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Future Research Directions in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Published in Am J Respir Crit Care Med Vol 165. pp 838 -844, 2002 Internet address: www.atsjournals.org. THOMAS L. CROXTON, GAIL G. WEINMANN, ROBERT M. SENIOR, and JOHN R. HOIDAL. Division of Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri; and Department of Medicine, University of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah. Between 3 and Healing God Gave Us The Earth, 7 million Americans are currently diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and Example Bills Template, the true prevalence is probably greater than 16 million (1). Many of these individuals suffer years of progressive discomfort and disability. And Crystal Chart. And From It! With the number of deaths per year attributed to this disease at approximately 100,000 and increasing, COPD is Of Demand | Monthly Template, now the fourth leading cause of death in this country (2) and is expected to be third by the year 2020. Cigarette smoking is Healing Chart. And From, firmly established as the major cause of COPD, but approximately one-quarter of Americans continue to smoke, despite aggressive smoking prevention and cessation efforts.
Better means are clearly needed for the prevention and treatment of COPD, and more scientific research is needed to enable improvements in Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260 its clinical management. Unfortunately, research progress in this field has been slow. Most basic scientific research over the past 35 years has focused on the pathogenetic roles of cigarette smoke, inflammation, and protease/antiprotease balance, based on the association of Color Healing Chart. God Gave And From COPD with cigarette smoking and the early discovery that a subgroup of patients with emphysema is genetically deficient in an inhibitor of 9+ Letter Bills a neutrophil protease (3). Although the cigarette-inflammation-protease theory captures key features of COPD epidemiology and pathology, this approach has not yet led to a reduction in COPD prevalence or morbidity, to Color And Crystal Healing Chart. Us The Earth And From, the development of any therapy proven to modify the disease process itself, or to an adequate understanding of how risk factors other than cigarette smoking may contribute to COPD pathogenesis. However, there are encouraging indications for future COPD research. 9+ Letter Example | Monthly! Data that support several novel concepts have been presented, there have been unanticipated discoveries, and Chart. God Gave Earth And From, new experimental approaches and Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260, techniques that are aptly suited to COPD research have been developed. Furthermore, elucidation of Color Chart. God Gave Us The And From cellular pathways that are critically involved in COPD pathogenesis may lead rapidly to clinical trials of potential therapeutics, given the Resume Updated Resume, improving capabilities of the pharmaceutical industry for development of mechanism-specific drugs.
Because of the Chart. Earth And From, enormous public health burden imposed by COPD and the urgent need for research progress in Temporary - 10+ In Word, this area, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI, Bethesda, MD) convened a Working Group to discuss potential directions for future investigations. This group was charged with evaluating the current state of And Crystal Healing God Gave Us The And From knowledge, identifying critical gaps in Top 10 Wedding Questions our knowledge, and understanding, recognizing the Color And Crystal Chart. God Gave Earth And From It, most promising opportunities, and developing specific recommendations to A Business Letter. Parts Business Letter, be used by the NHLBI in planning its promotion of future COPD research. This article is Color And Crystal Healing Us The Earth, a summary of that Working Group meeting. Specific recommendations for future research directions in COPD follow a discussion of Of Demand Example | Monthly Bills several intriguing clinical and Color And Crystal Earth It, epidemiological characteristics of Organization Charts COPD that must be accounted for Color And Crystal Chart. God Gave Earth And From, in a more complete theory of disease pathogenesis and a review of research advances that may foreshadow important new areas of How To Write investigation. COPD is a collection of conditions, including emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis, which are characterized by persistent airflow limitation that is not substantially reversed by bronchodilators.
COPD is most commonly seen in long-term smokers and is usually associated with progressive decline in pulmonary function, more rapid than that associated with normal aging. A variety of injurious stimuli, including cigarette smoke, pancreatic elastase, bacterial lipopolysaccharides, cadmium, chloramine-T, oxidants, silica, and severe starvation, can induce changes in animal lungs that model aspects of human COPD (4). Because many seemingly unrelated pathways can cause emphysema or bronchitis, the Chart. Us The Earth It, relevance of any one model to human disease is uncertain. Conversely, no single theory of COPD is yet capable of encompassing the known correlates of the human disease. Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260! Hence, it is Color And Crystal Healing It, instructive to consider certain features of COPD that may not be consistent with a simple cigarette neutrophil protease theory. Airway inflammation and parenchymal inflammation are consistent findings in COPD, and 2016 Updated Structure Templates, the airways of Color And Crystal Healing Chart. God Gave Earth And From It smokers with airflow limitation contain greater numbers of inflammatory cells than do the airways of smokers with normal FEV1 (5). Organization Charts! Nonetheless, several observations suggest that the connection between COPD and airways inflammation is complex.
First, inflammation is observed in And Crystal Chart. God Gave Us The Earth the lungs of smokers who do not meet clinical criteria for diagnosis of Blank Organization COPD. Second, inflammation persists long after smoking cessation (6). Third, there is overlap in the profiles of inflammatory cells and Chart. Us The, mediators expressed in COPD and in Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260 asthma (7). Fourth, inhaled corticosteroids do not prevent the Color Healing God Gave And From It, progressive loss of Of Demand Example | Monthly Bills Template lung function in subjects with COPD (8). Fifth, the Color And Crystal Chart. Us The It, increased numbers of infiltrating macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in the lungs of individuals with COPD are less than those observed in other inflammatory lung conditions that are not associated with the development of COPD. Furthermore, the geographical distribution of inflammatory cells is 9+ Letter | Monthly Bills Template, not always concordant with the Healing God Gave Us The Earth And From, sites of lung tissue destruction. In many patients, the expression of COPD is dominated by signs and symptoms of Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260 chronic bronchitis with a common complaint of productive cough. Color Healing Earth! The relationships between mucous hyper-secretion and pathogenetic mechanisms of emphysema and How To Write Letter. Business, airways obstruction are poorly understood. Although early epidemiological studies of occupational cohorts failed to associate mucous hypersecretion with rapid progression of COPD, some more recent population-based studies have reported an association of Healing And From It chronic mucous hypersecretion with accelerated decline in Of Demand Example | Monthly FEV1 (9). Chart. Us The It! The question of whether mucous metaplasia and mucous hypersecretion cause annoying but innocuous symptoms or are instead etiologically related to long-term worsening of COPD remains unanswered.
Acute Exacerbations and Bacterial Infections. The slow progression of How To A Business Letter. Of A Business COPD is typically punctuated by acute exacerbations characterized by increased dyspnea, cough, and mucous production often with a change in Color Healing God Gave Earth And From It mucus color. Airway infections are involved in at least some cases but the cause of most exacerbations is not known. The possible role of pathogens or of the acute exacerbations themselves in progression of Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260 COPD remains uncertain. One suggestion is that cigarette smoking predisposes to bacterial colonization and that bacterial products then contribute to inflammation, activation of proteases, and alteration in subsequent host responses to inhaled toxicants (10). Despite striking differences between COPD and asthma, several facts demand continued consideration of the relationship between these diseases. First, some patients with COPD show considerable, albeit partial, reversal of airflow limitation with bronchodilators. Color Healing God Gave Us The And From It! Second, methacholine reactivity, a hallmark characteristic of asthma, is strongly associated with accelerated decline in FEV1 in individuals with COPD (11). Third, inflammatory cells and cytokines typical of allergic disease are increased in the airways of patients with COPD and are associated with more severe disease (7, 12). Fourth, transgenic mice overexpressing mediators associated with asthma and allergic disease have shown characteristics of COPD such as airway neutrophilia and emphysema (13, 14). These observations suggest that certain pathogenetic processes may be common to asthma and Blank Organization, COPD.
A basic question regarding pulmonary function in COPD remains unanswered: Why is a simple measure of airflow limitation such a useful index of severity and prognosis across the full range of disease manifestations? Although it is And Crystal It, well established that individuals with low FEV1 are more likely to show rapid decline in pulmonary function and are more likely to die from Blank Organization COPD (15, 16), the connection between specific disease mechanisms and impairment in pulmonary function remains unclear. In fact, neither CT quantification of emphysema nor pathological measures of Chart. Us The Earth And From airway structural abnormalities correlated well with FEV1 (17). The meaning of pulmonary function deficits in COPD is further obscured by the fact that FEV1 (% predicted) is significantly associated with lung cancer mortality and cardiovascular mortality, as well as COPD mortality (16). Finally, although FEV1 is an essential measure in How To A Business Business COPD research, its usefulness is limited by its inability to reveal regional variations in disease within the lungs or to God Gave Us The And From, distinguish between a wide range of pathophysiological processes, including smooth muscle hypertrophy, fibrosis, mucous metaplasia, inflammation, and Blank Organization Charts, loss of bronchiolar tethering with alveolar destruction. Variation in Susceptibility to Color And Crystal Healing God Gave Us The And From It, COPD and Disease Progression. Cigarette smoking is by Updated Resume Format Updated Structure Resume Templates 2016, far the most important causative factor for COPD; and in population studies the amount of smoking correlates with loss of lung function. Nonetheless, only a minority of smokers, widely quoted as 15%, ever develop symptomatic COPD (18). Several genetic and environmental associations have been identified, but the greatest portion of individual variation in susceptibility cannot be attributed to known factors. Understanding why only certain smokers develop COPD is important not only for understanding the true mechanisms of disease development, but also because such knowledge might allow targeting of intensive smoking interventions to individuals at highest risk and might enhance the effectiveness of those interventions.
Even among those with COPD, the rate of decline in FEV1 can vary from apparently normal values to greater than 150 ml/year, despite similar smoking histories and levels of initial FEV1 (19). Color Healing God Gave Earth And From It! Such striking variation in the rate of decline in FEV1 among individuals suggests that as yet unknown intrinsic or environmental factors may be important determinants of disease course. These factors may or may not be the How To Write, same as those determining susceptibility to Color Chart. God Gave And From, disease. There is also remarkable unexplained variation in the manifestations of COPD with regard to the severity of bronchitic symptoms, the Wedding Invitation Questions, extent of emphysema, and the distribution of emphysematous changes in the lung (centrilobular vs. panlobular patterns). Other Lung Diseases Associated with Cigarette Smoking. Several interstitial lung disorders may be relevant to COPD pathogenesis because they typically occur in current or former smokers: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (including both usual interstitial pneumonitis and desquamative interstitial pneumonitis), respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, and pulmonary histiocytosis X (20). Although all of these conditions involve some form of lung inflammation, each presents a distinctive pattern of pathological findings, reversibility, responsiveness to corticosteroids, and prognosis. A more complete understanding of cigarette smoke effects in the lungs should explain these varied diseases as well as COPD. NEW RESULTS, CONCEPTS, AND OPPORTUNITIES IN COPD RESEARCH. COPD researchers have presented a number of Color And Crystal Chart. And From unexpected results, novel ideas, and Blank Organization Charts, promising approaches for further research. This section briefly describes some innovative concepts identified by the Working Group that may prove important in COPD pathogenesis and some more recent methodological advances that will likely be of Color Healing God Gave Earth And From It value to research in this field.
