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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. We're about to dive deep into Free Elegante One Page Resume Template Example Google the details of that least beloved* of SAT sections, the SAT essay . Prepare for a discussion of the SAT essay rubric and how the SAT essay is graded based on that. I'll break down what each item on the rubric means and what you need to do to meet those requirements. On the SAT, the last section you'll encounter is the (optional) essay. You have 50 minutes to read a passage, analyze the Transparency - Military With, author's argument, and write an essay.
If you don’t write on the assignment, plagiarize, or don't use your own original work, you'll get a 0 on your essay. Otherwise, your essay scoring is done by two graders - each one grades you on a scale of 1-4 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing, for One Page Template Google a total essay score out of And Truth With 8 in each of those three areas . Free Template. But how do these graders assign your writing a numerical grade? By using an essay scoring guide, or rubric. *may not actually be the least beloved. The Complete SAT Essay Grading Rubric: Item-by-Item Breakdown. Based on the CollegeBoard’s stated Reading, Analysis, and Writing criteria, I've created the below charts (for easier comparison across score points).
For the purpose of going deeper into just what the SAT is Daily Production looking for in your essay, I've then broken down each category further (with examples). The information in all three charts is taken from the College Board site. The biggest change to the SAT essay (and the thing that really distinguishes it from the ACT essay) is that you are required to read and analyze a text , then write about your analysis of the author's argument in your essay. One Page Resume A. Resume Example. Your Reading grade on the SAT essay reflects how well you were able to demonstrate your understanding of the General Letter | Sop, text and the author's argument in your essay. The response demonstrates little or no comprehension of the Free Elegante Resume A. Resume Google, source text. The response fails to show an And Truth - Military, understanding of the text’s central idea(s), and Free Elegante A. Resume, may include only Transparency And Truth, details without reference to Elegante One Page A. Resume Google, central idea(s). The response may contain numerous errors of fact and/or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes little or no use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating little or no understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates some comprehension of the source text. The response shows an Engineering Resume Great Tips Zipjob, understanding of the text’s central idea(s) but not of Free Elegante One Page Example important details.
The response may contain errors of General Cover Letter Sample Proposal fact and/or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes limited and/or haphazard use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating some understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the Free One Page Google, text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is Engineering Resume Example And 4 To Writing One - Zipjob free of substantive errors of fact and Free One Page Template Example, interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and Resume Example Great Tips, how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text.
The response is free of Free Elegante Resume Google errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. You'll need to show your understanding of the - Military, text on two different levels: the One Page Resume, surface level of getting your facts right and the deeper level of Engineering Great Zipjob getting the relationship of the Free One Page Resume Template Example Google, details and the central ideas right. One of the most important ways you can show you've actually read the Resume Examples - Template, passage is making sure you stick to what is said in the text . If you’re writing about things the author didn’t say, or things that contradict other things the author said, your argument will be fundamentally flawed. For instance, take this quotation from a (made-up) passage about why a hot dog is not a sandwich: “The fact that you can’t, or wouldn’t, cut a hot dog in half and eat it that way, proves that a hot dog is Free One Page Template A. Resume Example Google once and for all NOT a sandwich” Here's an example of a factually inaccurate paraphrasing of this quotation: The author builds his argument by Timeline. Daily Production Template discussing how, since hot-dogs are often served cut in half, this makes them different from sandwiches. The paraphrase contradicts the passage, and so would negatively affect your reading score. Now let's look at an accurate paraphrasing of the quotation: The author builds his argument by discussing how, since hot-dogs are never served cut in half, they are therefore different from Free One Page Template A. Resume Example Google sandwiches. It's also important to be faithful to the text when you're using direct quotations from the passage.
Misquoting or badly paraphrasing the author’s words weakens your essay, because the General Letter, evidence you’re using to support your points is Free One Page Resume Template Example Google faulty. Higher Level: Understanding of Central Ideas. The next step beyond being factually accurate about the passage is showing that you understand the Sample Production Timeline. Daily Production Schedule Template, central ideas of the One Page Resume Template A. Resume Example, text and how details of the passage relate back to this central idea. Why does this matter? In order to be able to Resume - Template, explain why the author is persuasive, you need to be able to explain the Elegante One Page Example Google, structure of the argument. And you can’t deconstruct the author's argument if you don’t understand the Home Design Fancy Template Online, central idea of the passage and Elegante Example, how the details relate to it. Here's an Great Resume Examples, example of a statement about our fictional hot dogs are sandwiches passage that shows understanding of the central idea of the passage: Hodgman’s third primary defense of why hot dogs are not sandwiches is that a hot dog is not a subset of any other type of food. He uses the Template Example Google, analogy of Sample Production Production Template asking the question “is cereal milk a broth, sauce, or gravy?” to show that making such a comparison between hot dogs and Free Elegante One Page Resume Google, sandwiches is patently illogical. The above statement takes one step beyond merely being factually accurate to explain the relation between different parts of the Great - Template, passage (in this case, the relation between the Free Elegante One Page Resume Template A. Resume Google, what is cereal milk? analogy and Free Ohio Residential Agreement | Word (.doc), the hot dog/sandwich debate).
Of course, if you want to score well in all three essay areas, you’ll need to do more in your essay than merely summarizing the author’s argument. This leads directly into the next grading area of the SAT Essay. The items covered under this criterion are the most important when it comes to writing a strong essay. You can use well-spelled vocabulary in sentences with varied structure all you want, but if you don't analyze the Resume A. Resume Example Google, author's argument, demonstrate critical thinking, and support your position, you will not get a high Analysis score . The response offers little or no analysis or ineffective analysis of the source text and demonstrates little or no understanding of the analytic task. The response identifies without explanation some aspects of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s choosing, Or numerous aspects of the response’s analysis are unwarranted based on the text. The response contains little or no support for claim(s) or point(s) made, or support is largely irrelevant. The response may not focus on features of the text that are relevant to addressing the task,
Or the response offers no discernible analysis (e.g., is largely or exclusively summary). The response offers limited analysis of the source text and Sample | Sop Proposal, demonstrates only partial understanding of the analytical task. The response identifies and Free, attempts to describe the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing, but merely asserts rather than explains their importance, or one or more aspects of the response’s analysis are unwarranted based on the text. The response contains little or no support for Sample Timeline. Daily Production Schedule claim(s) or point(s) made. The response may lack a clear focus on Elegante A. Resume Google those features of the - Military, text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the One Page Resume A. Resume, analytical task. The response competently evaluates the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and Cover | Sop, persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to Free Elegante Resume Example Google, addressing the task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the General Letter, analytical task.
The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and Elegante Resume Template A. Resume Example Google, strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. Because this category is so important, I've broken it down even further into its two different (but equally important) component parts to Home Ideas. Smart Online, make sure everything is as clearly explained as possible. Critical thinking, also known as critical reasoning, also known as logic, is the skill that SAT essay graders are really looking to see displayed in the essay.
You need to be able to evaluate and analyze the Free Elegante A. Resume Example, claim put forward in the prompt. This is where a lot of students may get tripped up, because they think “oh, well, if I can just write a lot, then I’ll do well.” While there is some truth to the assertion that longer essays tend to score higher, if you don’t display critical thinking you won’t be able to get a top score on your essay. What do I mean by critical thinking? Let's take the Cover, previous prompt example: Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich. An answer to this prompt that does not display critical thinking (and would fall into a 1 or 2 on the rubric) would be something like:
The author argues that hot dogs aren’t sandwiches, which is persuasive to the reader. While this does evaluate the prompt (by providing a statement that the author's claim is persuasive to the reader), there is no corresponding analysis. An answer to this prompt that displays critical thinking (and would net a higher score on the rubric) could be something like this: The author uses analogies to hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. Because the readers will readily believe the Elegante One Page Example Google, first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to accept that the Great Resume Examples - Template, second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is true as well.
See the difference? Critical thinking involves reasoning your way through a situation (analysis) as well as making a judgement (evaluation) . Free One Page Resume Template Example Google. On the SAT essay, however, you can’t just stop at abstract critical reasoning - analysis involves one more crucial step. Part II: Examples, Reasons, and Other Evidence (Support) The other piece of the puzzle (apparently this is a tiny puzzle) is making sure you are able to back up your point of view and critical thinking with concrete evidence . The SAT essay rubric says that the best (that is, 4-scoring) essay uses “ relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. ” This means you can’t just stick to abstract reasoning like this: The author uses analogies to hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. Because the Timeline. Schedule Template, readers will readily believe the first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to accept that the second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is true as well.
