I have provided below.
Try one out and you’ll be surprised how much better it’ll be to British Council Application write that report — and hopefully how much better your grade will be. A book report is a project to File:bill Graduation - Wikimedia show that you understand what you’ve read. British Application. Many instructors get creative and might deviate from an essay into Conversion Tables, skits, sculptures, drawings or music. But, for the sake of this post, I’m going to Council Application concentrate on Form Aˆ“ 2013 Of University the writing side. Form. In elementary and Need An It For Social middle school, you might have written tons of book reports that were simple summaries of the British Application book you read. But a college level book report should be so much more than that.
Incorporating anything that shows your knowledge of the Need An It Plan book’s themes, characters, settings, or other important elements are acceptable, which gives you a lot of room for creativity. British Form. Why You Should Make Your Book Report as Interesting as Possible. File:bill Graduation - Wikimedia Commons. While it might be easier for Council Form, you to write a summary of the book and call it a day, that certainly won’t be a very entertaining book report to Graduation Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Commons read or to British Application Form write. Free. Description. Get those creative juices flowing because writing an Application Form, interesting book report has lots of benefits, including: It’s More Fun to Three And 10 A Mini-Marketing Plan Write. Image by New York Zoological Society via Wikimedia Commons. British Form. When you hear “book report” come from your teacher’s mouth, “fun” is probably not the first word that comes to Streamline Conversion mind. But it could be if you make it fun . Coming up with a new approach to an old assignment can help the Council whole project go by faster and make it not seem like work. It Helps Your Brain.
Image by Shaheen Lakhan via flickr. So many school assignments are done with such a formulaic approach that sometimes book report writing can be one of Analyst Sample Resume Writer, your only opportunities to get creative — so seize the day! Using creativity when you write can help your memory, cognition, language processing and other parts of the Council brain. It also helps you actually develop new writing skills instead of just repeating the Slips: same writing techniques for every assignment. Later you could use these skills to Application write poetry, novels or go into Deposit Slips:, journalism. British Application. Even if you don’t, good writing skills are essential in - Wikimedia good communication — and Council that’s good in any situation. It’s More Fun to 9+ Army Format Read. Photo by Blue Plover via Wikimedia Commons. You’re probably doing this book report for British Council Application, a grade, right?
Well the Rha Funding Form Aˆ“ 2013 Of University more entertained your teacher is Council, while reading your book report, the Three And 10 For Creating higher your grade might be (provided you have included all the Council Form required information, of Format Leter, course). Your teacher has most likely read too many book reports to British Application Form count, so make yours one of the Weight Tables ones to British stick out in Request Form For 2012 his or her memory. Below I’ve given you ten book report ideas to get you started on Application your writing. Deposit Quickbooks Deposit Slip. I made them general enough to be applied to almost any book you happen to British be reading. Just remember to run these ideas over For 2012 Aˆ“ 2013 with your teacher first because he or she might have a different idea on how you should tackle your book report. 1. Form. Create a childhood for an adult character. Three And 10 For Creating Plan. This kind of book report should draw on Council the personality traits of an adult character in Templates Free. Assistant the novel you’re reading and Council Application explain how that character came to Request Form Aˆ“ 2013 be that way. An example might be Jonathan Harker from British Council Application, Bram Stoker’s Dracula . - Fuel Tables. Explain how he came to meet Mina, his ideological background, why he’s not superstitious, etc. Get creative — there are plenty of Form, possibilities to Do You Need Plan For Social Business explore. Council. 2. Printable Quickbooks Deposit. Similarly you could create a future for one of the characters. Application Form. Take Alice from Leter, Alice’s Adventures in Form Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass.
She ends up in the same place she started because the entire story was just a dream. But that dream could have changed her entire outlook on File:bill Graduation Concert.jpg - Wikimedia life. What did she do when she grew up? DId her relationship to British Council Application Form her sister change after that day? And what became of Dinah? 3. Recreate the Need An It Business story from the Council point of Healthcare Resume Medical, view of the British Form antagonist or minor character. Resume - Executive Writer. Use the main events in the story and explore them through the eyes of Application Form, a different character.
Retell any of the File:bill Evans Graduation Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Harry Potter novels from Draco’s perspective or, better yet, Moaning Myrtle. British Council Application. Imagine the Do You Need Plan Strategy kinds of gossip she overheard in Application Form the girls’ bathroom about Execution For Social Business Strategy what was going on Form in the school. 4. Resume - Executive Writer. Write a mock chat room conversation for British Form, one or more of your characters. This would be especially fun for something like Cyrano de Bergerac when chat rooms would have been completely foreign. What kind of chat room would Cyrano be a part of? What would he say?
You could even have Cyrano meet his love interest, Roxane, in the chat room as a sort of modern adaptation. File:bill Evans Graduation Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Commons. 5. Form. Write an It Security Sample, opinion column from the character’s perspective. It’s easiest to do with an British Council Application Form, outspoken character, but I think this would be awesome from a quirky character’s point of Healthcare Templates Medical, view. I’ll use another Harry Potter reference and British say Luna Lovegood would be a perfect candidate for Form For 2012 - Office, this kind of British Form, project. She would offer a unique perspective on the main events of the Deposit Deposit story. British Form. 6. Write a college application letter for Printable Quickbooks Deposit, one of Form, your characters. This is especially helpful if you are close to applying for college yourself — you can get a little extra practice in.
Choose a character like Katniss from The Hunger Games and Resume Templates Medical tell about her leadership skills and main accomplishments (there are so many to choose from in Council Application Form her case so it shouldn’t be hard). 7. Create a brochure or advertisement copy about the setting(s) of your book. This can be really fun for Deposit Slips: Deposit Slip, post-apocalyptic or dystopian novels. The Giver would be a great example where everything is gray and British Application Form everyone has a specific role to 9+ Army play. You can get satirical or sarcastic with this, and British Council Form it’ll work pretty well with this kind of 9+ Army Memorandum Format, project. 8. Write letters between you and a character. Show that you understand a certain character and the events they encounter by British Council, creating letters to and from that character.
Write a letter to Resume Free. Description Puck from A Midsummer Night’s Dream and ask him about meddling in other people’s love lives. Then create what you think his response would be based off of what happened in the story and his personality. 9. Create a character yearbook. British Application Form. This is good for ensemble cast books like Stephen King’s Under the Dome . Choose a character and Rha Funding Request - Office write what their friends, classmates or other characters might sign in the yearbook. Then make superlatives like “Most likely to succeed,” “Most popular,” or “Most likely to figure a way out of the Dome.” 10. Write a character’s journal or diary. This would be very easy for the main character of British, a first-person story, but try to 9+ Army Format | Appeal Leter make it more challenging by British Council Application Form, going with a third-person story so you don’t already know the An It Plan For Social Strategy character’s thoughts. British Application. Creating the Need An It Execution Plan For Social Business diary of British Application, Juliet from Romeo and Juliet , for Leter, example, would be interesting as she fell in Form love quickly, got married in Request Form For 2012 Aˆ“ 2013 - Office secret, and devised a plan to British Council Application Form be with Romeo (even if the Three Steps And 10 Ideas For Creating A Mini-Marketing Plan end didn’t go quite as she had planned). These are just a few book report ideas to get the British wheels in your head turning. I’m sure you can think of a lot more creative ideas — but feel free to use one or more from the list above if you’d like.
If you get through your book report and And 10 Ideas A Mini-Marketing feel that it’s still a little lackluster, send it over to Application one of the Kibin editors. Healthcare Resume Free. Medical Assistant Description. They’ll be able to help make it shine! Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. British Council Form. About the Author. Weight Tables. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for British Application, English, history and Resume Description education.
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Generalising about the Arab Spring is Council Form playing with fire. Ahistorical portrayals of the Arab uprisings fail to Healthcare Templates Free. capture the political transformations afoot – and worse, perpetuate a false need for Form, security and It Security Resume, stability when institutional reform is the British Application Form solution. The euphoria and promise of the “Arab uprising” or “Arab Spring” have given way to Slips: Quickbooks Slip what many refer to as a “winter” rather than a “spring”. Headlines such as “Military coup in Egypt”, “Civil war in Syria”, “Armed militias in Libya”, and “Sectarianism in Iraq” have come to dominate media outlets and policy discussions. The problem with selecting the most ill-fated of the “uprising” cases and painting them as illustrative of the Arab world as a whole is that they are unrepresentative of the diverse political transformations throughout the British Application region. Such essentialist narratives present events outside of Three Steps Ideas For Creating their context and history. They distort the image of the Council Application Form “uprisings”, and of the Arab world generally as a perpetually violent and chaotic region incapable of Quickbooks strong institutional and democratic reform. This narrative conveniently propagates a policy, advocated by actors both within and British Council Application, outside the Deposit region, which prioritises stability and security while diverting attention away from needed political and institutional reforms. The key challenge for democratic transitions is the construction of a system characterised by elections, equality of citizenship and opportunity, the rule of law and inclusiveness. The success of transitions should be measured against these criteria.
This essay will focus on Egypt and Tunisia: two countries that have become the symbols of the Arab uprising and reflect wide-scale implications for the region. The comparison of these two countries – particularly the creation of their constitutions and their electoral laws - reveals differences in their transitional political paths and highlights the power and importance of the agency of political elites. Form! The variation between the two cases serves as a useful indicator of the extent of Evans Graduation Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Commons success or failure in the political struggles towards democratic transition. Since the ousting of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in 2011, Tunisia has, on the whole, made significant strides towards democratisation. Despite strong disagreements and Council Application, politically motivated roadblocks, Tunisia’s political elites have demonstrated a strong commitment to national unity, the institutional formation of a robust democracy, characterised by an inclusive constitution, a progressive electoral law, and an institutional setting that has prioritised dialogue and Printable Slips: Quickbooks Deposit, compromise over British Council exclusion and partisanship. This process was aided by a favourable context. In the wake of the uprisings, Tunisia’s brutal security apparatus collapsed and its small yet professionalised military, which historically had no interest in politics, remained silent in the wings. In civilian politics, Islamists and secular factions were evenly matched; Ennahda won a plurality in Tunisia’s first free democratic elections and had reached out to include secular opposition parties in the government. In addition, the sequence of democratic transition in Tunisia is worth mentioning as a favourable factor. File:bill Graduation Commons! Rather than beginning with electing a parliament charged with the selection of a constitutional committee, as seen in Egypt, Tunisia began with an British interim government and developed a consensual constitution, which preceded parliamentary elections.
In contrast, since the 2011 overthrow of Hosni Mubarak, Egypt has undergone a more turbulent political transition process. A parliament was elected, and dissolved; a democratically elected president faced a wave of Concert.jpg - Wikimedia popular opposition and was ultimately overthrown by a military-led coalition. July 3, 2013 marked a new phase in Egypt’s political trajectory. The political process has been heavily tainted by a rivalry between a security state and its opponents. The development of institutions and British Council Application Form, documents of the state and their interpretation have been shaped by 9+ Army Format circumstance, i.e. by the military-Muslim Brotherhood rivalry. Political elites in Egypt, in an effort to ensure the Form exclusion and limitations of the rights of oppositional forces and especially the Muslim Brotherhood (by outlawing and declaring it a terrorist organisation) have significantly backtracked from their promised neutrality and inclusiveness. New constitutions, different means. In theory, Tunisia’s new constitution is by many democratic measures a guarantor of equal opportunity and equal distribution of power. The constitution contains inclusive content that guards against the exclusion often observed in other Arab constitutions, and prevents the return of dictatorship. In a speech to the National Constituent Assembly last January, President Marzouki said: “With the Memorandum Format | Appeal birth of British Council Application this text, we confirm our victory over dictatorship.” The document’s careful wording has secured agreement from both sides of the political spectrum by presenting a model of reconciliation, while simultaneously addressing the perplexing question of Islam’s role in public life.
The Constitution declares: “Tunisia is a free, independent and sovereign state, Islam is her religion, Arabic her language and republic her regime” and “Tunisia is a state of civil character, based on citizenship, the Analyst Resume will of the people and Application Form, the primacy of law. In exchange for explicit mention of Islam as the religion of the state, Ennahda compromised on the inclusion of Islamic law. Secular parties, aided by a strong civil society, secured guarantees that Tunisia would remain a civil state with separation of state and religion (something that Rachid Ghannouchi, Ennahda’s leader, had also advocated) and placed preeminence on the freedoms of its people. It is Evans Graduation Concert.jpg - Wikimedia also important to note that future governments cannot amend the two clauses. Tunisia established a semi-presidential system of government: both the Application Form president and the parliament have the ability to Need An It Execution Plan For Social form and dissolve a government; however, neither the parliament nor the president can fully dominate the other. Moreover, Article 49 incorporates what is probably the Application Form region’s most detailed limitations clause, designed to prevent parliaments from Steps And 10 Ideas A Mini-Marketing, arbitrarily, unfairly or inequitably curbing citizens’ rights. The Tunisian constitution is also the Application Form first to introduce gender-sensitive language in relation to Resume Medical Description key issues. For instance, Article 40 stipulates that the right to British Council work is now “a right for every citizen, male and female”. This theme of gender equality runs throughout and encompasses the right to a fair wage, to decent working conditions, and to 9+ Army Memorandum Leter stand for election. Article 73 provides that every male and female has the right to run for president of Tunisia, a feature absent in all other Arab constitutions. While Tunisia’s constitution has been hailed as the region’s most progressive constitution, it falls short in some areas.
The constitution requires that the state treat men and women equally in the application of the law, however this does not mean that men and women have the same rights in Council all circumstances (such as, for example, inheritance and child custody). However, despite its imperfections, many Tunisians believe the constitution to be a welcome departure from what was once there. Memorandum Format | Appeal Leter! They also reason that the British Council Form constitution represents the theoretical formulation of the state. What really matters is how it is practiced and Three Steps Ideas For Creating A Mini-Marketing, implemented. Thus far, the behaviour of the political elite has been mostly positive, which has eased social discontent.
Tunisians have condemned abuses of power and have outlined the path they wish Tunisia would take. While there are some inherent contradictions in the constitution, the reality is that it is unlikely that the parties could have negotiated a better outcome given the circumstances and the existing ideological differences. Like many skilled constitutional legislators, the Tunisian political elite seems to have honed their ability to use constructive ambiguity to generate balanced and inclusive outcomes. Egypt’s 2014 constitution - the drafting process (headed by Form a government-appointed Committee of 50), the referendum that passed it with a near unanimous 98.1 percent (with a relatively substantial 38.6 percent voter turnout), and Ideas For Creating A Mini-Marketing Plan, the content of the document itself - has fallen under criticism for the deeply politicised context in which it emerged, and within which it is currently implemented. In contrast to Tunisia, Egypt’s constitution does little to increase accountability among the country’s political institutions, particularly the military, police and judiciary, or to British Application guarantee citizen rights and the rule of law. Despite the representation of Sample Resume a vast cross-section of society in the Committee of 50, with the conspicuous absence of Muslim Brotherhood affiliates, and public debates during the drafting period, the Form rushed, two-month process took place amidst heavy restrictions on the media and in the aftermath of the closure of Slips: Quickbooks Slip many Islamist-affiliated organisations, and a security crackdown that involved the arrests of several activists who had publicly opposed the British Application charter. The vote on the constitution was thus carried out under suppression of the It Security Sample Resume - Executive Resume Writer opposition. However, some viewed these measures as a necessary part of the security hype against the recently ousted MB. Furthermore, some advocated acceptance of the British Application charter as a symbolic means of Do You Plan For Social Business closing a chapter of increasingly unpopular Brotherhood rule and legitimising the interim government. Under such conditions, the vast affirmation for the document was unsurprising. In terms of content, while the constitution does make important improvements upon past documents in guaranteeing rights and freedoms (women, children and the disabled are more clearly protected by the constitution), ambiguous clauses leave sufficient space for the circumvention of such rights.
For example, the document allows for the military trial of civilians under numerous, vague circumstances. The wide room for interpretation has already been exploited; applied not only to Brotherhood members, but also to many prominent revolutionary activists, journalists and others who are currently imprisoned under the pretext of allowances made by the new constitution. The document further augments the power of the president, military, police and judiciary—institutions that would be difficult for Form, opponents, particularly Brotherhood members, to And 10 Ideas For Creating A Mini-Marketing Plan infiltrate. The rivalries that marred the constitution’s writing process have led to continued concentration of Council Form power, lack of accountability and oversight. Egypt’s military had been involved in Resume Resume Writer the transition process since the toppling of Hosni Mubarak; its second round of Council Application Form intervention, in the name of establishing security and placing Egypt on a proper path to democratic transition, has continued to make it a key player in the political process.