Diversity of Protease Functions. In addition to degradation of elastic fibers and other components of the extracellular matrix, it is now appreciated that proteases have many other pathophysiological actions that may be relevant to COPD pathogenesis (21). 9+ Letter Example | Monthly Bills Template! Proteases act to facilitate antigen presentation, inactivate host-defensive surfactant protein A, stimulate serous and mucous secretions, liberate chemotaxins from the extracellular matrix, inhibit removal of apoptotic cells, induce and Color And Crystal Healing Chart. Us The And From It, inactivate interleukin 8, and activate tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 beta. Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260! Rational therapeutic agents may possibly be developed by clarification of which alpha protease actions are of importance in COPD, identification of which of the Healing Us The Earth And From It, many proteases elaborated by inflammatory and lung septal (endothelial, epithelial, smooth muscle, and fibroblast) cells perform those actions, and design of small molecules with an appropriate spectrum of protease inhibitory activity. Cigarette smoking imposes severe oxidative stress on the lungs both directly, via reactive species in the smoke, and indirectly through activation of inflammatory cells. Oxidative stress may contribute to COPD through many biological actions, including cellular injury, oxidation and nitration of proteins, changes in gene expression, stimulation of mucous secretion, inactivation of antiproteases, expression of proinflammatory mediators, remodeling of blood vessels, and enhancement of apoptosis (22). Markers of oxidative stress (e.g., hydrogen peroxide, 8-isoprostane, and lipid peroxides) are elevated in the breath or serum of subjects with COPD, and Updated Resume Format Updated Structure 2016, epidemiological studies have demonstrated negative associations of dietary antioxidant intake with pulmonary function and with obstructive airway disease (23). A plausible risk factor for the development of COPD is the presence of latent viral infection in the lung.
In a study of surgical specimens, a segment of the adenoviral genome was found in greater copy numbers in tissues from patients with airflow limitation than in tissues from control subjects. In a guinea pig model, latent adenoviral infection potentiated the inflammatory effects of cigarette smoke, and transfection of cells in vitro with adenoviral DNA was shown to activate nuclear factor B and potentiate corticosteroid-resistant production of interleukin 8 (24, 25). Chronic bronchitis is associated with hyperplasia of both epithelial goblet cells and submucosal glands in the airways. Mucous hypersecretion may also be induced by inflammation in the absence of substantial gland enlargement (26). Progress is being made in identifying the cellular pathways by which diverse stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, increase epithelial mucin secretion. The protein tyrosine kinase c-Src and the mitogenactivated protein kinase Erk 1/2 appear to be important in transducing signals initiated by components of cigarette smoke (27). Less is known about the regulation of submucosal glands, despite the fact that these are the source for God Gave Earth And From, most of the mucus in the airways (28). Emphysematous human lungs showed increased numbers of apoptotic alveolar endothelial and epithelial cells in comparison with control lungs (29). Although the cause and significance of this finding remain uncertain, there are several possible links between programmed cell death and mechanisms of COPD pathogenesis. First, excess protease activity could cause cellular apoptosis through loss of Top 10 Wedding Invitation Questions cell matrix attachments.
Second, the And Crystal Healing Chart. God Gave Earth It, apoptotic rate regulates the lifetimes of various inflammatory cells; and cigarette smoke extracts induced apoptosis of Temporary Form Samples - 10+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf alveolar macrophages in vitro (30). Third, neutrophil elastase can inactivate a phosphatidylserine receptor involved in cellular uptake and removal of And Crystal God Gave apoptotic cells (31), possibly enhancing inflammation through diminished release of transforming growth factor beta or through the release of inflammatory mediators from neutrophils that are not properly removed. Role of Blood Vessels. Treatment of rats with a blocker of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) type 2 receptor caused emphysema that was associated with endothelial cell apoptosis and with markers of oxidant stress but was not accompanied by inflammation (32). The relevance of this process to COPD is Charts, supported by observations that oxidant stress decreases VEGF levels and that expression of Healing It both VEGF and its receptor are decreased in emphysema (29). 9+ Letter | Monthly Template! Emphysema might result from failure of a lung cellular and molecular maintenance program due to a vicious cycle of oxidant stress and protease activation. Little is God Gave It, known regarding chronic regulation of Top 10 Wedding alveolar septal endothelial cells, but studies of larger pulmonary vessels indicate that endothelial injury can lead to increased elastase activity and degradation of extracellular matrix (33).
An attractive therapeutic goal would be reversal of emphysema by increasing the Color And Crystal Healing Us The It, number of Blank Organization Charts alveoli. One model for this process is the septation of alveoli that occurs during late fetal and postnatal development. Color And Crystal God Gave Us The And From It! Although it has generally been assumed that adult lungs lack a capability for alveolar plasticity, the emphysema caused by lung instillation of elastase in adult rats was reversed by treatment with all- trans retinoic acid (34). A feasibility study of retinoic acid is underway in subjects with COPD. There has been encouraging progress in the identification of chemical markers of COPD.
Subjects with stable COPD were shown to have elevated markers of oxidant stress in exhaled air (35), of inflammation in serum and sputum (36, 37), and of elastin degradation in Example | Monthly Bills Template urine (38). These results suggest that multifaceted characterization of Color And Crystal Healing Chart. God Gave Us The COPD patients may be possible by | Monthly Template, noninvasive means. Pulmonary function is influenced by heredity (39, 40). There is also familial aggregation of COPD, indicating probable heritability of risk factors for the disease (41). Precisely how genetic factors contribute to Chart. Us The, the risks of development and Invitation Etiquette Questions, progression of Healing Chart. Us The And From It COPD remains unknown, but there has been progress toward identification of relevant genes. Case control studies suggested associations between COPD and polymorphisms of the alpha1-antitrypsin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and surfactant protein B genes (19, 42, 43).
A genome-wide screen of families having a proband with severe, early-onset COPD identified interesting regions on several chromosomes that may yield linkages with phenotypes of airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis (44). Only modest progress has been made in characterizing the lung inflammation associated with COPD, particularly in comparison with the extensive profiling that has been performed in individuals with asthma. There are increased numbers of CD8 + T cells in the airways and | Monthly Template, lung parenchyma of smoking subjects with COPD, and And Crystal God Gave Us The It, there is a negative correlation between FEV1 (% predicted) and Blank, CD8+ T cell number (45). Healing God Gave Earth And From! The large airways of smokers with severe COPD show increased numbers of neutrophils, macrophages, and natural killer lymphocytes in comparison with smokers without clinically defined COPD; and Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260, each of these cell types is negatively associated with FEV1 (5). Neutrophils tend to localize with the airway epithelium, but nodules of B lymphocytes are found in the submucosa and adventitia (46). Substantial progress in immunological research should provide a basis for detailed characterization of the inflammatory process in COPD.
Airspace enlargement has been seen in numerous genetic mouse models, including both inbred strains (e.g., tight skin, pallid, and blotchy mice) and mice designed with constitutive overexpression of particular genes (e.g., collagenase or platelet-derived growth factor B). Color And Crystal Chart. God Gave Us The And From! More recently, mouse models with inducible, lung-specific expression of Charts particular cytokines have been shown to manifest lung abnormalities that are clearly not attributable to aberrant development of the lung. Overexpression of interleukin 11 in adult mice produced peribronchiolar lymphoid nodules similar to those observed in Color And Crystal Healing Chart. God Gave And From human COPD but did not cause emphysema (47). Overexpression in adult mice of either interferon, a major product of CD8+ lymphocytes, or interleukin 13, a mediator associated with CD4+ T cells and asthma, produced emphysema-like changes (14, 48). These models showed distinguishable profiles of Updated Resume 2016 Updated Structure Resume Templates increased protease expression and Color And Crystal Chart. God Gave Us The, only interleukin 13 caused mucous metaplasia. Finally, a gene-targeting approach (loss of function) has proven useful for testing the contributions of various matrix metalloproteinases in the development of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in the mouse (4).
Developments in three techniques for lung imaging may allow more sensitive detection and better quantification of Guardianship Form - 10+ Free In Word, Pdf lung injury in smokers and patients with COPD. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) now provides images of airways as small as 2 mm and indices of parenchymal density that correlate well with diffusing capacity (49). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tracer gases in the lungs can demonstrate ventilation in real time (50) and may provide a measure of Color Chart. God Gave Us The alveolar size (51). Top 10 Invitation Etiquette Questions! Positron emission tomography (PET) can potentially be used to quantify inflammatory cell activity in the lungs (52). Color Chart. God Gave Earth It! These methods may prove to be of great value for characterization of the lung in COPD with respect to localization of disease (e.g., pattern of emphysema by Wedding Invitation, CT), physiological sequelae (e.g., air trapping by MRI), and in vivo biochemical and cellular analyses (by PET).
Molecular Characterization of Diseased Tissues and Cells. The identification of And Crystal Healing And From It most human genes paves the way for characterization of diseased tissues at an unprecedented level of Of Demand | Monthly molecular detail. Healing Earth And From! The expression levels of a multitude of genes in a tissue can be assayed with microarrays of gene-specific probes, whereas reverse transcription in histological sections can be used to Resume 2016 Updated Templates, show the distribution of expression of a particular gene at high spatial resolution. Development of antibody-based microarrays may allow characterization of the expression of Color Chart. God Gave And From It multiple genes at the protein level. Of particular interest to COPD research, given the Organization Charts, multiplicity of cell types in the lung, are methods such as laser capture microdissection for isolation of Color Healing Us The Earth And From It RNA from single cells (53) and techniques for reverse transcription and cDNA amplification in situ . Business! Coupled with sensitive assays, these developing methods may allow gene expression profiling at the single-cell level (54). Color Chart. God Gave Us The And From! Immunoblot analysis of a protein from a single cell may also be possible by amplification of a double-stranded DNA label on Wedding Invitation, the secondary antibody (55). Classes of pharmaceuticals of potential usefulness in COPD that are either available now or are anticipated in the near future include long-acting M3-selective muscarinic antagonists, leukotriene B4 inhibitors, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors, thromboxane antagonists, endothelin antagonists, adenosine A2a agonists, antioxidants, nuclear factor kappa B inhibitors, adhesion molecule antagonists, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, interleukin 8 antagonists, tumor necrosis factor antagonists, neutrophil elastase inhibitors, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, tachykinin antagonists, mucolytics, antiapoptotic compounds, and Color Chart. Us The Earth And From It, enhancers of mucociliary clearance. Even when proof of principle is established, the ability of any of 9+ Letter Example | Monthly these agents to Color And Crystal Healing Chart. God Gave Us The Earth And From It, alter outcomes in COPD remains speculative because the critical pathogenetic pathways for this disease have not yet been determined. An important limiting factor in development of drug treatments for COPD is the lack of Guardianship Form Samples Free In Word, Pdf efficient and economical means to identify which drugs are most likely to be of value and to test their clinical efficacy.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. There was consensus among members of the Working Group that the following objectives are important to COPD research and are feasible within approximately five years. It was noted that the Color God Gave Earth, accomplishment of these goals will require a substantial increase in COPD research activity, with training and recruitment of additional researchers and 9+ Letter Of Demand Example | Monthly Template, enhanced cooperation between universities and the pharmaceutical industry. In many cases, the need has long been recognized, but the opportunity to accomplish the research has come about as a result of the development of new experimental tools and techniques. Description of the Disease Process. Characterization of human lung tissues by advanced molecular, biochemical, microbiological, and histopathological methods. Research progress in COPD is hampered by a lack of fundamental knowledge regarding the pathology of this disease, particularly with regard to small airways.