That explanation is a good starting point, but if you don't back up your point of view with quoted or paraphrased information from the text to One Page A. Resume Example Google, support your discussion of the way the author builds his/her argument, you will not be able to get above a 3 on - Military With Ptsd the Analysis portion of the essay (and possibly the Reading portion as well, if you don't show you've read the passage). Let's take a look of an example of how you might support an interpretation of the author's effect on the reader using facts from the passage : The author’s reference to the Biblical story about King Solomon elevates the debate about hot dogs from a petty squabble between friends to a life-or-death disagreement. Free Elegante One Page Resume Google. The reader cannot help but see the parallels between the Transparency And Truth With Ptsd, two situations and thus find themselves agreeing with the Resume Google, author on this point. Does the author's reference to Resume Example And 4, King Solomon actually elevate the debate, causing the reader to Free Resume Google, agree with the author? From the General Sample, sentences above, it certainly seems plausible that it might. While your facts do need to Free Resume Google, be correct, you get a little more leeway with your interpretations of Design Smart how the author’s persuasive techniques might affect the audience. Elegante Example Google. As long as you can make a convincing argument for the effect a technique the author uses might have on the reader, you’ll be good. Say whaaat?! #tbt by Great Resume tradlands, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped and color-adjusted from Free Elegante original. Did I just blow your mind? Read more about the Letter | Sop, secrets the SAT doesn’t want you to know in Elegante One Page Resume Google, this article. Your Writing score on the SAT essay is not just a reflection of your grasp of the conventions of written English (although it is that as well).
You'll also need to be focused, organized, and precise. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and inadequate skill in Ideas. Smart Template Sharelatex Online, the use and control of Free One Page Template A. Resume Example language. The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea. The response lacks a recognizable introduction and conclusion. The response does not have a discernible progression of ideas. The response lacks variety in Engineering Resume Example Great To Writing Zipjob, sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive. Free Elegante One Page Resume Template. The response demonstrates general and vague word choice; word choice may be poor or inaccurate.
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The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of And Truth - Military Ptsd ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the Elegante One Page Resume Google, essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. And Truth. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and Free Template A. Resume Example Google, objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and Great Examples - Template, is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing.
The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has a wide variety in Free Template Google, sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the Example And 4 Tips To Writing Zipjob, conventions of standard written English and Free Template A. Resume Google, is free or virtually free of Template Sharelatex errors. Because there's a lot of different factors that go into calculating your Writing score, I've divided the discussion of this rubric area into five separate items:
One of the most basic rules of the Free Elegante One Page Resume Template Google, SAT essay is Free Residential | Word that you need to express a clear opinion on the assignment (the prompt) . Free Elegante Template. While in school (and everywhere else in life, pretty much) you’re encouraged to take into General Sample | Sop account all sides of a topic, it behooves you to Free Elegante One Page Resume Google, NOT do this on General Cover Letter Sample | Sop the SAT essay. Why? Because you only have 50 minutes to read the passage, analyze the Free Elegante One Page, author's argument, and write the essay, there's no way you can discuss every single way in which the author builds his/her argument, every single detail of the passage, or a nuanced argument about what works and what doesn't work. Instead, I recommend focusing your discussion on a few key ways the author is successful in persuading his/her audience of his/her claim. Let’s go back to the assignment we've been using as an example throughout this article: Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich. Your instinct (trained from many years of schooling) might be to answer: There are a variety of ways in Sample Production Timeline. Daily Schedule Template, which the Free Resume Template Google, author builds his argument. This is a nice, vague statement that leaves you a lot of wiggle room.
If you disagree with the author, it's also a way of avoiding having to say that the author is persuasive. Don't fall into this trap! You do not necessarily have to Ohio Residential Lease (.doc), agree with the author's claim in Free Elegante Template, order to analyze how the author persuades his/her readers that the claim is true. Here's an example of Transparency And Truth With Ptsd a precise central claim about the example assignment: The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by using logic, allusions to history and mythology, and Free Elegante One Page Template Example, factual evidence.
In contrast to the vague claim that There are a variety of ways in which the And 4 Great Tips One -, author builds his argument, this thesis both specifies what the author's argument is and Free Elegante Resume, the ways in which he builds the argument (that you'll be discussing in the essay). While it's extremely important to Transparency With Ptsd, make sure your essay has a clear point of view, strong critical reasoning, and Free Resume Template Example, support for your position, that's not enough to get you a top score. You need to make sure that your essay demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. What does this mean? Part of the way you can make sure your essay is well organized has to do with following standard essay construction points. Don't write your essay in one huge paragraph; instead, include an introduction (with your thesis stating your point of view), body paragraphs (one for each example, usually), and a conclusion. This structure might seem boring, but it really works to | Sop Proposal, keep your essay organized, and the more clearly organized your essay is, the easier it will be for the essay grader to understand your critical reasoning. The second part of this criteria has to do with keeping your essay focused, making sure it contains a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas. You can't just say well, I have an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion, so I guess my essay is organized and expect to Free Resume A. Resume Example Google, get a 4/4 on your essay.
You need to make sure that each paragraph is also organized . Recall the sample prompt: “Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and And Truth With, never should be, considered a sandwich.” And our hypothetical thesis: The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by using logic, allusions to history and mythology, and factual evidence. Let's say that you're writing the paragraph about the author's use of Elegante One Page Template Google logic to persuade his reader that hot dogs aren't sandwiches. You should NOT just list ways that the author is Examples - Template logical in support of his claim, then explain why logic in general is an Free Elegante Resume, effective persuasive device. Examples. While your points might all be valid, your essay would be better served by Free A. Resume Example Google connecting each instance of logic in Engineering Great To Writing Zipjob, the passage with an explanation of how that example of logic persuades the reader to agree with the author. Above all, it is imperative that you make your thesis (your central claim) clear in the opening paragraph of Free One Page Resume Template Google your essay - this helps the grader keep track of your argument. Free. There's no reason you’d want to Free Elegante A. Resume Google, make following your reasoning more difficult for General Cover Letter Sample | Sop Proposal the person grading your essay (unless you’re cranky and don’t want to do well on the essay. Listen, I don’t want to tell you how to live your life).
In your essay, you should use a wide array of vocabulary (and use it correctly). An essay that scores a 4 in Writing on the grading rubric “demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice.” You’re allowed a few errors, even on a 4-scoring essay, so you can sometimes get away with misusing a word or two. In general, though, it’s best to stick to using words you are certain you not only know the meaning of, but also know how to use. Elegante Resume Template A. Resume Example. If you’ve been studying up on vocab, make sure you practice using the words you’ve learned in sentences, and have those sentences checked by someone who is good at writing (in English), before you use those words in an SAT essay.
Creating elegant, non-awkward sentences is the thing I struggle most with under time pressure. For instance, here’s my first try at the previous sentence: “Making sure a sentence structure makes sense is the thing that I have the most problems with when I’m writing in a short amount of General | Sop Proposal time” (hahaha NOPE - way too convoluted and wordy, self). As another example, take a look at Free One Page A. Resume Example Google these two excerpts from the hypothetical essay discussing how the author persuaded his readers that a hot dog is not a sandwich: Score of 2: The author makes his point by And Truth - Military critiquing the argument against him. The author pointed out the logical fallacy of saying a hot dog was a sandwich because it was meat sandwiched between two breads. The author thus persuades the reader his point makes sense to be agreed with and Elegante Template A. Resume, convinces them. The above sentences lack variety in Examples, structure (they all begin with the words the author), and One Page Resume Template Example Google, the last sentence has serious flaws in its structure (it makes no sense). Score of Engineering Example And 4 One - Zipjob 4: The author's rigorous examination of his opponent's position invites the reader, too, to consider this issue seriously.
By laying out his reasoning, step by Resume Example step, Hodgman makes it easy for Production Daily Schedule the reader to Free Elegante One Page A. Resume Example, follow along with his train of thought and Letter Sample | Sop Proposal, arrive at Elegante Resume Template A. Resume Google the same destination that he has. This destination is Hodgman's claim that a hot dog is not a sandwich. The above sentences demonstrate variety in sentence structure (they don't all begin with the same word and don't have the - Military With Ptsd, same underlying structure) that presumably forward the point of the essay. In general, if you're doing well in all the other Writing areas, your sentence structures will also naturally vary. If you're really worried that your sentences are not varied enough, however, my advice for working on demonstrating meaningful variety in Elegante Resume Template Example, sentence structure (without ending up with terribly worded sentences) is Engineering Resume To Writing One - twofold: Read over what you’ve written before you hand it in and change any wordings that seem awkward, clunky, or just plain incorrect. Resume. As you’re doing practice essays, have a friend, family member, or teacher who is good at Resume Examples - Template (English) writing look over Elegante Template Example Google your essays and point out any issues that arise. This part of the Writing grade is all about the nitty gritty details of writing: grammar, punctuation, and Sample Production Daily, spelling . It's rare that an essay with serious flaws in this area can score a 4/4 in Reading, Analysis, or Writing, because such persistent errors often interfere with meaning (that is, persistent errors make it difficult for the grader to understand what you're trying to Free Elegante One Page Resume, get across). On the other hand, if they occur in small quantities, grammar/punctuation/spelling errors are also the things that are most likely to be overlooked. If two essays are otherwise of equal quality, but one writer misspells definitely as definately and Sample Timeline. Daily Production, the other writer fails to explain how one of her examples supports her thesis, the first writer will receive a higher essay score.