Beyond the accusations that the interim government was a facade for military rule, and that former Defense Minister Abdel Fattah al-Sisi’s presidency bolsters that rule despite his resignation from the military upon his candidacy, the constitution and laws that have since been enacted work to 9+ Army Format effectively protect the military from civilian oversight or accountability. Therefore, overall, the British Council Application rivalry between a security state and its opponents has resulted in the production of a highly politicised document that further concentrates power and leaves ample room for politically motivated infringement upon citizen rights. Political elites and their electoral laws. Tunisia’s new electoral law is another example of the role of political elites in the democratic transition. The introductory articles commit to free and fair elections, and maintain democratic principles that outlaw electoral exclusion, promote transparency, secrecy of ballot, and impartiality amongst those responsible for 9+ Army Memorandum Leter, the administration of election. The law is conceptually clear and Council Application, outlines the institutional framework of the electoral process. Equal access of the national media is guaranteed; funding from foreign sources is prohibited; and electoral assistance is given to candidates.
Another important provision includes Article 6, which excludes members of the armed forces from participation, a critical step for democratisation. The National Constituent Assembly (NCA) has significantly aided the democratisation process in Tunisia. By voting via secret ballot and by It Security Analyst Resume - Executive Writer a two-thirds majority to appoint the Instance Superieure Independante pour les Elections (ISIE) (election commission), the NCA has lent credibility and legitimacy to the democratisation process and the election body. In order to test the professionalism of the NCA, assembly members of the NCA voted individually for each commission. The process used to draft the electoral law and implement its mandate suggests that consensus building and inclusiveness top the agenda of British Tunisia’s political elite. As in the Tunisian case, the role of the political elite is salient in the formation of Three Steps For Creating Egypt’s elections law, albeit with different results. Application Form! Egypt’s parliamentary elections law, issued by interim president Adly Mansour days before the end of his term in June 2014, was drafted in It Security Sample Resume a politically fraught context aimed at preventing any potential rise of opposition, particularly MB affiliates, from gaining legislative authority. British Application Form! The law allows election authorities to ban any supporter of a religiously based, religiously discriminatory or violent organisation from candidacy - stipulations that are dangerously open to unjust interpretation. The law further weakens small political parties by putting in place a winner-take-all rather than party list system for the majority (75 percent) of parliamentary seats. This system advantages more powerful local candidates, often with political ties, who are unlikely to represent the Printable Deposit opposition.
The election law also allows the Supreme Constitutional Court, the vast majority of British whose justices were appointed by Hosni Mubarak, to dissolve parliament. In addition, given the vague mapping of electoral districts, election results could easily be open to challenge. While parliamentary elections have yet to take place under these 2014 stipulations, it seems highly unlikely under current elections law that a diverse or dynamic body, inclusive of opposition, can be elected. The cases of political transition in Tunisia and Egypt demonstrate the need for more complex and nuanced analysis of political transformation in the Arab world. They underscore the importance of analysing individual countries within their contexts rather than utilising a few ahistorical, extreme scenarios that paint the Arab world as an enclave of authoritarianism and chaos. In Egypt, a lack of compromise among the political elite has led to an exclusive system in Evans Graduation Concert.jpg which the winners are exercising unchecked authority over the very foundations of their country’s political and economic institutions. In contrast, the Tunisian case, while not entirely unflawed, thus far illustrates how inclusive transitional processes can lead to the development of balanced and accountable institutions. Key features account for difference between the Tunisian and Egyptian cases, both tied to the will of political elite. In Tunisia, a relatively well-educated population and a strong civil society maintained pressure on the political elite.
Strong, independent unions in Tunisia, including the British Council Form General Union of Tunisian Workers, lobbied the government consistently. Along with other actors, including the trade union federation, the law association, and File:bill Concert.jpg Commons, human rights groups, it also served as an important mediator among political actors. In Egypt, unions are neither as powerful nor as independent. In contrast, Egypt, with its much larger, diverse, failed economy and less educated population, more restricted civil society and British Council, politicised military and court system enabled political actors to treat the post-revolutionary period as a winner-takes-all rivalry rather than a process of Resume Templates negotiation and compromise. Once in power - and in contrast to Ennahda’s more inclusive political process - the Morsi government installed many Islamists (MB and Salafis) in key power positions, often to the exclusion or minimal representation of the April 6 movement, ‘secularists’ and Copts. In addition, the 2012 constitution was tilted in favor of the British Council Application Form MB’s political power. For example, the constitution favoured the power of parliament, where MB representation could be expected to consistently dominate, rather than the president or other bodies. In a similar vein, the military, after the 2013 coup, has sought to completely eradicate the Brotherhood and leftist opposition, and Do You Need An It, concomitantly shaped foundational documents and British Council Form, institutions to Printable Slips: its favour.
In contrast, once in power, Tunisia’s Ennahda party, taking a lesson from Algeria’s decades-long civil war, avoided polarising stances. Council Form! It demonstrated its emphasis on national unity and inclusion by Resume Free. promising ahead of elections that, if victorious, it would appoint a non-Ennahda citizen as president and reach out to opposition parties in creating a coalition government. It backed away from pushing for the integration of Council Application Form Islamic law in the constitution, and, after two years in power and engaging with opposition in dialogue, opted to step down in favour of technocratic leadership to And 10 For Creating A Mini-Marketing Plan preserve national unity. The military remained in the barracks, that is, stayed out of British Council direct involvement in politics, enabling political actors to negotiate a new system. Last year proved a turning point for Ennahda’s political fortunes. In parliamentary elections held on 26 October, Nidaa Tounes won 85 seats in the 217-member assembly, ahead of Healthcare Resume Templates Free. Description 69 secured by Ennahda. British Application Form! Nidaa Tounes, a self-styled liberal secular democratic coalition party, like its leader, Beji Caid Essebsi, was composed in large part by Tunisia’s traditional, political elite who portrayed themselves as a liberal democratic alternative to Healthcare Resume Free. Medical Description Ennahda. Ennahda’s loss of political power was finalised with the victory of Nidaa Tounes’ Essebsi in the presidential elections on 21 December. Ironically, Ghannouchi’s overriding his party's wishes and not allowing a law to be passed in May 2014 forbidding former members of Ben Ali's government and British, the RCD from Healthcare Resume, running enabled Nidaa Tounes’ parliamentary victory and Essebsi’s candidacy and presidential victory. It has also led to a split within Ennadha between the British leadership and youth who wanted the party to back President Marzouki as a presidential candidate.
Nidaa Tounes was challenged to demonstrate that it is capable of political inclusion and not exclusion in its dealings with Ennahda and other non-violent Islamists. Would it, however different in its political ideology, pursue a path of political inclusiveness and compromise to foster national unity and build a democratic future as Ghannoushi and Ennahda had done? That was not to be. Despite Essebsi’s post-election promise to form a broad-based coalition (as Ennahda had done previously) to effectively address crippling economic problems, he broke his promise. Analyst Sample Resume Resume Writer! In late January 2015, Prime Minister Habib Essid announced a new minority government with 24 ministers that excluded Ennahda and other Islamists and leftist parties, despite the fact that it was a minority government with less than half the votes necessary to survive a no-confidence vote.
The secularist-Islamist divide must give way to a system of government that brings together multiple voices and actors and British Application Form, considers the desires of the public. This new system must emphasise the effectiveness of the democratic process and the wellbeing of the country over ideological differences and repression of dissent. Three Steps A Mini-Marketing! Rather than recognition of the legitimacy of political opposition only so long as it is a loyal opposition, it must support an opposition whose ultimate loyalty is to national unity and the equality and prosperity of British Council Application all. While relative stability has allowed Tunisia and Egypt the opportunity of transition, the failure of the It Security Analyst Sample Resume Writer political process in Syria and Iraq has left these countries in turmoil and deeply divided. This power vacuum has enabled separatist movements, particularly the self-named Islamic State or IS, to garner supporters, take advantage of the Application Form increased accessibility to It Security Analyst Resume Resume large-scale weaponry, and seize, hold and govern large swathes of territory in Syria and Iraq. Processes within the region cannot be considered in isolation; the lack of political inclusiveness in some Arab countries, like Egypt, leave the potential for disaffected and alienated opponents, Islamist or others, seeking alternative means to Council express their political interests. Healthcare Resume Templates Free. Medical Assistant Description! The vast majority of the British Council Application Form Islamic State’s fighters come from Arab countries. One case in point is the significant number of former members of Saddam Hussein’s Baath party, dismissed blindly during the US invasion and occupation of Iraq, who are reported to have joined the Islamic State. For groups like the Deposit Slips: Quickbooks Deposit Slip Islamic State, religion has become an attractive tool to legitimate narratives of marginalisation, anguish and discontent, and to recruit and mobilise followers on a global scale in the name of Islam. The continued lack of change, limited possibility for significant political representation and British Application, reform, and government repression of mainstream Islamists will only perpetuate the search for alternative means of expression and power-sharing, moderate and extremist.
Furthermore, even if the US-led coalition is successful in neutralising the Islamic State, the potential for the formation of alternative groups championing a similar or revised narrative is robust so long as underlying grievances are unaddressed. Three Steps Ideas Plan! One recurring failure of US and European policy has been inattention to British Application Form such grievances, explicitly political exclusion. The Arab uprisings served to It Security Sample Resume - Executive Writer further expose inconsistencies in American and European political rhetoric regarding claimed support for self-determination, rule of law and human rights. In turn, this has weakened their ability to leverage pressure on Council Application Form Arab governments. From the start of Egypt’s revolution, the US has taken shifting stances that made clear its lack of commitment to ideology and ultimate loyalty to Healthcare Resume Free. the actor or group that appears most powerful. An initial hesitancy to abandon its longtime ally, Hosni Mubarak, transformed into Council Application, enthusiastic support for the revolutionaries. Its decades-long vehement stance against the Brotherhood turned into Deposit Deposit, support for its elected government, and while there was an British Council Application initial disapproval of military coup, time has revealed the emptiness of US threats. US and European failure to criticise the role of Gulf allies, such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, for their political and financial support of the Three Steps And 10 Ideas For Creating Plan military coup that overthrew President Morsi, further undermines their credibility. In addition, insufficient condemnation of the al-Sisi government’s repressive actions, through the use of military courts and British Application Form, mass death sentences, reveals continued inconsistency on part of US and European policy. Government reports indicate that 22,000 have been detained in post-Morsi Egypt, while human rights organisations put this figure at 40,000.
Such behaviour indicates US and European prioritisation of Arab relations over commitment to human rights. Al-Sisi has capitalised upon US and EU policy inconsistencies, in addition to | Appeal Leter his popular support, backing of government bureaucracy and regional alliances to take a bolder stance towards the US. In recent months, the Egyptian Foreign Ministry has even mocked US statements on Egypt by mimicking almost word-for-word an American reaction to Egyptian protests. Recently, the ministry produced its own assertions on the Ferguson protests (a series of Missouri protests that emerged in response to a racially-charged police shooting of a young black man), suggesting that Egypt was “closely following” developments in Application Ferguson, and urging “restraint and respect for Graduation Commons, the right of assembly and British Form, peaceful expression of opinion”. The statement was a comical mockery of the upper hand that the US assumes in its official addresses to Egypt. Moving forward, the US faces an overarching challenge. Three A Mini-Marketing! Despite its rhetorical commitment to a democratic ideology, the US has consistently sided with those in power. British! In many cases, it strikes a balance between using “democracy” as a diplomatic tool against Arab powers, while painting an image of regional violence and chaos as justification for its support for those very same powers. The notions of “democracy” and “authoritarianism” have been portrayed as entirely dichotomous, labels that give the democratic US a moral high ground over Arab authoritarianism. The US justifies its intervention by Healthcare Templates Free. Medical Assistant Description insisting on the Arab need to emulate Western-style democracy as the only path for Application Form, progress, all the while supporting the status quo. Free. Assistant Description! The historical context and its expansion of US hegemony in the region are all ignored as it attempts to construct and frame new realities.
The real power of the US and Europe lay in their ability to not simply construct a new narrative that emphasises self-determination, government accountability, rule of law and human rights upon British Application Form which political actions and It Security Sample Resume - Executive, policies are based, but to also act on that narrative. Failure to do so and, instead, accept the restoration of authoritarianism in Egypt, approve aid packages and even describe Egypt as on the path to democracy legitimates the widespread belief in the Arab world that the US and Application Form, EU have a double standard when it comes to Graduation Commons the promotion and support for democratisation. Equally important, it retreats to the old narrative and conventional wisdom that the Arab world and broader Middle East is a perpetually violent and chaotic region incapable of strong institutional and democratic reformation, and thus regional stability and Western national interest is dependent on security rather than democratic states. This reductionist and essentialist narrative ignores the British Council realities of diverse political contexts and the role of authoritarian governments and their policies with substantial financial and military support from long-time US and EU allies. Failure to Memorandum significantly shift from a monolithic and essentialist perception of the Arab world and policies that focus on British Application Form chaos and violence rather that their root causes prioritises stability and security, and diverts from the critical need for institutional reform. And what of Islamic movements? The retreat to the conventional wisdom of equating stability and Three Steps Ideas A Mini-Marketing, national interest with securitisation has also included a retreat to the anti-Muslim Brotherhood and longtime anti-Islamist mantra of Arab autocrats. Al-Sisi’s condemnation of Egypt’s MB as a terrorist organisation with international linkages, and Saudi Arabia's (and the United Arab Emirates's) attempt to rally not only Arab nations but also to preach and pressure the British Council Application Form US and EU to follow suit has both domestic and Healthcare Templates Free. Medical Assistant, international implications.
For Arab monarchies and regimes, it provides an excuse to further limit, repress and even ban all Islamist movements. This monolithic approach ignores and denies the British Council distinction between militant extremist and terrorist organisations and mainstream Islamist political parties and movements who have an established track record of choosing ballots not bullets as a vehicle for political and social change. Many in recent years have participated in municipal and national elections and as a result served as mayors, parliamentarians, cabinet members, prime ministers, and president. They have also accepted defeat at Deposit Deposit Slip the ballot box or government repression and not resorted to violence. Transparent, self-serving anti-MB and Council, anti-Islamist policies not only endanger the Format lives of mainstream Islamists but also discredit the claims of Western democracies and British Council Application Form, their belief in and support for the right of self-determination, good governance, rule of law and human rights. Healthcare Medical Description! Equally important, they affirm and Council Form, reinforce the rhetoric and ranting of terrorist organisations like al-Qaeda and IS that both condemn democracy as anti-Islamic and Evans Graduation Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Commons, charge that the US and Europe are hypocrites who have practiced a double standard when it comes to democracy promotion in the Middle East, a belief that Gallup poll reports and Form, those of other organisations have shown is widespread. Short-term securitisation in the name of political stability ignores or represses the Printable Quickbooks Slip spirit of the Arab uprisings and their desire for an end to dictatorship and its replacement with representative and accountable governance and human rights. British Form! It reinforces anti-Westernism as well as the Three And 10 For Creating mantra of militant extremists that neither Arab regimes nor their Western allies will “allow” democratisation and can fuel greater radicalisation and recruitment by terrorist organisations. However, long term, the genie has been let out of the bottle. The democratic aspirations and conviction of many, in particular younger generations in the Arab and broader Muslim world, will not be silenced or eradicated in the years to come. - John L Esposito is a Professor of Religion and International Affairs and Application Form, of Islamic Studies at Georgetown University and founding director of the Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding in Georgetown’s Walsh School of Foreign Service.
Esposito has served as consultant to the US Department of State and other agencies, European and Asian governments and corporations, universities, and the media worldwide. Faisal Kattan has worked for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Institute of Deposit Slip Economic Affairs, and Sawari Ventures and is currently a research analyst at the Brookings Institution. He is pursuing an Application MA in Arab Studies at Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service. The views expressed in this article belong to 9+ Army | Appeal the author and do not necessarily reflect the editorial policy of Middle East Eye. Photo: Supporters of Tunisia's outgoing president Moncef Marzouki wave flags outside his campaign headquarters on British Council Application Form 23 December 2014 in Tunis, a day after Beji Caid Essebsi won the Evans Graduation presidential election.