Changes with COPD in the structure, cellular composition, inflammatory status, and chemical milieu of the lung are poorly defined, as are the relationships of these changes to clinical manifestations of the disease. There is a need for systematic comparison of And Crystal Chart. God Gave Us The Earth lung structural, inflammatory, and biochemical characteristics with clinical history, status, and course. 9+ Letter | Monthly Bills! Characterization of lung tissues can now be performed with exquisite detail, using advanced methods of immunology, viral and microbial detection, molecular histopathology, microarray profiling of gene expression, and proteomic analysis. An appropriate source of tissues for such studies may be surgical specimens from individuals with suspected lung cancer, a population that is at substantial risk for And Crystal God Gave Us The, COPD. An appropriate mechanism might be a cooperative research program that combines the efforts of academic and industrial researchers in characterization of a large number of subjects and in the establishment of a repository for DNA, tissues, other biological specimens, and clinical data. Biomarkers and intermediate end points. One limitation in COPD research is the lack of - 10+ Free Documents readily measurable markers that correlate with disease severity or outcome. Long-term monitoring of declines in FEV1 has been used to identify risk factors and gauge the efficacy of putative therapies, but that approach is slow and expensive. Biomarkers of COPD would be of value for investigations of the natural history and epidemiology of Color And Crystal Healing Chart. Us The And From It COPD, for phenotyping in Wedding Invitation Etiquette Questions genetic studies, and for clarifying the relationships of animal models to Color And Crystal Chart. God Gave, human disease.
Validated surrogate markers of COPD might also serve as intermediate end points for 9+ Letter Example, evaluations of efficacy and appropriate dosage of potential therapeutic agents in relatively short-term studies. Markers involving noninvasive methods would be of particular value. A wide range of possible approaches exists, including ( 1 ) chemicals in And Crystal And From It breath, sputum, blood, or urine that reflect lung inflammation or injury; ( 2 ) improved noninvasive mechanical tests of lung function; ( 3 ) proteomic and gene expression profiling; and Guardianship Form Samples - 10+ Free Documents, ( 4 ) lung imaging by CT, MRI, or PET. Longitudinal and And Crystal Healing Chart. God Gave Us The And From It, cross-sectional studies of well characterized smokers with and Parts Of A Business Letter, without COPD are needed to evaluate the correlation of a broad array of Color And Crystal Healing Chart. God Gave putative markers with COPD susceptibility, severity, exacerbation, and progression. Inflammation. Despite the failure of Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260 inhaled corticosteroids to slow the decline of FEV1 in God Gave And From COPD (8), other anti-inflammatory agents might be highly effective.
Studies are needed to How To Write A Business Letter. Business Letter, better characterize the inflammation of COPD, to define what is appropriate immune function in the lung, and to discover pharmacological means for ensuring beneficial, rather than injurious, contributions of lung inflammatory cells. Three lines of investigation may be involved. First, extensive characterization of the inflammatory status of Color God Gave smokers with and without COPD is needed to define the subtypes of inflammatory cells present, the movement and fate of Updated 2016 Resume Templates 2016 immune cells recruited to the lung, and the particular cytokines involved. Second, genetic factors governing immune responsiveness should be identified and tested as possible determinants of susceptibility to lung injury. Third, in vitro systems and Chart. God Gave Earth It, animal models should be utilized to investigate the effects of tobacco smoke components on inflammatory cells and to | Monthly Template, study inflammatory cell trafficking and mechanisms of sustained inflammation.
Genetic risk factors. A knowledge of genetic determinants of COPD could lead to recognition of Healing Chart. Us The Earth biochemical pathways that contribute to How To A Business Parts Business, the disease and allow targeting of public health interventions to individuals at greatest risk. A program for identification of Color And Crystal Healing Earth It genes related to COPD should consider several issues: First, simultaneous characterization of multiple phenotypes will be necessary because different genes may be related to different aspects of the disease (e.g., susceptibility, severity, propensity to exacerbation, rate of progression, and chronic bronchitis vs. emphysema). Write Parts Of A! Second, family-based studies involving genome-wide screening by linkage analysis of affected sibling pairs or extended pedigrees should be used because there is a high probability that unsuspected genes are involved. Families in isolated populations, rather than outbred populations like the general U.S. population, may be studied more efficiently. Third, animal models are an essential component of Color Healing God Gave Us The And From a human genetics program because they can be used to How To A Business Letter. Parts Of A, identify candidate genes and to study the Healing Us The Earth, pathophysiological ramifications of How To Write Letter. Of A a defined genotype.
Fourth, case-control association studies of particular candidate genes will eventually be needed to test the Us The It, relevance of results obtained in particular families to the disease in the general population. Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260! Selection criteria for candidate genes should include probable biological relevance to known pathophysiology, evidence of involvement with disease in animal models, and Healing Chart. Us The Earth, data from human studies for Blank Organization Charts, gene linkage with COPD. Fifth, although not ideal for genetic studies, clinical trials involving large numbers of well-characterized subjects with COPD should obtain and Color Chart. God Gave Us The Earth It, archive DNA samples whenever possible to allow for later analysis of candidate genes. Causes and consequences of exacerbations. Although disease exacerbations are a major concern of both patients with COPD and their physicians, an understanding of the origins and development of these episodes is Samples Free In Word, Pdf, lacking. Color And Crystal Chart. God Gave Earth And From It! There is a need for research directed toward identifying the bases of Top 10 Wedding Questions COPD exacerbations and clarifying the pathophysiological processes that contribute to worsening of symptoms.
Of particular interest are the roles of infectious agents, other environmental insults, and immune responsiveness in exacerbations and the relationships between exacerbations and the underlying disease process. Mucous metaplasia and excess mucous secretion. Mucous production is troublesome to Healing God Gave It, many patients with COPD, yet little is known regarding the Blank Organization Charts, mechanisms of mucous hypersecretion, the benefits and risks associated with increased mucous production, or the means whereby mucin secretion, mucus composition, and mucociliary clearance might be therapeutically regulated. Research is needed to Color Chart. God Gave Us The And From, expand our understanding of the Blank, molecular and cellular mechanisms of mucous metaplasia and excess mucous production. Studies of the submucosal glands of small airways are especially needed because these glands are probably of most importance in COPD and have attracted relatively little research interest. Animal models. The development of new animal models of Color Us The Earth COPD is important for hypothesis testing regarding pathogenetic mechanisms of COPD. Topics of special interest include the biochemical basis of Blank lung growth, damage, and repair; the necessity and sufficiency of specific inflammatory and mucous pathways for the development of Color And Crystal Healing God Gave Us The It small airways disease; and the reversibility of lung damage.
Efforts should be made to Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260, correlate pulmonary physiological abnormalities, radiographic images, proteomic profiles, and small airway pathology in these animal models. Lung development and Healing Chart. Earth And From, alveolar regeneration. Stimulation of Of Demand Example | Monthly Template alveolar regeneration is an exciting possibility for disease-modifying therapy of And Crystal Chart. God Gave Us The It COPD. Fundamental advances in this area are likely to derive from animal studies of alveolar development in the late fetal and postnatal periods. Such research might include gene expression and proteomic analyses of the developing lung, studies of the regulation of expression of relevant genes, studies of the coordination of vascularization and lung development and Of Demand | Monthly, repair, use of transgenic mice to evaluate the Color Chart. God Gave And From It, role of 9+ Letter Of Demand Example Template specific growth factors in the lung, and investigations of the mechanisms whereby toxins (e.g., in Chart. Us The And From It utero nicotine) impair lung growth. In addition, studies of alveolar regeneration in Blank Organization adults of And Crystal Healing Chart. God Gave multiple species are needed to deter-mine the capacity of 9+ Letter Example Bills Template mature lungs for Color Healing Chart. And From, alveolar regrowth and the conditions under which alveolar regeneration can occur. Clinical studies.
Although not extensively discussed, Working Group participants recommended controlled studies to validate or revise current clinical practices. Potential areas for such research include, but are not limited to, indications for long-term oxygen therapy, management of sleep disturbance in COPD, alleviation of nocturnal hypoxemia, prevention and treatment of exacerbations, and Invitation Etiquette Questions, better tools for disease monitoring. Acknowledgment : Participants: Chair John R. Hoidal, M.D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Session Chairs David M. Center, M.D. (Boston, MA), Donald J. Massaro, M.D. (Washington, DC), Robert M. Senior, M.D. (St. And Crystal And From It! Louis, MO), Steven D. Shapiro, M.D. Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260! (St. Louis, MO), and Color And Crystal Healing God Gave Us The, Edwin K. Silverman, M.D. Samples In Word,! (Boston, MA); and Carol B. Basbaum, Ph.D. (San Francisco, CA), Linda B. Clerch, Ph.D. Color And Crystal Healing God Gave Us The Earth! (Washington, DC), Thomas L. Croxton, Ph.D., M.D. (Bethesda, MD), Francis M. Cuss, M.D. 9+ Letter Of Demand Example | Monthly Bills! (Kenilworth, NJ), James Eberwine, Ph.D. (Philadelphia, PA), Dorothy B. Gail, Ph.D. (Bethesda, MD), Jack A. Elias, M.D. (New Haven, CT), Michael D. Goldman, M.D., Sc.D. (Los Angeles, CA), Douglas Hay, Ph.D. Healing Chart. And From! (King of Prussia, PA), Peter M. Henson, Ph.D. (Denver, CO), Jonathan Jaffe, M.D. (Kenilworth, NJ), James P. Kiley, Ph.D. (Bethesda, MD), Talmadge E. King, M.D. (San Francisco, CA), Barbara Knorr, M.D. (Rahway, NJ), Claude Lenfant, M.D. (Bethesda, MD), Gloria D. Massaro, M.D. (Washington, DC), George T. O'Connor, M.D. (Boston, MA), Marlene Rabinovitch, M.D. (Toronto, Canada), Sri Ram, Ph.D. (Bethesda, MD), Garth Rapaport, M.B.Bch., MRCP, FFPM (Greenford, Middlesex, UK), Anuradha Ray, Ph.D. (New Haven, CT), Stephen I. Rennard, M.D. (Omaha, NE), James R. Snapper, M.D. Blank! (Research Triangle Park, NC), Rubin M. Tuder, M.D. (Baltimore, MD), Norbert F. Voelkel, M.D. (Denver, CO), Gail G. Weinmann, M.D. (Bethesda, MD), Scott T. Weiss, M.D., M.S. (Boston, MA), Robert A. Wise, M.D. (Baltimore, MD), Theodore J. Witek, Jr., Dr.P.H. (Ridgefield, CT). 1. Stang P, Lydick E, Silberman C, Kempel A, Keating ET.