It's only when poor grammar, use of Free Elegante One Page Template A. Resume Example punctuation, and spelling start to Free Ohio Residential Agreement, make it difficult to understand your essay that the Free A. Resume Example Google, graders start penalizing you. My advice for working on this rubric area is the Transparency And Truth Ptsd, same advice as for sentence structure: look over Elegante A. Resume Example what you’ve written to Free Ohio Lease | Pdf | Word, double check for mistakes, and ask someone who’s good at writing to look over Elegante One Page Resume A. Resume Google your practice essays and point out your errors. If you're really struggling with spelling, simply typing up your (handwritten) essay into Transparency - Military a program like Microsoft Word and running spellcheck can alert you to problems. We've also got a great set of articles up on our blog about SAT Writing questions that may help you better understand any grammatical errors you are making. How Do I Use The SAT Essay Grading Rubric? Now that you understand the SAT essay rubric, how can you use it in your SAT prep? There are a couple of One Page Google different ways. Use The SAT Essay Rubric To. Shape Your Essays. Since you know what the SAT is looking for in an essay, you can now use that knowledge to guide what you write about in your essays!
A tale from my youth: when I was preparing to take the Sample Timeline. Production Template, SAT for the first time, I did not really know what the essay was looking for, and assumed that since I was a good writer, I’d be fine. Not true! The most important part of the SAT essay is using specific examples from the passage and explaining how they convince the reader of the author's point. By reading this article and Template A. Resume Example Google, realizing there's more to the essay than being a strong writer, you’re already doing better than high school me. Change the object in that girl’s left hand from Engineering Resume And 4 Great a mirror to a textbook and A. Resume Google, you have a pretty good sketch of Production Daily Schedule what my junior year of high school looked like. Use The SAT Essay Rubric To.
Grade Your Practice Essays. The SAT can’t exactly give you an answer key to the essay. Free Template Example Google. Even when an Production Schedule Template, example of an essay that scored a particular score is provided, that essay will probably use different examples than you did, make different arguments, maybe even argue different interpretations of the text. making it difficult to compare the two. The SAT essay rubric is the next best thing to an answer key for Resume Template Example the essay - use it as a lens through which to view and Timeline. Template, assess your essay. Of course, you don’t have the time to become an expert SAT essay grader - that’s not your job. You just have to apply the rubric as best as you can to your essays and work on fixing your weak areas . For the Free Template Example, sentence structure, grammar, usage, and mechanics stuff I highly recommend asking a friend, teacher, or family member who is really good at Production Daily Template (English) writing to take a look over your practice essays and point out the mistakes. If you really want custom feedback on your practice essays from Elegante Resume Example Google experienced essay graders, may I also suggest the PrepScholar test prep platform? I manage the essay grading and so happen to know quite a bit about the essay part of this platform, which gives you both an essay grade and custom feedback for Free Ohio Residential Lease Agreement | Word (.doc) each essay you complete. Free Template A. Resume. Learn more about how it all works here.
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You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of Resume Examples - Template other topics!
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columbus essay title Arawak men and women, naked, tawny, and Resume, full of wonder, emerged from their villages onto the island's beaches and General Cover | Sop, swam out to get a closer look at the strange big boat. When Columbus and his sailors came ashore, carrying swords, speaking oddly, the Arawaks ran to One Page Resume Template A. Resume Example greet them, brought them food, water, gifts. Sample Production Daily. He later wrote of this in his log: They . brought us parrots and balls of cotton and spears and many other things, which they exchanged for the glass beads and Free Resume Example, hawks' bells. They willingly traded everything they owned. . They were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features. Sample Schedule. They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by Free One Page Template A. Resume Google the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance. They have no iron. Their spears are made of cane. . They would make fine servants. With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want. These Arawaks of the Bahama Islands were much like Indians on the mainland, who were remarkable (European observers were to Design Smart Sharelatex say again and again) for their hospitality, their belief in sharing.
These traits did not stand out in the Europe of the Renaissance, dominated as it was by the religion of popes, the government of kings, the Elegante Resume A. Resume Example, frenzy for money that marked Western civilization and Schedule, its first messenger to the Americas, Christopher Columbus. As soon as I arrived in the Indies, on the first Island which I found, I took some of the natives by force in order that they might learn and might give me information of whatever there is in these parts. The information that Columbus wanted most was: Where is the gold? He had persuaded the king and queen of Spain to finance an expedition to the lands, the wealth, he expected would be on the other side of the One Page A. Resume Google, Atlantic-the Indies and Asia, gold and spices. And Truth - Military Ptsd. For, like other informed people of his time, he knew the world was round and he could sail west in order to Free Elegante Google get to the Far East. Spain was recently unified, one of the new modern nation-states, like France, England, and Portugal. Design Fancy Cv Latex. Its population, mostly poor peasants, worked for the nobility, who were 2 percent of the Resume Template A. Resume, population and owned 95 percent of the land. Spain had tied itself to the Catholic Church, expelled all the Jews, driven out the Moors. Like other states of the modern world, Spain sought gold, which was becoming the Home Fancy Template Sharelatex, new mark of wealth, more useful than land because it could buy anything. There was gold in Free Elegante A. Resume Example Google Asia, it was thought, and Home Ideas. Smart Fancy Cv Latex Sharelatex Online, certainly silks and spices, for Elegante One Page Template A. Resume Example Google Marco Polo and Production Production Schedule, others had brought back marvelous things from their overland expeditions centuries before. Free Example Google. Now that the Turks had conquered Constantinople and the eastern Mediterranean, and controlled the land routes to Asia, a sea route was needed.
Portuguese sailors were working their way around the southern tip of Africa. Spain decided to gamble on a long sail across an unknown ocean. In return for bringing back gold and spices, they promised Columbus 10 percent of the profits, governorship over new-found lands, and the fame that would go with a new title: Admiral of the Ocean Sea. - Template. He was a merchant's clerk from the Italian city of Free Elegante One Page Resume Template A. Resume Example Genoa, part-time weaver (the son of a skilled weaver), and expert sailor. He set out with three sailing ships, the Sample Daily Production Schedule Template, largest of which was the Santa Maria , perhaps 100 feet long, and thirty-nine crew members. Columbus would never have made it to Asia, which was thousands of Free Elegante One Page Template A. Resume Google miles farther away than he had calculated, imagining a smaller world. He would have been doomed by Ptsd that great expanse of One Page sea. But he was lucky. One-fourth of the way there he came upon an unknown, uncharted land that lay between Europe and Asia-the Americas. It was early October 1492, and thirty-three days since he and his crew had left the Canary Islands, off the Atlantic coast of Africa. Now they saw branches and Agreement | Pdf | Word, sticks floating in the water.
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The Arawaks lived in village communes, had a developed agriculture of corn, yams, cassava. They could spin and weave, but they had no horses or work animals. They had no iron, but they wore tiny gold ornaments in their ears. This was to have enormous consequences: it led Columbus to take some of them aboard ship as prisoners because he insisted that they guide him to the source of the gold. He then sailed to what is now Cuba, then to Hispaniola (the island which today consists of Haiti and the Dominican Republic). There, bits of visible gold in the rivers, and a gold mask presented to Columbus by a local Indian chief, led to wild visions of gold fields. On Hispaniola, out of timbers from the Santa Maria , which had run aground, Columbus built a fort, the Resume - Template, first European military base in the Western Hemisphere. He called it Navidad (Christmas) and left thirty-nine crewmembers there, with instructions to find and store the Resume Google, gold. He took more Indian prisoners and Free Ohio Lease Agreement | Pdf (.doc), put them aboard his two remaining ships. At one part of the island he got into a fight with Indians who refused to trade as many bows and arrows as he and his men wanted.
Two were run through with swords and bled to death. Then the Nina and Elegante One Page A. Resume, the Pinta set sail for the Azores and Spain. When the weather turned cold, the Indian prisoners began to die. Columbus's report to the Court in Madrid was extravagant. He insisted he had reached Asia (it was Cuba) and an island off the coast of China (Hispaniola). His descriptions were part fact, part fiction: Hispaniola is a miracle. Mountains and Resume Example And 4 Tips One -, hills, plains and pastures, are both fertile and beautiful . the Free One Page Resume A. Resume Example, harbors are unbelievably good and there are many wide rivers of which the majority contain gold. . Home Design Ideas. Template. . Elegante One Page Resume Example Google. . There are many spices, and Ohio Residential Lease (.doc), great mines of gold and other metals. The Indians, Columbus reported, are so naive and so free with their possessions that no one who has not witnessed them would believe it. When you ask for something they have, they never say no. To the contrary, they offer to share with anyone.
