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The online application will be available starting August 1, 2017. For more information about Academic Initiative applying, please visit the UCLA Anderson MBA admissions website. Your essays are the primary way for you to share your perspectives and plans with the Math Bar Graph Templates Vertical admissions committee. The best essays are introspective, genuine and succinct in directly answering our questions and responding to our topics. » You should try to distinguish yourself by How Do I Write An Employment | Better Life showing what makes you different from others who share similar profiles. » Personal expression is what we are looking for, not platitudes. » Making a strong case for your future plans requires you to first do research on career paths and : Blank Printable Chart Templates Vertical Template, find one that resonates. Even if this target will change during business school, your application essays should lay out a clear trajectory for short-term and long-term goals. Do this by demonstrating how you expect to build on skills from your past, and those you expect to Blank Pdf | |, gain from the MBA. » Essays are more compelling if they include specific courses, programs, groups, opportunities, activities, etc. from which you would benefit, if admitted to UCLA Anderson. These references are best found through website research, personal discussions and Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Chart Templates, a campus visit (if possible). » Content and clarity are key elements, as we seek superior communication skills. » Style is a consideration, too, although we understand that those who speak other languages may have different manners of Md Professional Reference, expression in English.

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Causes of Inequality: Analytical Strategies. Offered as the : Blank Templates, course: Social Stratification. SOC-GA 2137 – Fall 2017. Robert Max Jackson. This guide concerns the systematic analysis of social inequalities. While stressing what causes social inequalities, it considers such topics as: what is a social inequality, how do social inequalities arise, why do they take different forms, why do they vary in degree across societies, what sustains social inequalities over time, how do various institutions and practices contribute to inequalities, and how does inequality change. click on Guidelines Necessity For Speech a topic to Math Printable Vertical, go to that section. click on a topic to go to Job Application |, that section.

Note: – This web site is Math : Blank Chart Vertical Template, both a subject reading guide and a course outline. Workshop Preparing Future! The contents are always in progress. This guide serves to provide both a guided, extended reading list on analyzing social inequality (or stratification) and the syllabus for a graduate course based on the core of this extended reading list (over 200 articles are included below). The selection and organization of materials stresses primary analytical issues facing the Printable Chart Vertical Template, study of inequality (rather than types of inequality or the popularity of topics). Most of the readings – mainly articles plus some book excerpts – are available online. The list includes direct links to 10 Best Templates Images On Pinterest, the online versions of all these references. The links on Bar Graph Printable Vertical Template this page provide access to the NYU community access and will not be successful for those elsewhere. However, this entire page is Love Letter |, mirrored with an externally oriented version (click here for Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Chart Templates Vertical Template, the external version) that is the same as this except that it uses generic links. Anyone having access to online scholarly publications through their institutions should be able to gain access to the articles using the links on Necessity Determination And that page.

Additionally, most of the links have the Math : Blank, DOI number or the JStor number listed at the end of the citation; these can be used to access the publications if the links prove unsuccessful. Most of the readings – mainly articles plus some book excerpts – are available online. The list includes direct links to the online versions of all these references. Academic Job Search Workshop Preparing! This page which you are now viewing is the alternative version designed for users outside of Vertical NYU. How Do An Employment Contract Life! This version uses generic links that should properly lead to all the referenced material. These materials will be available to Bar Graph Printable Templates Vertical, you if you are connecting from a university or other organizational network that has contracted rights to the material from Blank |, its online publisher. Additionally, most of the links have the DOI number or the JStor number listed at the end of the citation; these can be used to access the publications if the links prove unsuccessful. (If you are from NYU, click here to go to Bar Graph, the NYU oriented version of this page.)

Description – Scope, Organization, and Access : The scope of the topics and materials . Each kind of social inequality – such as class or gender – has distinctive dynamics and each concrete instance of inequality has historically and culturally specific characteristics. Yet, all social inequalities also share critical common effects and requirements for persistence. For example, all social inequalities produce legitimating ideologies, all must curb resistance, all have to transfer the unequal resources and positions to new generations, all produce divergent interests. To understand a structural characteristic of some kind of inequality – such as legitimization processes in Job Application a class system or violence in gender inequality – we want to recognize that they represent a combination of the dynamics common to most inequality systems and the specific characteristics of that type of inequality. The topics below pursue a series of fundamental questions about social inequalities, seeking to investigate the Math : Blank Chart Templates Vertical Template, general dynamics of inequalities, comparing these dynamics across different types of Emily's inequality.

Examples of these topics include: what are the : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates Vertical, roles of interests in various kinds of inequalities, how is inequality sustained across generations, what processes induce conformity among both the advantaged and disadvantaged, what mechanisms prevent rebellion, and what decides the intensity of inequalities? The readings represent the core of the stratification field in sociology, the materials that sociologists working in this area expect other others in the area to 10 Best Resume Templates Images On Pinterest | Cover, know, plus materials needed to Math Printable Template, pursue important analytic issues under represented in the field. The class organization and goals . The class is intended for Walsh, Letter, both beginning and advanced graduate students. Critical requirements for taking this course are a strong interest in inequality and a commitment to the class project of investigating new ideas. In this class, each week's activities will be organized around an analytical task, as well as a set of readings. Rather than focusing on discussion of the readings, the analytical tasks involve attempting an analysis of inequality related to the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of 2-3 pages).

While mastering the existing research and theory is obviously a prerequisite to doing good work, the approach in this class seeks to develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the Math : Blank Printable Chart Vertical, literature by stressing actual analyses of inequality rather discussions of the literature. The course readings stress the How Do I Write Life, foundational sociological literature on inequality. Each week we will all look at some common readings. The course guide will also point toward a range of : Blank Bar Graph Printable Chart Template other recommended and related readings for further study for each topic - students are not expected to read these optional materials as part of the course. |! The recommended and related readings represent what a student seeking to specialize in this area might read. Students in the class are encouraged to scan these optional lists each week and look at : Blank Template, any pieces that seem particularly valuable or interesting. All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and part on students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week.

We will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to our experiences over the class. Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and papers. To see the discussant responsibilities for each week, go to: The readings below (the recommended and related readings as well as the Mark Walsh, Reference Letter, common readings that are the basis of the course) are almost all available online – simply click the links to get to the articles. For convenience, some readings are selections (excerpts from articles or books) that appear in two printed collections that are now available online: articles with [Grusky – Classic] appended to the listing are from Inequality: Classic Readings in Race, Class, Gender , 2006, eds. David B. Grusky and Szonja Szelenyi; articles with [Grusky - Contemporary] appended are from Inequality Reader: Contemporary Foundational Readings in Race, Class, Gender , 2006, eds. David B. Grusky and : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates Vertical Template Szonja Szelenyi – for Guidelines For Medical Necessity Determination For Speech And, most of the selections from these readers, alternative citations and links are also provided for Math Printable Vertical Template, the original publication or an 10 Best Resume On Pinterest appropriate alternative. Note: Links for all readings will appear in Printable Templates Vertical Template the online version of the course guide.

A note on the hidden material below : Each section of this guide includes – beside the common readings – three subsections, one for an analytical task , one for recommended readings , and one for related readings . To simplify navigating through the Guidelines For Medical, course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. Math : Blank Template! The content of all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the page is similar to a standard syllabus) until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is helpful for negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to search the page (for example, for Love |, a particular article) as searches will ignore the Math : Blank Printable Chart Templates Vertical, hidden material. To overcome this limitation, it is possible to show all the hidden sections by clicking the § symbol at the top of the page (and simply reload the page to Mark, collapse all the : Blank Bar Graph, hidden sections to For Medical, their usual look). The table of contents at the top of the page will still work to aid speedy navigation to any section. The first class meeting will involve introductory discussions of the class objectives. Peter M. Blau. A Fable about Social Structure. : Blank Printable Chart! Social Forces , Vol. 58, No.

3 (Mar., 1980), pp. Academic Workshop Preparing Future Initiative! 777-788. On the : Blank Templates Template, importance of always considering the implications of Pdf | | numbers. [jstor: 2577184] II. Bar Graph Templates Vertical! What do we mean by social inequality? How can we conceive of and talk about social inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the How Do I Write | Better, range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to : Blank Templates Template, minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to Blank |, be analytically effective? Inequality is ubiquitous. Math Vertical! People are unequal in every conceivable way in Love endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience.

So, what counts as social inequality ? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Template, more or less of it? Analytical task: What is social inequality ? We often think that the meaning of social inequality is self-evident or easy. Perhaps it is when we focus on extreme versions of the more obvious forms of social inequality, such as the rich compared to the poor. But, equally, perhaps it is not when we consider inequalities that are subtler or more complex, such as those based on Templates Images On Pinterest | Cover sexual preference or ethnic identity or between nations. We want to begin by looking a little deeper into our conceptualization of Math : Blank Bar Graph Chart social inequalities. Choose two kinds of Academic Job Search Workshop Preparing Faculty Initiative inequality . For each of these two kinds of inequality, consider an example showing a high degree of inequality and another showing equality or a minimal amount of inequality. For example, if we used political inequality as one kind, we might select one highly authoritarian nation and one highly democratic one, or we might compare two unions or two professional organizations. Here we are simply trying to conceive a simple 2 x 2 table, showing two kinds of inequality and two levels of inequality for each kind.

This is the simplest design for doing social analyses, whether that analysis is empirical or theoretical. (Note: It is fine to use standard, commonly discussed kinds of inequality, but being original and creative about Math Printable Chart Templates Vertical, kinds of Blank Job Application | inequality to consider is also good.) Describe (briefly) how the relevant groups are unequal for each type. For each of these two kinds of inequality, try to list the main ways that those affected are unequal. Do not worry about why such inequality exists. For now, we are concerned with what we mean by inequality, not what causes it. Try to specify the crucial experiences, opportunities, or other circumstances that distinguish the Math Templates Vertical, beneficiaries of the Job Search Workshop Future, inequality from those who are disadvantaged. Consider also the relationships between the disadvantaged and advantaged, both direct and Math : Blank Printable Templates Vertical indirect. (The idea of indirect relationships refers to ways that the advantaged or disadvantaged influence the circumstances or actions of those who are differently situated without direct interaction, e.g. by controlling government policies or creating a culture of fear.) In short, for each of the two types of inequality, what induces us to call one example high inequality and another low? A final question . How Do I Write An Employment Contract | Better Life! After working through the questions above, try to complete a definition sentence beginning In general, social inequality exists when . . The goal of this sentence is to provide a definition of social inequality general enough to embrace the range of Math Printable Templates Vertical social inequalities but also precise enough to distinguish social inequality from its absence. The implicit strategy is compare what social inequality means for Letter |, the two chosen examples, then to try to identify the common conditions that make them (and other forms) all merit being called social inequality (distinguished from the characteristics specific to certain types of Math Bar Graph Printable Vertical Template inequality or concrete historical and cultural conditions).

To do this involves not only the empirical comparison, but the appropriate conceptual abstraction. For the ambitious (to develop a deeper grasp). I Write An Employment! Here are some other issues that you might integrate into your initial assessment of inequalities Vantage points . Might some people (scholars, political actors, others) disagree that any of the components you identify should really be considered inequality ? If so, why? (The goal here is to think through the Bar Graph Printable Chart Template, reasons that people disagree about what should be called inequality?) Try to figure out how we might measure the How Do Contract | Better Life, amount of inequality. Of the ways that you have listed people being unequal, select which of these differences seem most important. What might be reasonable ways to measure each identified facet of inequality? For each kind of inequality you have selected an example where inequality is high and another where it is low. Can you think of a measurement procedure that will allow one to look at any society or group and determine if some aspect of inequality is high, medium, or low? Focus on realistic means that could be applied in Math Printable Chart Templates Template research, that could be used for Professional Templates On Pinterest | Cover, the same aspects of inequality when they apply to other kinds of inequality. Do this only for the two or three facets of inequality in Math Templates your examples that seem most decisive.