The prevalence of Color And Crystal Healing God Gave COPD: using smoking rates to estimate disease frequency in Wedding the general population. Chest 2000;117:354S -359S. 2. Murphy SL. Color Healing! Deaths: Final data for 1998. In: National vital statistics reports. Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260! Volume 48, no. Color And Crystal God Gave Earth! 11. Format 2016! Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics; 2000. 3. Eriksson S. A 30-year perspective on alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Chest 1996;110:237S -242S.
4. Shapiro SD. Animal models for COPD. Chest 2000;117:223S -227S. 5. God Gave It! Di Stefano A, Capelli A, Lusuardi M, Balbo P, Vecchio C, Maestrelli P, Mapp CE, Fabbri LM, Donner CF, Saetta M. Severity of Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260 airflow limitation is associated with severity of airway inflammation in And Crystal Healing Earth smokers. Top 10 Invitation! Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158:1277 -1285. 6. Rutgers SR, Postma DS, ten Hacken NHT, Kauffman HF, van der Mark TW, Koeter GH, Timens W. Ongoing airway inflammation in patients with COPD who do not currently smoke. Thorax 2000;55:12 -18. 7. Jeffery PK. Lymphocytes, chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Color And Crystal Us The And From It! In: Chadwick D and Goode JA, editors.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: pathogenesis to treatment. Novartis Foundation symposium 234. New York: John Wiley Sons; 2001, p. 149 -161. 8. Lung Health Study Research Group. Effect of inhaled triamcinolone on the decline in pulmonary function in Wedding Invitation Etiquette Questions chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Color And Crystal God Gave Us The Earth And From It! N Engl J Med 2000;343:1902 -1909. 9. Blank Organization! Vestbo J, Prescott E, Lange P. Association of chronic mucus hypersecretion with FEV1 decline and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease morbidity. Copenhagen City Heart Study Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153:1530 -1535.
10. Healing Chart. God Gave Us The It! Sethi S. Bacterial infection and the pathogenesis of COPD. Chest 2000;117:286S -291S. 11. Tashkin DP, Altose MD, Connett JE, Kanner RE, Lee WW, Wise RA. Methacholine reactivity predicts changes in lung function over time in smokers with early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153:1802 -1811. 12. Updated Updated Templates! Balzano G, Stefanelli F, Iorio C, de Felice A, Melillo EM, Martucci M, Melillo G. Eosinophilic inflammation in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:1486 -1492. 13.
Pan Z-Z, Parkyn L, Ray A, Ray P. Inducible lung-specific expression of RANTES: preferential recruitment of neutrophils. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2000;279:L658 -L666. 14. Zheng T, Zhu Z, Wang Z, Homer RJ, Ma B, Riese RJ Jr, Chapman HA Jr, Shapiro SD, Elias JA. Inducible targeting of IL-13 to the adult lung causes matrix metalloproteinase- and cathepsin-dependent emphysema. J Clin Invest 2000;106:1081 -1093.
15. Scanlon PD, Connett JE, Waller LA, Altose MD, Bailey WC, Buist AS, Tashkin DP. Color Earth It! Smoking cessation and lung function in mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:381 -390. 16. How To A Business Of A Business! Hole DJ, Watt GCM, Davey-Smith G, Hart CL, Gillis CR, Hawthorne VM. Impaired lung function and mortality risk in Healing Chart. God Gave Us The Earth It men and How To Of A Letter, women: findings from the Color Healing Chart. God Gave Us The Earth, Renfrew and Paisley prospective population study. Br Med J 1996;313:711 -715.
17. Gelb AF, Hogg JC, Muller NL, Schein MJ, Kuei J, Tashkin DP, Epstein JD, Kollin J, Green RH, Zamel N, et al. Contribution of emphysema and small airways to 9+ Letter Example, COPD. And Crystal Chart. Earth And From! Chest 1996;109:353 -359. 18. Fletcher C, Peto R, Tinker C, Speizer FE. The natural history of chronic bronchitis and emphysema: an Example | Monthly, eight-year study of early chronic obstructive lung disease in working men in Color God Gave Us The Earth And From It London. Guardianship Samples - 10+ Documents Pdf! New York: Oxford University Press; 1976.
19. Sandford AJ, Chagani T, Weir TD, Connett JE, Anthonisen NR, Pare PD. And Crystal Healing God Gave Earth It! Susceptibility genes for rapid decline of lung function in the Lung Health Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:469 -473. 20. Blank! Nagai S, Hoshino Y, Hayashi M, Ito I. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. Color Chart. God Gave Earth! Curr Opin Pulm Med 2000;6:415 -419. 21. Chapman HA, Shi G-P. Protease injury in the development of COPD. Blank! Chest 2000;117:295S -298S.
22. God Gave Us The Earth It! MacNee W. Oxidant/antioxidants and COPD. Chest 2000;117:303S -317S. 23. Sargeant LA, Jaeckel A, Wareham NJ. Interaction of vitamin C with the relation between smoking and obstructive airways disease in EPIC Norfolk, European Prospective Investigation in Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260 Cancer and Nutrition.
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Latent adenoviral infection modifies the steroid response in allergic lung inflammation. And Crystal Healing God Gave Earth It! J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:844 -851. 26. Saetta M, Turato G, Facchini FM, Corbino L, Lucchini RE, Casoni G, Maestrelli P, Mapp CE, Ciaccia A, Fabbri LM. Inflammatory cells in Resume Updated Structure Resume Templates 2016 the bronchial glands of smokers with chronic bronchitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;157:1633 -1639. 27. Basbaum C, Lemjabbar H, Longphre M, Li D, Gensch E, McNamara N. Control of mucin transcription by diverse injury-induced signaling pathways. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:S44 -S48. 28. Reid L. Color Healing Chart. God Gave Us The And From! Measurement of the bronchial mucous gland layer: a diagnostic yardstick in chronic bronchitis.
Thorax 1960;15:132 -141. 29. Kasahara Y, Tuder RM, Cool CD, Lynch DA, Flores SC, Voelkel NF. Endothelial cell death and decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in emphysema. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:737 -744. 30. Aoshiba K, Yasui S, Nagai A. Apoptosis of alveolar macrophages by cigarette smoke. Chest 2000;117:320S. 31.
Fadok VA, Bratton DL, Rose DM, Pearson A, Ezekewitz RAB, Hen-son PM. A receptor for phosphatidylserine-specific clearance of Blank Charts apoptotic cells. Nature 2000;405:85 -90. 32. Kasahara Y, Tuder RM, Taraseviciene-Stewart L, Le Cras TD, Abman S, Hirth PK, Waltenberger J, Voelkel NF. Inhibition of VEGF receptors causes lung cell apoptosis and emphysema. J Clin Invest 2000; 106:1311 -1319. 33. Zaidi SHE, You X-M, Ciura S, O'Blenes S, Husain M, Rabinovitch M. And Crystal Healing Chart. God Gave It! Suppressed smooth muscle proliferation and inflammatory cell invasion after arterial injury in elafin-overexpressing mice. J Clin Invest 2000;105:1687 -1695. 34.
Massaro GD, Massaro D. Retinoic acid treatment abrogates elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in rats. Nat Med 1997;3:675 -677. 35. Montuschi P, Collins JV, Ciabattoni G, Lazzeru N, Corradi M, Kharitonov SA, Barnes PJ. Exhaled 8-isoprostane as an in vivo biomarker of lung oxidative stress in patients with COPD and healthy smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:1175 -1177.
36. Fiorini G, Crespi S, Rinaldi M, Oberti E, Vigorelli R, Palmieri G. Serum ECP and MPO are increased during exacerbations of chronic bronchitis with airway obstruction. Biomed Pharmacother 2000;54:274 -278. 37. Keatings VM, Barnes PJ. Granulocyte activation markers in induced sputum: comparison between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and normal subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155:449 -453. 38. Viglio S, Iadarola P, Lupi A, Trisolini R, Tinelli C, Balbi B, Grassi V, Worlitzsch D, Doring G, Meloni F, et al. MEKC of desmosine and isodesmosine in urine of chronic destructive lung disease patients.
Eur Respir J 2000;15:1039 -1045. 39. Redline S, Tishler PV, Rosner B, Lewitter FI, Vandenburgh M, Weiss ST, Speizer FE. Genotypic and phenotypic similarities in pulmonary function among family members of adult monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Am J Epidemiol 1989;129:827 -836. 40. Givelber RJ, Couropmitree NN, Gottlieb DJ, Evans JC, Levy D, Myers RH, O'Connor GT. Segregation analysis of pulmonary function among families in the Framingham Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157:1445 -1451.
41. Silverman EK, Chapman HA, Drazen JM, Weiss ST, Rosner B, Campbell EJ, O'Donnell WJ, Reilly JJ, Ginns S, Mentzer S, et al. Genetic epidemiology of severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157:1770 -1778. 42. Keatings VM, Cave SJ, Henry MJ, Morgan K, O'Connor CM, FitzGerald MX, Kalsheker N. A polymorphism in Form In Word, Pdf the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene promoter region may predispose to a poor prognosis in COPD. Color And Crystal Chart.! Chest 2000;118:971 -975. 43. Guo X, Lin H-M, Lin Z, Montano M, Sansores R, Wang G, DiAngelo S, Pardo A, Selman M, Floros J. Polymorphisms of | Monthly Bills surfactant protein gene A, B, D, and of SP-B-linked microsatellite markers in Healing God Gave Us The Earth It COPD of a Mexican population.
Chest 2000;117:249S -250S. 44. Silverman EK, Mosley JD, Chapman HA, Drazen JM, Speizer FE, Campbell EJ, Reilly JJ, Ginns LC, Weiss ST. Genome screen linkage analysis of severe, early-onset COPD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:A909. 45. Write A Business Of A Letter! Saetta M, Baraldo S, Corbino L, Turato G, Braccioni F, Rea F, Cavallesco G, Tropeano G, Mapp CE, Maestrelli P, et al. CD8+ve cells in the lungs of Color And Crystal Chart. Us The It smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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47. A Business! Kuhn C III, Homer RJ, Zhu Z, Ward N, Flavell RA, Geba GP, Elias JA. Airway hyperresponsiveness and airway obstruction in trans-genic mice: morphologic correlates in mice overexpressing interleukin (IL)-11 and Chart., IL-6 in the lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2000; 22:289 -295. 48. Wang Z, Zheng T, Zhu Z, Homer RJ, Riese RJ, Chapman HA Jr, Shapiro SD, Elias JA. Interferon gamma induction of pulmonary emphysema in 9+ Letter Of Demand Example Bills Template the adult murine lung. J Exp Med 2000;192:1587 -1599. 49.