He concluded his report by asking for a little help from their Majesties, and in Free Elegante One Page Template return he would bring them from his next voyage as much gold as they need . and Home Design Fancy Cv Latex Sharelatex, as many slaves as they ask. He was full of religious talk: Thus the eternal God, our Lord, gives victory to those who follow His way over apparent impossibilities. Because of Columbus's exaggerated report and promises, his second expedition was given seventeen ships and more than twelve hundred men. The aim was clear: slaves and gold. They went from island to island in the Caribbean, taking Indians as captives. But as word spread of the Europeans' intent they found more and more empty villages. On Haiti, they found that the Elegante Template A. Resume Example, sailors left behind at Fort Navidad had been killed in a battle with the Indians, after they had roamed the island in gangs looking for gold, taking women and children as slaves for sex and labor. Now, from his base on Haiti, Columbus sent expedition after expedition into the interior. They found no gold fields, but had to fill up the ships returning to Spain with some kind of dividend. Ideas. Fancy. In the Free Elegante Resume A. Resume, year 1495, they went on a great slave raid, rounded up fifteen hundred Arawak men, women, and children, put them in pens guarded by Spaniards and dogs, then picked the five hundred best specimens to load onto ships.
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When they brought it, they were given copper tokens to hang around their necks. Elegante Resume A. Resume. Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and bled to Engineering Resume Example And 4 Tips One - Zipjob death. The Indians had been given an impossible task. The only gold around was bits of dust garnered from the streams. So they fled, were hunted down with dogs, and were killed. Trying to put together an army of resistance, the Arawaks faced Spaniards who had armor, muskets, swords, horses.
When the Free Elegante One Page Example Google, Spaniards took prisoners they hanged them or burned them to death. Among the Arawaks, mass suicides began, with cassava poison. Ideas. Fancy Sharelatex. Infants were killed to save them from the Spaniards. In two years, through murder, mutilation, or suicide, half of the 250,000 Indians on Free Elegante One Page Resume Template, Haiti were dead. When it became clear that there was no gold left, the Indians were taken as slave labor on huge estates, known later as encomiendas. - Military With. They were worked at One Page Resume A. Resume Google, a ferocious pace, and died by the thousands.
By the year 1515, there were perhaps fifty thousand Indians left. By 1550, there were five hundred. A report of the year 1650 shows none of the Resume Examples - Template, original Arawaks or their descendants left on the island. The chief source-and, on many matters the only source-of information about what happened on the islands after Columbus came is Bartolome de las Casas, who, as a young priest, participated in the conquest of Cuba. For a time he owned a plantation on which Indian slaves worked, but he gave that up and became a vehement critic of Spanish cruelty. Las Casas transcribed Columbus's journal and, in his fifties, began a multivolume History of the Indies. In it, he describes the Free One Page Template, Indians. They are agile, he says, and can swim long distances, especially the women. They are not completely peaceful, because they do battle from time to time with other tribes, but their casualties seem small, and they fight when they are individually moved to do so because of some grievance, not on the orders of captains or kings.
Women in Indian society were treated so well as to Resume startle the Spaniards. Las Casas describes sex relations: Marriage laws are non-existent men and women alike choose their mates and leave them as they please, without offense, jealousy or anger. Free Template Google. They multiply in great abundance; pregnant women work to the last minute and give birth almost painlessly; up the next day, they bathe in the river and are as clean and healthy as before giving birth. If they tire of their men, they give themselves abortions with herbs that force stillbirths, covering their shameful parts with leaves or cotton cloth; although on the whole, Indian men and women look upon total nakedness with as much casualness as we look upon a man's head or at Free Ohio Lease Agreement | Pdf | Word (.doc), his hands. The Indians, Las Casas says, have no religion, at least no temples. They live in. large communal bell-shaped buildings, housing up to 600 people at one time . Free One Page Resume A. Resume Example Google. made of Engineering Resume Example And 4 Great To Writing very strong wood and One Page A. Resume Example Google, roofed with palm leaves. General Cover Proposal. They prize bird feathers of Free One Page Resume A. Resume Example various colors, beads made of fishbones, and green and white stones with which they adorn their ears and lips, but they put no value on And Truth - Military, gold and other precious things.
They lack all manner of commerce, neither buying nor selling, and rely exclusively on their natural environment for Free Elegante Example maintenance. They are extremely generous with their possessions and by the same token covet the possessions of Resume Examples their friends and expect the same degree of liberality. . In Book Two of Free One Page Resume Example his History of the Indies , Las Casas (who at first urged replacing Indians by black slaves, thinking they were stronger and Free Ohio Lease (.doc), would survive, but later relented when he saw the Free Elegante A. Resume Example, effects on blacks) tells about the treatment of the Indians by the Spaniards. General Cover Letter | Sop Proposal. It is a unique account and deserves to be quoted at length: Endless testimonies . .. Elegante Resume Example. prove the mild and pacific temperament of the natives. Great To Writing One -. But our work was to exasperate, ravage, kill, mangle and Elegante Template A. Resume Example Google, destroy; small wonder, then, if they tried to kill one of us now and then. The admiral, it is Free Lease Agreement | Pdf | Word, true, was blind as those who came after him, and Elegante One Page Template, he was so anxious to please the Timeline. Daily Production Template, King that he committed irreparable crimes against Free One Page Example Google the Indians. Las Casas tells how the Sample Production Production Schedule Template, Spaniards grew more conceited every day and after a while refused to walk any distance. They rode the backs of Indians if they were in a hurry or were carried on Free Elegante Resume A. Resume Example Google, hammocks by Indians running in relays. In this case they also had Indians carry large leaves to And Truth With Ptsd shade them from the sun and others to fan them with goose wings. Total control led to total cruelty. Free Elegante Resume Template Example. The Spaniards thought nothing of knifing Indians by tens and twenties and of cutting slices off them to test the Design Cv Latex Sharelatex, sharpness of their blades.
Las Casas tells how two of these so-called Christians met two Indian boys one day, each carrying a parrot; they took the parrots and for fun beheaded the Free Example, boys. The Indians' attempts to defend themselves failed. And when they ran off into the hills they were found and killed. So, Las Casas reports, they suffered and died in the mines and other labors in Home Design desperate silence, knowing not a soul in the world to Free Resume Template A. Resume Example Google whom they could turn for help. Home Design Ideas. Fancy Template Online. He describes their work in the mines: . mountains are stripped from top to bottom and Free Elegante One Page Resume A. Resume, bottom to top a thousand times; they dig, split rocks, move stones, and Great Resume Examples - Template, carry dirt on their backs to wash it in the rivers, while those who wash gold stay in the water all the time with their backs bent so constantly it breaks them; and Elegante One Page Resume A. Resume Google, when water invades the mines, the Production Production, most arduous task of all is to dry the mines by scooping up pansful of water and Free Elegante Example, throwing it up outside. After each six or eight months' work in the mines, which was the - Military Ptsd, time required of each crew to dig enough gold for melting, up to a third of the men died. While the Free A. Resume Example Google, men were sent many miles away to the mines, the wives remained to Example And 4 Tips To Writing Zipjob work the soil, forced into the excruciating job of digging and making thousands of hills for cassava plants. Thus husbands and wives were together only once every eight or ten months and when they met they were so exhausted and depressed on Template A. Resume Google, both sides . they ceased to General Sample Proposal procreate.
As for the newly born, they died early because their mothers, overworked and Free Elegante Resume Template Google, famished, had no milk to Great Resume Examples - Template nurse them, and for this reason, while I was in Cuba, 7000 children died in Free One Page Template three months. Some mothers even drowned their babies from sheer desperation. in this way, husbands died in the mines, wives died at - Military Ptsd, work, and Free One Page Resume A. Resume Google, children died from lack of milk . .. and in a short time this land which was so great, so powerful and fertile . was depopulated. Cover Letter Sample | Sop. . My eyes have seen these acts so foreign to human nature, and now I tremble as I write. . When he arrived on Hispaniola in 1508, Las Casas says, there were 60,000 people living on this island, including the Indians; so that from 1494 to 1508, over three million people had perished from war, slavery, and the mines. Who in future generations will believe this? I myself writing it as a knowledgeable eyewitness can hardly believe it. Thus began the Free Elegante Template A. Resume, history, five hundred years ago, of the European invasion of the Indian settlements in the Americas.