Tunisian PM-designate forms cabinet without any Ennahda ministers #TunisiaVotes. Egyptian president admits rights abuses by British Council police #EgyptTurmoil. How the West's campaign against IS lets the region off the hook #IslamicState. © Middle East Eye 2014 - all rights reserved. Analyst Resume - Executive! Only England and Wales jurisdiction apply in all legal matters.
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Philippians 4:13: Did Paul Write #8220;Christ#8221;? As the British Council Application Form, apostle Paul closes his immediate words acknowledging a recent gift from the Philippians (Phil 4:10-12), Paul interweaves a statement which transcends gifts and the encouragement to endure that they provide. In Philippians 4:13, Paul#8217;s words read, #8220;I can do all things through#8230;#8221;  It ellipses into a scene from a role playing game. At this point, the verse breaks out into Printable Deposit, three possibilities (variant readings) as to how the verse ends. The first two are represented by mainline translations, but the third is my translation (AT) since there are none that I am aware of to represent it: (A) I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me. British Council Form? (NKJV; CEV, FHV4, KJV, NLT, Tyndale) (B) I can do all things through him who strengthens me. (ESV; ASV, Barclay, CEB, HCSB, NASB95, NET, NIV, NRSV, Phillips, RSV, Weymouth, Wycliffe) In truth, Paul#8217;s point is transparent regardless of the textual problem. In them, Paul, at bottom line, concludes his statement with a powerful declaration that #8220;Christ/God gives me the strength to face anything.#8221; Yet, at times questions are asked as to Need An It Plan For Social Strategy, why a translation has this word or is missing that word, so this aspect of the text will be explored here.  So here, in this note, we are not so concerned with the sense of the British Application Form, passage than we are with the original wording of the passage. Memorandum Format | Appeal Leter? For while these variants are theologically harmonious, they differ but in two ways; case in point, did Paul label Christ as his enabler, or did he leave it undefined for a reason? Let us consider the textual question, then attempt to put the most probable words in context.
Don#8217;t Get Jittery, We Love the Bible. Every early Sesame Street kid remembers the lyrics: #8220;Three of these things are kind of the same; Can you guess which one of Council, these doesn#8217;t belong here?#8221; Sometimes when the Slips: Quickbooks Deposit, topic of textual criticism emerges upon Council Application the scene of our faith it feels so flippant and cruel. #8220;You mean to tell me that it was God#8217;s Word in the time of my grandma but now #8216;scholars#8217; know [sarcasm] it isn#8217;t.#8221; But the study and search for the earliest wording of the biblical text is an act of devotion to God#8217;s word and not some academic display of nerdiness. Three Ideas For Creating Plan? While there are areas of subjectivity to the evaluation process of the textual variants, so much as been done to minimize them as much as possible. Why? Because for the most part textual criticism shows a love for British Council Form, the Bible.
So in the words of the Three And 10 For Creating, late Dr. Dowell Flatt, let us be clear that the search for the earliest wording of the Council Application Form, biblical text is not (1) a liberal versus conservative issue, (2) a high view versus a low view of inspiration debate, nor is it (3) a study of the varied English versions, or (4) a study of what the providence of Sample Resume Resume Writer, God should have done or not done.  However, variants make it necessary to “arrive at nearest thing we can have to that which” is Council Application Form, God-breathed;  “it is, after all, somewhat difficult to study or interpret a document accurately unless one first knows exactly what the document says.”  This is, then, a necessary element of Healthcare Templates Assistant, biblical interpretation. How can one explain the text if there is an uncertainty in the wording of the Council Application Form, text? Unfortunately, the everyday student of the Scriptures (versus someone like an academically trained student of the Scriptures) rarely walks through these ancient halls and so it becomes something of a mystery. It does not need to be so. An Evaluation of the Textual Variants. There are a few things that should be said at the beginning about some general assumptions I am making. There are more refined treatments of this subject to be sure,  but these will at least give some reason for the approach taken here.
First , this evaluation is based upon the premise that (within reasonable limits) the closer a manuscript is in Three Steps And 10 Ideas For Creating, age to the timeframe of its composition, then the more probable it is that it represents its autographic wording (i.e. original wording). British Application Form? The closer one is the source it is typically regarded more pure. Second , wide geographic distribution is a vastly important consideration of the evidence,  but it is not as weighty as the date of the manuscript evidence. For example, a reading may have a significantly wide geographic distribution, but if an earlier reading exists also having a wide distribution, then (all things being equal) the oldest reading is Healthcare Resume Templates Description, more probable to be the autographic wording. Third , in most cases one must consider what is the variant which is the hardest to explain and would be most likely create a need to correct or clarify a difficult reading. Form? Sometimes, for example, the shorter reading is taken to be the most probable reading since variations are often additions rather than deletions. There are many exceptions to these general assumptions, but these are laid out in Need An It Business, full disclosure. Let us, then, turn to the three textual variants of Philippians 4:13b. From the Least Likely to the Best Supported. First , the (C) variant has the weakest evidence to be the probable reading of the early text of Philippians 4:13.
It is only mentioned in the UBS4 textual apparatus. The only manuscript supporting this reading in the apparatus is from the twelfth to thirteenth century (minuscule 1573). This variant can be easily dismissed due to its weak and Application Form late support, but it is an Format | Appeal Leter, interesting combination of the next two variants. British Council Form? It is Do You Need An It Execution, also weak since because variants (A) and (B) are more difficult to explain than the (C) variant.  Second , the (A) variant is perhaps the most well-known among the three to the English reader. British Council? This is due in large part to the influence and dominance of the King James/Authorize Version tradition (1611). It is well known and it clearly establishes the Need An It For Social Strategy, source of Paul#8217;s endurance Christ. British Council Application? I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me. Manuscripts . The strongest manuscript evidence is seen in second hand #8220;corrections#8221; to the text of both Aleph (4th century) and Claromontanus (6th century). Yet, since they are second corrections the Christo notes are from about 7th century (Aleph) and 9th century (Claromontanus) respectively.  Despite support in the later Byzantine text ( Byz ) and in church lectionary readings ( Lect ), the reading is found in Plan, the ancient versions of the Syrian Peshitta (5th century) and Ethiopian tradition (6th century). The evidence in the early church leaders (i.e.
Church Fathers) is mixed. The mid-4th century finds roughly about half of Eusebius#8217;s manuscripts which include #8220;Christ,#8221; and several late 4th and early 5th century Greek writers with verifiable references to 4:13 (Basil, Gregory, Chrysostom, Cyril, Theodore in latin). Four-fifths of Jerome#8217;s unstable Latin text (419-20) and Paulinus-Nola (481) are witnesses of the Latin church. Distribution . While this variant has a wide geographic distribution among its witnesses (Western, Alexandrian, Byz ), the strongest and earliest examples are substantially late and British Application statistically problematic. David A. Black calls us to be open-minded to the possibility that “a later MS may preserve an It Security - Executive Resume Writer, early reading. It is the date of the reading and British Council Form not of the MS, that is important.”  Still, the strength of 9+ Army Memorandum Format Leter, this variant reading is its wide geographic distribution. Probabilities . The earliest witnesses for British Council, this reading come from ancient translations and quotations from Memorandum | Appeal Leter, church leaders in both the British Council Form, Latin and Greek church and are omitted in the body of 9+ Army Memorandum Leter, earlier Greek manuscripts. Instead, they exist in much later corrections notes.
This leads to the probability that the reading emerged as “a later addition for the sake of clarity,#8221; perhaps due to influential church leaders and the lectionaries harmonizing Philippians 4:13 with other passages with similar wording (2 Tim 4:17 and Eph 6:10). Application Form?  In other words, the Resume Free. Description, reading emerged to identify the one who strengthens Paul and all subsequent Christians. Form? Further, as Metzger observes, #8220;If the word [ Christo ] had been present in the o riginal text, there would have been no reason to omit it.#8221;  One would more likely need to explain the #8220;elusiveness#8221; of the text rather than to delete Christ from the - Wikimedia, verse, as such, it would be a #8220;predictable#8221; variant.  Third , on the whole, the Application Form, evidence for Need An It Execution Plan For Social, the (B) variant is decidedly better to be the wording of the earliest text of verse 13. It#8217;s vagueness better explains (A) and (C) because it is the most difficult reading between the three. I can do all things through him who strengthens me. Manuscripts . This reading has a strong representation from the manuscripts regarded as the most reliable witnesses of the New Testament. They date from the 4th century (Aleph*,  Vaticanus) and the fifth century (Alexandrinus).
Also, it is represented in the fragmented Freerianus (5th century) and the Claromontanus (D* 6th century) manuscripts. It is also represented by early third-century text of Council Application, Clement of Alexandria (before 215). It is 9+ Army Memorandum Format Leter, insightful that statistically there are alternative texts among fourth-century church leaders Eusebius (1/3) and Didymus (1/3) with this reading. This shows a similar instability of British Council Application Form, their texts which include variant (A) above. Still, various fourth and fifth-century witnesses to this reading are from Evans Graduation Concert.jpg, Latin church leaders. Distribution . British Council Application Form? Witnesses to Resume Description, this reading are geographically broad.
It is found in Alexandria and Western manuscripts to eastern translations (Armenian, Vulgate, Coptic), and as far West as Britain (Pelagius after 418). This distribution weighs stronger for the (B) variant due not only to its distribution but also due to its earlier witness. British? Probabilities . The evidence of the manuscripts and 9+ Army early church leaders indicates strongly that this variation is older and is in the best position to explain variants (A) and (C) . The later #8220;scribes#8221; understood Paul#8217;s intent to be Christo (#8220;Christ#8221;), no doubt because Paul, as Gerald Hawthorne observes, #8220; paradoxically gained all by losing all for Christ; he who longed to know Christ and the power of his resurrection (3:7-10), and so on, could only envision Christ as his true source of inner strength.#8221;  So we conclude here that the text reads, #8220;I can do all things through him who strengthens me#8221; (ESV). The evidence above explains why the majority of modern translation have the Council Application Form, #8220;unspecified#8221; reading in the body of their texts (ASV, Barclay, CEB, HCSB, NASB95, NET, NIV, NRSV, Phillips, RSV, Weymouth, Wycliffe). So if this is the text, who then is 9+ Army Memorandum Format Leter, #8220;the one who strengthens#8221; Paul? Let us start with a verb.
The verb endunamao used in Philippians 4:13 (#8220;I make strong#8221;) is used approximately 7 times in the New Testament, the majority of time by Paul (Rom 4:20; Eph 6:10; 1 Tim 1:12; 2 Tim 2:1, 4:17). The balance is British, one reference about Templates Free. Description Paul gaining strength as an early Christian (Acts 9:22) and those whom the world was not worthy due to their faith (Heb 11:34). The verb itself is part of Application Form, a larger word family (based on the duna- stem),  but we will limit ourselves to endunamao . Abraham, Paul argues, #8220;grew strong in his faith as he gave glory to God#8221; (Rom 4:20). Ideas Plan? Before Timothy, Paul evokes in prayer #8220;him who has given me strength , Christ Jesus our Lord#8221; (1 Tim 1:12). In his last letter, Paul both encourages Timothy and acknowledges the role of British Council Application Form, #8220;the grace that is in Christ Jesus#8221; and #8220;the Lord [who] stood by#8221; has in their lives to strengthen them (2 Tim 2:1, 4:17).
Moreover, in Format Leter, Ephesians Paul empowers his readers with, #8220; Finally be strong in the Lord and in the strength of his might#8221; (Eph 6:10). The title #8220;Lord#8221; ( kurios ) is predominately a title for Christ Jesus in the letter. Aside from Paul#8217;s discussion of Council Application Form, Abraham#8217;s faith in Romans, Paul is clear to connect the empowering force in his life with the Lord Jesus Christ, his grace, and God his Father. Templates? This leaves us with Philippians 4:13b and its #8220;vagueness.#8221; The phrase, #8220;the one who strengthens me,#8221; requires explanation who is that? The truth is that Paul was not vague, elusive, or unspecific. Paul was perfectly clear. The articular particple ( to endunamounte ) points back to the #8220;Lord#8221; ( kurios ) in 4:10a. Again, consistent with Paul#8217;s use in Ephesians, #8220;Lord#8221; ( kurios ) is used throughout the Philippian letter for #8220;Jesus Christ#8221; (Phil 1:1; 3:20). There is perhaps no greater example in Philippians that #8220;Lord#8221; refers to Jesus than 2:11: #8220; every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord , to the glory of God the Father .#8221; In the immediate context of 4:13b, Paul already expresses his great joy to Council Application, be #8220;in the Resume Medical Description, Lord#8221; (4:10; 3:1).
Paul repeats this locative phrase #8220;in the Lord#8221; several times in Philippians (1:14; 2:19, 24, 29; 3:1, 4:1-2, 4) and such a phrase is unique to Paul. British? It is one of those phrases that he seems to have just made up to convey a Christian concept where the Lord Jesus#8217; presence dwells within an immanent Christian context.  #8220;In the Lord#8221; means, then, #8220;Jesus is Healthcare Free. Medical, here#8221; or #8220;in the Council, presence of Jesus.#8221; So contextually, #8220;the one who strengthens me#8221; (4:13b) goes back to the presence of It Security Sample Resume - Executive, Jesus (#8220;in the Lord#8221;) in 4:10a and it is obvious that this is Paul#8217;s intended meaning, even though it is not Paul#8217;s words. But why the British Form, so-called #8220;vagueness#8221;? Perhaps it is simply a matter of style or syntax convention. Consider one example along these lines. In Philippians 1:6, there is a similar example of a #8220;vague#8221; articular participle, #8220;he who began a good work in you#8230;#8221; The context begins with #8220;God#8221; (1:3). #8220;God our Father#8221; is always connected to the work of Jesus Christ (1:1). Even in the context of 4:10-13, Paul calls upon Sample Resume - Executive Resume Writer God to #8220;supply every need#8221; of the British Application, Philippians #8220;according to this riches in glory in Christ Jesus#8221; (4:19) as part of Slips: Slip, his gratitude for their gift (4:18). But it is God who is the source of our salvation (1:28) and the exaltation of the Lord Jesus (2:9). British? It is God who consummates the work He begins in 9+ Army | Appeal Leter, His children at the day of Christ (2:13-16). So contextually, the #8220;vague#8221; articular participle, #8220;he who began a good work in you,#8221; goes back to #8220;God#8221; in 1:3.
This is a parallel to 4:13b and leads me to conclude that Paul is not being vague, elusive, or unspecific. In both cases, Paul leads with God or the Lord, then references back with an articular participle. It is God #8220;who began a good work in you#8221; (1:6) and it is the Lord through whom Paul can #8220;do all things#8221; (4:13). These participles are functioning as anaphoric abstract adjectives for God and for the Lord.  In other words, it points back up the text and to a previous referent (God, Lord). In seeking an answer to the textual variant in British Council Form, the Greek text of Printable Deposit Quickbooks, Philippians 4:13b, we walked through some history of the British Council, text in the early church. Christians seem to have needed a stronger sense of the one through whom Paul was empowered to endure all things. Was it a slip of the pen? Was it a theological harmonization with other passages using so many similar words? Hard to say. But the history of the text shows a few things.
Theologically, the Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Commons, variant is Council Application Form, insignificant because all three variant readings are essentially harmonious. They say the same thing just with a difference in nuance. Still the question remains: why so vague Paul? The answer is most likely a matter of convention . It is not that Paul is purposely elusive as if he wishes the Philippians to guess. We see a parallel in 1:6 and 4:13 using the articular participle to tell us more about God and Jesus. So what Paul wants his readers to know is that Jesus is Steps Plan, here, in his life, manifesting the British Council Form, power of the resurrection and it gives Paul (1) insight to be content in Need An It Business Strategy, the face of Application Form, real challenges and Memorandum Format | Appeal Leter (2) the capacity to British Council, endure all things that come his way (Phil 3:7-11, 4:10-13). This is the grace and source of strength for all those whose citizenship is in Resume Free. Medical, heaven (Phil 3:20). The Greek texts and apparatuses used are the following: (NA28) Barbara Aland, et al., eds. Novum Testamentum Graece , 28th ed. Application? (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2012); (UBS5) Barbara Aland, et al., eds. The Greek New Testament , 5th revised ed. (Germany: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2014). Bruce M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament , 2 d ed. File:bill Evans? (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2001), 11*; Jack P. Lewis, Questions You’ve Asked about Bible Translations (Searcy, AR: Resource Publications, 1991), 91; David Alan Black, “Textual Criticism of the New Testament,” Foundations for Application, Biblical Interpretation , eds.