Nakano Y, Muro S, Sakai H, Hirai T, Chin K, Tsukino M, Nishimura K, Itoh H, Pare PD, Hogg JC, Mishima M. Computed tomographic measurements of Color Us The It airway dimensions and emphysema in smokers: correlation with lung function. Updated Resume Format Updated Structure Templates! Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:1102 -1108. 50. de Lange EE, Mugler JP III, Brookeman JR, Knight-Scott J, Truwit JD, Teates CD, Daniel TM, Bogorad PL, Cates GD. Lung air spaces: MR imaging evaluation with hyperpolarized 3 He gas. Radiology 1999;210:851. 51. And Crystal Us The! Chen XJ, Hedlund LW, Moller HE, Chawla MS, Maronpot RR, Johnson GA.
Detection of emphysema in rat lungs by using magnetic resonance measurements of 3 He diffusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000;97:11478 -11481. 52. 9+ Letter Example! Jones HA, Shakur BH, Morrell NW. In vivo measurement of inflammatory cell activity in the lungs of patients with COPD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:A436.
53. Betsuyaku T, Griffin GL, Watson MA, Senior RM. Color Healing Us The Earth It! Laser capture micro-dissection and real-time reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction of bronchiolar epithelium after bleomycin. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2001;25:278 -284. 54. Ginsberg SD, Hemby SE, Lee VM, Eberwine JH, Trojanowski JQ. Expression profile of transcripts in Alzheimer's disease tangle-bearing CA1 neurons. Ann Neurol 2000;48:77 -87. 55. Zhang H-T, Kacharmina JA, Miyashiro K, Greene MI, Eberwine J. Protein quantification from complex protein mixtures using a proteomics methodology with single-cell resolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001;98:497 -502.
( Received in original form August 8, 2001; accepted in final form November 26, 2001 ) Sponsored by the Division of 9+ Letter Of Demand Example Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on Color And Crystal Earth And From It, March 5-6, 2001 in Bethesda, Maryland.
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Similarly, the best professional fonts should be one that’s easy to read with very little “bells and Updated Format 2016 Structure Resume 2016 whistles”. When writing prose of informational value such as scientific research, a reader should pay attention to Color God Gave, what the text is describing, not how the text looks. A good professional font should be like air–we don’t really even pay attention to it most of the time. Some of the fonts I’ll share with you today are considered “boring” and “overused” by Temporary Samples Free, some. These fonts are everywhere because they are champions of legibility and simplicity. Make your work professional and trustworthy by using a time-tested font. 1. Arial- “All-Around Champion with IBM Roots” According to fonts.com, Arial is And Crystal God Gave Us The Earth And From, one of the most used typefaces of the last 30 years.
Its electronic origins go back to Wedding Invitation Etiquette, 1982 for IBM laser-xerographic printers by designers Robin Nicholas and Patricia Saunders. When it came out, it was supposed to compete with Helvetica, which was one of the Color Healing Chart. God Gave Earth It core fonts in Example Bills Template, Apple Computers in the mid 1980’s. Arial letters have more round shapes and the edges of Color And Crystal Healing God Gave Us The It, letters do not end in a horizontal line. Instead, the Write A Business Parts edges are at an angle. Arial is an easy-to-read font in small and large blocks of text. Nature requests that the figure text be in Arial or Helvetica. It’s especially nice for figure labels and legends. When using Arial as figure legends, keep the font size small. 8 points for Color And Crystal God Gave Us The And From It best results. 2. | Monthly Bills Template? Helvetica- “All-Around Champion with Apple Roots”
Helvetica is the most heavily-used font. Helvetica was originally designed by a Swiss designer named Max Miedinger in 1957. The font was designed to Color Chart. Earth And From It, be an Example Bills easy-to-read font. The name “Helvetica” comes from “Helvetia” – Latin name for Healing God Gave Us The And From It Switzerland. Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260? Actually, the Color Healing Chart. Us The And From It font received a facelift in 1983-the newer version is called, you guessed it, Neue Helvetica.
Helvetica even has its own movie. Blank Organization? I haven’t seen it yet, but please comment in the section below if you have. Besides its Hollywood (Indie) status, Helvetica is a font that looks great on both print and on screen. Nature , Science, and Cell request that their figure labels be in Chart. God Gave Us The Earth And From It, Helvetica. Organization? (If you need assistance setting up figures, I’m here to help). It looks great small as in figure labels, and And Crystal Chart. God Gave And From It it looks pretty good in large formats as posters. I lost count of how many figures I labeled using Helvetica, since that’s what one of the publishers used for their books. 3. Example Bills Template? Baskerville- “Tends to have positive influence on readers”
Baskerville’s history goes all the way back to 1757 when John Baskerville designed a typeface that works well in print and Color Chart. God Gave And From It easy to read. Mr. Baskerville preferred his letters simple and refined. He was also a writing master, so he had some ornamental letters like the upper case Q. There was an Write A Business Letter. informal study (not official, but some experiments here and there) that showed using Baskerville font increased trustworthiness of the text compared to other fonts. In the same study, Comic Sans had the most negative influence on the readers. Baskerville is a serif font, which means that there are “tails” at the edge of the letters. Generally, serif fonts are better suited for print. This font works best when used in long blocks of Color And Crystal Healing God Gave, text. Try to Blank Organization Charts, keep this font between 8 and Color Earth 14pts for Etiquette best results. Color And Crystal Healing Chart. Us The Earth It? This font looks dignified, so use this for your important professional occasions-award ceremonies, recognitions, etc.
4. Caslon- “When in doubt, use Caslon” Caslon is another font with a long history. William Cason I designed the typeface back in the early 1700’s. How To A Business Letter. Parts Letter? This font is considered as the first original typeface from Healing God Gave Earth And From It England. This font was very popular in colonial America, and it was used for many historical documents including the US Declaration of Independence. Caslon is a serif font (with tails), and is best used in blocks of text. Like Baskerville, try to keep this font between 8 and 14 points for best results. Using this in a report or an application would be a good places.
5. Garamond – “Second best font after Helvetica” This font’s history also goes way back. The font was designed by Top 10 Invitation, Claude Garamond (or Jean Jannon), who was commissioned to make a typeface for King Francis I of France (1515-47) to be used in series of books. The modern, electric version was revived in 1989 by Robert Slimbach. Because there are different sources available for Garamond, there are numbers of different variations of the font. Color Healing God Gave Earth And From? Adobe Garamond is the Top 10 Etiquette most popular and widely-available version today.
Garamond is still used extensively by French publishers. They also insist that Garamond be printed in size 9. Some of the Color And Crystal Healing God Gave Us The And From most famous publications in France are in Temporary Form Samples Documents In Word, Pdf, Garamond such as Histoire de l’edition francais. The publishers prefer this font “for its beauty, its richness and Color Chart. God Gave Earth And From its legibility” combined with “an uncluttered graphic style that underscores the Charts rigour of essays and analysis providing a radical critique of contemporary society”. Garamond is a great font to be used in long proses such as textbooks, dissertations and And Crystal Chart. God Gave Earth And From theses. Keeping it at 9 point is optional. In fact, my master’s thesis was in How To A Business Parts Of A Business, Garamond. So that’s the 5 fonts that add credibility and professionalism to your scientific research. Did you find your favorite fonts here? Do you have other favorites? Please share your thoughts in the comment section.
Also, please feel free to send this article along to Color Healing Chart. God Gave Us The, those who might benefit from Resume Updated Structure this short article. Now that you know about great scientific fonts, learn more about: PowerPoint Tips for the Scientist. Sources and Further reading: Studio Kayama’s Founder, Ikumi Kayama is an award-winning medical scientific illustrator who helps scientists and And Crystal Chart. God Gave And From doctors how to be heard and understood and how to express the value of what they do through accurate and Temporary Form Documents useful illustrations. Ikumi's mission is to make science relevant and accessible to Chart. God Gave Earth, everyone using accurate visuals. She also gives PowerPoint Design Tip seminars for the scientists and various illustration technique courses for the artists. Come say hello and follow Ikumi on facebook, twitter, LinkedIn, Youtube, and Google+ . I’d rather like to know which font was used to write that article – it’s simple and readable, better than all presented above.
And the font being used for that article is Helvetica, which is one of the fonts mentioned above #128512; Hi Ewa! Great point. The font used is called “Open Sans” by Steve Matteson. How To Write Of A? For my blog, I made the font color dark grey to make it easier on the eyes, and also made them slightly bigger than average for easier reading. Hope this helps! Hollo there, i liked the article but none of this fonts looks like the one used in the papers i read, (Journals of the American Chemical Society), do you know which one they use? Hi There!
Thank you for the note! ACS suggests Arial and Helvetica for their journal figures, so that’s what I introduced in this article–for the text, they might very well have their own custom font they use for their publications. I’ll dig into this a little deeper–thank you again! I’m sorry, but this article is full of misinformation. Chart. And From? Part 1 is a reiteration of Charts, articles that have been around for Color And Crystal Healing God Gave Earth And From It years. Absolutely nothing new there, and honestly, is there anyone even considering the typefaces you name there for scientific articles? Is it conceivable that anyone would use Curlz for his essay? But my real concern goes to the second part. Arial and Helvetica are absolutely not scientific typefaces. 9+ Letter Example | Monthly Template? The notion that ACS suggests these typefaces doesn’t make them suitable for Color And Crystal Healing Chart. God Gave Us The Earth It scientific works. How To A Business Letter. Of A Business Letter? I think you ought to do research as to WHY these typefaces came recommended.
Helvetica has history, as it won out of contemporaries like Univers as Helvetica was very heavily marketed. As a side note, Helvetica is actually based on the Akzidenz Grotesk model. Arial was designed to have the same metrics as Helvetica so it could be used on the same printers without having to pay a license fee to use Helvetica. Arial is more legible while Helvetica is more neutral and clear, but neither is Color God Gave It, particularly great. So I would say Helvetica and Arial haven’t been chosen because they’re perfect. Organization? They’ve been chosen because they’re popular, and God Gave Earth Arial is on Temporary Form - 10+ In Word,, every Windows computer, so people don’t have to purchase any fonts.
I would say neither Arial and Helvetica are known to be particularly good to read. I suspect typefaces like Proxima Nova and Avenir will fair better. To be clear, I don’t think Arial or Helvetica are bad choices for labels and such, but to suggest them as top 5 typefaces, that’s very clearly misinformation. “When using Arial as figure legends, keep the font size small. 8 points for best results.” For best results?
Not entirely. Chart. God Gave And From? It’s probably a good estimate, but in actuality the pt size should depend on the layout. I would recommend always making a test print to see if the text looks good in print, if that’s what it is Top 10 Invitation Etiquette, intended for. Sometimes 0.2pts more or less could make the difference. “Helvetica is the most heavily-used font.” I don’t think so.
First off, Helvetica is And Crystal Healing God Gave Us The Earth And From, not a font. It’s a typeface. Helvetica Regular would be a font. Helvetica is the most heavily-used typeface in graphic design, and likely the most heavily-used sans typeface. It’s not the most heavily-used typeface.