That beginning, when you read Las Casas-even if his figures are exaggerations (were there 3 million Indians to begin with, as he says, or less than a million, as some historians have calculated, or 8 million as others now believe?)-is conquest, slavery, death. When we read the history books given to children in the United States, it all starts with heroic adventure-there is no bloodshed-and Columbus Day is Resume, a celebration. Past the elementary and high schools, there are only occasional hints of something else. Samuel Eliot Morison, the Harvard historian, was the most distinguished writer on Columbus, the author of a multivolume biography, and was himself a sailor who retraced Columbus's route across the Atlantic. In his popular book Christopher Columbus, Mariner, written in 1954, he tells about the enslavement and the killing: The cruel policy initiated by Columbus and pursued by his successors resulted in Free Elegante One Page Resume Template Example complete genocide. That is on one page, buried halfway into the telling of a grand romance. And Truth With Ptsd. In the book's last paragraph, Morison sums up his view of Elegante A. Resume Columbus: He had his faults and Transparency And Truth With Ptsd, his defects, but they were largely the defects of the qualities that made him great-his indomitable will, his superb faith in God and in his own mission as the Christ-bearer to lands beyond the seas, his stubborn persistence despite neglect, poverty and discouragement. But there was no flaw, no dark side to the most outstanding and Free A. Resume Google, essential of all his qualities-his seamanship. One can lie outright about the past.
Or one can omit facts which might lead to unacceptable conclusions. Morison does neither. He refuses to lie about Columbus. Transparency And Truth With. He does not omit the story of mass murder; indeed he describes it with the harshest word one can use: genocide. But he does something else-he mentions the truth quickly and goes on to other things more important to him. Outright lying or quiet omission takes the One Page Template A. Resume Example Google, risk of Engineering Example Tips To Writing Zipjob discovery which, when made, might arouse the reader to rebel against the writer. To state the facts, however, and then to bury them in a mass of other information is to say to the reader with a certain infectious calm: yes, mass murder took place, but it's not that important-it should weigh very little in our final judgments; it should affect very little what we do in the world. It is not that the historian can avoid emphasis of some facts and Elegante Resume, not of others. This is as natural to him as to the mapmaker, who, in Cover Letter | Sop order to Elegante One Page Resume produce a usable drawing for practical purposes, must first flatten and Sample | Sop, distort the shape of the earth, then choose out of the bewildering mass of Elegante Resume A. Resume Google geographic information those things needed for the purpose of this or that particular map. My argument cannot be against Engineering Example Tips To Writing One - selection, simplification, emphasis, which are inevitable for both cartographers and historians. Free Elegante Resume Template Example Google. But the map-maker's distortion is a technical necessity for a common purpose shared by all people who need maps.
The historian's distortion is General Cover Letter Sample | Sop Proposal, more than technical, it is ideological; it is released into a world of contending interests, where any chosen emphasis supports (whether the historian means to or not) some kind of interest, whether economic or political or racial or national or sexual. Furthermore, this ideological interest is not openly expressed in the way a mapmaker's technical interest is obvious (This is a Mercator projection for long-range navigation-for short-range, you'd better use a different projection). No, it is presented as if all readers of history had a common interest which historians serve to the best of their ability. This is not intentional deception; the historian has been trained in a society in Free Template Google which education and General Cover Letter Sample, knowledge are put forward as technical problems of excellence and not as tools for contending social classes, races, nations. To emphasize the heroism of Columbus and his successors as navigators and discoverers, and to de-emphasize their genocide, is not a technical necessity but an ideological choice. It serves- unwittingly-to justify what was done. My point is not that we must, in telling history, accuse, judge, condemn Columbus in absentia . It is too late for that; it would be a useless scholarly exercise in morality. But the easy acceptance of atrocities as a deplorable but necessary price to pay for progress (Hiroshima and Vietnam, to Free Resume Template Example save Western civilization; Kronstadt and Hungary, to save socialism; nuclear proliferation, to save us all)-that is still with us. One reason these atrocities are still with us is that we have learned to bury them in a mass of other facts, as radioactive wastes are buried in containers in the earth. We have learned to give them exactly the same proportion of Daily Schedule attention that teachers and writers often give them in the most respectable of classrooms and textbooks. This learned sense of moral proportion, coming from the apparent objectivity of the scholar, is accepted more easily than when it comes from politicians at press conferences.
It is therefore more deadly. The treatment of heroes (Columbus) and their victims (the Arawaks)-the quiet acceptance of conquest and murder in the name of progress-is only Elegante Resume Google, one aspect of a certain approach to history, in which the past is told from the Smart Cv Latex Sharelatex Online, point of view of governments, conquerors, diplomats, leaders. It is as if they, like Columbus, deserve universal acceptance, as if they-the Founding Fathers, Jackson, Lincoln, Wilson, Roosevelt, Kennedy, the leading members of Congress, the famous Justices of the Resume A. Resume, Supreme Court-represent the nation as a whole. The pretense is Resume Example Great Tips To Writing, that there really is Free Elegante Resume A. Resume Example Google, such a thing as the United States, subject to occasional conflicts and quarrels, but fundamentally a community of people with common interests. It is as if there really is a national interest represented in the Constitution, in territorial expansion, in the laws passed by Congress, the decisions of the courts, the development of capitalism, the And Truth - Military With Ptsd, culture of Free One Page Resume Template A. Resume Example Google education and the mass media. History is the memory of states, wrote Henry Kissinger in Letter Sample his first book, A World Restored , in which he proceeded to tell the history of nineteenth-century Europe from the viewpoint of the leaders of Austria and England, ignoring the millions who suffered from those statesmen's policies.
From his standpoint, the peace that Europe had before the French Revolution was restored by the diplomacy of a few national leaders. But for factory workers in England, farmers in France, colored people in Asia and Africa, women and children everywhere except in the upper classes, it was a world of conquest, violence, hunger, exploitation-a world not restored but disintegrated. My viewpoint, in telling the history of the United States, is different: that we must not accept the memory of states as our own. Nations are not communities and never have been, The history of any country, presented as the history of One Page A. Resume a family, conceals fierce conflicts of interest (sometimes exploding, most often repressed) between conquerors and - Military With, conquered, masters and slaves, capitalists and workers, dominators and dominated in race and Resume A. Resume Example Google, sex. And in such a world of conflict, a world of victims and executioners, it is the job of thinking people, as Albert Camus suggested, not to be on the side of the executioners. Thus, in that inevitable taking of sides which comes from selection and emphasis in history, I prefer to try to tell the story of the discovery of America from the Home Smart Fancy Cv Latex Sharelatex Online, viewpoint of the Arawaks, of the Constitution from the standpoint of the slaves, of Andrew Jackson as seen by the Cherokees, of the Civil War as seen by the New York Irish, of the Mexican war as seen by the deserting soldiers of Scott's army, of the rise of industrialism as seen by the young women in the Lowell textile mills, of the Spanish-American war as seen by the Cubans, the conquest of the Philippines as seen by black soldiers on Template, Luzon, the Gilded Age as seen by southern farmers, the First World War as seen by socialists, the Second World War as seen by pacifists, the New Deal as seen by blacks in Sample Production Timeline. Daily Production Harlem, the postwar American empire as seen by peons in Latin America. One Page Template A. Resume. And so on, to the limited extent that any one person, however he or she strains, can see history from the standpoint of others. My point is Great, not to grieve for the victims and denounce the executioners.
Those tears, that anger, cast into the past, deplete our moral energy for One Page Template A. Resume Example Google the present. And the lines are not always clear. In the long run, the Resume - Template, oppressor is also a victim. Template A. Resume Example Google. In the short run (and so far, human history has consisted only of short runs), the victims, themselves desperate and tainted with the culture that oppresses them, turn on Template, other victims. Still, understanding the complexities, this book will be skeptical of governments and their attempts, through politics and culture, to Free One Page Template A. Resume Google ensnare ordinary people in Free Ohio Residential Lease | Pdf a giant web of nationhood pretending to a common interest.
I will try not to overlook the Free One Page Template, cruelties that victims inflict on one another as they are jammed together in the boxcars of the Home Cv Latex Template Sharelatex, system. I don't want to romanticize them. But I do remember (in rough paraphrase) a statement I once read: The cry of the poor is not always just, but if you don't listen to it, you will never know what justice is. I don't want to invent victories for Free Elegante One Page Resume A. Resume Example people's movements. But to think that history-writing must aim simply to recapitulate the failures that dominate the Sample Timeline. Production, past is to make historians collaborators in an endless cycle of Elegante One Page Resume A. Resume defeat. If history is to be creative, to General | Sop anticipate a possible future without denying the One Page, past, it should, I believe, emphasize new possibilities by disclosing those hidden episodes of the past when, even if in brief flashes, people showed their ability to resist, to join together, occasionally to win.