David S. Dockery, et al. (Nashville, TN: Broadman Holman, 1994), 396-97. Sonship, Spiritual Formation, and Eschatology: A Reading of Romans 8:12-17. The initial basis for Slips: Deposit, looking into Council, Romans 8:12-17 was due to an interest in It Security - Executive Writer, Paul’s use of “adoption” ( huiothesia ) in his Christian application of a legal technical term. Paul’s use of the term is British Council, not limited to It Security Analyst Resume Resume, Romans (8:15, 23; 9:4) for it is also found in the letters to the Galatian (4:5) and British Form the Ephesian (1:5) Christians. This is the combined data of Paul’s use of the term in particular and in the New Testament in general. In Romans 8:15 Paul assures his readers that they had received “a spirit of adoption”; similarly, but with a different nuance, in Galatians 4:5 Paul writes of an “adoption” dependent upon the redemptive work of Jesus as he frees those under the law (4:4).
In Ephesians, Paul again establishes the connection between “adoption” and Jesus; specifically, the File:bill Evans Concert.jpg - Wikimedia, saints are to understand their “adoption” was preordained and accomplished through Jesus (1:5). However, in Romans 8:23 “adoption” is something yet to come when the body will be delivered. Lastly, Romans 9:4 calls attention to the fact that “adoption” is Form, a possession of the Israelites along with “the glory, the 9+ Army Memorandum Leter, covenants, the giving of the law, the worship, and British Council Application Form the promises” (cf. Exod 4:22). It appears that “adoption” is an Three And 10 Ideas For Creating Plan, important term in Paul’s argumentation in Romans to explain sonship which belonged to Israel “according to the flesh” (9:5), but belongs also to “the children of the British Council Application, promise” (9:8). Nevertheless, the Do You An It Execution Plan For Social Business Strategy, limited use of huiothesia demonstrates that “adoption” has a specialized context of application and is not widely used by other New Testament authors. Although huiothesia holds a striking image which reflects the full inclusion of the Christian into the family of God with all its benefits, a reading of Romans 8:12-17 demonstrates that “sonship” ( huiothesia , huioi theou , tekna theou ) requires spiritual formation (8:13) with a view to a joint glorification with Jesus (8:17). There are many subordinate points to Council Form, be sure; however, these three generalizations serve as a critical bridge to carry Paul’s argument further from Romans 8:1-11 to 8:18 which continues a discussion about living in the spirit (contra kata sarka 8:5) and - Wikimedia Commons anticipating a “glory that is to be revealed to us.” These points will be borne out in the translation and reading prepared below. Application Form?  So then, brothers, we are not debtors to Ideas For Creating, the flesh (namely, to live according to the flesh).  For if you live according to the flesh then you are destined to die, but if you put to death, by the Spirit, the deeds of the body, then you will keep yourself alive.  For all who are led by God’s Spirit, these are God’s sons.  For you have not received again a spirit of slavery towards fearfulness, but you received a spirit of adoption in which we cry out: #8220;Abba-Father!”  The Spirit testifies along with our spirit that we are God’s children,  and if we are children, then we are heirs as well on the one hand, God’s heirs, and on the other hand, joint heirs with Christ if, after all, we suffer together in order that we may share in glory. Exegesis and Reading of Romans 8:12-17.
According to the 28th edition of the Nestle-Aland text, Paul begins this with the British Form, strengthened phrase Ara oun (“so then”), which is a combination of two “inferential conjunctions”  designed to link it with the Do You Plan Business, preceding rhetoric written against living kata sarka . In Romans, Ti oun (3:1, 9; 4:1; 6:1, 15; 7:7, 13; 8:31; 9:14) or oun (5:1; 6:12; 11:1, 11; 12:1) are used to string large sections of questions and rhetoric along;  moreover, ara appears in the letter in Application, its basic function as an inferential particle (“So” 7:21; “therefore” 8:1).  Interestingly, Ara oun marks significant shifts to capture both the File:bill Evans Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Commons, inference and Council Form the transition in the text (5:18; 7:3, 25b; 8:12; 9:16, 18; 14:12, 19).  Consequently, Paul is doing two things in 8:12. He is affirming an inference while transitioning his argument forward to oppose living kata sarka : “brothers, we are not debtors to the flesh (namely, to live according to the flesh)” (8:12).  In reading opheiletai esmen ou te sarki Paul’s main point is established; namely, “we are not debtors with reference to Analyst Sample - Executive Resume, the flesh.” Daniel B. Wallace states that opheiletai is a verbal-noun of personal interest formed from its cognate verb opheilo (“I owe”) which requires the dative to British Form, complete its thought ( te sarki ); moreover, te sarki also limits the Evans Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Commons, state of the subject and British Council Application Form verb (“we are not debtors”) which suggests this is a Dative of Reference, or Dative of Respect. Analyst Resume - Executive Resume Writer?  The next clause tou kata sarka zen is translated parenthetically because it appears best understood epexegetically. Stanley E. Porter makes two helpful points. British Council? First, Porter writes, “when an infinitive is used as part of File:bill Evans Graduation Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Commons, a prepositional phrase, this syntactical construction must be taken seriously.” Second, when the infinitive follows tou it may function “epexegetical or appositional.”  Since the infinitive draws out the meaning of “we are not debtors to with reference to the flesh,” it seems best to British, regard it epexegetical and parenthetical. This is in complete accord with his argument in Romans 8:5-8. At this point the reader is Three Ideas Plan, directed ( gar ) to a series of cohesive conditional statements, marked off with ei , which portray the curse of living according to the flesh (8:13a) and Form the blessing received when led by the Spirit of God (i.e. spiritual formation; 8:13b-15). Printable Deposit Slips: Quickbooks? It is important to Application, rehearse that conditional statements are two clauses which are combined to portray a contingency; they are not necessarily portrayals of reality.  Usually, the first clause contains the contingency under consideration (protasis); meanwhile, the second clause is Analyst Resume - Executive, a statement – the portrayal – about Council Application what will happen, or not happen, should the contingent action occur (apodosis). In 8:13a, then, ei … kata sarka zete, mellete apothneskein , is a portrayal of the contingent curse upon unfaithful Christians: “if you live according to the flesh” (contingent), then “you are destined to die” (portrayal). There exists a cause and effect relationship portrayed in this conditional statement: death will occur if one lives fleshly.
Wallace debates the idea of whether this should be viewed exclusively spiritual or literal. Although he is probably right to lean towards a literal view, this is not a grammatical question. Nevertheless, sin is accompanied with both a physical and spiritual curse of death (Gen 3:3; Rom 5:12, 6:23). In Romans 8:13b, the text reads: ei de pneumati tas praxeis tou somatos  thanatoute, zesesthe . The de provides a hint that the forthcoming text is adversative but not so strong it is unrelated to the previous words. This is Concert.jpg, quite helpful, since the contingency under consideration, “if you put to death, by the Spirit, the British, deeds of the body,” is designed to counter life kata sarka . The verb thanatoute (“you [pl.] put to death”) is an active verb, which is significant for an understanding of how the dative pneumati functions in Do You For Social, the apodosis. Initially, one must consider if the Dative is of Agency or of Means. There is a key to distinguish between the two, though both, as Porter observes, “label a relationship by which (normally) a thing (and occasionally a person) brings about or enters into an action with respect to something else.”  The main key is found in the verb thanatoute , being a present active verb, which places the burden of the action (“I kill”) upon Paul’s readers not upon the Spirit. In order for the dative pneumati to be a “clear” grammatical demonstration of agency, Wallace states the Council Application Form, verb must be perfect passive.  The protasis reads, then, “if you put to 9+ Army Memorandum Leter, death, by means of the Spirit, the deeds of the Application Form, body.” As in the previous conditional statement (13a), there is no structural marker establishing the “then” clause (apodosis); however, the semantics of the construction is obvious.
The middle verb Zesesthe completes the It Security Analyst Writer, “if-then” clause, portraying the effect: “you will keep yourself alive.” The reader should understand there is a cause and British Council Form effect relationship portrayed in Free. Medical Description, this conditional statement: The Christian’s life will be kept, if the Christian employs the instrumentality of the Spirit to kill off the body’s “sinful” actions. Clearly the Christian participates in their spiritual formation when they embrace the life-giving relationship of the Spirit.  The reader is directed ( gar ) again to a series of cohesive statements (8:14-15) which provide reassurance to British Council Application, Christians regarding their inclusion into the Father’s family. Verse 14 appears to be an Evans Concert.jpg, implied conditional statement since the grammatical markers are lacking to introduce the Application Form, contingent clause.  If this is the case, there may be an ambiguity which is at 9+ Army Leter play in the text. The verse reads: hosoi gar pneumati theou agontai, houtoi huioi theou eisin (“for all who are led by God’s Spirit, these are God’s sons”). In the assumption of an implied contingency, “If you are all led by God’s Spirit,” is followed by, “then, you are God’s sons.” Or, as Wallace states the converse, “If you are the sons of God, you are led by the Spirit.”  In either case, what is at the core in this implied contingency is spiritual formation (as “sons of God”) not conversion. Moses E. Lard, taking eisin in a durative sense, translates and observes: “these remain sons of God. For the Apostle is not speaking of originally becoming sons, but of continuing such.”  The means by which this occurs is stated in the present passive + Dative of Means clause, pneumati theou agontai . The agent of Christian spiritual formation is, then, God’s Spirit – not the deeds of the body ( tas praxeis tou somatos ) or the flesh ( sarka ). In verse 15, then, Paul extends ( gar ) this argument to further intertwine spiritual formation with the British Council Form, assurance of sonship: ou gar elabete pneuma douleias palin eis phobon alla elabete pneuma huiothesias en ho kradzomen: abba ho pater (“For you have not receive again a spirit of slavery towards fearfulness, but you received a spirit of adoption in which we cry out: Abba-Father”). In both cases of the aorist active elabete , the verb functions in a culminative sense (resultative, perfective, effective aorist), which places a “slight emphasis” upon “the conclusion or the results of the completed action.”  Particularly is this true with verbs having roots which “signify effort or attempt or intention or process, and it indicates the completion or attainment of And 10 Ideas For Creating, such things.”  In the first instance, elabete is modified by the negative particle ou and the adverb palin ; whereas pneuma douleias is the British Application, condition (“benefit”) not received.  On the contrary ( alla ), Paul affirms the conclusive nature of what they have received: pneuma huiothesias . This is File:bill Graduation Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Commons, a statement regarding a status change. Christians are not merely “slaves” who had been freed from the Council Application, servitude to sin (manumission) but are huioi theou , because they have received pneuma huiothesias . There is a logical connection between pneuma huiothesias and Memorandum | Appeal Leter the prepositional phrase (taking the dative) en ho and British Application Form the governing dynamic of their outcry ( kradzomen ). Does en ho suggest “within” (Locative), located “within the sphere of influence, control…” (Spherical), or is it manner or cause (Instrumental)?  Despite the overlap in many respects, Dative of Sphere – an extension of the Locative – retains the emphasis of the Spirit’s influence. The result is spectacular for the content of the An It Business Strategy, Christian outcry is: abba ho pater .  This is Council Form, where spiritual formation and Memorandum sonship/adoption interlock; namely, in affirmation. The Christian not only affirms sonship, but “the Spirit himself” ( auto to pneuma ) is involved in British Form, affirming the Christian’s status before God.
Paul writes: auto to pneuma summarturei to It Security Analyst Sample - Executive, pneumati hemon hoti esmen tekna theou (8:16). The verse emphasizes the Spirit’s identity with the predicate construction auto to pneuma (cf. Rom 8:26).  The Spirit is involved in Council Application Form, affirming “we are God’s children” ( esmen tekna theou ). There is no question Whom the subject of the verb is; however, there is a question regarding the relationship between the verb summarturei (“he testifies” to/for) and Deposit Quickbooks the dative-genitive construction to pneumati hemon (“to/for our spirit”).  On the one hand, the Spirit’s testimony may be viewed in terms of Form, Dative of Association which renders the Printable Quickbooks Slip, reading “the Spirit testifies alongside with our spirit”; on the other hand, maintaining the dative-genitive as the indirect object the Council Application, reading is “the Spirit testifies to our spirit.” Wallace states that grammatically, Dative of Association is usually based upon verbs compounded with sun but this is not an exhaustive rule. The reason being, sun may also be intensive rather than associative. Wallace, following Cranfield, recoils at the notion of the associative since the 9+ Army Memorandum Format, Christian spirit “has no right at all to testify” along with the Council Application, Spirit. Evans Graduation Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Commons?  This is a theological exacerbation of the grammar.
Trevor Burke responds, “the compound verb… with the dative expression would more naturally mean ‘bears witness with our spirit’ as two witnesses linked together indicating that we are God’s sons.”  It would seem consistent with the movement of the overall thrust of the passage that the Spirit’s leading crescendos in a united confirmation (“The Spirit itself testifies along with our spirit”). British Form? Adoptive sonship is at the heart of It Security Analyst Sample, verses 16-17, so much so that Paul transitions from huioi theou (“God’s sons”) to tekna theou (“God’s children”) after assuring his Christian readers they have received pneuma huiothesias (“the spirit of adoption”). The transition is significant and is the British Council Application, basis for the eschatological conclusion of this segment of Romans 8, picked up in verse 18. Deposit Deposit? The text, structured semantically as a conditional sentence,  reads: ei de tekna , kai kleronomoi: kleronomoi men theou , sungkleronomoi de Christou , eiper sumpaschomen hina kai sundoxasthomen . Application? As in verse 13b, de is adversative but not so strong it is unrelated to the previous words. Concert.jpg - Wikimedia? In fact, it further develops the argument from the Council Application Form, previous verse with the conditional clause: “if we are children [ tekna ], then we are heirs as well.” The protasis is File:bill Evans Graduation - Wikimedia, evidential not causal, and the apodosis is inferential not effectual; moreover, heirs as children is further explained: “on the one hand, God’s heirs, and on the other hand, joint heirs with Christ.” Paul concludes this pericope with an intensive form of ei ( eiper ) meaning “if indeed, if after all, since, if it is true that.”  The strength of the closing clause is in its eschatological connection. Spiritual formation through the Spirit, and British Form adoptive sonship with its inheritance, are connected to a joint-glorification through suffering: “if after all we suffer together in Resume Description, order that we will share  in British Form, glory.” Romans 8:12-17 is Healthcare Resume Free. Medical Description, a tremendous contribution to British Form, the Gospel’s appropriation of all those freed from the lordship of sin and redeemed by the blood of Jesus. Where they were once flesh led, now Christians are Spirit led. Where once they were outside of the family of God, they are made adopted sons and confirmed as children with an inheritance. Christians are given the Format | Appeal Leter, resources through the Spirit to Council, use “death” to - Executive Resume, kill the deeds of the British Council, body in order to Three And 10 For Creating A Mini-Marketing, have life. The Spirit provides the context for British Form, spiritual formation. The model of slavery and emancipation from slavery were probably very vivid the Roman Christians, but perhaps the most eye opening is God taking former slaves and embracing them as members of his own household as sons and children.
This is not a token adoption, but a full investment complete with inheritance, making the Christian a joint heir with Christ in suffering and glorification. Archibald T. Robertson and W. Hersey Davis, A New Short Grammar of the Greek Testament , 10th ed. (1933; repr., Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1979), 317. Stanley E. Porter, Idioms of the Greek New Testament , 2d ed. (London: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999), 305. BDAG 103. An It Execution Strategy? BDAG 104; Robertson and Davis, New Short Grammar , 317.
Unless specified the British Council Form, translation used in the body of this paper is that of the author. James A. Printable Slips: Quickbooks Deposit Slip? Brooks and Carlton L. Winbery, Syntax of New Testament Greek (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1979), 36; Harvey E. Dana and Julius R. Mantey, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament (New York, NY: Macmillan, 1957), 85. Porter, Idioms , 198. Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Council, Basics (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1996), 680-87. The Nestle-Aland textual apparatus notes the variant reading: tes sarkos . Although there is some antiquity to the variant reading, and some linguistic consistency ( sarx ); in keeping with the Evans Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Commons, more difficult reading which would require such a scribal adjustment, tou somatos is viewed as the best wording. Application? Porter, Idioms , 99. Wallace, Greek Grammar , 163-166. Wallace concedes that a passive verb would be sufficient.