For each of the Letter, two types of inequality, if we put aside differences in the circumstances of advantaged and disadvantaged people, what important differences in social organization distinguish societies (or other social groupings such as communities or organizations) where that type of inequality is high from those where it is low? The goal here is to consider if societies (or other levels of social organization containing inequality) that have high levels of some type of inequality consistently differ from societies that have low levels, in Bar Graph Chart Vertical Template ways other than the difference in the level of this kind of inequality. Most people responding to the prompts above will think about inequality between kinds of people. Mark Md Professional Reference! Consider two other important concerns. First, inequality may be between positions rather than people (this is a critical concern which we will address later). Second, inequality may concern units other that people, such as families or organizations or nations. David B. Grusky. : Blank Bar Graph Chart! Social Stratification. Professional Templates Images! Encyclopedia of Math : Blank Printable Chart Templates Vertical Sociology . 2nd ed.

Vol. 4. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 2807-2821. Gale Virtual Reference Library . Paula England. Reassessing the Uneven Gender Revolution and its Slowdown. Gender Society 25:1 (Feb 2011): 113-123. (Response to critics of Gender Revolution . above) [doi: 10.1177/0891243210391461] . Archibald O. Haller. Societal Stratification. Encyclopedia of Sociology . 2nd ed. Vol. 4. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001.

2864-2874. Gale Virtual Reference Library . Pennock, J. Roland. Equality and Inequality. In The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World , edited by Joel Krieger: Oxford University Press, 2001. . III. 10 Best Professional Templates On Pinterest | Cover! What are common forms of social inequality?

What is the range of social inequalities that we should be addressing? Pundits, scholars, and ordinary people usually focus on the couple forms of inequality they experience as most troubling. Contemporary sociology's sometimes blinkered perspective is reflected in the many readers and Math Bar Graph Printable Chart Templates texts on Academic Workshop Future Faculty race, class, and gender. The range of analytically relevant inequalities is Math : Blank Vertical Template, considerably wider. Analytical Task : This week's task is to identify major forms of Emily's Love inequality in two societies. The goal is to see the range of inequalities that exist in Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Chart Template different societies.

The remainder of this task description just tries to show how to Professional Resume Images On Pinterest, approach this systematically. To start, choose two societies with which you have some familiarity. It is Math Chart Vertical Template, fine to |, use this society or an another society in which you have lived as one example (but it is an interesting challenge to use two societies you have not experienced). The two societies can be from two different parts of the Math Bar Graph Printable Vertical Template, world or from different points in time. The main goal is to use two societies that differ significantly in | their structure and Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Chart Vertical culture, regardless whether those differences reflect location, culture, historical circumstance, or something else. For each example (society), identify the How Do An Employment | Better Life, significant, widely-present forms of social inequality that persist over time. widely present means not limited to certain locations nor small parts of the population; note that many instances of inequality that are limited to particular places or subgroups are, however, examples of some more generally defined kind of inequality, so moving to Math : Blank Chart Templates Vertical Template, a higher level of I Write Life generality or categorization identifies a widely present inequality of Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Vertical Template which they are specific examples two or more instances of inequality with a similar system or structure but involving different populations should usually be considered to of the Resume Templates Images On Pinterest | Cover, same kind (e.g., similar ethnic inequality processes or structures may apply to Hindi and Chinese minorities) The aim here is not to see how long the list of inequalities might be, but we do want to see how diverse the forms of inequality can be, and to consider if important kinds of inequality are overlooked. Try to describe briefly each form of inequality identified (for each society), by indicating: to what degree is the : Blank Printable Vertical Template, inequality more a continuous gradation (like years of age) or more a division into distinct categories (like employed vs. unemployed) what is unequal, that is what are the Academic Job Search Faculty Initiative, assets, opportunities, capacities, relationships, or whatever that define the inequality by their unequal distribution (this is not what explains the inequality, but simply what is unequal); this is self-evident for some kinds of inequality, but not for others. who is advantaged and who disadvantaged; in Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Vertical Template essence, this asks how are the advantaged people different from the disadvantaged people not only in the advantages that define the inequality, but in other ways as well (e.g. for ethnic inequalities, the groups are, in theory, defined by ethnic identity [although ethnicity is tricky]; distinguishing characteristics for some kinds of inequality might be more difficult to characterize, and could, in theory, not exist if placement is random) [ optional – how do the disadvantaged and the advantaged perceive the inequality?; do they have similar or different conceptions of what is unequal, why they are disadvantaged or advantaged, whether it is fair, and the like?] In short , for two societies, you are preparing a list of outstanding inequalities, that gives the primary characteristics of Job Search Preparing Future each kind of inequality. You could make this either as two lists or as two simple tables.

Finally , having prepared a catalog of the primary forms of social inequality in the two societies, how would you compare the two societies with respect to their patterns of social inequality? All we are looking for here are initial, outstanding differences and similarities (note that similarities are at least as important as differences). Math : Blank Printable Chart! To be clear, we are just looking for an initial impression – a comprehensive comparison would be a major project, obviously far beyond our scope. If this aspect of the Guidelines For Medical For Speech And, analysis seems baffling, overwhelming, or obscure initially, consider the following questions. Does the overall amount of inequality seem greater in one society than the Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Templates Template, other or similar or does this seem impossible to guess? Do the structures of the societies or their potential for Necessity Determination For Speech, change seem to be dominated by different or similar inequalities?

Does inequality overall seem more rigid in one society than the other? Do major forms of inequality seem to overlap a lot, or are they distinctive and rather independent from each other? Is inequality more continuous in one society and : Blank Printable Vertical more categorical in the other? For the Academic Job Search Workshop Preparing Faculty Initiative, ambitious with time to go further: How might we categorize the varied forms of inequality discerned in the two societies into : Blank Vertical Template groups defined by some notable similarities? For example, if we have twelve types of inequality initially, could we usefully fit them into two or three categories that reflect their similarities (and differences)? Here are some examples of criteria that might be used to categorize inequalities: Consider the processes producing them Consider who is advantaged and disadvantaged Consider how one form affects the others Consider their legitimacy claims Consider their histories Consider any other reasonable logic you can conceive for grouping them, remembering that a useful analytic taxonomy will usually rely on some aspect of Job Application | causation Do any of the Chart, forms of How Do I Write An Employment | Better Life social inequality seem more important to the structure and : Blank Bar Graph Printable Templates organizational dynamics of a society than do others?

If so, why? Anthony Giddens. Blank! Elites in the British Class Structure. The Sociological Review , 20 (1972): 345?372. Alejandro Portes and Math : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates Vertical Robert D. Manning. The Immigrant Enclave: Theory and An Employment Contract | Better Empirical Examples. But compare: Roger Waldinger. The Ethnic Enclave Debate Revisited. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research , (1993), 17: 444?452. [doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2427.1993.tb00232.x] John H. Math : Blank Bar Graph Chart Vertical Template! Goldthorpe and Keith Hope. Occupational Grading and Occupational Prestige. Social Science Information October 1972 11: 17-73. (especially pp.

19-33) [doi: 10.1177/053901847201100502] John Mullahy, Stephanie Robert, and Barbara Wolfe. Professional Resume Images! Health, Income, and Inequality. Russell Sage Foundation Working Paper Series. 2003. William Julius Wilson. Jobless Poverty: A New Form of Social Dislocation, in the Inner-City Ghetto. (1999) [Grusky Contemporary] Shelley J. : Blank Bar Graph Printable Templates! Correll. Stephen Benard, and Determination In Paik – Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?

American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 112, No. 5 (March 2007), pp. 1297-1339. [doi: 10.1086/511799] Glenn Firebaugh. The Trend in Between-Nation Income Inequality. : Blank Chart Templates Vertical! Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 10 Best Professional! 26 (2000): 323-339 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.323] . IV. What distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate forms of Math : Blank Bar Graph Templates Template inequality?

We often use the term inequality to refer only to forms of inequality we consider unjust or otherwise undesirable. Yet, much inequality is commonly accepted as appropriate, fair, or desirable in societies. The amount of legitimacy attributed to a form of inequality can be anywhere between extremely high (e.g. the authority of | parents over infants) to extremely low (e.g., slavery in Math : Blank Chart Vertical Template a modern society with well-developed civil rights). Guidelines Necessity Determination And! The assessment of legitimacy should always consider potential differences among differentially situated groups (e.g., those enjoying advantages in Math : Blank Template a system of inequality, those disadvantaged, and Guidelines Determination those relatively unaffected), and the degree of : Blank Bar Graph Printable Chart Vertical Template agreement or disagreement about legitimacy assessments. Analytically, we want to ask what processes or conditions cause a form of Mark Md Professional Letter inequality to Math Bar Graph Printable Chart Templates Template, be considered more or less legitimate.

When does the legitimacy status of Academic Preparing Faculty Initiative inequality change or become contested? Analytical task : Using examples of two kinds of inequality, consider what circumstances appear to foster or to : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates, erode the acceptance of the inequality as legitimate. First , select two kinds of 10 Best Professional inequality . Printable Templates Template! These can be from any place or time, but it might be simpler if they coexist in the same society. They do not need to be inequalities considered socially important. For each kind of inequality, select one example or circumstance with high legitimacy when those involved appear accepting or complacent and another example or circumstance with low legitimacy when those involved contest the inequality. Determination And! Thus you are considering four examples in all, two that are uncontested, high legitimacy and two that are contested, low legitimacy, based on the two types of inequality. Math Chart Templates Vertical! This is, once again, the simplest comparative design for Guidelines Necessity Determination, social analysis, essentially a two by two table, with one direction being the two kinds of inequality and Math : Blank Chart Vertical Template the other being the Contract | Better Life, two levels of legitimacy. (Whether an Printable Vertical Template inequality is perceived as legitimate and whether it is contested are not the same, but we are simplifying for our current goals.) Second , for each of the two kinds of inequality, describe what are the principal arguments or claims offered by the advantaged (or their representatives) to defend or explain the system of inequality in the examples you have chosen. Look for arguments that respond to three common claims in defense of inequality, that it is (1) just, (2) necessary, and (3) beneficial to all. Blank Job Application Pdf | |! Where possible, identify the general cultural beliefs or symbols from which the arguments seek to gain acceptance or weight, such as religious beliefs, science, or fear of outsiders. Is it possible to : Blank Printable Chart Templates, distinguish between claims that seem to be historically or culturally contingent and those more fundamental to the particular kind of How Do An Employment Contract Life inequality? [Explanatory note: If we compare organized religions we find that all have practices and rituals for marriage. Many of the : Blank Templates Template, specific rituals are artifacts of the historical conditions in which they emerged, and would just as effectively if they were different.

Some aspects of these practices, such as significant property exchanges (e.g., bride price) may reflect functional needs of the prevailing economic and kinship system, although their concrete manifestation can vary. Love Letter! Some even more general aspects, such as requirement of marriage to identify kinship relationships of children may reflect fundamental requirements for the functional order of any kinship system. Claims about : Blank Printable Chart Templates Template, inequality can similarly be categorized from the historically arbitrary to those that seem unavoidable.] Third , when describing the Pdf | |, legitimacy claims, consider if the claims when the inequality is contested differ from Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Vertical Template, when its acceptance is largely unproblematic. That is, for each of the two kinds of inequality, what seems to distinguish the examples where legitimacy claims succeed from those where they fail? When the disadvantaged seem to accept legitimacy claims, which arguments appear to be convincing or acceptable to them? Why do they accept these? When the disadvantaged question and contest the legitimacy of the inequality, what are the principal counter arguments they use? Their counter arguments suggest how the legitimacy claims are failing. In short , you are developing a description of the ways that people try to legitimate two kinds of inequalities, comparing examples where the legitimacy efforts succeed with examples where they do not.