I am supposing, or perhaps only hoping, that our future may be found in the past's fugitive moments of compassion rather than in its solid centuries of warfare. That, being as blunt as I can, is my approach to the history of the Free Residential Lease | Pdf, United States. The reader may as well know that before going on. What Columbus did to One Page Template Example the Arawaks of the Production Template, Bahamas, Cortes did to the Aztecs of Mexico, Pizarro to the Incas of Peru, and the English settlers of Free Elegante One Page Resume A. Resume Google Virginia and Massachusetts to the Powhatans and the Pequots. The Aztec civilization of And Truth Ptsd Mexico came out of the heritage of Mayan, Zapotec, and Toltec cultures. It built enormous constructions from stone tools and Elegante Example, human labor, developed a writing system and a priesthood.
It also engaged in (let us not overlook this) the ritual killing of thousands of people as sacrifices to the gods. The cruelty of the With, Aztecs, however, did not erase a certain innocence, and when a Spanish armada appeared at Vera Cruz, and a bearded white man came ashore, with strange beasts (horses), clad in iron, it was thought that he was the legendary Aztec man-god who had died three hundred years before, with the promise to return-the mysterious Quetzalcoatl. Free Resume Google. And so they welcomed him, with munificent hospitality. That was Hernando Cortes, come from Sample Timeline. Production Schedule Template, Spain with an expedition financed by merchants and Elegante Resume Template, landowners and blessed by the deputies of God, with one obsessive goal: to find gold. In the Sample Daily Template, mind of Montezuma, the king of the Aztecs, there must have been a certain doubt about whether Cortes was indeed Quetzalcoatl, because he sent a hundred runners to Cortes, bearing enormous treasures, gold and silver wrought into objects of fantastic beauty, but at the same time begging him to go back. (The painter Durer a few years later described what he saw just arrived in Spain from that expedition-a sun of gold, a moon of silver, worth a fortune.)
Cortes then began his march of death from town to Free Elegante Resume Template Example Google town, using deception, turning Aztec against Aztec, killing with the kind of deliberateness that accompanies a strategy-to paralyze the will of the population by a sudden frightful deed. And so, in Cholulu, he invited the headmen of the Timeline. Daily Schedule, Cholula nation to the square. Free One Page Template A. Resume. And when they came, with thousands of unarmed retainers, Cortes's small army of Spaniards, posted around the square with cannon, armed with crossbows, mounted on Design Smart, horses, massacred them, down to the last man. Resume Example Google. Then they looted the Production Daily Template, city and moved on. When their cavalcade of murder was over they were in Template A. Resume Google Mexico City, Montezuma was dead, and the Aztec civilization, shattered, was in the hands of the Spaniards. All this is told in the Spaniards' own accounts. In Peru, that other Spanish conquistador Pizarro, used the same tactics, and for the same reasons- the frenzy in the early capitalist states of Europe for gold, for slaves, for products of the soil, to pay the bondholders and stockholders of the expeditions, to finance the monarchical bureaucracies rising in Western Europe, to spur the growth of the Letter | Sop, new money economy rising out of feudalism, to participate in what Karl Marx would later call the primitive accumulation of capital. These were the violent beginnings of an intricate system of technology, business, politics, and culture that would dominate the One Page Template Example Google, world for the next five centuries. In the North American English colonies, the pattern was set early, as Columbus had set it in Cover Letter | Sop the islands of the Bahamas. In 1585, before there was any permanent English settlement in One Page Template Example Google Virginia, Richard Grenville landed there with seven ships. The Indians he met were hospitable, but when one of them stole a small silver cup, Grenville sacked and burned the whole Indian village.
Jamestown itself was set up inside the territory of an Indian confederacy, led by General | Sop Proposal the chief, Powhatan. Powhatan watched the English settle on his people's land, but did not attack, maintaining a posture of coolness. When the English were going through their starving time in the winter of Free Elegante One Page Resume Template A. Resume 1610, some of them ran off to join the Indians, where they would at least be fed. When the summer came, the governor of the colony sent a messenger to ask Powhatan to return the runaways, whereupon Powhatan, according to the English account, replied with noe other than prowde and disdaynefull Answers. Some soldiers were therefore sent out to take Revenge. They fell upon an Indian settlement, killed fifteen or sixteen Indians, burned the houses, cut down the Lease | Pdf | Word, corn growing around the village, took the queen of the tribe and her children into boats, then ended up throwing the Elegante One Page Example Google, children overboard and shoteinge owit their Braynes in the water. The queen was later taken off and stabbed to death. Twelve years later, the Indians, alarmed as the English settlements kept growing in numbers, apparently decided to Resume - Template try to wipe them out for Elegante One Page Google good. They went on a rampage and massacred 347 men, women, and children.
From then on it was total war. Not able to enslave the Indians, and not able to Cover Letter Sample live with them, the Elegante Template A. Resume Example Google, English decided to exterminate them. Edmund Morgan writes, in Resume One - Zipjob his history of early Virginia, American Slavery, American Freedom: Since the Indians were better woodsmen than the English and virtually impossible to track down, the method was to feign peaceful intentions, let them settle down and plant their com wherever they chose, and then, just before harvest, fall upon them, killing as many as possible and burning the Free Resume Template, corn. . Transparency And Truth. Within two or three years of the massacre the English had avenged the deaths of Free One Page Resume A. Resume Example that day many times over. In that first year of the white man in Virginia, 1607, Powhatan had addressed a plea to John Smith that turned out Residential | Pdf | Word (.doc) prophetic. How authentic it is may be in doubt, but it is Elegante Resume Template A. Resume Google, so much like so many Indian statements that it may be taken as, if not the rough letter of that first plea, the exact spirit of it: I have seen two generations of Great Examples - Template my people die. I know the difference between peace and war better than any man in my country. I am now grown old, and must die soon; my authority must descend to my brothers, Opitehapan, Opechancanough and Catatough-then to my two sisters, and then to my two daughters-I wish them to know as much as I do, and that your love to them may be like mine to you. Why will you take by force what you may have quietly by love? Why will you destroy us who supply you with food?
What can you get by war? We can hide our provisions and run into the woods; then you will starve for wronging your friends. Why are you jealous of us? We are unarmed, and willing to Elegante Resume A. Resume Example Google give you what you ask, if you come in a friendly manner, and not so simple as not to know that it is much better to eat good meat, sleep comfortably, live quietly with my wives and children, laugh and be merry with the English, and trade for their copper and hatchets, than to run away from Ideas. Fancy Cv Latex Template Online, them, and to Free Google lie cold in the woods, feed on acorns, roots and such trash, and Timeline. Schedule, be so hunted that I can neither eat nor sleep. In these wars, my men must sit up watching, and if a twig break, they all cry out Here comes Captain Smith! So I must end my miserable life. Template A. Resume Example Google. Take away your guns and swords, the cause of all our jealousy, or you may all die in the same manner. When the Pilgrims came to Design Fancy Template Online New England they too were coming not to vacant land but to territory inhabited by Template Google tribes of Indians.
The governor of the And 4 Great To Writing One -, Massachusetts Bay Colony, John Winthrop, created the excuse to take Indian land by declaring the area legally a vacuum. Free Elegante One Page Template A. Resume Google. The Indians, he said, had not subdued the land, and Sample Production Timeline. Production Template, therefore had only a natural right to it, but not a civil right. A natural right did not have legal standing. The Puritans also appealed to the Bible, Psalms 2:8: Ask of me, and I shall give thee, the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession. Free A. Resume Google. And to justify their use of force to take the land, they cited Romans 13:2: Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and Production Production, they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation. The Puritans lived in Free Template Example uneasy truce with the Pequot Indians, who occupied what is Transparency - Military, now southern Connecticut and Rhode Island. But they wanted them out of the way; they wanted their land.
And they seemed to want also to establish their rule firmly over Connecticut settlers in that area. The murder of a white trader, Indian-kidnaper, and troublemaker became an excuse to Template make war on the Pequots in 1636. A punitive expedition left Boston to attack the Narraganset Indians on Block Island, who were lumped with the Pequots. As Governor Winthrop wrote: They had commission to put to death the men of Block Island, but to spare the women and children, and to bring them away, and to take possession of the island; and from thence to go to the Pequods to demand the murderers of Captain Stone and other English, and one thousand fathom of wampum for Great Resume damages, etc. and some of their children as hostages, which if they should refuse, they were to obtain it by force. The English landed and killed some Indians, but the rest hid in the thick forests of the island and the English went from Elegante One Page Resume Template Google, one deserted village to Sample Production Production the next, destroying crops. Then they sailed back to the mainland and raided Pequot villages along the coast, destroying crops again. One of the officers of that expedition, in his account, gives some insight into the Pequots they encountered: The Indians spying of us came running in multitudes along the water side, crying, What cheer, Englishmen, what cheer, what do you come for? They not thinking we intended war, went on Elegante A. Resume, cheerfully. Home Design Ideas. Smart Fancy Cv Latex Template Sharelatex Online. - So, the war with the Pequots began. Massacres took place on both sides. The English developed a tactic of warfare used earlier by Free One Page Resume A. Resume Example Google Cortes and later, in the twentieth century, even more systematically: deliberate attacks on noncombatants for the purpose of terrorizing the enemy.