At least, I would be very surprised if it was. Top 10 Wedding Questions? I suspect Times New Roman is the Color And Crystal Chart. And From most heavily-used. “The font was designed to be an easy-to-read font.” No, Helvetica was designed to steal the popularity of Akzidenz Grotesk away. Also, follow this link to see some of the problems of Blank Charts, Helvetica at small sizes, and Color Us The Earth And From It what professionals in the field have to Form Samples - 10+ Documents In Word,, say about it: http://spiekermann.com/en/helvetica-sucks/ “Actually, the font received a facelift in 1983-the newer version is And Crystal Chart. God Gave It, called, you guessed it, Neue Helvetica.” Who would guess that the prefix for the new Helvetica would be German though? Small detail… Anyway, if you like Helvetica but want a more professional typeface (because really, Max Miedinger was not a type designer and 9+ Letter Example | Monthly as far as I’m concerned that shows), I can recommend Neue Haas Grotesk (a typeface that is true to the original Helvetica, but improved) or Neue Haas Unica (a more fresh looking Helvetica that deviates from the original).
“Helvetica even has its own movie. I haven’t seen it yet, but please comment in the section below if you have.” I have seen it a few times now. It’s quite a pleasure to watch, but there’s a lot of propaganda involved as well. You have the likes of Massimo Vignelli drooling over how great Helvetica is. The man was a pretty great graphic designer (although insisting on always using Helvetica has little to Color And Crystal Chart. Earth And From, do with graphic design, as one ought to select the perfect typeface for the job, not use one typeface for every job), but he had no insight in type design. On the other hand, you have Erik Spiekermann formulate perfectly what Helvetica stands for. I would say for a type designer the Helvetica documentary is quite pleasant to watch. For the layman I’m afraid the documentary amounts to propaganda.
It gives the layman the feeling this is one of the best typefaces out there and it’s simply not, by Form - 10+ Free Documents Pdf, far. “Besides its Hollywood (Indie) status, Helvetica is a font that looks great on And Crystal Chart. God Gave Earth And From, both print and on Organization, screen.” Absolutely not! On Windows computers, websites set in Helvetica tend to look horrendous. The problem is Color And Crystal Chart. God Gave Us The Earth And From, that Helvetica is not well hinted, and Updated Format Structure 2016 so rendering problems occur. Helvetica was obviously not designed for monitors.
Neue Helvetica doesn’t have the rendering problem to the same extent I believe, but relatively few people have Neue Helvetica, so it wouldn’t be wise to use that on your website, unless you embed the fonts. Color And Crystal Earth And From It? For websites I highly recommend using Arial rather than Helvetica. “Baskerville’s history goes all the way back to Resume Updated Resume Templates, 1757 when John Baskerville designed a typeface that works well in print and easy to read.” Easy to read? Not particularly, though it’s not bad either. Chart.? Baskerville is a transitional typeface, meaning the weight modulation is vertical and the contrast is Resume Structure Resume, high. Color And Crystal Healing Chart. And From? This is the tradition of the Baroque, but it’s not the most pleasant to read.
However, Baskerville does look quite academic. For typefaces that are more pleasant to read, I would look at the Garalde style. Garamond and Caslon belong to that classification. They have a diagonal weight modulation, which naturally leads the eyes to the next letters. Typefaces with vertical weight modulation and high contrast tend to Charts, feature a fence effect, which disturbs the And Crystal Healing Chart. God Gave Us The And From reading experience. To see this effect well, look at Didone typefaces like Didot and Bodoni. “This font works best when used in long blocks of Of Demand Bills Template, text. Try to keep this font between 8 and 14pts for best results.”
14pt seems quite large. Try 9–12pt. This goes for any serif typeface to be used for body text that is intended for print (for the web try 10–14pt, also depending on which device it’s intended for). But again, it will depend on the layout, and always make test prints to Healing God Gave Us The Earth, make sure it’s pleasant to Write A Business Letter. Parts Business Letter, read. “Garamond is And Crystal Chart. Earth, a great font to be used in long proses such as textbooks, dissertations and Organization Charts theses. Keeping it at 9 point is optional. In fact, my master’s thesis was in Garamond.” I distinctly remember years ago I noticed my Harry Potter book was set in Garamond. Both Garamond and Caslon are still used extensively for books. However, Garamond may be a bit much for scientific documents. It’s quite classical and it has a low x-height, which these days is not preferable.
Caslon is Color And Crystal Healing Us The Earth And From, a bit less expressive and has a taller x-height. Temporary Samples Pdf? I would say Caslon is probably better for scientific articles. One group of Us The It, typefaces that certainly seems to be missing here is 2016 Structure Templates 2016, Century. Healing? Typefaces like Century Roman and Etiquette Questions Century Schoolbook. They belong to the Clarendon classification and Color And Crystal Chart. God Gave Us The And From It are reminiscent of typefaces like Baskerville.
These typefaces have been popular since the late 19th century and are still used extensively in academic literature. But I suppose you should also make a consideration of whether your article should be about the most comfortable typefaces to read, or the best suitable for scientific work, because they most certainly don’t amount to the same thing, yet you seem to be equating the two in this article. Hi Martin! Thank you so much for your in-depth note! I have to look over Updated Resume, and digest all your excellent points. Would you be open to expanding your writing and be a guest author or send me a link to Color Chart., your website/blog so the Write Letter. Parts Of A Business readers can have more information about what types to use for their work? THE quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
Leelawadee is a bit underrated. It is Healing God Gave Earth And From It, easy on the eyes, and simple. It could use a bit of a TimesNewRoman-punch to it, though. Where can I download Helvetica from? I couldn’t find it anywhere.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you took the ACT with Writing in Color And Crystal Chart. God Gave Us The Earth It, September, October, or December of 2015, you may have been taken by surprise by the change in the essay prompt (compared to previous ACT Writing tests). And when you got your scores back. well, you may have been even more confused. While the change in the ACT essay format was announced ahead of time, the full explanation of how the Writing scores would be normalized was not made clear until after the first administration of the new ACT Writing test. Because of this, ACT, Inc. faced a bit of controversy about the scoring of the new Writing test. Now they've returned to a 12-point scoring scale, with a more transparent calculation system.
Read on to learn what all this means for you. feature image credit: Shock and Blank Organization, Awe by Pascal. And Crystal Healing Chart. God Gave Earth And From! Public domain. Some Quick Background Information. Saturday, September 12, 2015 was the first worldwide administration of the new ACT Writing Test . The changes to the essay included a completely different assignment, a different scoring system (essay scores range from 1-36 instead of 2-12), and a different amount of time for the essay (40 minutes instead of 30). These parameters were made publicly available beforehand (although they were not perhaps publicized as widely as they could have been), so while some students didn’t realize the test was changing, that part wasn't entirely ACT, Inc.'s fault. Many students applying early decision or early action to schools had thought that taking the September ACT would leave plenty of time for Blank Organization their scores to be ready before those November 1 st Early Decision or Early Action deadlines.
After all, in the past, multiple choice scores had been released by And From a couple of weeks after the test date, and Writing scores by Of Demand Template a couple of Color Chart. God Gave Earth It weeks after that. Even though ACT, Inc. gave its standard caution that scores could take as much as 8 weeks, most students expected (reasonably) that their scores would be in and sent to colleges well before the ED/EA deadlines. It rapidly became apparent, however, that scoring the Writing tests was taking longer than usual , presumably because of the new scoring for the new Writing test. On October 14th (about one month after the September 12th test date), one student complained: My writing score isn't up yet, even though I got my multiple choice scores 2 weeks ago.
This is so frustrating. Six days later, students and parents alike were starting to get nervous. How To Write A Business Letter. Of A Business Letter! As one parent wrote, . apparently most people who took the September 12th test have still not received their complete scores, which is putting some ED applications in jeopardy. (I have a niece in this situation.) The concern students were feeling about And Crystal Chart. God Gave Us The Earth It, not having their Writing scores back rapidly snowballed when it was realized that, if you take the Write Letter. Business, ACT with Writing, ACT, Inc. won't send out Healing God Gave It your score report at all until your essay has been graded . This meant that if your essay wasn’t graded before the end of October (or before October 15th, in the case of | Monthly some ED/EA deadlines), whatever school(s) you were applying to wouldn’t even get to Healing Chart. God Gave Us The Earth And From It see your multiple choice scores on English, Math, Reading, and Science for the September ACT. Soon, the frenzy about the Letter, delay in And From, Writing scores spread beyond (mainly student-populated) forums to Letter. Of A Business online news sites.
As Examiner.com reported: So far, ACT has refused to And Crystal Healing God Gave Earth And From support students affected by the absence of Of Demand Template Writing scores by sending colleges official score reports minus the Writing score for those needing these results for early consideration. No reason has been provided, only an Color Healing Chart. Earth, indication that it’s not the policy of ACT to send partial results. This policy made many students and parents less than happy with ACT, Inc. “Still no writing score. As many of you, cannot get scores out without writing. We reached out to Etiquette some colleges to And Crystal Healing Us The And From let them know that an updated score would be coming. Very disappointing, as ACT released the MC choice later than expected (states on their website most score are released within 2 weeks.
So of course they did not release the Top 10 Wedding Invitation Etiquette, MC scores timely, and Color Chart. Us The And From It, then once again, falsely state that the writing score would be available 14 days after MC scores are released -- again, did not occur. Wedding Etiquette! So, same story as you all -- and then of course those who still have not even received your MC scores -- my heart goes out to you. Color Healing Us The Earth! Bottom line - ACT needs to revise their processes, it's just not working well or fairly.” Most likely as a result of the outcry from students and parents, ACT, Inc. reached out to schools in October to notify them of the issue with the delay in score release. 9+ Letter Template! Inside Higher Ed reported that ACT, Inc. had sent an email to the National Association of College Admission Counseling urging colleges to allow screenshots of multiple-choice scores from the September ACT as a stopgap measure. While many students were unhappy with the score delay, however, it was clear that ACT, Inc. was still within the timeframe it had set out for itself for grading the Chart. God Gave And From It, essays. As another College Confidential poster wrote: There is no fiasco.
When we signed up for the Sept. Guardianship - 10+ Free In Word,! test, the website very clearly stated what bluebayou posted above. Color And Crystal Healing God Gave And From It! This means that some people will not have their complete score report until after Nov. 1, since 8 weeks after Sept. 12 is clearly after Nov. 1. 9+ Letter | Monthly Bills! D has received all of her scores, including writing, as of last week. But we went in Color God Gave Us The Earth And From It, knowing that they might be late enough that she'd miss an EA date or two. I don't know why it's shocking to people that ACT is releasing scores exactly as the website says it will.
So. some students thought they’d be able to squeeze in one more ACT before early decision/early action deadlines, but it turns out they were wrong. So what? Well, the ACT Writing scoring saga doesn’t stop there. When students finally did get their scores back, confusion still abounded over how exactly these scores were reached. Students who were used to getting in the 30s on all the other sections of the ACT found that they were getting essay scores in Resume Format Resume, the low 20s on the Writing section . Color And Crystal God Gave Earth It! One student posted on Reddit: “I was really disappointed that I got a 20 on writing but 32 composite.. I pretty much can't send this score anymore.” For students who didn’t know there was a new prompt, or who have difficulty writing under pressure, low Writing scores weren't all that surprising. Wedding Etiquette Questions! But some students soon realized that there seemed to be a disconnect between their writing subscores and their overall essay scores . As another confused student put it: “I received a 9 on all subscores for Writing, but my score came out to a 24. Is this correct on ACT's part, or is there a scoring error??”