The goal is not to explain the range of these claims or when they succeed, but to get a first level sense of what legitimacy claims are and why they are important. Finally , in response to the preceding analysis you have developed of legitimacy claims regarding four examples of inequality (based on two types of inequality), try to state three general hypotheses about Mark Walsh, Md Professional Letter, legitimacy claims, the : Blank Templates, role of legitimacy, or conflicts over legitimacy in systems of inequality. Elaborate each of How Do I Write An Employment | Better Life these hypotheses just enough that we can understand what they mean and Math Chart Template what motivates them. These are hypotheses , which means they are not theories and not claims we can defend. Rather, we can think of | Better Life them as informed speculations about what might be true.

They are ideas worth researching or worth thinking about if trying to develop a theory about the legitimation of inequality. Essentially, this is asking what ideas spring to Math Bar Graph Printable Vertical, mind as a result of doing the empirical comparisons in this task. Background: Ch. 2 Power, Authority and the State. In Shaun Best, Introduction to Politics and Society . Sage, 2002. (A textbook introduction to legitimacy and authority work.) [doi: 10.4135/9781446220832] Johnson, Cathryn, Timothy J. Dowd, and Mark Md Professional Reference Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Legitimacy as a Social Process. Annual Review of Sociology 32, no. Math Bar Graph Printable Templates Vertical Template! 1 (2006): 53-78. [doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123101] Raven, Bertram H. The Bases of Power and 10 Best Resume Templates Images | Cover the Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Analyses of Social Issues and Chart Public Policy 8, no.

1 (2008): 1-22. [doi:10.1111/j.1530-2415.2008.00159.x] Major, Brenda. From Social Inequality to Personal Entitlement: The Role of Social Comparisons, Legitimacy Appraisals, and Group Membership. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology , edited by 10 Best Professional Resume On Pinterest P. Zanna Mark, 293-355: Academic Press, 1994. [doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60156-2] Mansbridge, Jane. Cracking through Hegemonic Ideology: The Logic of Formal Justice. Social Justice Research 18, no. 3 (September 01 2005): 335-47. [doi:10.1007/s11211-005-6828-0] Thomas Luckmann. Comments on Legitimation.

Current Sociology June 1987 35: 109-117. [doi:10.1177/001139287035002011] (the entire issue containing this article was on legitimation – click the link on the article page to Chart Templates Template, the Table of Contents to see what this includes) [doi: 10.1177/001139287035002011] Talcott Parsons. Max Weber and Emily's Love Letter the Contemporary Political Crisis: I. The Sociological Analysis of Power and Authority Structures. The Review of Math Bar Graph Printable Templates Template Politics , Vol. Mark Walsh, Md Professional! 4, No. 1 (Jan., 1942), pp. 61-76. Walter A. Weisskopf. The Dialectics of Equality. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science , Vol.

409, Income Inequality (Sep., 1973), pp. 163-173 [doi: 10.1177/000271627340900118; jstor: 1041502] Joan Acker; Inequality Regimes: Gender, Class, and Race in Organizations; Gender Society , vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 441-464, Aug 2006 [doi: 10.1177/0891243206289499] Lars Osberg and Timothy Smeeding. 'Fair' Inequality?

Attitudes toward Pay Differentials: The United States in Comparative Perspective. American Sociological Review Vol. 71, No. 3 (Jun., 2006), pp. Math Printable Chart! 450-473 [doi: 10.1177/000312240607100305] Merove Gijsberts. The Legitimation of Income Inequality in State-Socialist and Market Societies. Acta Sociologica , Vol.

45, No. 4 (2002), pp. 269-285 [doi: 10.1177/000169930204500402] [jstor: 4194946] David Miller. Distributive Justice: What the Resume Images On Pinterest | Cover, People Think. Ethics , Vol. 102, No. 3 (Apr., 1992), pp. 555-593. [jstor: 2381840] James Konow.

Is fairness in the eye of the beholder? An impartial spectator analysis of justice. Social Choice and : Blank Templates Welfare, 33 (1): 101-127 Jun 2009 [doi: 10.1007/s00355-008-0348-2] Steven Brint, Jerome Karabel. American Education, Meritocratic Ideology, and the Legitimation of Inequality: The Community College and the Problem of American Exceptionalism. Higher Education , Vol. 18, No.

6 (1989), pp. Letter |! 725-735 [doi: 10.1007/BF00155663; jstor: 3447109] Rosamund E. Stock. Explaining the Choice of Distribution Rule: The Role of Mental Representations. Sociological Inquiry Volume 73, Issue 2: 177189, May 2003 [doi: 10.1111/1475-682X.00051] Jurgen Habermas.

Legitimation Crisis . Beacon Press. 1975. James Konow. Which Is the Printable Chart Template, Fairest One of All? A Positive Analysis of Justice Theories. Journal of Economic Literature Vol. XLI (December 2003) pp. 11881239 [doi: 10.1257/002205103771800013] Sutphin, Suzanne Taylor; Simpson, Brent. The role of self-evaluations in Academic Job Search Workshop Preparing Initiative legitimizing social inequality. Social Science Research , vol.

38, no. 3, pp. 609-621, Sep 2009 [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2009.01.007] Langer, Ellen J.; Blank, Arthur; Chanowitz, Benzion. The mindlessness of ostensibly thoughtful action: The role of placebic information in interpersonal interaction. Journal of Personality and Math : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates Vertical Template Social Psychology , Vol 36(6), Jun 1978, 635-642 [doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.36.6.635] Robert Max Jackson. Down So Long (unpublished ms.).

Disputed Ideals: Ideologies of Domesticity and Feminist Rebellion. V. What is the critical distinction between positional inequality and status inequality? To put it simply, positional inequality refers to Emily's |, inequalities between positions such as the Math : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates Template, different levels in an organizational hierarchy (e.g., president, divisional manager, supervisor, clerk). These locations give their advantages and disadvantages to the people who circulate through them. Status inequality refers to social advantages and disadvantages that adhere to categories of people without regard to the positions they hold (such as race). Grasping the Guidelines Necessity Determination For Speech, differences between these two types of inequality and the relationships between them is crucial for Math : Blank Vertical Template, analytic clarity. (This distinction has some similarity to the common contrast between achieved status and ascribed status, but it is analytically different. Our distinction stresses the way inequality is socially organized while the achieved/ascribed concepts refer to the ways people acquire a characteristic.) Analytical task: How do positional and status inequalities differ and how are those differences important? Select two examples of positional inequalities and two examples of status inequalities . The examples may be two fundamentally different kinds of For Medical And positional (or status) inequality or they may be two distinctive instances of the Math : Blank Templates, same kind of inequality appearing in different societies (e.g., racial inequality in a plantation economy and racial inequality in a market economy). It will probably be easier to How Do Contract | Better Life, use four reasonably concrete examples (such as contemporary racial inequality in Britain). Using more general categories (such as racial inequality in market economies) is a more ambitious strategy.

As usual, for each type of inequality, clearly describe who are the advantaged and the disadvantaged and how they are unequal. Enumerate the Math Printable Vertical, characteristics that distinguish the two examples of positional inequality from the two examples of status inequality . How Do I Write An Employment Contract! To put it differently, in what ways are both examples of positional inequality different from both examples of status inequality? Examples of things to consider include (but should not be limited to): homogeneity of people sharing similar standing (i.e., level of [dis]advantage) intergenerational rigidity (likelihood of having same standing as parents) ways that people's standing may improve or decline over time diffuseness of impact on : Blank Chart Vertical Template people's lives (i.e., what proportion of people's time, activities, and relationships are highly influenced) legal status and government role in regulating, preserving, or challenging the inequality legitimation processes (content of the justifying ideology, who or what promotes the legitimacy) historical roots of the inequality structure For each difference you identify above between the positional and status inequalities, please briefly describe how the Academic Job Search Preparing Future Faculty Initiative, positional and status inequalities seem to differ with respect to Math : Blank Printable Chart Vertical, this characteristic, and, if you can, suggest what might explain the difference (or, to put it differently, suggest why you would expect this difference to distinguish other examples of status and positional inequalities). Pdf |! In short : We are making an initial effort to identify general ways that systems of positional inequality differ from systems of : Blank Bar Graph Printable Template status inequality. The goal is to produce a list of plausible differences, and to Love Letter, get a first sense of what form these differences will take and why they appear. note that we are again using a very basic research design, comparing two examples of positional inequality with two examples of status inequality; this is the simplest possible design for trying to identify differences between two categories (as we must have at least two examples of Chart Templates Vertical each category to make the simplest control for other sources of variation among the Walsh,, phenomena being categorized, in Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Chart Templates Vertical Template this case instances of social inequality) Finally : Based on the differences you enumerate and explore from your examples, what hypotheses do you have about general differences between positional and status inequalities? excerpt on discrimination from Robert Max Jackson, Destined for Templates Images, Equality Symposium on Inequality, Contemporary Sociology 29 (2000):775-818. [jstor: i325498] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in Printable Vertical Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol. 68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 [jstor: 3088900] Max Weber, sections on Social Aspects Of The Division Of Labour (18) through Types of Resume On Pinterest Communal Organization of Labour (26), pp. Math : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates Vertical! 228-266 of Max Weber: The Theory of Social and Economic Organization . Translated by Mark Md Professional Reference A. M. Henderson and : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates Template Talcott Parsons. (Free Press, Glencoe, IL, 1947) Guillermina Jasso.

Studying Status: An Integrated Framework. American Sociological Review , Vol. 66, No. 1 (Feb., 2001), pp. 96-124 [jstor: 2657395] Erik Wright . . VI.

How do we understand honor status hierarchies, that lack apparent material bases? Academia is one good example of a well-developed system (or systems) of honorific inequality. For Medical Determination For Speech! High school peer groups are often good examples of short-lived patterns of reputational inequality. The idea of celebrity is usually associated with unequal prestige. Math : Blank Vertical Template! The key to honorific inequalities is that people compete for recognition and Necessity Determination And deference, rather than material goods, power, or opportunities.

Purely honorific inequality structures are rare, as the pursuit of prestige is commonly intermingled with materialistic inequities. The study of honor and prestige systems (other than in the specialized form of : Blank Bar Graph Printable occupational prestige) is underdeveloped in sociology. Theoretical works recognize its significance, but most treat honorific inequality as both causally derivative and of marginal importance when compared to Guidelines For Medical For Speech, economic and political inequalities. Chart Templates Vertical! While prestige and Letter honor are elusively intangible, we are likely to misunderstand any type of : Blank inequality if they are ignored. Analytical task: What do non-material inequalities of honor or prestige look like in practice and what is the Job Application |, logic of their processes? Select two (or more) examples of Math : Blank Chart Vertical Template honorific inequality systems , where people compete directly for recognition, respect, and deference. Such systems often include income and power rewards. But we are looking for forms of inequality where honorific status is Mark Walsh, Md Professional Reference Letter, central. Here are several reasonable identifying characteristics to consider: Does honor (or prestige or the Printable Chart Template, like) motivate competition for desirable locations as much as does power or material rewards?

Is deference to Blank Job Application Pdf | |, others determined as much by their perceived prestige as by Math : Blank Printable Chart Templates Template their structural position, wealth, authority, or the Emily's Love, like? In general, are honor or prestige acts at least as much a cause of material rewards as it is a result of them? For each inequality system selected , try to develop an analytical assessment of the Math Printable Templates Vertical Template, way it works by responding to these: Identify and An Employment Contract | Better Life describe as well as you can what conveys or is experienced as honor ; consider how it looks both from within and : Blank Bar Graph Printable from outside; think about ways that the lives of those with more honor differ from the lives of Job Search Preparing Faculty Initiative those with less; also, think about how we know which people have more honor, or to put it differently, how we know to whom we should defer and who should defer to us. (Think about titles, awards, forms of dress, access to activities, and so forth.) Describe what people do to gain honor or to compete for honor. Math Printable Chart Vertical! What decides the distribution of Guidelines Necessity Determination honor overall within each system? Consider what processes and which people decide who has more honor. Is it controlled from the top or the bottom?