This is ethno historian Francis Jennings's interpretation of Captain John Mason's attack on a Pequot village on the Mystic River near Long Island Sound: Mason proposed to Great Examples avoid attacking Pequot warriors, which would have overtaxed his unseasoned, unreliable troops. Battle, as such, was not his purpose. Battle is only one of the Free Elegante Template Example, ways to destroy an enemy's will to fight. Massacre can accomplish the same end with less risk, and Great Examples - Template, Mason had determined that massacre would be his objective. So the English set fire to the wigwams of the village. By their own account: The Captain also said, We must Burn Them; and immediately stepping into the Wigwam . brought out a Fire Brand, and Free Example Google, putting it into the Matts with which they were covered, set the Wigwams on Fire.
William Bradford, in his History of the Plymouth Plantation written at the time, describes John Mason's raid on Ohio Residential Lease, the Pequot village: Those that scaped the fire were slaine with the sword; some hewed to peeces, others rune throw with their rapiers, so as they were quickly dispatchte, and very few escaped. Elegante One Page Template Example Google. It was conceived they thus destroyed about 400 at this time. It was a fearful sight to see them thus frying in the fyer, and the streams of Engineering Example One - blood quenching the same, and horrible was the stincke and sente there of, but the A. Resume Example, victory seemed a sweete sacrifice, and they gave the Engineering And 4 Great Tips To Writing One -, prayers thereof to Free One Page Resume A. Resume Example Google God, who had wrought so wonderfully for them, thus to Free Ohio Lease Agreement | Word (.doc) inclose their enemise in their hands, and give them so speedy a victory over so proud and insulting an enimie. As Dr. Cotton Mather, Puritan theologian, put it: It was supposed that no less than 600 Pequot souls were brought down to hell that day.
The war continued. Indian tribes were used against one another, and never seemed able to join together in Elegante Template A. Resume Google fighting the English. Jennings sums up: The terror was very real among the Indians, but in Sample Production time they came to meditate upon its foundations. They drew three lessons from the Pequot War: (1) that the Englishmen's most solemn pledge would be broken whenever obligation conflicted with advantage; (2) that the Free One Page A. Resume Example Google, English way of war had no limit of scruple or mercy; and (3) that weapons of Lease Agreement | Pdf | Word (.doc) Indian making were almost useless against weapons of European manufacture. These lessons the Indians took to heart.
A footnote in One Page Template A. Resume Example Google Virgil Vogel's book This Land Was Ours (1972) says: The official figure on the number of Pequots now in Free Lease | Word Connecticut is Free Elegante One Page Resume Template, twenty-one persons. Forty years after the Pequot War, Puritans and Indians fought again. This time it was the Wampanoags, occupying the south shore of Massachusetts Bay, who were in Sample Timeline. Schedule the way and also beginning to trade some of their land to people outside the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Their chief, Massasoit, was dead. Elegante Resume A. Resume Example. His son Wamsutta had been killed by Englishmen, and Wamsuttas brother Metacom (later to be called King Philip by the English) became chief. Transparency - Military Ptsd. The English found their excuse, a murder which they attributed to Metacom, and they began a war of conquest against the Wampanoags, a war to take their land. They were clearly the aggressors, but claimed they attacked for preventive purposes.
As Roger Williams, more friendly to the Indians than most, put it: All men of conscience or prudence ply to windward, to maintain their wars to Elegante be defensive. Jennings says the elite of the Puritans wanted the war; the ordinary white Englishman did not want it and often refused to fight. Home Design Smart Cv Latex. The Indians certainly did not want war, but they matched atrocity with atrocity. When it was over, in 1676, the English had won, but their resources were drained; they had lost six hundred men. Three thousand Indians were dead, including Metacom himself. Yet the Elegante One Page Resume Template Google, Indian raids did not stop. For a while, the Agreement, English tried softer tactics. But ultimately, it was back to annihilation. Elegante Resume A. Resume. The Indian population of 10 million that lived north of Mexico when Columbus came would ultimately be reduced to less than a million. Huge numbers of Indians would die from diseases introduced by the whites. A Dutch traveler in New Netherland wrote in 1656 that the Indians . Resume Examples - Template. affirm, that before the arrival of the Elegante Template Example, Christians, and before the smallpox broke out amongst them, they were ten times as numerous as they now are, and that their population had been melted down by Letter Sample | Sop this disease, whereof nine-tenths of them have died.
When the English first settled Martha's Vineyard in 1642, the Wampanoags there numbered perhaps three thousand. There were no wars on Free Template Example Google, that island, but by 1764, only 313 Indians were left there. And Truth - Military. Similarly, Block Island Indians numbered perhaps 1,200 to 1,500 in 1662, and by 1774 were reduced to Elegante Resume A. Resume Example Google fifty-one. Behind the English invasion of North America, behind their massacre of Indians, their deception, their brutality, was that special powerful drive born in civilizations based on private property. Great Resume Examples. It was a morally ambiguous drive; the need for space, for land, was a real human need. One Page Example. But in conditions of scarcity, in a barbarous epoch of history ruled by competition, this human need was transformed into the murder of whole peoples.
Roger Williams said it was. a depraved appetite after the Smart Template Sharelatex, great vanities, dreams and shadows of this vanishing life, great portions of land, land in this wilderness, as if men were in Free Resume Template as great necessity and Sample Production Schedule, danger for want of great portions of land, as poor, hungry, thirsty seamen have, after a sick and stormy, a long and Free Elegante Resume A. Resume Example Google, starving passage. Free. This is one of the gods of New England, which the Free Elegante A. Resume Example Google, living and most high Eternal will destroy and famish. Was all this bloodshed and deceit-from Columbus to Cortes, Pizarro, the Puritans-a necessity for the human race to progress from General Cover Sample | Sop Proposal, savagery to civilization? Was Morison right in burying the story of genocide inside a more important story of human progress?
Perhaps a persuasive argument can be made-as it was made by Template Example Stalin when he killed peasants for industrial progress in Example Tips To Writing One - the Soviet Union, as it was made by Churchill explaining the bombings of Elegante One Page A. Resume Example Google Dresden and Hamburg, and Truman explaining Hiroshima. But how can the judgment be made if the benefits and losses cannot be balanced because the Ideas. Smart Cv Latex Template Sharelatex, losses are either unmentioned or mentioned quickly? That quick disposal might be acceptable (Unfortunate, yes, but it had to be done) to the middle and upper classes of the conquering and advanced countries. But is it acceptable to the poor of Asia, Africa, Latin America, or to the prisoners in Soviet labor camps, or the blacks in urban ghettos, or the Indians on reservations-to the victims of that progress which benefits a privileged minority in Free One Page A. Resume the world? Was it acceptable (or just inescapable?) to the miners and railroaders of Sample Production Production Schedule Template America, the factory hands, the men and women who died by the hundreds of thousands from accidents or sickness, where they worked or where they lived-casualties of progress? And even the privileged minority-must it not reconsider, with that practicality which even privilege cannot abolish, the value of its privileges, when they become threatened by the anger of the sacrificed, whether in organized rebellion, unorganized riot, or simply those brutal individual acts of desperation labeled crimes by law and the state?
If there are necessary sacrifices to be made for Free Elegante One Page Template A. Resume human progress, is it not essential to hold to the principle that those to be sacrificed must make the decision themselves? We can all decide to give up something of ours, but do we have the right to throw into the pyre the children of Timeline. Daily Production others, or even our own children, for a progress which is not nearly as clear or present as sickness or health, life or death? What did people in Spain get out of all that death and brutality visited on the Indians of the Americas? For a brief period in history, there was the glory of a Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere. As Hans Koning sums it up in his book Columbus: His Enterprise : For all the gold and silver stolen and Free One Page Resume Example, shipped to Spain did not make the Spanish people richer. It gave their kings an edge in the balance of power for a time, a chance to hire more mercenary soldiers for their wars. They ended up losing those wars anyway, and all that was left was a deadly inflation, a starving population, the rich richer, the poor poorer, and - Template, a ruined peasant class. Beyond all that, how certain are we that what was destroyed was inferior?
Who were these people who came out on the beach and swam to bring presents to Columbus and his crew, who watched Cortes and Pizarro ride through their countryside, who peered out of the forests at the first white settlers of Virginia and Massachusetts? Columbus called them Indians, because he miscalculated the size of the earth. In this book we too call them Indians, with some reluctance, because it happens too often that people are saddled with names given them by their conquerors. And yet, there is some reason to call them Indians, because they did come, perhaps 25,000 years ago, from Asia, across the land bridge of the Bering Straits (later to disappear under water) to Alaska. Then they moved southward, seeking warmth and land, in a trek lasting thousands of years that took them into Free Elegante One Page Resume Template A. Resume, North America, then Central and Production Daily Schedule Template, South America.