The two conditional sentences portray the outcomes of the two paths of Execution Plan For Social, spiritual formation. British Form? Living kata sarka leads to death, but living pneumati maintains life by killing sin at its source tas praxeis tou somatos . It Security Sample Resume Resume? This is in keeping with Paul’s overall argument in Romans 8: “To set the British Application, mind on the flesh is death, but to set the It Security Resume - Executive, mind on the Spirit is life and peace” (ESV). Wallace, Greek Grammar , 685-86. Wallace, Greek Grammar , 686. Moses E. Lard, Commentary on Romans (1875; repr., Delight, AR: Gospel Light, n.d.), 264. Brooks and Winbery, Syntax , 100.
Brooks and Winbery, Syntax , 100. This is an adamant declaration: “you are not slaves again for you have been freed from sin” (cf. Rom 6.17-18). Porter, Idioms , 156-58. British Council Form? Robertson and Resume Templates Free. Assistant Davis, New Short Grammar , 215.
Robertson calls this idiomatic construction, “The Articular Nominative as Vocative”; meaning, a “vocative of address” is formed in the nominative yet its case is vocative. Porter, Idioms , 120; Dana and Mantey, Manual Grammar , 129 Wallace, Greek Grammar , 160 Wallace, Greek Grammar , 159 Trevor J. Burke, “Adoption and the Spirit in Romans 8,” EQ 70.4 (1998): 322. Wallace, Greek Grammar , 683. Council? Porter, Idioms , 209; Barclay M. Newman, Jr., A Concise Greek-English Dictionary of the Memorandum Format | Appeal Leter, New Testament (Stuttgart: German Bible Society, 1993), 53; Dana and Mantey, Manual Grammar , 262; Richard J. Goodrich and Council Form Albert L. Lukaszewski, A Reader’s Greek New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2003), 344. Brooks and Winbery, Syntax , 103. The grammatical reading of the passage takes the aorist passive verb as “I am glorified with,” but the hina and the anticipation inherent in the clause would suggest the aorist is functioning as a Futuristic Aorist.
Ascertaining the Date of Daniel: A First Look. Discussion concerning the date for the composition of Daniel is controversial. Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Commons? The traditional view is that it is of 6 th century B.C. origin, while the critical view argues for a late 2 nd century B.C. time frame of Form, completion. On the surface, it seems that critical scholars have removed any thought of retaining a traditional view towards the Slips: Quickbooks, composition of the book of British Council, Daniel. Supporters of the traditional view, however, have responded in numerous scholarly ways. Yet, it appears to be the case that the majority of biblical scholars, i.e. the critics, agree that the traditional view is saturated with egregious errors (interpretive and For Social Business historical) and British Form consequently is not a feasible alternative. Traditionalists have combated further by exploiting the weaknesses of critical approaches to Need An It Plan For Social Strategy, date the composition of Daniel.
The controversy, though, still wages and the effects of the Council, implications of each model are felt in biblical academia. The roots of each model run deep into certain presuppositions relative to supernaturalism. - Wikimedia? While each view will be given consideration below, here it seems necessary to make mention of Council, this because it plays such a vital role in evaluating the available evidence. Generally speaking, the critical approach brings to the evaluation of the evidence the supposition that the production of File:bill Graduation Concert.jpg - Wikimedia, Biblical books is solely the product of human enterprise to British Council Form, the exclusion of Healthcare Resume Templates Medical Description, Divine guidance and revelatory intervention. This view is in practical terms, deistic. Meanwhile, traditionalists usually believe that Divine guidance and revelatory intervention coupled with the British Application, utility of man are possible and the means by It Security Sample Resume - Executive which God makes his will known to humanity. Issues such as predictive prophecy and Council inspiration are therefore readily accepted by traditionalists, but this is denied by the critics, for they take a naturalistic (or rationalistic) approach because they view supernatural intervention as incapable of occurring. The two approaches are diametrically opposed.
Ultimately, one is false and the other is the correct approach. The proposition under discussion here is that although the critical position of a late Maccabean period for File:bill, the date of composition of the book of Daniel is British Application, predominately accepted by biblical scholars, the traditional position that the book of File:bill Graduation Concert.jpg - Wikimedia, Daniel is of an early 6 th century B.C. British Application? composition is adequately supported by the linguistic and historical evidence. The approaches for Leter, dating the composition of the book of Form, Daniel are composed of numerous methods of argumentation, with varying degrees of complexity. In general, though, the two basic approaches can be condensed with some generalizations. Printable Deposit Slips: Quickbooks Slip? The traditional approach for ascertaining the date of composition for the book of Daniel argues that the British Council Form, book is a literary product of the 6 th century B.C., composed by Daniel (the book’s hero) by the inspiration and guidance of the God of Israel. According to File:bill Evans Graduation, this approach, the story is both a historical and a prophetic document; consequently, it is not a mythological book of imagery. The historical setting of the book and its composition, then, is in Babylonian captivity and subsequently into British Council Application, the early years of Medo-Persian imperial rule (c.
603-536 BC).  This view is the Evans - Wikimedia Commons, earliest extant view held between Hebrew and Christian writings to date. Harold Ginsberg, who is in favor the critical approach, concedes in Council Application, the Encyclopaedia Judaica that the traditional view is the earliest position concerning the date of composition for Daniel. He writes: Both the rabbis of the Talmudic Age and Quickbooks the Christian Church Fathers accepted the book’s own statements that the four apocalypses of Daniel B [chapters 7-12] were written by a man named Daniel in the last years of the British Council, Babylonian Age and in the first ones of the Persian Age, […] and 9+ Army Memorandum Format | Appeal they did not question the historicity of any part of Daniel A [chapters 1-6].  Even though no other position is known earlier than the Form, Hebrew tradition, it has not remained unchallenged by critical scholars. File:bill - Wikimedia? Raymond Dillard and Tremper Longman, however, observe that it was not until the 1900s that things changed, because up until the 20 th century the book of Daniel was viewed as being composed by the historical Daniel (statesman and prophet of God) who ministered prominently in the 500s B.C. and who revealed the future political progression of four kingdoms and the implementation of Council Application, God’s kingdom.  In contradistinction to the traditional approach stands the critical approach for ascertaining the date for the composition of Daniel.
As the antagonist to the traditional view the critical position affirms that the book of Daniel is a rather late production by some unknown author or editor of the Healthcare Resume Assistant, 2 nd century B.C. Critical scholars view the book of Daniel as a pseudepigraph (a false writing)  and British Form consequently cannot have been written by Sample Resume Daniel nor capable to predict the future, because the critical approach does not believe that predictive prophecy can occur. Instead of Council, relating history and future events, Daniel was written to inflame the patriotic muscles of the Israelites in order to confront Antiochus IV Epiphanes (a Seleucid) and his people from An It Execution Plan For Social Business, Syria for Antiochus’ desecration of the temple in Jerusalem. The prophecies are said to be written “after the Form, event” ( vaticinium ex eventu ). The earliest denial of the traditional view is Resume Templates Assistant Description, found in the writings of a Neoplatonic philosopher named Porphyry. About 2 centuries after Jesus Christ had described Daniel as “the prophet” (Matt 23:15), Porphyry put his stylus to Application, the maximum level of labor and For Creating Plan produced a 15 volume work entitled, Against the British Council Form, Christians .  According to Jerome’s commentary on Daniel, which is the only source which reproduces Porphyry’s arguments, in his 12th volume Porphyry attacks “the prophecy of Daniel” and affirms that there are characteristics of the book which betray a late 2 nd century B.C. period for composition.  Prominent critical scholar J.J. Healthcare Templates Free. Medical Assistant? Collins observes that while Porphyry’s argument was resisted for about a millennium, modern critics from the 18 th century to today acknowledge their “validity” and his “insight.”  Yet those who still resist Porphyry’s work do so principally on the grounds that his reasoning is based upon the a priori supposition that predictive prophecy is impossible.  With these two approaches being considered, a working knowledge of both the approach to British Form, the book and the evaluation of evidence are acquired. Healthcare Free. Medical? The burden to provide adequate evidence to substantiate the claims made above falls upon the shoulders of each approach.
Majority consensus is not to be confused with absolute certainty, and the term “conservative approach” need not blind one’s eye of discernment in the evaluation of the data. The case must stand based upon the evidence available and proper critique of what it means and substantiates. This shall presently be done. There are numerous avenues of approaches to dating the materials in the book of Daniel. For example, the Council Form, earliest extant tradition of the date of composition can greatly aid in approaching the problem, however, there are more issues to deal with than just tradition. As is typical with the Printable Deposit Slips: Deposit, critical approach, various issues are raised dealing with the history of both the text and its composition, linguistic analysis, theological development, and any possible discrepant exegetical material. Edwin Yamauchi has discussed some on these issues in British, 1980.  The scope of Three Steps And 10 For Creating, this discussion is large, so attention will be given to the issues relative to linguistics and history. Application? Linguistic analysis is a broad field of Analyst Sample - Executive Writer, analysis that looks at the languages employed, the grammar used, the literary genre implemented to carry out the British Application, production of the document.
As in practically every book placed under the scalpel of criticism one of the areas of discussion and controversy is the literary characteristics of the given book. Daniel is no exception. Critics argue that the language and stylistic materials in Daniel betray a late date. In staunch disagreement stand scholars taking the traditional approach, asserting that the literary content of Daniel is best explained by an early date. The last century and a half (roughly) reflect this debate. It seems evident, however, that the growing data relative to the literary content of Daniel weighs in strongly for an early date. In 1976, Bruce K. Waltke observed: From [S.R.] Driver’s classic statement of the 9+ Army Memorandum | Appeal Leter, linguistic evidence in 1897 to the commentary by [Norman W.] Porteous in 1965, there has been no reappraisal of the evidence by the literary critics of Daniel in spite of the Council Application, increasing mass of evidence that the language of Daniel can no longer be regarded as belonging to An It For Social Business Strategy, the second century B.C.  It is, therefore, important to analyze this line of British, reasoning to observe the nature of the evidence and make a conclusion as to what the Quickbooks Deposit Slip, details suggest in order to make an British, educated assertion. Two major areas of contention are the mixture of Hebrew (Dan 1:1-2:4a; 8:1-12) and Aramaic (2:4b-7:28) languages in the book of Daniel and the loan words from the Persian and Greek languages.
The book of Daniel is the product of two languages; Hebrew and Three For Creating Aramaic. This book does not stand alone in having this admixture of Council Form, languages, however, for Memorandum Format | Appeal Leter, the book of Ezra is of similar composition (Aramaic sections Ezra 4:8-6:18; 7:12-26).  Critical scholars allege that the book was originally composed in Aramaic and later the present transitions (1:1-2:4a and 8:1-12) were translated into Hebrew.  Neil R. Lightfoot remarks that the Hebrew to Aramaic and Aramaic to Hebrew sections in Daniel has been confirmed by the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS).  While Lightfoot does not identify the specific fragments, Gerhard Hasel identifies them in his work as 1QDan a (Dan 2:2-6), 4QDan a (7:25-8:5), 4QDan b (Dan 7:26-8:1-8).  Overall, “we have at British Council our disposal from the Dead Sea scrolls parts of all chapters, except Daniel 9 and 12.”  This is File:bill Evans Graduation Concert.jpg - Wikimedia, striking information because when the scrolls were discovered one of the British Form, main questions was concerning what precise sections were preserved. Moreover, the earliest extant text before the DSS was the Masoretic Text (MT c. A.D. 980), the accuracy of Do You Need An It Execution Plan For Social Strategy, which was seriously challenged by Council Application critical scholars because of the great gap between the MT and the autographs. The transitions in Daniel received equal criticism; however, there is no reason to argue against, except if one is biased toward the critical view, that the Do You Need An It, Hebrew and Aramaic sections are authentic. The authenticity of the composition of Daniel argues strongly that the book is one whole unit.  Critics typically argue that Daniel is the result of a long process of composition. They argue that Daniel A, that is Daniel 1-6, is the first and oldest unit of the book, and Daniel B, that is Daniel 7-12, is principally of late authorship or redaction.  The critical scholar John G. Gammie has argued that there have been three stages in the growth of the book.  Hasel observes that the oldest scroll published before 1992 is 4QDan c dating to the late 2 nd century B.C. The manuscript evidence for Daniel is 50 years closer to the supposed Maccabean date of British Council Application, composition than anything extant.  Moreover, “there is great harmony between the MT and the Cave 4 finds of the book of Daniel” and Hasel notes 4 powerful lines of supporting material.  The unity and early date for the DSS is far more problematic to the critic than the Do You Need Execution Plan For Social Business Strategy, traditionalist because: Is there enough time for the supposed tradition-historical and redaction-critical developments [as mentioned above] allegedly needed for the growth of the book? […] The verdict seems negative, and an earlier date for Daniel than the second century is unavoidable.  The rather simple observation is that the Council Application, language transitions are original and a mark of an authentic production, and consequently of an earlier date than is Printable Quickbooks Slip, supposed by critics.
Yet the critic is not content with this conception; instead, it appears that the critic must contrive another hypothesis. The book of Daniel has Persian and Greek loanwords along with one Egyptian loanword. This has served as a source of contention between both approaches. The only agreement as of yet is that they exist; the evidence that they provide is interpreted distinctively. Critics argue that these words reflect a late period.
In fact, it has been argued that their placement in Daniel is the Application Form, result of a deliberate desire to give the impression of being really from the 6 th century B.C. but not done consistently.  According to S.R. Driver’s classical arguments, critics argue that Greek loanwords objectively support the Healthcare Templates Medical Assistant Description, case; moreover, as Peter W. Coxon argues, it is the “strongest evidence in favor of the second century B.C.” position. British Form?  Traditional scholars are not impressed with such assertions on the grounds that there is no need to limit the utility of the each respective language to Resume Resume Writer, the 2nd century B.C.; therefore, the argument (based upon a precise but faulty linguistic chronology) falls by the wayside as compelling “proof.” The Egyptian word is hartummin (Dan 2:10, 27; 4:4), another formation is rab hartummayya (Dan 4:6, 5:11), which is the Egyptian word for British Form, “magician.”  L. F. Hartman, in “The Great Tree and Nobuchodonosor’s Madness,” argues that this loanword should “strictly” only Resume Free. Assistant apply to “Egyptian magicians” who would are not to be found in the Babylonian court of Nebuchadnezzar.  In response, Yamauchi suggests two lines of evidence to demonstrate how frail the argument is. First, the Jehoiachin ration tablets illuminate the setting by noting that among other nations “Egyptians were given provision by the royal court.” Second, I. Eph’al demonstrates that there were Mesopotamian Egyptians professionally serving as lu bare (“diviners”) and lu hartibi (“dream interpreters”) in the 5 th and British 6 th centuries B.C. Lu hartibi is a cognate of the word in question. While Yamauchi argues that the word does not necessarily have to Three And 10 For Creating A Mini-Marketing Plan, be a reference to Egyptian nationals, “the idea that there were Egyptian magicians and Form soothsayers in Mesopotamia is not so far fetched as Harman believes.”  The Persian and Greek loanwords are said, respectively, to “presuppose a period after the Persian empire had been well established” and “ demand […] a date after the conquest of Palestine by Alexander the Great (B.C.
332).”  Yet, Montgomery is said to point out that allowance must be made for the influence of cultures to be more widespread than earlier presumed .  In other words, the classical linguistic argument is It Security Analyst Sample Resume, not as strong as it used to be. In fact, Driver’s famous linguistic conclusion abbreviated above included Aramaic that is now known to be difficult to distinguish between early and late periods. Council Form?  Nevertheless, some would still use this argument in support of a late date, but to this there is an answer. Yamauchi has completely crippled this notion by chronicling the channels of transmissions (i.e. musical notation, merchant exchange, and that of foreign captives).  Moreover, he has demonstrably chronicled there has been Grecian contact with Mesopotamia from even before 1000 B.C. to at least the 400s B.C.,  and any appearance of these Greek words “is not proof of Hellenistic date, in Analyst Resume Resume Writer, view of the abundant opportunities for contact between the Aegean and the Near East.”  The Persians words fare no better as evidence of a late date. Waltke gleans three observations from Council Application, Kenneth Kitchen’s 1965 work “The Aramaic of Daniel” published in Notes on Some Problems in the Book of Daniel .  First, by way of objectivity, it must be noted that the Persian words are “old Persian words” which typically are found in the 300s B.C. Second, it is egregious to assume that it would take an 9+ Army Memorandum Format, absorbent amount of time for Form, Persian words to be borrowed into Aramaic, because if Daniel did exist he would have become acclimated to Sample Resume Writer, the Persian vocabulary sooner rather than later.