Are people aware who decides the outcomes? What induces people to accept and conform to the expectations of the prestige system? Why do they defer to those who possess more honor? (Consider both the : Blank Bar Graph Printable Chart Templates Vertical Template, carrots and the sticks.) Compare these systems of honor and Emily's Love prestige to the systems of positional and status inequality we have considered. Try to identify two or more important differences and two or more important similarities, explaining as best you can why you think each of : Blank Bar Graph Templates Vertical Template these differences and similarities exist. In short , the aim of this week's task is to compare two specific examples of Blank honor inequality systems (and secondarily compare them to inequalities where honor is secondary) to get an initial sense of how honor inequality systems work. Elliot B. Weininger.

Foundations of : Blank Bar Graph Vertical Pierre Bourdieu's class analysis. Pp. 82-118 in Erik Olin Wright (ed). Approaches to Class Analysis . Cambridge University Press, 2005. Cambridge Books Online. [10.1017/CBO9780511488900.005] [doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511488900] Bernd Wegener, Concepts and Measurement of Prestige, Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. Job Search Workshop Preparing Future! 18, (1992), pp. 253-280 [doi: 10.1146/] Donald J. Treiman A Standard Occupational Prestige Scale for Use with Historical Data. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol.

7, No. : Blank Bar Graph Printable Chart Vertical Template! 2, (Autumn, 1976), pp. 283-304 [jstor: 202737] John H. Goldthorpe and Keith Hope. Occupational Grading and Occupational Prestige. Social Science Information 1972 11: 17-73 (see pp. 19-23, 26-33) [doi: 10.1177/053901847201100502] Francis Flynn, How much should I give and how often? The effects of generosity and I Write An Employment Contract | Better Life frequency of favor exchange on social status and productivity, Academy of : Blank Chart Templates Template Management Journal Oct 2003, Vol.

46 Issue 5, pp.539-553 [jstor: 30040648] Thorstein Veblen – The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) [Grusky - Classic] [also compare potlatch] VII. Academic Workshop Initiative! How do people experience inequality and why do these experiences matter? Research on inequalities commonly treats experience as a simple effect of inequality; interesting but secondary to theory and explanation. Here we want to think of experience not only as a result, but also as a potential ingredient to the explanation of inequalities. The experiences of inequalities can serve as strong motivating forces at all levels. The experiences also encompass not only the outcomes of inequality, but all the processes that sustain or challenge it. Analytical task: How do lower-status and Math Bar Graph Printable Template higher-status people experience inequalities and their locations within them? With what consequences for the systems of inequality?

Select two systems of Letter | inequality : one in which you have (now or in the past) been in a relatively low-status location and Math Templates Vertical another system in which you have been in a relatively high-status location. The point here is to select systems in which you have observational knowledge about the experience of inequality. Workshop Preparing Faculty Initiative! If possible, use a form of Math Bar Graph Printable Templates Vertical Template positional inequality for Determination For Speech And, one example and status inequality for the other, but it okay if that is too much of a stretch given your biography. As usual, briefly describe each system of inequality. Who are included, what is unequally distributed, who are advantaged or disadvantaged, and the like. If you are going to consider a subset of a larger system of inequality, be clear about what you are doing and why. (OPTIONAL – To go further . To seek a more complete means of assessing experience, double the examples, to consider two systems in which you have experienced low standing and two in which you have had higher standing, again representing both status inequality and positional inequality if possible.

This will give you much more traction for seeing generalization possibilities, but the time requirements may be more than you can manage.) For each of these systems of inequality, try to characterize , briefly, how those in high-status locations have different experiences than those in low-status locations . Math : Blank Bar Graph Vertical! This is not easy to do well. Among other things, note that it is rarely obvious which kinds of experiences matter more and Academic Job Search Workshop Preparing Faculty Initiative it is difficult to reduce the varieties of experience into a few categories that are not arbitrary. Focus on typ ical or defining experiences. While experience seems inherently individualistic because it is to such a degree private and internal, the goal here is to move beyond the individual. Systems of social inequality are comprised of socially organized structures, processes, and cultural understandings. Math : Blank Template! In the search of a social analysis of inequality, we are looking for Love Letter, common or shared experiences (understanding that these may be shared unequally, so that there are alternative experiences common to Math : Blank Bar Graph Templates, subgroups determined by other conditions, circumstance, or even random variation). A good way to Pdf | |, start is by thinking about typical experience. Math Bar Graph Printable Chart Vertical Template! To make this effort more systematic and comparable, while trying to assess differences in experience, here are dimensions you might consider : How much and in what ways do people recognize the inequality and think about it? For example, people may grasp the 10 Best Resume Templates Images | Cover, outlines of social inequality between groups or positions see themselves as being in unequal relationships, but not have a conception of this as part of a larger pattern of inequality (e.g., when women or men see themselves as superior or inferior to the other sex, but do not perceive there to be gender inequality) people may not be able to conceptualize their experience of an inequality as being inequality, but think of it in different terms (e.g., believing it is not that they are inferior or that we discriminate against them, they are just different) in what way do people seem to perceive or talk about fairness with respect to an inequality? what sense of fairness do they have in their own position? and Math : Blank Printable Chart how do they think about the fairness of the How Do I Write An Employment, existence of Math Printable Chart Vertical Template inequality (of this sort)? how do the advantaged and disadvantaged have distinctive experiences about what other people who share their standing are like? do the Professional Resume Templates, reference groups have different demographic compositions (e.g. sex, ethnicity, age, class) apart from the defining distinctions due to that inequality? are their cultural differences in the ways people dress, ways of talking, leisure activities, religiosity, or the like? how do people perceive those at their level as different from : Blank Chart Templates, those at the other end of the Professional Resume Templates On Pinterest, inequality spectrum, and how do they interact differently with them? In particular, what, if any, are the common patterns of deference when interacting with a previously unknown person at the other end of the inequality spectrum? (Most importantly, presumably, within the institutional context embracing this form of inequality, but also, potentially, in external contexts.) How do advantaged and disadvantaged people differ in general ways that they experience the possibilities and Math : Blank Chart Vertical realities of life? how do people experience ambition vs. resignation?; how do they differ in expectations for the future? do they allocate blame for Professional Templates Images | Cover, failures and credit for successes (of the individual) differently? do they have different orientations toward behavioral tendencies such as violence, intimidation, manipulation, cooperation, and subservience? are there significant differences in religiosity? do they seem to feel different loyalties toward the institution surrounding the Math : Blank Templates, structure of inequality, toward those in a similar location in the inequality structure, toward those at a different level? how do they differ in their trust in For Medical Necessity And authority and government? If you can, consider the implications of social mobility or changing social standing for these experiences of inequalities.

That is, do people differ in their experience of a location in a system of : Blank Bar Graph Chart Template inequality depending on 10 Best Professional Templates | Cover how they got there? Note that even people distinguished by locations in a system of status inequalities may experience some form of mobility. First, they may experience a shift in the relative weight of the status inequality due to changes in other status investing characteristics; an example could be different meaning of race for affluent blacks vs. poor blacks and affluent whites vs. poor whites, where the analytical class difference may be experience in terms of race. Second, the Math Bar Graph Printable Templates, standing of an entire status group or category may change over time; consider, for example, the changes that have been seen by middle-age blacks and Love Letter whites in South Africa or women and men in many countries. Note that someone whose status appears unchanged may experience it differently because the statuses of significant others do change How do people differ in their experiences of being advantaged or disadvantaged in the referent form of inequality depending on their location in other important forms of Math : Blank Chart Template inequality? (For example, how does the Academic Job Search Preparing Initiative, experience of being Native American differ between the highly educated and the low educated?) In short , the goal of this task is to contrast the experiences of being advantaged with those of being disadvantaged under two different kinds of inequality. The goal is to examine these differences systematically, and to Printable Chart Templates, consider their causes and their consequences. Mark Walsh, Md Professional Reference! Finally , after completing work on the issues above, considering the patterns of similarities and dissimilarities you have discussed, can you devise any general hypotheses about the experience of inequalities? That is, from the specific patterns of Math Templates Vertical differences you observe in your cases, what general differences might you expect to find in other inequalities, in the experiences of inequality, and in Walsh, Md Professional Reference Letter the causes and effects of those experiences? Michael Schwalbe, et al., Generic Processes in : Blank Bar Graph Chart the Reproduction of Inequality: An Interactionist Analysis, Social Forces , Vol. 79, No. 2 (Dec., 2000), pp.

419-452 [jstor: 2675505] Alan B. Krueger – Inequality, Too Much of a Good Thing (2003) [Grusky - Contemporary] Evans, Mariah D. R. and Jonathan Kelley. Academic Job Search Workshop Preparing Future Faculty! Subjective Social Location: Data from 21 Nations. : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates Vertical! International Journal of Mark Walsh, Reference Public Opinion Research 2004 16:3-38. [doi: 10.1093/ijpor/16.1.3] Michael Hout and Joshua R. Math : Blank Printable Chart Vertical Template! Goldstein. How 4.5 Million Irish Immigrants Became 40 Million Irish Americans: Demographic and Subjective Aspects of the Job Search Workshop Preparing Future Initiative, Ethnic Composition of White Americans. American Sociological Review, Vol. 59, No.

1 (Feb., 1994), pp. 64-82 [jstor: 2096133] VIII. How should we conceive interests in the analysis of inequality? Almost everyone analyzing any system of inequality refers to interests sooner or later, even authors who emphasize cultural or normative explanations. Yet, interests usually receive casual, unsystematic treatment. : Blank Bar Graph Template! This casual reliance on interests builds on two simple assumptions: (1) a range of relevant potential actions and events will have differential consequences for people depending on Determination And their location in a system of inequality and (2) anticipation or past experiences of these consequences will influence peoples' actions. From this starting point the considerations of interests take many routes, considering objective and subjective interests, individual versus collective interests, realistic compared to misconceived interests, consistent versus inconsistent interests, contradictory and ambiguous interests, and Math Printable Templates Vertical Template so on.

Simply put, every theory of inequality relies on a theory of interests (even if a negative theory). Analytical task: Interests Select two examples of inequality; if possible, use one example of positional inequality and one of status inequality. Characterize who are the advantaged and who are the disadvantaged in each example As always, specify clearly what is unequal If an example is not itself a system of inequality, but a subsystem, a site where the effects of a system of inequality are played out, or an intersection between systems of inequality, then be clear what the relevant system or systems of inequality might be For each example, examine the interests that seem to be determined by the social organization of inequality, regardless how people recognize them. List the most important ways that the objective interests of the For Medical Necessity And, advantaged are at odds with those of the disadvantaged; here the objective interests means the interests implied by the structure of inequality and their location within this structure, regardless of Bar Graph Templates their recognition of the interests Similarly, list the Academic Job Search Workshop Preparing, most important ways that the objective interests of Math Chart Templates Vertical Template advantaged people or groups converge with those of the disadvantaged. Here we are concerned with interests related to conditions or practices that have a widespread influence, usually where both the advantaged and disadvantaged are exposed to common effects. Professional Resume! For example, potentially a shared interest between officials of an autocratic government and the citizenry in maintaining public peace would be relevant, but parallel or similar interests in being healthy would not. : Blank Printable Templates Vertical Template! Similarly, the employers and Academic Job Search Preparing Future Faculty Initiative workers in a corporation may have divided interests about the Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Templates, distribution of the company's income, but they have convergent interests in the corporation being successful. For the above assessments, both the interests at odds and those that converge, consider whether the objective interests seem try to characterize the most important interests in terms of their clarity, consistency, extremity, and Guidelines For Medical Necessity And the like. thinking about Bar Graph Chart Vertical Template, objective interests not as an Mark Walsh, Md Professional individual experiences them, but as they are produced and sustained by the systems of inequality, how would you ? Now, a really tough part.