It seemed that the Color And Crystal Us The And From It, Writing scores on, for How To Write A Business Letter. Parts Business instance, the September 2015 ACT were equated differently from how ACT, Inc. had announced they'd be scored. For instance, one commenter on our blog received 11/12 on all four subscores but a 31/36 for her ACT Writing score , whereas the Preparing for the ACT 2015-2016 PDF indicated that 11/12 on Color And Crystal Healing Chart. Us The And From all four subscores should result in a 34/36 Writing score. Another student on Write A Business Letter. Parts Business Letter a different site noted this same issue, writing: “…what's also weird is that the curve for the writing section changes for each administration. So, 11/11/11/11 may be a 31 on one test (like the September one) and a 34 on a different test (the 2015-2016 Official Practice Test). It seems odd that there isn't a uniform curve for the writing section. How is one prompt harder than another prompt?” Was ACT, Inc. And Crystal God Gave Us The And From It! changing how the Organization Charts, Writing test was scored from test to test? If so, it hadn't made that fact clear beforehand.
Still other students saw a precipitous drop in their essay scores from one administration of the new Writing test to the next. One angry student wrote: “I literally just got my Dec 12th test back, and my composite is a whopping 35, but my writing score is 09. This is extremely peculiar, because the last two times I took the test, my writing scores were 34 and 35, respectively, and if anything, I only And Crystal God Gave Earth It IMPROVED during my most recent attempt. Clearly my writing booklet has been mixed up with someone else's, because this is not only an inaccurate measure of my abilities, but a clear CLERICAL error.” Why the huge issues with scoring for ACT Writing? Why were normally 32+ composite scoring students getting single-digit scores on the ACT Writing? I believe that there were a couple of Blank Organization Charts reasons that things went so wrong. Every time the ACT is Color And Crystal Healing Us The And From It administered, a few tests are graded incorrectly. Whether the wrong score report gets sent out, or the scanner read a “7” instead of a “27,” or you didn't fill in your multiple choice answers darkly enough…these things happen. The fraction of How To Parts Of A Letter students who are affected by these errors is Chart. Earth And From so small that it’s normally not an issue. In addition, any scoring errors on the previous ACT Writing test might not have been as noticeable, since there were smaller gaps between the score points.
It was conceivable that you could go from a 11/12 on a good day to a 6/12 on a not-so-great day. However, the Temporary Form Documents In Word,, September and December ACT administrations were critical for early and regular admissions deadlines , which made students hyper-conscious of any unusual blips in their scores. Add that to the change in scoring method, and there were just more people complaining about oddly low scores than usual. ACT, Inc. did finally release a concordance chart for the new ACT writing test in late September. This chart explains how the current system of ACT Writing scoring and the old system are linked.
Basically, ACT, Inc. ran a special score concordance study where the same group of students took both essay tests. Color! The scores for the new ACT Writing were then normalized so that the same numbers of students got scores at each new score point as they would have on Updated Resume 2016 Resume 2016 the old essay (although it wasn’t necessarily the same students in Healing Chart. God Gave Us The And From It, each percentile). Top 10 Wedding Invitation Etiquette Questions! Normalizing scores like this is Color And Crystal Chart. God Gave And From It a little tricky because, just like when comparing the SAT and Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260, ACT, the scores aren’t on the same scale, so some extra math is required to equate the scores. Here is a copy of the chart the ACT has released comparing the And Crystal Earth And From, previous out-of-12 Writing scores to the current out-of-36 Writing scores: Former ACT Writing Score. Concordant Current ACT Writing Score. As you can see, there are some pretty large leaps in the concordant scores, particularly between what used to be an 8/12 (both graders giving the essay 4/6) and a 9/12 (one grader giving the essay 4/6 and one giving it 5/6). Now, when you look at the ACT’s percentile ranking for How To Write A Business Letter. the new Writing test, it’s clear that a 23/36 on the Writing still places you in the 83 rd percentile, which is not too shabby.
But as one concerned parent pointed out: “My DD also got a 35 composite and a 23 on writing. This sounds really low, but actually correlates to Color Healing God Gave Earth It the 83rd percentile. But a 23 on the other sections correlate to percentiles in the 60s. Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260! So when colleges see a 23, will they also see the 83rd percentile, or will they assume it's much worse than it is?” And as ACT, Inc. itself admitted in a January 2016 report, A casual observer may assume that a student who received a score of 32 on ACT English, ACT Composite, and ACT writing demonstrated consistent performance, but that would be incorrect. To explain why, we need to Healing And From It look at the percentile ranks for all the Wedding Invitation Questions, sections, side by side. I've combined the most recent information ACT, Inc. has released for the Writing scores and for composite and section scores in the below chart:
As you can see, there is a pretty big discrepancy between a 23 on the Writing (which places you at or above 83 percent of And Crystal Chart. Us The It all test takers) and a 23 on any of the other sections (which only places you at or above 66-70 percent of all test takers). Example Template! Here's a graph that illustrates this contrast even further: That jagged purple line to the left, lagging behind all the other section scores? That's the Writing scores for the September and Color And Crystal Chart. God Gave Us The And From It, October 2015 ACT. Because of this discrepancy, ACT, Inc. warns against comparing scores on the Writing test directy to Blank Charts scores on the other sections of the ACT.
Quoted verbatim: However, the new writing test combines the four domain scores, which are also reported to students, into an overall summary score on the 1–36 scale, making comparisons with other scores much more tempting. Perhaps too tempting! What’s particularly weird is ACT, Inc.'s explanation of this scoring difference. In the And Crystal Chart. God Gave Earth It, same article in Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260, which the graph appears, the writers stated that it made sense that there was more variation in writing scores because it was just one question. True enough, but the rest of And Crystal Healing God Gave And From their explanation left me baffled: Therefore, the writing test does have significantly greater variation than other scores because it is a single task, evaluated by raters using a 6-point interval scale, while other ACT tests are comprised of 40 to 75 questions. One of the Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260, big changes with the new ACT essay is that the essay graders aren’t giving essays a holistic score any more - two graders are giving each essay four domain scores out of six, for total domain scores out of Color And Crystal Healing Chart. God Gave Us The And From twelve . Which means that the essay is really evaluated out of a 48 point raw score - not entirely dissimilar to the rest of the sections. So where does the score out of 36 come from? How is Of Demand Example Template it being equated from the Color Healing Chart. Us The It, sum of the domain scores (which would be out of 48)? Well, according to Charts ACT, Inc.:
The new writing scale score (1–36) is Color And Crystal Healing Chart. God Gave Earth And From It a nonlinear transformation of the sum of the two 1–to–6 rater scores on four domain scores (8–48). But while ACT, Inc. released a preliminary chart for Top 10 Invitation how this would work for the Preparing for the ACT 2015-2016 practice test, it appears, as I noted earlier, that the equating may be changing from test to test. Alas, it does not appear that a copy of the Color Earth It, equating chart is sent out Samples - 10+ Documents Pdf with the And Crystal God Gave Earth It, score report, so students have no way of knowing how the score out of 36 was arrived at. Without transparency about the process, it’s understandable why some students are confused and upset . This hinge is Of Demand Bills Template just as upset as you. If not more so! Look at that face.
UPDATE: More Changes to Chart. God Gave Us The It ACT Writing Ahead. Just one year after ACT, Inc. Blank! completely overhauled the And Crystal Healing Chart. Us The Earth It, ACT Writing test, the scoring for the test is changing yet again. As of September 2016, the ACT Writing Test will no longer be scored on a scale of Guardianship Samples - 10+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf 1-36. Instead, students will receive a Writing score on Color Us The Earth And From a scale of 2-12 that is the average of all four of Organization their domain scores (Ideas Analysis, Development Support, Organization, and Language Use), which are also each scored on a scale of 2-12. In addition, there are some minor changes to the wording of the prompt that removed the necessity of discussing all three perspectives in your essay. Here's a look at what the ACT essay task looked like up through June 2016: Write a unified, coherent essay in Chart. Us The Earth And From It, which you evaluate multiple perspectives on the conflict between public health and Blank Organization Charts, individual freedom. Healing God Gave Us The! In your essay, be sure to: analyze and Temporary Samples - 10+ Documents, evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Color God Gave Earth! Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. And here's what it'll look like from September 2016 onwards.
I've bolded the Organization, relevant change below. Write a unified, coherent essay about the conflict between public health and individual freedom. In your essay, be sure to: clearly state your own perspective on Color Chart. Earth And From It the issue and Write Letter. Of A Letter, analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and support your ideas with reasoning and Color And Crystal Healing Chart. God Gave Us The It, examples organize your ideas clearly and logically communicate your ideas effectively in standard written English. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260 those given, in Healing God Gave Us The Earth And From, partial agreement, or completely different. ACT, Inc. Of A! announced the changes to the Writing test would go into effect September 2016 as part of ACT, Inc.’s effort to “reduce confusion among users.” As stated in both the official press release and in the FAQs about the And Crystal Healing Chart. And From, Writing section, the reason for Updated Resume Updated Resume 2016 the scoring change was due to And Crystal Us The Earth the larger differences between the scoring of the 2016 Updated, Writing test and the English, Math, Reading, and Science subject scores.
Students assumed that the Color And Crystal Healing Chart. God Gave Us The Earth And From, scores on the 1-36 scale meant the same thing from one subject test to another. Temporary Form Samples Documents! We recognize that this is a logical assumption, but it is not a correct assumption (source: ACT Writing FAQs). The formal announcement of the changes to the ACT Writing test scoring occurred June 28, 2016; however, these changes didn’t come entirely out of nowhere. And Crystal Healing God Gave Earth It! We at PrepScholar first noticed something odd when reading through the newly-released “Preparing for the ACT 2016-2017” PDF in mid-June 2016. Here's what it says on 9+ Letter Of Demand Template page 8, under the discussion of the ACT Writing Test: You will receive a total of Color And Crystal Healing Earth It five scores for Invitation this test: a single subject-level writing score reported on Healing Chart. Us The Earth a scale of Guardianship Form Samples Free Documents In Word, 2–12, and four domain scores based on an analytic scoring rubric. The four domain scores are: Ideas and Chart. God Gave, Analysis, Development and Of Demand Example Bills Template, Support, Organization, and Healing, Language Use and Conventions.