Third, four of nineteen Persian words the old Greek translations are mere guesswork which bears this implication: “if Daniel were wholly a product of 165 B.C., then just a century or so in Form, a continuous tradition is surely embarrassingly inadequate as a sufficient interval for that loss (or change) of Three Steps For Creating A Mini-Marketing Plan, meaning to occur by Near Eastern standards.”  In 1976, Millard, citing this work, notes that these loanwords are “quite at home in a sixth century context” and Application that Kitchen’s observations “have been accepted by Slips: Deposit Slip leading linguists.#8221;  Based upon the placement of Daniel among the British Council Application, Ketubim (Writings) of the Hebrew Bible and not among the Nebhim (Prophets), critics dismiss Daniel because it is mere wisdom literature with no true prophetic import instead it is a pseudepigraphic work utilizing vaticinium ex eventu prophecy (i.e. utterances appearing prophetic but were composed post-event). Klaus Koch notes that by “presupposing” an early date for the completion of the Steps And 10 For Creating A Mini-Marketing, canon around c.200 A.D., “scholars made the incorporation of Daniel among the writings a cornerstone of the British Council Application, so-called Maccabean Theory.”  First, the placement of the book does not illegitimate it from being both wisdom and prophetic. David Malick argues that Daniel is historical literature along the lines of Ezra (an accepted book by It Security Analyst Sample Resume - Executive Resume the critics) and therefore “applies because the prophetic visions are also a record (in advance) of the sovereign work of British Council Application Form, God in Resume Free. Medical Assistant, history.”  Second, after evaluating the positive and negative evidence of the placement of Daniel, Kloch argues that there is the negative evidence is inconclusive,  while the positive evidence suggests an earlier “Jewish diaspora canon”  and Form “at some point the rabbis transferred the book from the prophetic corpus to the last third of their collection of Holy Scripture. That probably happened long before the Analyst Sample Resume - Executive Resume, fifth century” A.D.  In other words, there appears to be a strong case that Daniel was initially in the Nebhim and was later transferred to the Ketubim , which is in total disagreement with the critical attack.
Since the historical issues is directly related to the issue of the British Application Form, date of composition, it is important to evaluate the faulty view that archaeology has revealed everything relative to historical studies of the biblical narratives. It must be understood that not all of the desired archaeological data is available to the Bible student. However, what is available impressively agrees with the biblical narrative. In discussing the fragmentary nature of the archaeological evidence, Yamauchi briefly and candidly lays out the situation. In summary, he lists 4 factors.  First, artifact remains (written or manufactured) are minute. Second, a small fraction of the possible sites were surveyed or excavated. Third, generally speaking only Evans - Wikimedia Commons a small fraction of Application Form, these sites are even excavated. Fourth, a small percentage of Slips:, what has been found has been written upon, and even when they are there is Council Application Form, typically a great delay of time between excavation and publication.
This is Resume Templates Medical Assistant, important to British, recognize because it is Resume Writer, typically the Council, case that the critics argue that “since we do not have certain corroborative evidence for something mentioned in the textual tradition, the reference must be anachronistic.#8221;  For example, Daniel 5:30 mentions Belshazzar, a person whom for years was a personage relegated to 9+ Army | Appeal, myth by critics, therefore being a serious divergence in the biblical account from historical veracity. However, as Gonzalo Baez-Carmargo writes “the problem continued until new archaeological evidence showed that the British, two reports [from history and the Bible] could be reconciled.”  It is not being foolish to suggest, therefore (when there is a lack of evidence on a given point of contention) that one must wait for Resume Free. Assistant Description, new evidence to arrive. Sadly, that is British Form, not what typically occurs, and instead as H. File:bill Graduation Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Commons? C. Leupold observes whenever the Bibles is the sole source for reporting history, the “prevailing tendency is to British Council, discredit the biblical statement” never mind that in other situations single statements from other sources are received without much alarm.  Robert A. Anderson, taking the critical approach, comments upon Daniel 1:1 and Deposit Slips: Quickbooks Deposit Slip writes that #8220;reference is often made to a historical inaccuracy within these opening verses.#8221;  Anderson refers to the alleged contradiction between Daniel 1:1 and British Council Jeremiah 25:1. Anderson also represents the naturalistic critical mindset when he writes that #8220;historical inexactitudes are not infrequent in#8221; Daniel. First among the Healthcare Medical Description, supposed historical blunders to be considered is the invasion into Judah by Nebuchadnezzar. Bruce K. Waltke asks the following question: How can one square the statement in Daniel 1:1 that Nebuchadnezzar in his first year as king besieged Jerusalem in Council Form, the third year of Jehoiakim with the Printable Deposit Deposit, statement in Jeremiah 25:1, 9; 46:1[-2] that Nebuchadnezzar defeated Pharaoh Necho in Application Form, the fourth year of Jehoiakim?  After all, if they cannot be harmonized then this is an occasion of a #8220;historical inexactitude#8221; which would underscore a purely human enterprise in the composition of either Daniel or Jeremiah which implicitly affirms that there was not a supernatural guidance in their production as the dogma of inspiration necessitates. Waltke suggests that the superficial discrepancy between Daniel and Jeremiah is the Printable Deposit Quickbooks, result of British Council, comparing the use of two distinct systems of dating, citing Edwin Thiele#8217;s work The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings . Waltke further writes: In Babylonia the Steps Ideas For Creating Plan, year in which the king ascended the British Council, throne was designated specifically as #8220;the year of accession to the kingdom,#8221; and this was followed by the first, second, and subsequent years of rule. In Palestine, on the other hand, there was no accession year as such, so that the length of rule was computed differently, with the year of Deposit Slips: Quickbooks Deposit Slip, accession being regarded as the first year of the king#8217;s reign.  Likewise, based upon R. Application? K Harrison#8217;s 1973 work on Jeremiah and Lamentations (Tyndale Old Testament commentary) Wayne Jackson notes that critics #8220;once alleged that this passage was in Printable Deposit Slips: Quickbooks, conflict with Daniel 1:1, but archaeological discoveries have demonstrated that Jeremiah used the Jewish method of computing reigns, while Daniel employed the Babylonian system.#8221;  If this harmonization is correct then it becomes a line of argumentation for British Application, the early 6th century B.C. date of - Executive, composition because the dating is not in conflict.  The next issue under consideration encircles the identity of the Application Form, illusive personage of Darius the Mede. Critics basically assert that “no such figure as Darius the Mede is known to history,”  or as Frost words it, Darius the Mede “never existed.”  Collins argues that it is the Printable Deposit Slips: Quickbooks, confusion by the Maccabean author for Darius I of British Council Application, Persia (522-486 B.C.).  Frost notes two options that are: this illusive one does not exist or he “is known to history by some other name.”  Frost lucidly summarizes Rowley’s work on ascertaining the Mede’s identity and notes that it could not be Astyages (too early), Cambyses (not a Mede), Gobryas (either Babylonian or Persian), nor Cyaxares (a fictional person).  Since no one fits that description, coupled with the discovery of two dated overlapping Babylonian tablets by two months depicting that after Nabonidus reigned, succeeded only by Belshazzar, Cyrus ruled; consequently, Frost’s either-or scenario seems to Evans Graduation, imply that the illusive Mede is fictitious. However, Dillard and Longman present the work of Shea conducted from 1971-1982 which affirms that there was a unique situation in Council Form, the 1 st year of the reign of Cyrus noting that he did not take on the title “king of Babylon” only until as late as the end of his 1 st year. This has led Shea to conclude that there is space to put in It Security - Executive Resume, a possible vassal, biblically identified as Darius the Mede.  Moreover, there is room for debate, however, Shea’s second option is that consistent with the Babylonian dating system, the Cambyses-Cyrus co-regency is “dated to the latter’s second year,” which is Application, consistent with “Cambyses’ participation in the Babylonian New Year’s festival” placed at the beginning of Cyrus’ second year of reign.
This is, as Shea writes, “tantamount to designating him as king.”  The point is, the issue can be given a soluble response enmeshed in historical facts. Concert.jpg Commons? This answers Frosts either-or position, leaving another possible persona Rowley’s work perhaps had not considered. The last historical evidence is the testimony of Jesus, the founder of the British Council Application Form, Christian religion. Jesus regards exilic Daniel as a prophet (Matt 24:15), and many have seized upon this as proof that Daniel is prophetic, thereby arguing for a 6 th century B.C. date of It Security Analyst Sample Resume Resume, composition. Samuel A. Cartledge, observing this, affirms that this is not definite proof that Daniel is the British Council Application, author of the book which bears his name. “Jesus may have known that the book was written by someone else and still have spoken of Analyst Sample Resume, it in a popular way.”  For Cartledge it may conceivably be this or another occasion where the Lord has limited his knowledge as in the case of the time of Application, his return.  However, the Memorandum Format | Appeal Leter, grammar of the passage is rather vivid. It is observed that dia with the genitive (as is the case in verse 15) #8220;is common for the intermediate agent in contrast with#8221; hupo with genitive (“the immediate agent”) as in hupo kurioo dia too profetoo #8220;by the Lord through the prophet.#8221;  This intermediate agency of Daniel in the predicting of the #8220;abomination of desolation#8221; (Dan 9:27; 11:31; 12:11) has made Gleason Archer observe the following: Christ was not simply referring to Form, some book in Three Ideas Plan, the Old Testament named #8220;Daniel#8221; but rather to the agency of Daniel personally, since dia with the genitive always implies personal human agency [emphasis added]. If these words of Christ are reliably reported […] we can only conclude that Christ personally believed that the historic personage Daniel was the author of the book that contained this eschatological phrase.  It must be conceded that the context must determine that human participation is in view; however if Archer’s argument is sound in general (and it appears that it is) then this is a strong case for Daniel to Council, be regarded as a prophet.
Also, it underscores what the Apostle Matthew and the church under his leadership believed concerning Daniel’s prophetic office. Resume Templates Medical Description? Daniel would consequently satisfy the prophetic criteria of Deuteronomy 18:22. It seems appropriate to suggest that Cartledge assumes far too much when he provides his fanciful options. He also explains away what would be obvious to the 1st century reader of the Greek text. In brief, the major linguistic issues are not demonstrably in favor of the late 2 nd century B.C. view. The evaluation of such data is not easy and is meticulous; however, the linguistic transitions from Hebrew to Aramaic and Council Application Form Aramaic to Hebrew are only separated (if taking the - Wikimedia Commons, critical approach) from the autographs by 50 years; thus, the earliest extant testimony to their authenticity and British Application the early unity of Analyst Resume Resume, Daniel.
The Egyptian, Persian, and Greek loanwords do not demonstrably prove that the Form, composition is of a late date. Instead, there are vast amounts of opportunities for | Appeal Leter, these terms to be used throughout the British Council Application, captivity, exploding the Analyst Sample, small window of opportunity for British Council Application, usage provided by the critical position. The evidence does not prove or substantially support the Slips: Slip, critical approach, meanwhile the traditional view in light of the data the British Application Form, foregoing research does, however, stand in a stronger position. Likewise, the Three Steps Ideas For Creating A Mini-Marketing Plan, controverted historical data, while at times difficult to sort through, can be harmonized to the point that it does not contradict history. It must be recognized that everything available from archaeology is not uncovered, and that even that which is recovered is a small fraction of British Council, a bygone world.
Consequently, patience and watchfulness must be given in affirming a conclusion based upon that evidence. | Appeal Leter? Be that as it may, the historical data relative to Daniel better supports for the traditional literal approach to Daniel. The relegation of Daniel to a mere wisdom literature with no true prophetic import is fallacious at best and a biased interpretation at Council Application Form worst. Attacks upon the biblical account of the invasion of Jerusalem can be harmonized satisfactorily. The great difficulty of identifying Darius the Mede is not insoluble, but critical scholars have no demonstrable right to | Appeal Leter, affirm that this character must be relegated to mythology as a historical confusion. Finally, the testimony of British Council, Jesus affirms that Daniel is Ideas A Mini-Marketing Plan, considered a prophet by the 1 st century Jews which, at least for the Lord, had unfinished prophecy to be fulfilled. At worst this is the testimony of a Rabbi living earlier than the Christian antagonist Porphyry and a little under two millennia earlier than the British Council, modern critics, and at Free. Assistant Description best the testimony of the God in the flesh. One might conclude with the #8220;Danielic#8221; words “MENE, MENE, TEKEL” (Dan 5:25), but instead consider some observations by British Council Form Robert D. Wilson and Harry Rimmer. Rimmer writes that a scientific approach to Healthcare Resume Templates Description, the Bible inquiry is to British Application Form, adopt a hypothesis and then to test it and see if there is supportive data that establishes it.
Rimmer writes: If the Three For Creating A Mini-Marketing, hypothesis cannot be established and if the facts will not fit in with its framework, we reject that hypothesis and proceed along the line of another theory. If facts sustain the hypothesis, it then ceases to be theory and becomes an established truth.  Wilson makes a similar argument and ties an ethical demand to it. After ably refuting a critical argument against Daniel, Wilson remarks that when prominent critical scholars make egregious affirmations adequately shown to be so, “what dependence will you place on him when he steps beyond the bounds of Application Form, knowledge into Printable, the dim regions of conjecture and British Form fancy?”  This important to consider when the Bible is Free. Medical, supported by abundant evidence of its authenticity (as is the case for Daniel), for “upon what ground of common sense or law of evidence are we to British Application Form, be induced to | Appeal, believe that these documents are false or forged when charges absolutely unsupported by evidence are made against them?”  There is British Council Application Form, no reason to. Yet many will be subdued by critical scholarship spouting that it holds the majority view of the date of composition. For those who look at File:bill Evans Graduation - Wikimedia the evidence, there really is Application, no cause to Do You An It Execution Plan For Social Business, accept the Council Application Form, critical view of a late date of Daniel. Printable Deposit Slips: Quickbooks Deposit? J. Carl Laney, Concise Bible Atlas: a Geographical Survey of Bible History (Peabody: Hendrickson, 1998), 153. British Council? Harold Louis Ginsberg, #8220;Daniel, Book of,#8221; in Encyclopaedia Judaica (Jerusalem: Judaica, 1973), 5:1281. Raymond B. Dillard and Tremper Longman, III, An Introduction to the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994), 330.
For a strong critique see Gleason L. Archer, #8220; The Aramaic of the ‘Genesis Apocryphon’ Compared with the Aramaic of Daniel,” in New Perspectives on the Old Testament ., ed. J. Memorandum Format | Appeal Leter? Barton Payne (Waco, TX: Word, 1970), 160-69. Bruce K. Waltke, “The Date of the Book of Application Form, Daniel” BSac 133 (1976): 319. Do You Need Execution Plan? J. J. Collins, “Daniel, Book of,” Anchor Bible Dictionary , ed. David Noel Freedman (New York, NY: Doubleday, 1992. 29-37), 2:30. Collins, #8220;Daniel, Book of,#8221; ABD 2:30. Waltke, #8220;The Date of the Book of British Council Application Form, Daniel,#8221; 319.
Edwin M. Yamauchi, “Hermeneutical Issues in It Security Analyst Sample Resume Writer, the Book of Daniel,” JETS 23 (1980): 13-21. Waltke, #8220;The Date of the Book of Daniel,#8221; 322. Council Application? Neil R. Lightfoot, How We Got the Bible , 2 d ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2001), 30. Robert A. Anderson, Daniel: Signs and Wonders , eds. George A. Graduation? F. Knight and Fredrick Carlson Holmgren (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1984), 13. Lightfoot, How We Got the Bible , 30. Gerhard Hasel, “New Light on the Book of Daniel from the Dead Sea Scrolls,” Archaeology and Biblical Research 5.2 (1992): 45-53. British Council Application Form? Hasel, “New Light on the Book of Daniel from the Dead Sea Scrolls,” 46. On this point, see Hasel,“New Light on the Book of Daniel from the File:bill - Wikimedia Commons, Dead Sea Scrolls,” 50. Collins, #8220;Daniel, Book of,#8221; ABD 2:31, 33.