As best you can, with these examples, consider how interests become recognized or conceived by people who are subject to the interest-producing circumstances of inequality. We want to avoid the temptation to think about Math Bar Graph Chart Template, this in terms of the reasons an individual might choose one way or another. Instead, we want to examine how the Blank Pdf |, characteristics of objective interests or the structure of the Math Bar Graph Printable Templates Vertical Template, relevant inequality induces people to interpret their interests in one way or another. We are seeking the Job Application, social conditions or dynamics that direct the conception of interests. : Blank Templates Vertical! Note to begin that people may conceive their interests as some subset of the Workshop Future Initiative, objective interests previously identified, or they may rely on conceptions that ignore or even oppose the objective interests.

What institutional and : Blank Bar Graph Printable Templates cultural processes or arrangements seem to influence the emergence of common interests based on the inequalities in your examples? E.g., the aged or young adults may have a strong, self-conscious sense of common interests under some circumstances but at other times not recognize possible shared interests.; what determines when they do see their concerns as common interests? Given the objective interests you have identified, think under what conditions you would expect people more likely to identify and pursue each of those objective interests as opposed to the conditions under which they would not do so. Similarly, consider under what conditions people might be prone to misinterpret their interests entirely. Or, under what conditions they are more likely to stress oppositional interests and under what conditions they will emphasize the Mark Md Professional Letter, interests they have in common with those with whom they are unequal? For each example, in what important ways and under what circumstances do people's conceived interests seem to diverge from Math : Blank Chart Templates Template, their objective interests? (A classic example occurs when members of Mark Walsh, Md Professional Reference a group, such as the working class, believe their interests are best served by Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Templates a political party that is actually committed to policies that threaten their interests, such as those typically associated with Republicans.) What seems to account for the disjunctions? (Consider both the advantaged and the disadvantaged.) For the inequalities you are using, when and where do individual interests seem to contradict collective interests?

What consequences does this have? (E.g., it is 10 Best Professional Images On Pinterest, generally in students' collective interest that professors grade all students the same way, but tall, pretty boys have individual interests in biased grading if professors favor tall, pretty boys.) In short , the goal here is to develop some initial ideas about the ways that interests work. We use two examples as the simplest design that allows us to begin generalizing about inequality, rather than describing the character of : Blank Bar Graph Printable Chart Templates Template a single instance. Using the chosen examples, we want to produce some initial ideas about the range of objective interests, both oppositional and shared, created by an inequality system. Then we want to ask how people's conceptions of their interests arise out of 10 Best Resume Images | Cover those objective interests in interaction with impinging social conditions. And, in particular we want to Bar Graph Printable Templates Vertical Template, consider how and why conceived interests might diverge from or even become inconsistent with objective interests. James Madison, The Federalist No. Walsh, Reference! 10 (The Utility of the Math Bar Graph Chart Templates, Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection [continued], 1787) The Federalist No. 51 (The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments, 1788) Aage B. Sorensen; The Structural Basis of Workshop Preparing Future Initiative Social Inequality The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 101, No. 5 (Mar., 1996), pp. 1333-1365 [jstor: 2782357] Jack Barbalet. (2012).

Self-interest and the theory of action. The British Journal of Sociology , 63: 412429. [doi: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2012.01417.x] Lisa Belkin. The Opt-Out Revolution. New York Times, October 26, 2003 Heather Boushey – Are Women Opting Out? CEPR Reports and Issue Briefs 2005-36, Center for Economic and Policy Research, 2005 J. A. W. Gunn; 'Interest Will Not Lie': A Seventeenth-Century Political Maxim; Journal of the Math : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates Vertical, History of Ideas , Vol. 29, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1968), pp. 551-564 [jstor: 2708293] Joseph Heath, Methodological Individualism, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2009 Edition) Hardin, Russell, The Free Rider Problem, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Academic Preparing Future Initiative Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition) Wikipedia, Prisoner's dilemma Franz Traxler; Business Associations and Labor Unions in Comparison: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Findings on Social Class, Collective Action and Associational Organizability; The British Journal of Sociology , Vol.

44, No. : Blank Bar Graph Chart Template! 4 (Dec., 1993), pp. 673-691 [jstor: 591416] Erik Olin Wright; Working-Class Power, Capitalist-Class Interests, and Class Compromise; The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 105, No. 4 (Jan., 2000), pp. 957-1002 [jstor: 3003886] Dennis Chong; Values versus Interests in the Explanation of Job Search Workshop Future Social Conflict; University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol. 144, No. 5 (May, 1996), pp. 2079-2134 [jstor: 3312649] Catherine I. Bolzendahl, Daniel J. Myers; Feminist Attitudes and Support for Gender Equality: Opinion Change in Math : Blank Templates Template Women and Men, 1974-1998; Social Forces , Vol.

83, No. 2 (Dec., 2004), pp. 759-789 Dennis Chong, Jack Citrin, Patricia Conley; When Self-Interest Matters; Political Psychology , Vol. 22, No. 3 (Sep., 2001), pp. 541-570 [doi: 10.1111/0162-895X.00253] Mustafa Emirbayer, Ann Mische; What Is Agency?; The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 103, No.

4 (Jan., 1998), pp. 10 Best Professional Templates | Cover! 962-1023 [read quickly – to read slowly is to risk calcification of the intellect] [jstor: 2782934] . IX. What determines the allocation of people (or other relevant unit) within a positional system of Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Chart inequality? This issue includes questions commonly addressed in the literatures on social mobility and status attainment (and on placement within organizations). More or less independent of its occupants, a system of positional inequality has a static structure characterized by An Employment | Better the direct relationships of authority and dependence between positions ; the ranking of Bar Graph Printable Chart Vertical Template positions according to the rewards, authority, opportunities, and statuses attached to Emily's Love |, them; and the demographic profile defined by Template the number of positions of An Employment Contract | Better Life each type.

A positional inequality system also has a dynamic structure defined by the movement of people through it, both within careers and between generations. These two components of structure – the static and the dynamic – are linked by the selection processes controlling access to positions. We can usefully conceive positional inequality as the juxtaposition of Math Vertical Template two parallel systems that are often confused or conflated: first, the structure of relationships among the positions constituting the system of inequality (e.g., the enduring authority relationship between a managerial position and a line-worker position), and, second, the relations between the people who occupy these positions (e.g., the interactions between managers and workers). The patterns of Blank Pdf | people's movement between positions both reflects and : Blank influences the relationships among positions, but it also shows the impact of impinging status inequalities. To understand the inequalities among people, we obviously need to understand what decides which people occupy which positions. Analytical task: We will explore how positional inequalities work. Recall that two general examples of positional inequalities would be the Blank, occupational structure of a modern society or the hierarchy of Math : Blank Printable Chart Templates Vertical positions within a complex organization. Note that, in this analytical context, income inequality is an effect of positional inequalities; income inequality is not itself a system of inequality (involving neither transferable positions nor status groups), although it functions as both an Walsh, Reference incentive and consequence of positional (and status) inequalities.

Also note that positional inequalities are commonly constituted by relatively clear local hierarchies that only : Blank Bar Graph Printable Vertical, loosely translate into a societal wide hierarchy. For example, complex organizations usually have well-defined positional hierarchies, but their finer distinctions are organization or industry specific. Academic! As a result, people (both scholars and ordinary people) use common characteristics of positions – such as income, authority level, or organizational size – to translate local positional standings into Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Templates Vertical Template a comparable metric. Choose two dissimilar examples of positional inequalities. Try to choose two that have different institutional settings, are not closely causally connected to each other, or operate by different logics. They may coexist in Pdf | one society or be drawn from Math : Blank Bar Graph Templates Vertical, different (in space or time) societies.

For each example, describe the 10 Best Professional Resume Templates Images, overall structure of positions. Math : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates Vertical Template! Among other things, an analytical description of a positional structure should consider the following: Assess the Reference, differential characteristics attached to Printable Chart Templates Vertical Template, the positions (rewards, authority, visibility, etc.) Summarize and characterize the relationships among positions. Consider the simple demographics of the system: how many positions exist at each level?; what is the turnover rate of personnel occupying the Guidelines For Medical Necessity, positions (the departure rates)?; how stable is the demographic profile (i.e., do the relative and absolute numbers remain the same over time)? If possible to Math Bar Graph Printable Chart, assess, how did the existing configuration of positions come into existence? For each example, try to describe the normal pathways of movement into and between positions What are the typical initial entry points, the positions that take people who have not previously been in the system of positional inequality? For example, in a large business or organization, many positions are typically filled by Life promotions from other positions; people are not usually hired from the outside for such positions.

Commonly, a If these entry-point positions are themselves unequal, also consider. How are the entry points unequal ? What determines who gets in which ones? Who controls the Math : Blank Printable Chart, allocation process of the initial positions (directly and indirectly)? What is the I Write Life, pattern of movement among positions within the system? To what degree does selectivity operate (the demographic constraint)? (Among other things, this asks what proportion of : Blank Bar Graph Templates Vertical people at any given level will ascend to a higher level.) Consider if lateral movement among positions is relevant to Mark Walsh, Md Professional Letter, hierarchical movement. Is there significant downward movement as well as upward in the positional hierarchy? If so, remember to examine downward as well as upward for Bar Graph Templates, all issues about Blank, movement among positions. What appears to decide who moves up into more desirable positions (or down)?

Is the Bar Graph Printable Vertical, determining process fairly consistent across positions or does it vary by how high or in what sector the position appears? who has decision-making power? how standardized or impartial are the processes governing mobility among positions? Note that impartiality can be the result of Academic Job Search Preparing Future Faculty self-conscious efforts to eliminate bias and reliance on inappropriate criteria, but, alternatively, it also can be the result of an uncontrolled process that is inherently unbiased (as some would suggest for Math Chart Templates Vertical Template, market mechanisms)? Slave traders, for example, may be just as impartial toward the ethnic divisions among their chattel as the most progressive advocate of meritocratic assessments. How is the position-allocation process ideologically conceived?; particularly consider ideological constructs that reinforce, obfuscate, legitimate, or challenge the allocation process. Workshop Preparing Future Faculty! how are success and Math Bar Graph Printable failure conceived (as moral and practical categories) are there competing ideological formulations of what causes success and I Write An Employment | Better Life failure? Taking into account all the above, comparing the two examples, what can you say about the patterns of : Blank Printable Templates Vertical affiliation, alliance, deference, patronage, avoidance, opposition, and conflict that constitute the structure of relationships among people occupying different locations in a positional inequality? While exploring this issue, pay careful attention to the distinction between the positions and the people occupying them. Professional Templates On Pinterest! In short , the goal of this task is to gain some insight into the ways that positional systems of inequality work. Using two concrete examples is the simplest possible design for identifying some of the common characteristics of such systems. A commonly unanticipated difficulty in analyzing such systems arises from their duality: a structure of relationships among the positions independent of the : Blank, people who occupy them and the dynamics of relationships among the people who do occupy the positions. and book review by Deirdre Royster. Contemporary Sociology , Vol.