In Nicaragua, Brazil, and Ecuador their petrified footprints can still be seen, along with the print of bison, who disappeared about five thousand years ago, so they must have reached South America at least that far back. Widely dispersed over the great land mass of the Americas, they numbered approximately 75 million people by the time Columbus came, perhaps 25 million in North America. Responding to the different environments of soil and Elegante Resume Template, climate, they developed hundreds of different tribal cultures, perhaps two thousand different languages. They perfected the art of agriculture, and figured out how to grow maize (corn), which cannot grow by itself and must be planted, cultivated, fertilized, harvested, husked, shelled. General Letter Sample | Sop. They ingeniously developed a variety of other vegetables and fruits, as well as peanuts and chocolate and tobacco and rubber. On their own, the Indians were engaged in the great agricultural revolution that other peoples in Asia, Europe, Africa were going through about the same time. While many of the tribes remained nomadic hunters and Elegante One Page Resume Template A. Resume Example, food gatherers in wandering, egalitarian communes, others began to live in more settled communities where there was more food, larger populations, more divisions of labor among men and women, more surplus to Daily Production Schedule feed chiefs and priests, more leisure time for artistic and social work, for building houses.
About a thousand years before Christ, while comparable constructions were going on in Egypt and Mesopotamia, the Zuni and Hopi Indians of what is One Page Template A. Resume Example Google, now New Mexico had begun to build villages consisting of large terraced buildings, nestled in among cliffs and mountains for Great Examples - Template protection from enemies, with hundreds of rooms in Resume A. Resume Example Google each village. Before the arrival of the European explorers, they were using irrigation canals, dams, were doing ceramics, weaving baskets, making cloth out of cotton. By the time of Christ and Julius Caesar, there had developed in the Ohio River Valley a culture of - Military Ptsd so-called Moundbuilders, Indians who constructed thousands of enormous sculptures out of Free Elegante Example earth, sometimes in the shapes of huge humans, birds, or serpents, sometimes as burial sites, sometimes as fortifications. One of Engineering And 4 Great them was 3 1/2 miles long, enclosing 100 acres. These Moundbuilders seem to have been part of a complex trading system of ornaments and weapons from as far off as the Great Lakes, the Far West, and the Gulf of Free Elegante Example Google Mexico.
About A.D. Great Examples. 500, as this Moundbuilder culture of the Ohio Valley was beginning to Free Elegante Template A. Resume decline, another culture was developing westward, in the valley of the Mississippi, centered on what is now St. Louis. It had an Timeline. Production advanced agriculture, included thousands of villages, and also built huge earthen mounds as burial and ceremonial places near a vast Indian metropolis that may have had thirty thousand people. The largest mound was 100 feet high, with a rectangular base larger than that of the Great Pyramid of Egypt. Resume A. Resume. In the city, known as Cahokia, were toolmakers, hide dressers, potters, jewelry makers, weavers, salt makers, copper engravers, and magnificent ceramists. One funeral blanket was made of twelve thousand shell beads.
From the Adirondacks to the Great Lakes, in what is now Pennsylvania and Production Timeline. Schedule Template, upper New York, lived the most powerful of the northeastern tribes, the League of the Iroquois, which included the Elegante One Page Example Google, Mohawks (People of the Flint), Oneidas (People of the Stone), Onondagas (People of the Mountain), Cayugas (People at the Landing), and Senecas (Great Hill People), thousands of Free Ohio Lease people bound together by a common Iroquois language. In the Free Google, vision of the Mohawk chief Iliawatha, the legendary Dekaniwidah spoke to the Iroquois: We bind ourselves together by taking hold of Smart Fancy Cv Latex Template each other's hands so firmly and forming a circle so strong that if a tree should fall upon it, it could not shake nor break it, so that our people and grandchildren shall remain in the circle in security, peace and happiness. In the villages of the Iroquois, land was owned in common and worked in common. Hunting was done together, and the catch was divided among the members of the village. Houses were considered common property and were shared by several families.
The concept of private ownership of land and homes was foreign to the Iroquois. A French Jesuit priest who encountered them in the 1650s wrote: No poorhouses are needed among them, because they are neither mendicants nor paupers.. . . Their kindness, humanity and courtesy not only makes them liberal with what they have, but causes them to possess hardly anything except in common. Women were important and respected in Iroquois society. Families were matrilineal. That is, the Elegante Example Google, family line went down through the female members, whose husbands joined the family, while sons who married then joined their wives' families. Each extended family lived in a long house. When a woman wanted a divorce, she set her husband's things outside the door.
Families were grouped in Resume Examples clans, and Free One Page Resume Example Google, a dozen or more clans might make up a village. The senior women in the village named the men who represented the clans at village and tribal councils. They also named the forty-nine chiefs who were the ruling council for the Five Nation confederacy of the Iroquois. Free Residential Lease Agreement | Pdf | Word. The women attended clan meetings, stood behind the circle of men who spoke and voted, and removed the men from One Page Resume Google, office if they strayed too far from the wishes of the women. The women tended the crops and took general charge of village affairs while the men were always hunting or fishing. And since they supplied the moccasins and food for warring expeditions, they had some control over Ohio Residential (.doc) military matters. As Gary B. Nash notes in his fascinating study of early America, Red, White, and Black: Thus power was shared between the sexes and the European idea of male dominancy and female subordination in all things was conspicuously absent in Iroquois society. Children in Iroquois society, while taught the cultural heritage of One Page Template Example Google their people and solidarity with the tribe, were also taught to be independent, not to submit to overbearing authority. They were taught equality in status and the sharing of possessions.
The Iroquois did not use harsh punishment on children; they did not insist on early weaning or early toilet training, but gradually allowed the child to learn self-care. All of this was in sharp contrast to European values as brought over by the first colonists, a society of rich and With, poor, controlled by priests, by governors, by male heads of families. For example, the pastor of the Pilgrim colony, John Robinson, thus advised his parishioners how to deal with their children: And surely there is in all children . Elegante Resume A. Resume Example. a stubbornness, and stoutness of mind arising from Sample Daily Schedule, natural pride, which must, in the first place, be broken and beaten down; that so the foundation of their education being laid in humility and tractableness, other virtues may, in their time, be built thereon. Gary Nash describes Iroquois culture: No laws and ordinances, sheriffs and constables, judges and juries, or courts or jails-the apparatus of authority in European societies-were to be found in Free Elegante One Page A. Resume Example the northeast woodlands prior to European arrival. Cv Latex Template Online. Yet boundaries of Elegante One Page Resume A. Resume Google acceptable behavior were firmly set. Though priding themselves on the autonomous individual, the Iroquois maintained a strict sense of right and wrong. He who stole another's food or acted invalourously in war was shamed by Free Residential Lease | Word (.doc) his people and One Page Example Google, ostracized from their company until he had atoned for And Truth With his actions and One Page Template A. Resume Example, demonstrated to their satisfaction that he had morally purified himself.
Not only the Iroquois but other Indian tribes behaved the same way. In 1635, Maryland Indians responded to the governor's demand that if any of them killed an Englishman, the guilty one should be delivered up for punishment according to English law. The Indians said: It is the Transparency And Truth Ptsd, manner amongst us Indians, that if any such accident happen, wee doe redeeme the life of a man that is so slaine, with a 100 armes length of Beades and since that you are heere strangers, and come into our Countrey, you should rather conform yourselves to the Customes of Elegante One Page Template A. Resume Example Google our Countrey, than impose yours upon us. So, Columbus and his successors were not coming into an empty wilderness, but into a world which in some places was as densely populated as Europe itself, where the Examples - Template, culture was complex, where human relations were more egalitarian than in Europe, and where the relations among men, women, children, and nature were more beautifully worked out than perhaps any place in the world. They were people without a written language, but with their own laws, their poetry, their history kept in memory and passed on, in an oral vocabulary more complex than Europe's, accompanied by song, dance, and ceremonial drama. They paid careful attention to the development of personality, intensity of will, independence and flexibility, passion and potency, to their partnership with one another and with nature.
John Collier, an American scholar who lived among Indians in the 1920s and 1930s in the American Southwest, said of their spirit: Could we make it our own, there would be an eternally inexhaustible earth and Free One Page A. Resume, a forever lasting peace. Perhaps there is some romantic mythology in that. But the Cover Letter | Sop, evidence from European travelers in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, put together recently by an American specialist on Indian life, William Brandon, is overwhelmingly supportive of much of that myth. One Page Resume Template A. Resume Example. Even allowing for the imperfection of myths, it is enough to make us question, for that time and ours, the Transparency And Truth - Military With, excuse of progress in the annihilation of races, and the telling of Resume A. Resume history from the standpoint of the conquerors and leaders of Western civilization.