John G. Gammie, “The Classification, Stages of Growth, and Changing Intentions in the Book of Daniel,” JBL 95.2 (1976): 196-202. Hasel, “New Light on the Book of Daniel from the Council Form, Dead Sea Scrolls,” 47. Resume Free. Assistant Description? Hasel, “New Light on the Book of Daniel from the Dead Sea Scrolls,” 50. Hasel, “New Light on the Book of British Application, Daniel from the Dead Sea Scrolls,” 48. 9+ Army Format | Appeal? Gammie, “The Classification, Stages of Growth, and Changing Intentions in the Book of Daniel,” 199. Edwin M. Yamauchi, “The Archaeological Background of Daniel.” BSac 137.545 (1980): 11. Gammie, “The Classification, Stages of Growth, and Changing Intentions in the Book of Daniel,” 199. Yamauchi, “The Archaeological Background of Daniel,” 10. Yamauchi, “The Archaeological Background of Daniel,” 10. Stanley B. Frost, “Daniel,” Interpreter’s Dictionary of the British Form, Bible , ed. George Arthur Buttrick (New York, NY: Abingdon, 1962), 1:768.
Frost, “Daniel,” IDB 1: 763. Frost, “Daniel,” IDB 1: 763. Edwin M. Yamauchi, “The Greek Words in Daniel in the Light of Greek Influence in the Near East,” in New Perspectives on the Old Testament , ed. J. Barton Payne (Waco, TX: Word, 1970), 176. Yamauchi, “The Greek Words in Daniel in the Light of Printable Slips: Quickbooks, Greek Influence in the Near East,” 177-92. Yamauchi, “The Greek Words in Daniel in the Light of Greek Influence in the Near East,” 192. Waltke, #8220;The Date of the British Application Form, Book of Daniel,#8221; 323-24. Waltke, #8220;The Date of the Book of Daniel,#8221; 234. Allan R. Millard, “Daniel” in The International Bible Commentary , rev. ed., ed.
Frederick F. Bruce (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986), 848. Klaus Kloch, “Is Daniel also Among the Prophets?” Int 39 (1985): 118. David Malick, “An Introduction to the Book of Daniel.” Bible.org . 2015. Steps And 10 Ideas A Mini-Marketing? https://bible.org/article/introduction-book-daniel. Kloch, “Is Daniel also Among the British, Prophets?,” 119-20. Kloch, “Is Daniel also Among the Prophets?,” 121.
Kloch, “Is Daniel also Among the Prophets?,” 122. Yamauchi, “The Greek Words in Daniel in the Light of Greek Influence in the Near East,” 171-74. Yamauchi, “The Greek Words in Daniel in the Light of Greek Influence in Need An It Execution Plan For Social Strategy, the Near East,” 170. Gonzalo Baez-Carmargo, Archaeological Commentary on Council Application Form the Bible , trans. American Bible Society (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1984), 180.
H. File:bill Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Commons? C. Leupold, Exposition of Genesis: 1-19 (repr. British? Grand Rapids: Baker, 1975), 365-66. Anderson, Daniel , 1. Waltke, #8220;The Date of the Book of Daniel,#8221; 325-26. Waltke, #8220;The Date of the Book of Daniel,#8221; 326. Wayne Jackson, Jeremiah and Lamentations (Stockton, CA: Courier, 1997), 61. Waltke, #8220;The Date of the Book of Templates Assistant Description, Daniel,#8221; 326. British Application Form? Collins, “Daniel, Book of,” ABD 2:30. Frost, “Daniel,” IDB 1: 765. Collins, “Daniel, Book of,” ABD 2:30.
Frost, “Daniel,” IDB 1: 765. Frost, “Daniel,” IDB 1: 765. Dillard and Longman, An Introduction to the Old Testament, 336. Dillard and Longman, An Introduction to the Old Testament , 337. Samuel A. Cartledge, A Conservative Introduction to the Old Testament (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1944), 221. Cartledge, A Conservative Introduction to the Old Testament , 221. Archibald T. Robertson and Printable Deposit W. Council? Hersey Davis, A New Short Grammar of the Greek Testament , 10th ed. (repr. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1979), 254. Concert.jpg Commons? Gleason L. Archer , New International Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1982), 284.
Harry Rimmer, Internal Evidence of Inspiration , 7 th ed. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1946), 36. Robert D. Wilson, A Scientific Investigation of the Old Testament , rev. ed., ed. British Council Form? Edward J. For Social? Young (Chicago, IL: Moody, 1967), 98. Wilson, A Scientific Investigation of the Old Testament , 99. On one occasion in the ministry of our Lord, Jesus accepted a dinner invitation from a Pharisee named Simon (Luke 7:40); interestingly, a woman with a reputation for being a “sinner” had heard of Application, Jesus’ arrival and interrupts the dinner by cleaning his feet with her tears and Deposit hair, and anointing them with oil (Luke 7:36-38). Simon recoils at the woman’s act, and has an internal monologue which essentially questions the validity of the Lord’s ministry: “If this man were a prophet, he would have known who and what sort of woman this is who is touching him, for she is Council Application, a sinner” (Luke 7:39 ESV). As in other occasions, Jesus answers this unspoken criticism (Luke 7:40; cf. Matt 9:4, Mark 2:8). The Lord responds with a “parable of two debtors” (Luke 7:41-43), which has as its main thrust the point that “our sense of Sample - Executive Writer, forgiveness will evidence itself in Council, love and service.”  There are points in the narrative which suggest that the woman and An It Plan the Lord had known each other previously.
The woman’s act of service and love (Luke 7:44-46) is a demonstration of her gratitude. British Council Application? This gratitude is Do You Need Execution Plan For Social Strategy, based upon the fact that her sins “are forgiven” (Luke 7:47-48). In the first instance, Jesus speaking to Simon the Pharisee states that this woman’s sins “stand forgiven” (v. 47). The phrase is one word in the original and is in Council Form, the perfect passive indicative form. The verb reflects that her sins were forgiven at some point previous to their encounter at Simon’s house, and remain to be so.
This would explain her great demonstration, of which Simon was critical. File:bill - Wikimedia Commons? In the second instance, Jesus turns to the woman and speaks the exact same phrase (v. 48). This time, the Lord encourages her – your sins remain to be forgiven. The woman “stands saved” (Grk. sesoken ) because of her faith in the Lord; consequently, the Savior could send her into a life of “peace” (v. 50). The Lord emphasizes the abiding results of her forgiveness received prior to British Application Form, this dinner. Moreover, Jesus concedes the Printable Deposit Quickbooks Slip, point that the woman’s life had been ravaged by sin: “her sins, which are many” (v.
47). This strikes at one of Simon’s criticisms raised by the woman’s action, and Council Application Form Jesus demonstrates his full knowledge of the situation. He knew “what sort of woman” she was . Now, she is different; now, she is saved and forgiven, commissioned to Do You Need An It For Social Business, live a new life embraced by the peace of God (Rom 5:1). If Service is the Symptom… Stay Sick. It ought to go without saying that this encounter with our Lord is one that should pull at our heart, for we share, as Christians, the Form, same plight as this woman. Knowing the debt of forgiveness we owe to our God, knowing that the Lord went behind enemy lines to rescue us from a calamity worse than death, we too should be of similar passions to show our love through service. The idea of service is not an abstract notion that we subscribe to, service is an expression of love. It is a symptom of our love for An It Plan For Social Business, God. Consequently, if service is a “symptom,” then love and gratitude generated by salvation is the British Council Application, “infection.” And in this analogy, we would rather be sick than cured.
The Christian, therefore, should never be complacent in their service to God. Packed pews look nice, but if that is all we offer to God, we have failed. Service, as demonstrated by this woman, sacrifices time, resources, energy, and offers it to File:bill Evans Concert.jpg Commons, her Lord. Can we do any less? When there are cards to mail, people to Application, visit, broken hearts to help mend, and souls to invite to our Father’s promises in Memorandum, the Gospel, it should be done by our hands – not by the hands of Form, another. The most natural explanation for this behavior is our gratitude and love for our Lord.
Besides the File:bill - Wikimedia, principle emphasis from this passage that forgiveness leads to a sense of British Form, gratitude which showcases itself in acts of Resume Free. Assistant Description, love and service, there are a few other lessons which may be observed. (1) This passage highlights the divinity of Jesus, bearing witness that He has the right to forgive sin . Jesus’ claims to Application, divine authority are well documented in Printable Slip, the New Testament, and even was a basis for the plots against his life (John 5:17-18; 7:1). In Luke, Jesus declared that the woman’s sins stand forgiven (7:47-48), and Council Form this offended the group of Pharisees among the dinner party. They reasoned, “Who is this, who even forgives sins?” (v. 49). Do You An It Execution Plan For Social Business? They understood Jesus’ claims were not idealistic (mere wishful thinking), but were literal claims to divine authority (cf. Luke 5:17-26). (2) A person’s new life may be overshadowed, for a time, by their past moral failures . We know virtually nothing about this woman only that she is labeled as “a woman of the city” (v. 37) and “a sinner” (vv.
37, 39). British Council Application? This is not just a note from 9+ Army | Appeal, Luke, the narrator, but this was the Simon’s understanding of who this mysterious woman was. Nevertheless, critics will come and go, but the peace of Council Form, God lasts forever (v. Slips: Quickbooks? 50). The unrelenting critics who so often affirm, “you’ll do it again”, will be silenced and shamed by service to British Council Form, God (1 Pet 3:13-17; 2:11-12).
We do not serve to prove others wrong, we serve to love God. The motivation behind our service must be fueled by our gratitude; as it is written: Now which of them will love him more? Simon [the Pharisee] answered, #8220;The one, I suppose, for whom he cancelled the larger debt.#8221; And he said to him, #8220;You have judged rightly.#8221; (Luke 7:42b-43) (3) A life troubled by It Security Analyst - Executive Resume Writer the ravages of a sinful life can become a life of peace devoted to godly service to God . The change of life brought about by a new way of thinking in light of God’s forgiveness has the overwhelming power to transform a person (Acts 2:38; Rom 12:1-2). Experiencing the grace of God, understanding that we who were once dead are now made alive in Christ brings tremendous peace, for our Lord never leaves us (Heb 13:5-6; 1 John 1:7). Indeed, Paul writes, “if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the new has come” (2 Cor 5:17). This new birth (John 3:4-5) brings with it the “the peace of God, which surpasses all comprehension” (Phil 4:7); moreover, this peace guards our hearts and minds. In this new life, in British Form, true appreciation of the grace of God we are qualified not only to experience a heavenly reward (Col 1:12) but are also sanctified for 9+ Army Memorandum Format Leter, service (Eph 2:10; 1 Cor 6:19-20). There is no person that God cannot use in holy service, especially his children whom he has “delivered… from the domain of darkness and transferred us to the kingdom of his beloved son” (Col 1:13). I remember seeing an Application Form, article entitled, “Sluggish Slumbering Saints”, and Evans Graduation Concert.jpg the essence of the piece was to wake up Christians and call them to their responsibilities as servants of God to serve their Lord (Rom 6:16-18). Indeed, perhaps one of the more critical questions we must ask is this: if the Council, lack of Resume Templates Medical Assistant Description, service is the British Council Application, symptom, then what is the infection?
The sad answer is: lack of love and ingratitude for all of Slips: Quickbooks Slip, God’s demonstrations of love . This spiritual malignancy will only go into remission once we see afresh the great debt we owe our Lord. Should it be that a renewal of this kind is needed in the Christian’s life, then we are to seek Him in repentance and Council Form faith knowing that He will receive us and reward us (Heb 11:6; Acts 8:22). Steps And 10 Ideas Plan? You can be a servant like this wonderful woman, who despite her sin-filled past has been immortalized in the pages of God’s book for posterity so that all may see their own story of Council Application, salvation and love, and be moved to faithfully serve Him from whom all blessings flow. Wayne Jackson, The Parables in Profile: Exegetical Outlines of the Parables of Christ , rev. Format? ed. (Stockton, CA: Christian Courier Publications, 1998), 70. A Matter of Public Record (1 Tim 3:7) Moreover, he [the guardian/overseer (3:1)] must be well thought of by outsiders, so that he may not fall into disgrace, into a snare of the devil. (1 Timothy 3:7 ESV) One of the qualifications for the “guardians” (overseers) in Ephesus listed above concerns the Christian man’s reputation among non-Christians. In 1 Tim 3:7, the church is called to evaluate this testimony as a preventive measure in the selection process of a “guardian.” It has been asked, “what will happen to a leader who is not so regarded by those outside the British Council Form, church”?  The answer is clear: it becomes a trap set by Steps For Creating the Devil to bring about disgrace in British Form, the church. The man’s public record must weigh in as to whether or not he should have the responsibility of a guardian. Let us explore this verse in some greater detail by Healthcare Resume Free. Medical Description looking at three aspects of the text. After exploring thirteen qualifications designed to add details to Council Application Form, the broad concept of being “above reproach” (1 Tim 3:2), the final detail is the measure of his character as reflected by “outsiders.” The nature of 9+ Army Memorandum Format, his public record must be “morally excellent.” The ESV has “well thought of,” but the text literally reads, “have a good testimony.” It covers the positive moral ideas of good, noble, praiseworthy, a quality that is “favorably valued.”  His character and Council Application Form standing in the community (3:7) must be equal to the “good work” as a guardian (3:2). An It Execution For Social Strategy? The “source” of Council, information which is supposed to help the church examine a “guardian’s” candidacy comes from non-Christians (literally, “from those on Resume Templates Free. Assistant the outside”).
At first glance, this may appear to be strange. Why would public opinion matter when addressing the leadership role of British Application Form, a church “guardian”? The short answer is his public reputation either brings glory to Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Commons, God or it brings disgrace to His Kingdom. This qualification of the quality of an overseer#8217;s reputation must not be ignored. The middle of the verse reads, “so that he may not fall into disgrace, into a snare of the devil.” The emphasis is placed upon protecting the church from those who have a bad reputation in the community; such a scenario would play “into the devil’s trap.” Are there any longstanding frictions with the community which are detrimental not only to the guardian’s service but also to British Council, the mission of the church? Is he “known” for having improper relationships, or do rumors circulate about him which would be reproachable to him?
These questions must be asked and answered. However, despite the importance of public record, the community is not the final say. It is an important part of the appraisal process designed to prevent disgraceful men from Evans Concert.jpg Commons, entering the eldership. It is much easier to get a man in, than it is to get an unqualified elder out. (3) The Ever Present Danger of the Devil. There are no sinless guardians; however, pretense and hypocrisy are subject to slander and accusations. Such is the main objectives of “the Slanderer” (i.e., the Devil). The man’s public record should not be a prized trophy captured by the Devil (i.e., the British Form, implied hunter#8217;s snare). Consequently, “Christian men who bring widespread scandal upon the church of Healthcare Resume Medical, God have a heavy burden to bear.”  If one#8217;s character is something which has been built brick by brick, then so is one’s reputation. Good character does not have to be perfect, but according to this verse, one#8217;s reputation does need to Council Application, be well thought of. This, then, is not a role where one develops their good reputation; quite to the contrary, the role is for the person who already possesses an excellent reputation.
Contextually, further, they must already possess such a reputation from the community. One#8217;s public record is a general guide to Need Business, anticipating the British Application Form, trajectory of a person#8217;s character: where does it point toward? We must allow for imperfect people having imperfect records; furthermore, not all concerns are of the same weight and worth. Nevertheless, if there is no longstanding trajectory towards godliness in Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Commons, non-Christian circles then it is Council Form, adequately apparent such a prospect cannot serve in such an 9+ Army | Appeal, iconic and spiritual role as shepherd, elder, and overseer in the church of God, which is God#8217;s house (1 Tim 3:15). Council Form? I was recently told of a congregation that was in the process of selecting new elders. 9+ Army Memorandum Format Leter? In keeping with the tenor of this character requirement, the congregation placed a notice in Council Application, a local newspaper seeking public input as to the character and public record of the proposed elders. I am unaware of the outcome, but their action is powerful as it upholds the importance placed upon an elder#8217;s public record. George W. Knight, III, The Pastoral Epistles (1992; repr., Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2013), 165.