25, No. Necessity Determination For Speech And! 2 (Mar., 1996), pp. Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Templates Vertical Template! 151-153 [jstor: 2077161] Ralph H. Turner – Sponsored and Contest Mobility and Necessity Determination For Speech And the School System (1960) [Grusky – Classic] J. : Blank Bar Graph! Schumpeter, Social Classes in an Ethnically Homogeneous Environment. (1927) In Imperialism and Social Classes . (read from Resume | Cover, beginning through the first section of Summary and Conclusions, ignore the last few pages) [a brilliant, albeit flawed, analysis of class] DiPrete, Thomas A. and Gregory M. Eirich. Cumulative advantage as a mechanism for inequality: A review of theoretical and empirical developments. Annual Review of Sociology , 32 (2006): 271-297 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123127] Aaron M., Jennings, Jennifer L. Cumulative Knowledge about Cumulative Advantage. Swiss Journal of Sociology , 2009, Vol.

35 Issue 2, pp. 211-229 Maria Charles. Math Printable Chart Template! A World of Difference: International Trends in Women's Economic Status. Annual Review of Sociology. Vol. 37 (2011): 355-371 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.102548] Peter B Doeringer Michael J. Life! Piore. Unemployment and the Dual Labor Market. Public Interest . 38 (1975: Winter): 67-79. Gary Solon. Intergenerational Income Mobility.

The American Economic Review . Vol. 82, No. 3 (Jun., 1992), pp. 393-408. [jstor: 2117312] Rachel A. Rosenfeld Job Mobility and Career Processes; Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 18, (1992), pp. 39-61 [jstor: 2083445] Robert P. Althauser; Internal Labor Markets; Annual Review of Sociology, Vol.

15, (1989), pp. : Blank Vertical! 143-161 [jstor: 2083222] Douglas S. Massey. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Letter, Underclass. Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Chart! American Journal of Sociology 96(2) (Sep 1990): 329-357. [jstor: 2781105] Symposium, The American Occupational Structure: Reflections after Twenty-five Years. Contemporary Sociology 21 (1992): 596-668. [varied commentators try to Reference Letter, makes sense of 25 years of social mobility research] Treiman, Donald J., and : Blank Printable Vertical Harry B. G. Ganzeboom. The Fourth Generation of Comparative Stratification Research.

In The International Handbook of Sociology , edited by Stella R. Quah and Workshop Future Arnaud Sales, 123-51. Math : Blank Chart Vertical Template! London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2000. Job Application |! [doi: 10.4135/9781848608405.n6] Adrian E. Raftery and Michael Hout. Math Printable Chart Vertical Template! Maximally Maintained Inequality: Expansion, Reform, and Opportunity in Irish Education,1921-75. Sociology of Education , Vol. 66, No. 1 (Jan., 1993), pp. 41-62. [jstor: 2112784] William H. Sewell, Archibald 0. Haller, and Alejandro Portes – The Educational and Early Occupational Attainment Process (1969) [Grusky – Classic] Ivan D. Chase. How Do I Write An Employment Contract | Better Life! Vacancy Chains. Annual Review of Sociology . Math Chart Templates! (1991) Vol.

17: 133-154. [doi: 10.1146/] Christopher Jencks. Inequality in Retrospect. Harvard Educational Review. 43(1) (Spring 1973): 138-164. Christopher Jencks, Lauri Perman and Emily's Love | Lee Rainwater. What Is a Good Job? A New Measure of Labor-Market Success. American Journal of Sociology . Vol. 93, No. 6, May, 1988. [jstor: 2780816] Emily Beller and Michael Hout. Intergenerational Social Mobility: The United States in Comparative Perspective.

The Future of Children . Vol 16 N 2 (Fall 2006): 19-36 Thomas J. Dohmen, Ben Kriechel and Gerard A. Pfann; Monkey Bars and Ladders: The Importance of Lateral and Vertical Job Mobility in Math Printable Chart Templates Internal Labor Market Careers; Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 17, No. 2 (Jun., 2004), pp. 193-228 [doi: 10.1007/s00148-004-0191-4f] Joseph P. Ferrie; History Lessons: The End of American Exceptionalism? Mobility in the United States since 1850; The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol. 19, No. 3 (Summer, 2005), pp. 199-215 [doi: 10.1257/089533005774357824] . X. What are the bases of actions that secure dominance over Academic Job Search Workshop Future Initiative, time?

From those enjoying the most privileged positions to those suffering the most disadvantages, people may believe that the system of Math Bar Graph Vertical inequality that divides them reflects the elusively differential favor of the gods, the cruel fate of nature's uneven treatment, or unavoidable results of Guidelines For Medical For Speech people's differential efforts and Bar Graph Chart capacities. In truth, systems of inequality require work to keep them going, particularly the efforts of those in For Medical Necessity For Speech superior positions to Math Chart, preserve the shape of the system and Blank Job Application Pdf | their positions within it. We cannot hope to grasp the Math : Blank Bar Graph Templates Vertical, logic of a system of inequality until we understand what this work is and how it gets done. Analytical task: Assess how and why advantaged people (or their agents) act in ways that (1) preserve their advantages and (2) preserve the system of inequality that gives them advantages. Select two examples of inequality to assess the actions of advantaged people. The first example should concern gender inequality – this may be an instance of gender inequality (e.g., gender inequality in an organization, or in an occupation, or in a sport) or it may be gender inequality more generally (although this may prove more difficult). Md Professional Letter! The second example should be a different kind of inequality, preferably an example of positional inequality or alternatively an example of a quite different form of status inequality. For each example of inequality, the goal is to identify and explain the kinds of actions by advantaged people that (1) seem to occur consistently and Math : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates Vertical (2) seem to Md Professional Reference Letter, reinforce their advantages. : Blank Printable Vertical! To approach this problem systematically, try to answer the Job Application, following about each example of inequality: How do the advantaged people treat disadvantaged people in direct interactions; the relevant comparisons are with the : Blank Chart Templates, ways the advantaged relate to each other and the ways the disadvantaged relate to each other? How do advantaged people have different kinds of relationships with other advantaged people than than they have with disadvantaged people (this is similar to the previous, but concerns the more general problem of relationships rather than interactions )? In what ways might common actions or behavioral patterns of those in the advantaged class – actions that use or reflect their advantaged circumstances – reinforce the privileges of advantaged people, even though the Blank Job Application |, actions are not aimed at disadvantaged people or at sustaining inequality? (For example, the advantaged might buy all unused land for golf courses and expansive estates, leaving poor farmers no way to expand their acreage for crops.) How do advantaged people respond if one of them is challenged by a disadvantaged person. : Blank Printable Chart Templates Vertical! Challenges can take many forms.

A member of a subordinate group may simply refuse to show proper deference, as when a lower caste person does not step aside, a black woman does not go to her place in the rear of a bus, or a member of the secretarial pool addresses managers by their first name just as they do her. Someone with lower standing may adopt the dress or mannerisms of those with higher standing, or attempt to move into their neighborhoods or schools. More directly, someone with lower standing may reject and defy efforts to exercise authority by those above them. And so forth . Consider not only the actions of the person who is directly challenged, but potential actions by others in the advantaged class. How do advantaged people exercise power in government, over laws, or in the economy in ways that benefit those with advantages? How do advantaged people respond if there is a collective challenge to the system of inequality in 10 Best Resume On Pinterest | Cover which they have advantages? Looking over Math : Blank Bar Graph Templates Vertical Template, the range of actions you identify as relevant above, can they usefully be categorized? For example, one might divide them into those that mainly benefit an individual's status and those that mainly help sustain the system of inequality. Guidelines For Medical! The goal here is to : Blank Printable Template, consider if there is an analytically useful way to Guidelines Necessity Determination For Speech And, reduce the range of relevant actions and behavior patterns into a small number of general types.

What within the system of inequality seems to organize and ensure the actions that sustain it? For example, in the simplest conceivable system of inequality, we might find the only mechanism is the Math : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates Vertical, interests of those in dominance – they individually act on those interests in An Employment Contract | Better Life a manner unmediated by ideology, norms, relationships with others in the dominant group, laws, organizational processes, or anything else. More complex systems involve mechanisms that induce these actions, giving individuals motivation, direction, and support. Looking at the range of actions identified as relevant, what stand out as the mechanisms that make such actions consistent and effective? What seem to be important limitations on the actions that secure dominance? How are these actions constrained by laws, norms, ideology, resources, or the like? What conditions or potentials for the future might cause the actions to lose enthusiasm or effectiveness? In short , this task concerns the ways that inequality systems induce advantaged groups to act in ways that sustain the inequality (and their standing within that inequality). Math : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates Vertical! Once again, using two examples is the simplest design to allow initial speculations about the general functioning of inequality. The questions above aim to help one to think systematically about the range of possible actions and their sources. When analyzing the actions of the advantaged (and disadvantaged) as described above, keeping several considerations in mind may help: The shorthand references here to the actions of advantaged people do not imply that all advantaged people act the same way or that the actions that sustain inequality are produced in the same way and at the same rate by all the advantaged.

Such actions may be nearly universal, they may be typical but with a high degree of variation across people and Letter circumstances, or they may be the special actions of a minority who are the key representatives of the group interests. The analytical focus should be on Math : Blank Printable Templates Vertical Template the processes and circumstances that induce enough actions of sufficient effectiveness by enough advantaged people to Blank |, protect the inequality system. An individualistic focus on the motives or beliefs of people will probably go astray. Note initially that the relevant actions of the Chart Templates Template, advantaged may differ from How Do I Write | Better Life, those of the disadvantaged in varied ways other than reflecting divergent interests. For example, (1) the opportunities to act may differ (e.g. differential access to higher education), (2) analogous actions may have different effects, and : Blank Bar Graph Printable (3) even with equivalent opportunities and effects, they may choose to act differently (e.g. because they have different beliefs or respond to different interests). Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan.

Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination. The American Economic Review , 94(4): 991-1013. [doi: 10.1257/0002828042002561] Ralph H. Turner – Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System [Grusky – Classic] But compare: Sackett, Paul R.; Hardison, Chaitra M.; Cullen, Michael J. On Interpreting Stereotype Threat as Accounting for African American-White Differences on Cognitive Tests. American Psychologist , Vol 59(1), Jan 2004, 7-13. [doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.7] Joe R. Feagin. The Continuing Significance of Race: Antiblack Discrimination in Public Places. American Sociological Review Vol. 56, No.

1 (Feb., 1991) (pp. 101-116) [jstor: 2095676] Toward an Integrated Theory of Systemic Racism. Pp. 203-223 in Krysan, Maria and Lewis, Amanda E. The Changing Terrain of Guidelines Necessity Determination And Race and Ethnicity 2004. Gil Eyal, Ivan Szelenyi, and Eleanor Townsley. The Theory of Chart Template Post-Communist Managerialism. New Left Review March-April 1997. Kim A. Weeden – Occupational Closure and Job Application | Earnings Inequality 176. XI.

What induces reducing or overcoming inequalities? Inequality systems do not only have causes that bring them into existence and causes that preserve them, they also have causes that potentially reduce or eliminate them. Systems of inequality may decline because they are pushed out of the way by new systems of inequality, because they simply become increasingly ineffective or irrelevant, because the disadvantaged are increasingly able to overcome their circumstances as individuals, or because the system is dramatically overturned by collective actions from below or intrusion from invaders. How and why these processes dilute, undermine, or eliminate inequalities is Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Templates Vertical, theoretically underdeveloped. Analytical task: Declining inequalities Select as example of social inequality, positional or status, that showed significant reductions in the degree of inequality over time. For the Emily's Letter, selected example of inequality, if it is : Blank Printable Templates Template, not a system of inequality but a component, result, or instance of Mark Walsh, Reference a system of inequality, the Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Templates, analysis should include careful consideration of the system itself. (Note that inequality may decline in Blank Pdf | a component as a result of Bar Graph Printable Chart Template overall decline in the system, decline in a component may induce greater inequality in the system, or decline in a component may take place independently of and without noticeable impact of the enveloping system.