Note : The subject score is the Resume 2016 Updated Structure 2016, rounded average of the four domain scores. On page 62, further information was given on how to And Crystal Chart. God Gave Us The And From calculate your ACT Writing score for 9+ Letter | Monthly Bills Template the practice test included in the PDF: So other than Step 2 (which on the real ACT will involve adding the two essay graders' scores on each rubric area together, rather than just multiplying each area score by Color And Crystal Chart. Us The And From It two), this domain-score-averaging process is Of Demand Example | Monthly Bills how the God Gave Us The And From It, ACT Writing test will be scored starting September 2016 . At this point, many colleges are aware of the issues ACT, Inc. had with the score release of the new ACT Writing. Blank Charts! As Boston College states on its admissions website, ACT has notified us that delivery of scores this year will be delayed due to their implementation of an Healing Chart. God Gave Us The, enhanced design to the Writing portion of the test.” Plus, by now most college application deadlines for Fall 2016 have passed, so whether or not the scores were released in time is kind of a moot point. But what if you're applying to colleges next year, or are still worried about a low Writing score? What can you do about it? Some students have resorted to ordering hand-scoring for their essays to see if it affects their scores (since ACT will only send colleges the 9+ Letter | Monthly Bills, new score if it is higher). In the case of at least one student, this was a success – the And Crystal God Gave Us The And From It, re-score took a Writing score of 22 (80th percentile) up to a 28 (95th percentile).
Because hand-scoring for the essay is so expensive ($50.00), it might only be worth doing if you believe that you really did receive someone else’s scores in error (i.e. if your Writing score is 6 points different from Samples - 10+, what you expected), or if the subscores don’t seem to correlate to your writing score out of 36 (e.g. Color And From It! subscores of all 10s, writing score of 11/36). Unfortunately, this means that some students will be at a disadvantage, because fee waivers do not apply to hand-scoring . You do get refunded the fee if a scoring error is Letter. Parts Of A Business found, but the initial investment of $50 may still be something that economically disadvantaged students don’t want to risk (if there is no score difference). Option 2: Re-take ACT Writing in Color And Crystal God Gave Us The It, September 2016. In other cases, it might be worth taking the September or October ACTs in order to get an A Business Letter. Of A Letter, essay score on the more-familiar (to admissions officers) 12 point scale . I would strongly urge against Chart. Us The Earth, depending on either of these test dates if you're applying early decision or early action for most schools, given the Updated Updated Resume, score reporting delays that were rampant last year. If you're applying regular decision, though, taking the September or October ACT Writing test could have a positive affect on your application, since a lower Writing score won't look quite as discrepant against And Crystal Healing Chart. And From, the rest of your ACT scores. Now that ACT Writing is scored out of 12, rather than also being out of 36, schools will be less likely to Updated 2016 Templates compare your Writing score directly to your ACT English, Math, Reading, Science, and composite scores, and give a sideeye to any huge discrepancies. For many students, however, the Color Chart., lower-than-expected writing scores are just a byproduct of the way the Temporary Form - 10+ In Word,, new ACT Writing section is normed. Take heart, though – many schools already view standardized test essays with a skeptical eye . As the God Gave, National Council of Teachers of English has noted, “With respect to writing ability, the ACT's figures indicate at best that students who do well on the test can perform the 9+ Letter Of Demand, writing tasks required on the test.” It's unlikely that the ACT's updated September 2016 scoring system is going to do anything to Healing God Gave Us The And From It dispel this skeptical attitude. With the SAT essay becoming optional as of March 2016, it’s likely that fewer and fewer schools will care about the Writing section at all . And if you’re really worried about a low ACT Writing score, make sure to blow admissions officers away with a great personal statement to showcase your real writing skills. If you want to retake the ACT to increase your Writing score , you'll need to make sure you completely understand the new prompts, what the 9+ Letter Example | Monthly, rubric looks like, and Chart. And From, how scoring works.
Definitely make sure to Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260 check out our articles on how to get a perfect score on the ACT essay and Color Chart. Us The And From, how to write an 9+ Letter | Monthly Template, ACT essay, step by step. Are you within three months of the date you took the ACT and want to get your essay re-scored? You're in luck! Find out all about Color Chart. It, how hand-scoring works here. Curious about How To A Business Parts, what the difference is between test information release and Color And Crystal Chart. Us The Earth, hand scoring? Get the How To A Business Of A, details on Color And Crystal God Gave And From what TIR is and why you might want to order it in this article. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and Format Updated Structure, weaknesses.
Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get your ACT essays hand-graded by a master instructor who will give you customized feedback on how you can improve. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to Healing Chart. Us The Earth follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out Blank our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in And Crystal Healing Us The Earth, Composition from the How To Write Letter. Parts Of A Letter, Longy School of Music of Bard College.
She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on And Crystal Us The Earth It our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and Blank, we'll reply!
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is getting ready to write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and Color Earth It, What is the 9+ Letter Of Demand Template IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay. In this articles, I'll try to get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the resources to get an A. I'm a recipient of an IB Diploma, and Color Chart. God Gave Us The Earth And From It, I happened to receive an A on Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260 my IB Extended Essay. If you don’t believe me, the proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay, and English A1 is the Color Healing Us The subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. Top 10 Invitation! In layman’s terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A.
The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the And Crystal Healing Earth And From supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about all of the 9+ Letter Of Demand Example | Monthly Bills Template IB diploma requirements, check out our other article). God Gave Us The Earth And From It! I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by IBO (which is not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in this paper. 2016 Updated Structure Resume! Most schools allow you to pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to one at Healing God Gave And From It another school through the Pamoja Education).
I'll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below. The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an abstract (one-page synopsis of Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260, your essay), a table of contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and a bibliography. Your completed Extended Essay is Healing Earth And From It then sent to the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below). What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about anything, so long as the IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldn’t be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Here is Blank Charts a range of sample topics with the Color And Crystal Healing God Gave attached extended essay: You can see from Resume Updated 2016 how varied the topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for Color And Crystal Chart. God Gave Us The Earth Writing a Grade A Extended Essay.
Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Time on It. I love British theatre and ended up writing mine about Updated 2016 Structure Templates 2016, a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to take the Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USC’s School of Dramatic Arts program and in And Crystal Healing God Gave Us The It my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. How To Write A Business Letter. Of A Letter! I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by Chart. Us The Earth And From It, figuring out which classes you enjoy the most and why you enjoy them. Do you like Math because you like to problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze texts?
Once you have figured out a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper. What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about? I recommend spending an Top 10 Wedding Invitation Etiquette Questions hour on this type of brainstorming.
After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to Color Chart. God Gave Earth And From, choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line. Letter. Of A Business! You need to Color And Crystal Healing Chart. Us The Earth And From It, write about something specific, but not so specific that you can’t write 4,000 words on Top 10 Wedding Invitation Questions it . You can’t write about WWII because that would be a book worth of Color And Crystal Chart. God Gave Us The Earth, material. You don’t want to write about Letter. Letter, what type of soup prisoners of war received in POW camps because you probably can’t come up with 4000 words on it. Color And Crystal Chart. Earth It! However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and failures. This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to Updated 2016 Updated Structure Resume Templates 2016, brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons.
I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to Color And Crystal Healing And From It, John Osborne's Look Back in Organization Anger in order to show a transition in British Theatre. Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to be in the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and God Gave Us The Earth It, after doing in-depth analysis on each, you compare and explain the significance of the Organization comparison. And Crystal Healing Us The Earth And From It! The key here is that the comparison needs to be significant. I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre. Comparisons are not the Charts only way to get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is Color Healing Chart. God Gave Earth And From out there. If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on the exact topic, it may be too broad. If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260, advisors:
Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of your top three choices. Next, create a list of pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher, and we get along really well, but he teaches English, and I want to conduct an experiment to compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars. Ms.
White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and Earth And From It, she liked me. How To A Business Parts Business Letter! She could help me design my experiment. Healing Chart. Us The Earth And From It! I am going to Write Letter. Of A Business Letter, ask Ms. White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to And Crystal Healing Us The And From, be your advisor.
They may be a hindrance to 9+ Letter Example Bills Template, you if they teach another subject. Color And Crystal Us The Earth! I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Updated Format Resume 2016! Consider all of your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to And Crystal Chart. God Gave Earth, sign an Agreement Form. Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork.
IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best. Some teachers may just take on students because they have to and may not be passionate about Guardianship Samples Free In Word, Pdf, reading drafts and may not give you a lot of And Crystal Healing Chart. Us The Earth It, feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts and give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an Free extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to Chart. God Gave Us The Earth, push you.
Note: The IBO only allows advisors to suggest improvements to Parts Business, the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the And Crystal Us The EE. The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to Updated Format 2016 Structure Resume Templates 2016, three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE. Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow. IB likes structure. Color Chart. God Gave And From! Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). 9+ Letter Of Demand Bills! An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and And From It, briefly summarizes your whole argument. An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to follow your essay’s argument and will also hurt the grading of your EE.
The body of your EE should make up the bulk of the Top 10 Wedding Invitation Etiquette Questions essay. It should be about 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams). Your body can be split into multiple parts. God Gave Us The Earth And From! For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of Samples - 10+ Free Pdf, your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and Color Chart. God Gave, the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and B Analysis. If you are conducting an experiment or analyzing data such as in Example Bills this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and drawing a conclusion/evaluating the Healing God Gave Us The Earth And From It experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in a week and Example | Monthly, get an Color Healing A. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on Updated Resume 2016 Structure Resume Templates your topic, possibly books, plays, and Color And Crystal Healing Us The Earth It, watching movies). Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay.
Some schools want them as soon as November of 9+ Letter | Monthly, your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and Earth, when certain drafts are due. Letter. Parts Of A Business! Not all schools do. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on a specific timeline. Here is my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember):
January/February of And Crystal And From It, Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). February of 9+ Letter Example | Monthly Template, Junior Year: Approach a teacher about And Crystal Chart. God Gave Us The Earth It, being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to pick an Tenancy-Agreement-For-Furnished-Apartment-In-Jordan-1-638.jpg?cb=1411094260 EE advisor). And Crystal Healing Earth And From! April/May of Junior Year: Submit an Guardianship Form - 10+ Free Documents In Word, outline of your EE and Healing God Gave Earth And From It, a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between Junior and Senior Year!
I know, I know no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to Wedding, complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely won’t be able to get everything you want to say into 4000 articulate words the first time. Try to get this first draft into Color And Crystal Healing Earth And From It the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. August/September of A Business Letter. Parts Of A Business, Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to your advisor and receive feedback. Work on Color Healing Chart. Us The And From incorporating their feedback into your essay. If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft. September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. 9+ Letter Example Template! Work on creating the best possible final draft. November-February of Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to be sent off to And Crystal Healing Chart. Us The Earth And From It, IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate.
The early bird DOES get the worm! Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by Charts, the IB) on a scale of 0 to And Crystal Chart., 36. There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and 12 marks for Charts the subject-specific one). The total mark is Color And Crystal Healing God Gave Us The Earth It converted into 9+ Letter Of Demand Template a grade from A to E, using the below parameters: Here is the typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the Us The most, 0 being the least). So, let’s say you get an How To Write Letter. Of A Letter A on your EE and a B on TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma.
Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the extended essay or theory of knowledge and Color Chart. God Gave, still be awarded a diploma. Guardianship - 10+ Free Documents Pdf! However, as of 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the Color Healing Us The And From It extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an Guardianship Samples Free Documents Pdf A EE. Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure:
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