Bauer, Walter, Frederick W. Danker, W. F. Arndt, and Do You Need Execution Plan For Social Business F. W. Council? Gingrich, eds. A Greek-English Lexicon of the Three And 10 Ideas Plan, New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature , 3rd ed. Form? (Chicago, IL: University of Do You An It Execution For Social, Chicago Press, 2000), BDAG 504; Johannes P. Louw and Eugene A. Nida, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains , 2d ed. (New York, NY: United Bible Society, 1989), LN 88.4. Wayne Jackson, Before I Die: Paul’s Letters to Timothy and Titus (Stockton, CA: Christian Courier Publications, 2007), 94. Three Blessings for Every Christian (Eph 1:4-5, 13-14) Much of the New Testament speaks to the blessings of God’s divine goodness and mercy. When God is in covenant He blesses those who are His in a uniquely different fashion. Form? Instead of the everyday blessing such as are fitting in His providential care of all humanity (Matt 5:44-45), to those who are His through Christ there are extended “every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ” (Eph 1:3). Let us consider some of these particular blessings as developed in the Ephesian letter which are uniquely given to It Security Sample Resume Resume Writer, the Christian. In Ephesians 1:4, Paul describes that kind of people that God chose to be his, those who would be “in him” (i.e., in Christ). As a consequence of being united with Christ, we experience the working of God to be made “holy and Form without blemish.” These two terms showcase an important implication of union with Christ: in coming in contact with the Quickbooks Slip, redemptive Christ, His holiness and purity has been transferred to us. This may seem to Council Application Form, be a difficult concept to Memorandum Leter, accept, but there is biblical precedent. British Council? In Exodus 29:37 the statement is Analyst Sample Resume - Executive Writer, made that “whatever touches the altar shall become holy” (Lev 6:18).
This is in keeping with atonement. In the New Testament, Jesus is referred to as the “propitiation for our sins” (1 John 2:2), which reflects the fact that Jesus “is the Council Form, personal means by whom God shows mercy to Healthcare Free. Assistant, the sinner.”  Union with Christ, and his holiness, implies that we have been identified with a righteousness that is not our own (Phil 3:8-9). In Ephesians 1:5, the apostle continues to Application Form, enumerate another blessing which comes from union with Christ (i.e., “in Christ”). Paul declares God intended that through Christ the It Security Analyst - Executive, Christian has been included into the “family” of God.
Adoption implies a change of relationship; in fact, “sonship” is extended and Form forged in | Appeal, Christ. The apostle uses this language in Council Application Form, critical moments to establish the intimate union with the Heavenly Father through Christ. In Galatians 4:5-6, he speaks of redemption. This is not simply a matter of emancipation, it is the act to incorporate an Slips: Quickbooks Slip, outsider and make them an British Application, intimate member of the family with all the rights with which such an effort comes. As a result of Three And 10, being integrated into the family of God, fear of British Council Application Form, spiritual slavery is removed by “the spirit of Healthcare Resume Free. Assistant, adoption as sons, by whom we cry, ‘Abba! Father!’” (ESV). Christians have membership in the family of God. The Blessing of Being Sealed with the Holy Spirit. In Ephesians 1:13-14, the Apostle stresses the blessing of God’s faithfulness by using the language of “seals” and “pledges” used to mark that Christians are His. The words of a Stevie Wonder song, “signed, sealed, delivered, I’m yours” would be right in keeping with the words of these verses.
Much discussion has been brought to the nature of the Council Form, Holy Spirit as this seal and pledge, but it seems that the best way to Healthcare Resume Templates Free. Assistant Description, appreciate the language is in the following view: The Holy Spirit is metaphorically the anointing (1 John 2:26f.), the sealing, and the first installment of eternal life. Full payment is Application, made in the resurrection of life and consummated at the” coming of Christ.  God dwells with the Christian, and Analyst Sample Writer this is an British, exclusive blessing which demonstrates the Lord’s faithfulness. This blessing was extended to us in order to stress that we are under the Lord’s protection.  Forgiveness is a vast subject and is the result of the atonement made on behalf of Format | Appeal, sin. The Bible develops a rich concept of all that is needed to experience forgiveness, and it also outlines tremendous blessings. And while we have not exhaustively considered the subject of forgiveness, enough of the concept has been surveyed to appreciate the blessing forgiveness actually is and the blessings which are available to British Application, the Christian. Consecration, “sonship,#8221; and the faithfulness of God’s provision to keep us in His care are all tremendous blessings owing to our union with Christ. | Appeal? They should make any curious soul searching for British Council Form, God, move towards union with His Son in immersion so that they may realize “every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ” (Eph 1:3). William E. Vine, et al., Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words (Nashville, TN: Nelson, 1986), 2:494. George Goldman, “The Spirit Within: A Seal and Guarantee – Ephesians 1.13-14; 3.16,? Exalting Christ in the Church: Unsearchable Riches in Ephesians and Colossians , ed.
David L. Printable Slips: Deposit? Lipe (Henderson, TN: Freed-Hardeman University, 2002), 129. Council Form? Bruce Morton, Deceiving Winds: Christians Navigating the Storm of Resume Templates, Mysticism, Leadership Struggles and Sensational Worship (Nashville, TN: 21st Century Christian, 2009), 22. Morton has an excellent discussion on this section of Paul’s letter to the Ephesians, explaining rather well the background of the seal common to this part of the ancient world (21-25). In the Beginning was the Council, Word (John 1:1) It is a staggering idea to contemplate God choosing self-sacrifice in Evans Graduation Commons, order to British Council Application Form, create the opportunity for reconciliation between Himself and his rebellious creation. In fact, Paul would word the And 10 Ideas For Creating, matter in the following way: “God was reconciling the British Application Form, world to himself, not counting their trespasses against them” (2 Cor 5:19).
The agent through whom this is accomplished is Jesus Christ in His death so that we (humanity “us”) may potentially experience the reconciliation of God (2 Cor 5:14-21). The Gospel of John provides a fuller detail as to how God was reconciling the world to himself. Healthcare Resume? The record of Council Application, John is, however, unlike Matthew’s Gospel which begins with the Hebrew genealogical table which emphasizes the Lord’s lineage from David and Abraham (Matt 1:1-17). Steps For Creating A Mini-Marketing Plan? It is British Council Application, unlike Mark’s abrupt mention of “the beginning” of the gospel, which is marked by Jesus’ ministry inaugurated by the baptism by John (Mark 1:1-14). It is even unlike Luke’s historically grounded retelling, beginning from Jesus’ birth announcements to the unfolding of the universal gospel call as seen in Luke’s second volume Acts (Luke 1:1-4; Acts 1:1-9). John begins the narration of his Gospel Account from the very beginning. In this way John stands upon unique footing. Although not being distinct in Plan, its message and British Council Application Form general outline, John’s Gospel Account is a maverick of sorts, focusing upon the cosmic drama mentioned above which grounds the gospel message. To provide his readers the needed perspective in Do You Need Plan For Social Strategy, order to appreciate all that proceeds, John pens the Council, first line of his account with the Evans Concert.jpg - Wikimedia, following words: In the beginning was the Word, and Form the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through him, and Deposit Slip without him was not any thing made that was made. (John 1:1-3 ESV)  This eternal “Word” is explicitly identified as the British Council Application Form, Father’s son – Jesus – who indeed “became flesh and Need An It For Social Business Strategy dwelt among us” (1:14). John further affirms, “and we have seen his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth” (1:14; As an important side note stands the fact that the term “Father” is used approximately 107 times as the name for “God” in John’s Gospel). This is a profound truth regarding Jesus’ nature and ought to inform our understanding of the Gospel message as well. Let us consider a few ideas from John 1:1, as expressed in three clauses: (a) “In the beginning was the British Council Application Form, Word,” (b) “the Word was with God,” and (c) “the Word was God.” The rich language of the first verse of John’s Gospel conveys the Evans Concert.jpg, divine nature of Council, “the Word” (Grk. logos ), who in fact is the pre-incarnate Jesus (i.e. before he put on his human identity).
Many times the “beginnings” of Jesus of Nazareth are only considered from the standpoint of his birth and baptism; however, the implications of John 1:1 demonstrate that His beginnings are from eternity (Micah 5.2). As Jack Cottrell succinctly writes: Each of these clauses affirms the divine nature of the Logos. The first asserts his eternity, since he was already there when everything else had its beginning (see vv. 2-3). The second asserts his eternal coordination with God. He is distinguished from God, yet placed alongside God.
The third clause declares his identity or equality with God.  In order to truly appreciate the gospel proclamation, it is a vital matter to understand that Jesus had an existence before he walked the rocky soil of Palestine in the 1st Century A.D. In fact, Jesus was/is an eternal divine being, namely God. For this reason, the Gospel of John continuously makes reference to Jesus’ divine nature (5:16-17, 25-27, 6:41, 8:58), Jesus’ claims to divine authority and commission (2:16, 4:34), plus the difficulty held by those who heard Jesus make these claims (5:18, 6:42), and File:bill Concert.jpg the rejection experienced because of this inability to accept both the human nature of Jesus and his claims to #8220;God-hood#8221; (2:16, 8:59). Nevertheless, it is clear from the very beginning of the Application Form, Gospel of John, that his inspired Apostles believed and taught that Jesus was/is an Deposit, eternal being who predates time and our universe, and has entered into His creation (John 1:2-3, 17:5). British Council? It is Analyst Resume Writer, a tragedy that there are groups which claim allegiance to Jesus and Council Form yet they deny the biblical doctrine of the File:bill Concert.jpg - Wikimedia Commons, eternal deity of Christ.
One such group, the Jehovah Witnesses, offer the translation for John 1:1 in the following way: In [the] beginning the Word was, and British Council Application the Word was the God, and the Word was a god. (brackets original)  In the footnote to this passage, they refer to Appendix 6A which sets forth their justification for the translation “the Word was a god.” The essential thrust of the argument is, according to them, a grammatical one. It is here, however, that the theological bias of the It Security Sample Resume Writer, Watchtower New World Translation is evident. They argue that in New Testament Greek ( koine ) a noun with the article “points to an identity, a personality”, but a predicate noun without the article “preceding the verb points to a quality about someone.”  Accordingly, it is argued that “it does not identify him [Jesus] as one and the same as God himself.” The Watchtower followers are determined to maintain the Form, “oneness” of God as is traditionally understood as monotheism (Deut 6:4-5); however, they affirm the “oneness” of Jehovah at the expense of robbing Jesus of Printable Deposit Slip, His eternal divine nature – His #8220;God-hood.#8221; They go so far as to affirm that the Form, Word (Jesus) is 9+ Army, a creation of God: “The Word’s preeminent position among God’s creatures as the British Application Form, Firstborn, the Healthcare Free. Medical Description, one through whom God created all things.”  This is but a primer of their teaching on Jesus. While an exhaustive response cannot be given here, the following two responses are enlisted which demonstrate the weakness – even blasphemy – of the Watchtower “reasoning”. First , the “no-article-a-god” argument based upon grammar is faulty at best, if not theologically biased at worst. As Frank Pack writes, when John writes “the Word was God” he is expressing “the quality or nature” of the British Form, Word/Logos.  John was not affirming that Jesus is the same person as the Analyst Sample Resume, Father (“the Word was with God”), but that the Word was distinct in Council Application Form, person, and yet shares the same Divine nature (Grk. theos ; cf. An It For Social Business? John 20:28; Phil 2:5-8). Second , the Gospel of John explicitly sets the British Council, “Word” as the agent through which “all things were made” (1:3). In fact, the Watchtower’s New World Translation words the last clause of verse 3 this way: “and apart from him not even one thing came into existence.” It ought to go without saying that Jesus did not self-create himself.
Moreover, John expands our understanding of the creation story and Do You Need An It Execution Plan For Social Business Strategy is purposeful in British Application Form, echoing Genesis 1:1, “In the Memorandum Leter, beginning, God created the Council Form, heavens and the earth” (ESV). Need An It Execution Plan Business? It is God (Heb. ’elohim ) who said, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness” (Gen 1:26). Denying John’s placement of Jesus in eternity and at the beginning is a tragic failure to accept basic bible teaching. John 1:1 is a powerful passage serving as a gateway to understanding Jesus and the gospel story. The Eternal Divine Agent of creation (John 1:1-3) put upon Council Application Form himself the It Security Analyst Sample Resume, nature of “flesh” (1:14) and British Council Application Form became “the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!” (1:30). May we, unlike those who deny the Lord’s deity, respond to Jesus as Thomas did and herald Him as our Lord and our God (John 20:28). Unless otherwise noted the Deposit Deposit Slip, translation employed is the English Standard Version (ESV) of the The Holy Bible (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2001). Jack Cottrell, The Faith Once for All (Joplin, MO: College Press, 2002), 236. (NWT) New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures with References , rev. ed. (Brooklyn, NY: Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, 1984) . Recently , the 2013 revision of the Watchtower#8217;s New World Translation still maintains the Council Application Form, following rendition of Do You Execution For Social Business Strategy, verse 1: #8220; In the beginning was the Word, and British Council Form the Word was with God, and the Word was a god.#8221; The editors have removed the brackets; however, the online edition the 9+ Army Memorandum Format | Appeal, footnote (*) on #8220;was a god#8221; reads: #8220;Or #8216;was divine.'#8221; This is not a shift in British Application, their Christology, but it is a better translation than #8220;a god#8221;; furthermore, it is Resume, a step in the right direction by deriving understanding of Jesus based upon the language of the text first. “Appendix 6A,” NWT , 1579. The pages for Application, these notes have been reproduced here for those wishing to Do You Need Plan For Social Business, see the actual Watchtower source. Application? Aid to Bible Understanding , 919. Frank Pack, Gospel of John 1:29; cf.
Dana and Mantey, Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament , 139-40. This is a reformatted and 9+ Army Memorandum | Appeal slightly expanded version of the article which originally published in The Glendale Gleaner (Newbern, TN: Glendale church of Christ). Learn more and British preach better one word at Healthcare Resume Description a time. Error: Twitter did not respond. British? Please wait a few minutes and Printable Deposit Quickbooks refresh this page.
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Dec 11, 2017 British Council Application Form,
Cat Essay In Hindi Language Essays and Research Papers. The constitution of India (Article 343) recognises Hindi as the official language of India. Hindi is also the British Application Form, main . language in many states of Printable Slips: Quickbooks Deposit Slip, India such as Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal/ Uttarakhand, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh and Himachal Pradesh. It is spoken by more than 437 million people in the world. The other dialects of Hindi are Brajbhasha, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, Maithili, Bhojpuri, to name only a few. Hindi can be traced back to as early as the seventh or eighth.
Chhayavaad , Hindi , Hindi literature 1435 Words | 5 Pages. Hindi Nationalism This piece on Hindu nationalism, written by Alok Rai, deals with the coming of modern Hindi in Application Form the late 90s . and the early 20s. Sample Resume - Executive! Alok Rai who is also known as a critical thinker, theorist and also the grandson of Premchand makes his readers aware of the process of modernization in the case of language . In this essay we get to witness a connection between Hindi (old Hindi ) and “ Hindi ” (new Hindi ). British Application Form! Making of Hindi as a modern language connects to Format | Appeal, the programme of the imagining the. Braj Bhasha , Hindi , Hindi languages 1413 Words | 4 Pages. AS YOU LIKE IT HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE PLAY Introduction to Shakespeare When I read Shakespeare I am struck with wonder That such trivial people . should muse and thunder In such lovely language . D. H. Lawrence Quote (1885 - 1930) William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was born in Startford-on-Avon, in the country of Warwick. The third child and British Application, first son, William was christened on 26th April, 1564 in the parish chruch. His father, John Shakespeare, was a prosperous businessman. Memorandum | Appeal! William got.
As You Like It , Globe Theatre , John Shakespeare 1402 Words | 4 Pages. ? Language Essay PSY/360 Introduction Language is British Council Application, universal way to express . how a person feels. So of course, it is essential in And 10 A Mini-Marketing cultures to express their individuality within life. Most of the time people do not put a lot of speculation on what mental processes may be taking place subconsciously. These mental processes allow a person to think, speak, and express their personal thoughts through language . In order to properly analyze that language , cognition must. Cognition , Cognitive psychology , Cognitive science 1078 Words | 4 Pages.
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Cats have dwelt in Australia for at least two hundred years, since the first European settlement in 1788. British Council Application! However the Aboriginal people claim that cats have been on the continent for longer. Some have suggested that traders first brought cats to Australia five hundred years ago from Indonesia and other south-east Asian countries.
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