In what ways did those involved in the example of inequality being considered actively promote or resist its decline? In our simplest examples, those involved reduces to the advantaged group versus the disadvantaged. In real life, seems can be much more complex. Each system of inequality may have multiple types of involvement, distinguished by subtle or ambiguous differences of interests, relationships and activities. And, systems of inequality overlap and interact.

We want to be sensitive to this potential complexity, but willing to reduce it conceptually as far as possible to produce a manageable model. Future! Note that people may actively promote or resist a change in inequality for Math Bar Graph Vertical, motives that are not focused on the issue of the inequality's persistence. An Employment | Better Life! The goal here is to characterize the types of people whose actions tended to reinforce the inequality and those whose actions tended to erode it. Recall that members of advantaged groups may join the Printable Templates, challengers (against their putative interests) and members of the disadvantaged may join the I Write An Employment | Better Life, supporters. Were any other coexisting systems of inequality declining or becoming more extreme during the same period? If so, is it possible to identify causal processes that might connect the simultaneous changes?

Were there direct clashes over the competing interests of those advantaged and those disadvantaged by Bar Graph Printable Chart Templates Vertical Template system of inequality that was declining? If so, what were there causes and | their consequences? Were there any independent changes in the circumstances of the Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Template, advantaged people that plausibly diminished their will or ability to sustain the pattern of inequality? Were actors who were not direct participants in the systems of inequality (i.e. not acting as members of the advantaged or disadvantaged) significant for promoting or obstructing the movement toward change? The state is an obvious contender here, but so are others whose interests or symbolic commitments seem to be at Guidelines Necessity Determination For Speech, stake.

Are there other processes, actors, circumstances, or causal dynamics neglected by the above questions that seem important to Math Bar Graph Printable Chart Templates Template, analyzing the changes in inequality in the examples being considered? In short , the goal this week is to Guidelines Necessity For Speech, explore the conditions and : Blank Chart Templates Vertical Template processes that work against the persistence of Workshop Future Initiative inequalities under appropriate structural and historical circumstances. Jens Beckert; The Longue Duree of Inheritance Law. Discourses and Institutional Development in France, Germany, and the United States since 1800; Archives Europeennes de Sociologie/European Journal of Sociology , vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 79-120, 2007 [This contains the central argument of the book that is Bar Graph Printable Chart Templates Template, discussed in the symposium listed next.] Anne Alstott, Marion Fourcade, and Philippe Steiner; Review Symposium on Jens Beckert Inherited Wealth . Contract | Better Life! Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2008; Socio-Economic Review 7(1) (2009): 145-159 [doi: 10.1017/S0003975607000306] Erik Olin Wright. The Shadow of Exploitation in Weber's Class Analysis.

American Sociological Review. Vol. 67, No. 6, (Dec., 2002) : 832-53. [jstor: 3088972] Marco H.D. van Leeuwen and Ineke Maas. : Blank Bar Graph Printable Template! Historical Studies of Social Mobility and Stratification.

Annual Review of Sociology . 2010. 36:42951. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.10263] Alejandro Portes and Necessity For Speech And Min Zhou – The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants (1993) [Grusky – Contemporary] XII. What are the theoretical and empirical relationships between different forms of inequality? Multiple systems of inequality coexist in societies, with crosscutting categories and with individuals simultaneously located in each. An older tradition in sociology suggested that the Math Chart Template, degree of Determination overlap between different forms of : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates inequality was one condition influencing the likelihood of class formation. A more recent interest has been the intersection between race, gender, and class as experienced by individuals, with the central (largely atheoretical) premise that the Love |, implications of one's status in Printable Templates Vertical Template one system depends on one's statuses in the others. Our concern here is more at the level of inequality's organization, asking in what ways different systems of inequality interact with each other. Analytical task: Interdependence of Mark Md Professional Reference Letter inequalities Select one society and : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates Vertical historical moment (or one period, such as the Professional On Pinterest | Cover, second half of the Math Bar Graph Printable Chart Template, 20 th century). Within this historical context, select two examples of Mark Walsh, Reference Letter systems of positional inequality and two examples of systems of Math Chart Templates Vertical Template status inequality, chosen such that a significant number of individuals will have a location within each of the four systems considered. . Assess in what ways and to what degree an individual's status in one instance of inequality relates to others. To be systematic, consider How standing in Mark Md Professional one form of positional inequality relates to standing in the other example of positional inequality How standing in one instance of status inequality relates to Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Chart Template, standing in the other form of status inequality How standing in Emily's Love Letter | the systems of Math : Blank Templates Template positional inequality relate to Pdf |, standing in the systems of status inequality Assess how the organization and functioning of these systems of inequality influence or overlap each other.

Among other things, this might include considering How the locations in the two examples of Printable Chart Vertical positional inequality are related. Are any locations defined simultaneously in both systems? Are there enduring relationships between locations in the two systems that continue regardless who are in those locations? Are there sustained patterns of movement between the two systems? What relationships exist among the the symbolic representations and ideological legitimation schemes associated with the forms of inequality being examined? Are they simply independent?; are they separate but drawing on Guidelines For Medical Necessity And some common ideas?; are they partially or wholly merged into one scheme that serves all at once? In what ways is persistence of one system of Bar Graph Chart Templates Template inequality dependent on Walsh, Letter its relationship with another? For example, how might the Bar Graph Printable Templates Template, elimination of any one system of inequality affect the Job Search Faculty, others.?

What links exist between the laws and governmental mechanisms that support these systems of inequality? Can we identify inconsistencies or sources of Math : Blank Chart Templates friction between these systems of inequality? How do historical developments and changes in How Do An Employment Contract Life these systems relate to Printable Chart Templates Vertical Template, each other? Peter M. Blau. Necessity! A Fable about Social Structure. Social Forces , Vol. 58, No. 3 (Mar., 1980), pp.

777-788. On the importance of always considering the implications of numbers. [jstor: 2577184] Jacobs, Jerry A. The Sex Typing Of Aspirations And Occupations: Instability During The Careers Of Young Women. Social Science Quarterly 68.1 (1987): 122-137. William T. Printable Vertical! Bielby and Denise D. Bielby. I Will Follow Him: Family Ties, Gender-Role Beliefs, and Guidelines Reluctance to Relocate for a Better Job. American Journal of Sociology , Vol. Math Bar Graph Printable Chart Vertical Template! 97, No. 5 (Mar., 1992), pp. 1241-1267, [jstor: 2781415]

Perhaps the How Do I Write An Employment Contract | Better Life, most fundamental question about inequalities, and sometimes seeming the most illusive to answer, is the misleadingly simple question, what causes inequality? While no general, all embracing answer is possible (at this time), progress in understanding inequality demands that we continually try to : Blank Printable Chart Templates Vertical Template, improve our analyses of the causes. Any effort to do this must consider different forms of causation that are possible. Analytical task: We want to investigate what causes inequalities. How Do I Write Life! Causation is a difficult, often elusive, concept. What we mean by the causes of inequalities can take different forms. We can ask why it comes into existence. This question about origins may concern the specific historical circumstances or sequence of : Blank Printable Templates Vertical events in which an inequality emerges. Or we might interpret original causes in terms of the social conditions necessary for Mark Walsh, Md Professional Reference, such inequality to emerge or, somewhat differently, the social conditions that make it unavoidable. We might instead ask what causes (or allows) an Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Templates Template inequality to persist over time, potentially distinct from the |, reasons for its origin, the conditions and processes that sustain it.

Or, we might focus on the variations in the severity of some inequality, seeking the key to understanding it in the conditions that cause it to Math : Blank Chart Templates Vertical, be great in Guidelines For Medical For Speech some places and slight in others. Math Bar Graph Chart Templates! In either case, we may stress the mechanisms, the Blank Job Application Pdf | |, recurring actions and Math : Blank Vertical Template social processes that produce the inequality, or we may stress the conditions that allow or require it. Given this expanse of possibilities, we must narrow our question, to make it reasonable. Choose two kinds of For Medical Determination inequality, each of which varies considerably in its intensity. Bar Graph Printable! For each kind choose one example that has low inequality and Mark Walsh, Md Professional Reference Letter another that has high inequality. These four examples, two with low inequality to compare with two having high inequality, will be the basis of the analysis.

These may come from the same historical and Bar Graph cultural setting or from different ones. Blank Pdf |! For each kind of inequality, if it is not a system of Printable Templates inequality but a component, result, or instance of a system of inequality, the analysis should stress the system. For example, if we start with two unequal occupations, we would say that they are in Md Professional Reference Letter most cases not a system of inequality but a part of one. So, we could shift our attention to the system of occupational inequality. Templates! Or, if we begin with the inequality between women and men within the financial industry, we could move to Mark Reference Letter, the general inequality between the sexes. In general, an example of inequality that is a component, result, or instance of Math : Blank Template a system of Determination And inequality may have particularistic causes that seem sufficient to account for its contours or variations.

However, we expect its existence is derivative of the relevant system of inequality and that it and other similar instances that are derivative of the same system of Math Printable Vertical Template inequality are all subject to Blank Job Application, the causal processes that generate and sustain that system of inequality. Thus, an effort to identify and make sense of the causal processes cannot look at the component or instance alone. Describe each kind of inequality and the difference between the higher and lower inequality instances. As always, describe who are distinguished by the inequality, and what it is that is unequal. Specify why we consider the inequality in one instance to be significantly higher than in the other. This is a measurement issue on the surface, but commonly has deeper implications about what the Math, inequality means.

Comparing the instances of high inequality with those of low inequality, construct a series of hypotheses about about the possible causes of How Do I Write An Employment Life high inequality (compared to low inequality). In some cases these hypotheses may apply to : Blank Bar Graph Vertical, both kinds of inequality similarly while in others they are quite different – try to be clear about this. For each hypothesis, explain the reasoning behind your speculation. In attempting to 10 Best Professional On Pinterest, generate hypotheses representing a systematic analysis, among other things to think about, you might consider: the origins of each example of inequality (e.g., do the high and low inequality instances arise from distinctive conditions that relate to their subsequent intensity) the history of changes in levels of Math : Blank Chart Templates inequality if applicable and known (e.g., does knowledge of Md Professional Letter their varying intensities over time suggest anything about why or how they differ in the instances you compare?0 political and legal contexts ideological and cultural contexts relationships to Math : Blank Bar Graph Chart Vertical Template, other forms of inequality direct relationships between those advantaged and those disadvantaged by the inequality how individuals' statuses are decided . Each of the foregoing refer to important aspects of an inequality system that imply the existence of Md Professional Reference some causal process. Looking back over the previous topics we have examined should give more facets of inequality calling for a similar causal analysis. Moving beyond hypotheses, see which of Math Bar Graph Printable Chart Templates Template these more general questions you can begin to Job Search Workshop Preparing Future Faculty Initiative, answer.

Consider to what degree the origins, the : Blank Bar Graph Printable Templates Template, persistence, or the Templates Images | Cover, severity of the inequality is explained by the outcomes of Math : Blank Chart Vertical self-interested actions of individuals and organizations. Consider to Letter |, what degree the origins, the persistence, or the severity of the inequality is explained by its functional and structural relationships to Math Bar Graph Printable Chart Vertical Template, important social arrangements or needs. Blank Job Application |! Consider to what degree the origins, the persistence, or the severity of the inequality is explained by some competitive processes. Try to be self-conscious about the comparisons being made, implicit or explicit, and what alternatives might be possible. Try not to forget that inequality induces processes, conditions, and structures that limit resistance's effectiveness and part of its explanation lies in the ways this obstruction or resistance works. Math Chart Templates Vertical Template! In short , our analytical goal is to generate ideas about what produces inequality, by Professional first looking at Math Chart Vertical Template, what seems to Blank Job Application Pdf |, explain variations in the degree of severity of : Blank Bar Graph Printable Vertical two types of Pdf | inequality. Karl Marx.

Marx on Social Classes and Class Conflict. Relevant excerpts from Marx's work. Ernest Mandel. Marx, Karl Heinrich (1818-1883). The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economic , Second Edition. : Blank Bar Graph Printable Chart Templates Vertical Template! Eds. Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume. 10 Best Professional Resume | Cover! Palgrave Macmillan, [1987] 2008. (Knowledgeable summary and defense of Marx's ideas.) [doi: 10.1057/9780230226203.1051] Robert C. Hauhart. The Davis-Moore Theory of Stratification: The Life Course of a Socially Constructed Classic. The American Sociologist, Vol.

34, No. 4 (Winter, 2003), pp. 5-24. [jstor: 27700363] W. Graham Astley; Organizational Size and Bureaucratic Structure; Organization Studies , vol. 6, no. Printable Vertical Template! 3, pp. 201-228, 1985 [doi: 10.1177/017084068500600301] Thomas Piketty and Walsh, Md Professional Reference Letter Emmanuel Saez. Math : Blank Templates Template! The Evolution of Top Incomes: A Historical and International Perspective. The American Economic Review, 96(2) (2006): 200-205. [doi: 10.1257/000282806777212116] Devah Pager, Bruce Western, and Bart Bonikowski. ?Discrimination in Md Professional Reference Letter a Low Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment.? American Sociological Review 74(October): 777-799 [doi: 10.1177/000312240907400505] Paula England. The Failure of Human Capital Theory to Explain Occupational Sex Segregation.

The Journal of : Blank Printable Human Resources , Vol. 17, No. 3 (Summer, 1982), pp. 358-370 [jstor: 145585] and Wage Appreciation and Depreciation: A Test of Neoclassical Economic Explanations of Occupational Sex Segregation. Social Forces (1984) 62 (3): 726-749. [doi: 10.1093/sf/62.3.726] Jos C. Blank Job Application Pdf |! N. Raadschelders; Size and Organizational Differentiation in Historical Perspective; Journal of Public Administration Research and Templates Vertical Theory : J-PART, Vol. 7, No. 3 (Jul., 1997), pp. 419-441 [jstor: 1181603] Devah Pager and Blank Job Application Pdf | | Diana Karafin. Math Chart Vertical! Bayesian Bigot?

Statistical Discrimination, Stereotypes, and Employer Decision Making. I Write Life! The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science . Math Bar Graph Printable Templates! 621 (January 2009): 70-93. Guidelines For Medical Determination! [doi: 10.1177/0002716208324628] Kathryn M. Neckerman and Math Chart Templates Vertical Florencia Torche. Inequality: Causes and Consequences Annu. Rev. Sociol . 2007. 33: 335-57. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131755] Guillermina Jasso.

A New Model of Wage Determination and Wage Inequality. Rationality and Society 2009 21(1): 113-168. [doi: 10.1177/1043463108099350] Thomas Piketty and Guidelines Determination Emmanuel Saez. Income Inequality in the United States, 1913-1998. The Quarterly Journal of Bar Graph Printable Templates Template Economics Vol. 118, No.

1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-39 [doi: 10.1162/00335530360535135] Thomas Piketty's (a French economist) recent work on economic inequality over time has been a major contribution. Much of it is available from his personal website (and more recent work). Blank |! Particularly recommended are: Thomas Piketty. On the Long-Run Evolution of Inheritance: France 1820?2050. The Quarterly Journal of Economics (2011) 126(3): 1071-1131. [doi: 10.1093/qje/qjr020] Atkinson, Anthony B., Thomas Piketty, and Emmanuel Saez.

2011. : Blank Bar Graph Printable Chart Templates Vertical! Top Incomes in How Do Contract | Better Life the Long Run of History. Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable! Journal of Love Letter | Economic Literature , 49(1): 3-71. [doi: 10.1257/jel.49.1.3] Thomas Piketty Gabriel Zucman. Capital is Back: Wealth-Income Ratios in Math Chart Rich Countries 1700-2010. Guidelines Determination For Speech! A slide presentation. Paris School of Math Bar Graph Printable Chart Economics. For Medical Necessity Determination! March 2013.

Thomas Piketty. Self-ful?lling beliefs about social status. Journal of Public Economics , 70, 1, (1998): 115-132. [doi: 10.1016/S0047-2727%2898%2900063-2] Murray Milner, Jr. Theories of Inequality: An Overview and a Strategy for Synthesis. Social Forces , Vol. 65, No. Bar Graph Printable Chart Templates! 4 (Jun., 1987), pp. 1053-1089 [jstor: 2579023] . XIV. What makes some forms of inequality more important than others to the organization of social structure and the patterns of Blank Job Application human action?

Some have argued that class dominates in Math Bar Graph Printable Chart Vertical Template particular societies or all societies. Others have suggested that gender inequality is the most fundamental inequality. Putting aside grand claims, most would agree that some kinds of inequality have greater influence over the organization of a society (or other social entity) and the history of Walsh, that organization. How we can systematically assess the relative importance of different kinds of : Blank Printable Templates Vertical inequality and what decides their differential importance are not clear. Analytical task: To be added Select four kinds of inequality that are widespread within a society or some other boundaried social context (such as an organization or social category). Academic Workshop Initiative! Try to rank these examples of in equality in terms of their relative importance. Note that different criteria for importance can result in different rankings. One goal is to Math : Blank Vertical, identify what criteria for importance make sense for the chosen examples.

Note that the importance of an inequality may vary by time period, by type of people, by location in another system of inequality, and other differentiating conditions. Thus, a careful assessment will commonly result in Blank Job Application Pdf | | a series of rankings for the relative importance of the inequality example, with the rankings distinguished by the criteria for importance used and by Chart Templates Vertical Template the circumstances that mediate the evaluations for any specific criterion. How Do Contract | Better! To be systematic, one will usually want to Printable Chart Templates Vertical, rewrite the analysis of relative importance organized around the conditioning criteria Having assessed the relative importance of the inequality examples, try to explore what caused the rankings. How Do I Write An Employment Contract | Better Life! In the foregoing, we are focusing on description and measurement. Here the : Blank Printable Chart Vertical, concern is causality. Above we are trying to establish why and when we might call one kind of inequality more important than another, a conceptual and empirical exercise. Here we are asking what it is about the content, configuration and How Do An Employment Life history of the inequalities that results in one having more importance than the other. Math Bar Graph Printable Templates! One path to answering this question might be to consider known empirical examples where the relative importance of the types of Md Professional Letter inequality being considered have a different ranking importance. Another path to answering might be to imagine what it would take to lower the importance of the higher ranked inequality or raise the importance of the lower ranked one.

XV. How does resistance by Math Chart Templates Template subordinate groups work? People do not enjoy the lower status, fewer rewards, subjection to authority, and other disadvantages attached to being at the lower end of a system of inequality. This may result in anything between a mild, occasional resentment and a continuous, burning hatred with their fate. Fear, identification with the system, search for praise from those above, or hope for personal advancement may induce some to conform as much as possible with the expectations of the advantaged. 10 Best Resume Images On Pinterest! Still, wherever inequality exists, resistance exists. Analytical task: Resistance Select two examples of : Blank Bar Graph Printable Templates inequality. In each case, how do the disadvantaged resist? While identifying resistance, consider everyday, commonly repeated actions of the disadvantaged unusual, more extreme individual actions by some disadvantaged collective or organized forms of resistance What conditions, rules, processes, and Mark Walsh, Reference Letter actions limit resistance? To recognize these obstacles, consider why the identified forms of Math Printable Vertical resistance are not more common, more extreme, or more effective?

VIII. How can we understand the Walsh, Letter, logic of Math : Blank Printable Chart structures of An Employment Life unequal positions? A system of inequality is a system. From a functionalist perspective, its persistence requires mechanisms to ensure conformity to its rules and expectations, to recruit adequate personnel to sustain operation, to preserve commitment of those in advantaged statuses and limit rebellion from others, and so forth. From a structuralist perspective, it will induce latent conflicts that must be contained, it will require legitimating ideology, it must enforce unequal effort and unequal rewards, and so forth. A system of inequality has structure, it has processes that occur over time, it has mechanisms to sustain itself. Are there ways we can conceive these elements that allow us to talk with a common language about the structural logics of diverse systems of inequality? Analytical task . : Blank Printable Templates Vertical! Select and Blank list five or more distinctive systems of inequality . From each of the past weeks in Math Printable Chart Templates Vertical Template this class, select one system of Necessity For Speech inequality from the weekly papers . The possibilities from which to choose includes any system of : Blank Printable inequality that appears in Professional Resume Images any of the Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Vertical Template, papers for a given week.

As usual, briefly describe each system of inequality. Who are included, what is unequally distributed, who are advantaged or disadvantaged, and the like. If you are going to consider a subset of a larger system of inequality, be clear about what you are doing and why. *. What are general dimensions of inequality systems, by Professional Templates Images On Pinterest | Cover which we can characterize, compare, and categorize them? Generally, researchers and theorists treat different kinds of inequalities as if they existed in distinct and unrelated conceptual worlds, although they might empirically overlap in concrete historical settings. Various empirical instances of racial inequality are compared, as are different instances of : Blank Bar Graph Templates Template income inequality or organizational hierarchies, but divergent kinds of inequality each get their own, independent analytic turf. The divisions between kinds of inequality are not the result of Emily's Letter | any systematic logic, but treated as self-evident, natural distinctions. *. What might be general principles of systems of inequality? These include common structural constraints, requirements for persistence, predictable effects, and the like. IX-2. How should we conceive interests in the analysis of inequality? [part 2]

Continuing the : Blank Printable Chart Templates Template, analysis of interests. Analytical Task 2 on Interests Taking into Job Search Future Faculty Initiative account the insights and concerns developed in the Common Readings listed below, write a critical review of Math : Blank Bar Graph Templates Jackson's effort to use interests as a theoretical device and analytical tool in the studies of class and gender inequality listed above. Although scholars spend much time and effort writing critiques of published work, and Job Application | graduate students spend even more, systematic treatments of the criteria for, and strategies toward, good critiques are rare. Here are just a few points to consider. A critique can never be better than its author's understanding of the work being criticized. And a reader cannot appreciate the intent of the Math : Blank Printable Chart Templates Template, critique beyond their grasp of the critic's reading of the original work. This means that to write a good critical review, we must first be sure we understand what we are criticizing and, second, we must present a clear summary of that understanding as part of our critique. Although there are important exceptions, most critical reviews really are elaborations of the answer to a simple question. After reading the piece, do I, the critic, find the argument worthwhile or not? However elaborate or simple, with whatever style of presentation, the review is largely an Determination For Speech And effort to present a sustained defense of Bar Graph Templates Vertical Template that evaluation. A good review is Walsh, Letter, always fair.

We should never shy from identifying a flaw or calling a mistake what it is. But we should always try to : Blank Template, use the language and tone that we hope reviewers will use when they reveal the similar failings in our work. For Medical Determination! We review manuscripts, articles, and books. We do not review people. Brilliant scholars write dim papers – they are not dim as a result. A wise reviewer avoids referring to the author, and concentrates on the strengths and Math Printable Chart Templates Vertical weaknesses of the work being reviewed. For example, saying that the arguments in the last and first sections contradict each other is Academic Preparing, preferable to saying in the last section, the author contradicts what she said in the first section. Attributing thoughts and intentions to an author is worse.

Sitting in Bar Graph Printable Vertical judgment of the author's intellect, effort, or morality is worst. As reviewers, we commonly want to be clear about two interpretations of what has been accomplished in the work being reviewed: that of the How Do I Write Contract, author and Math Bar Graph Chart Vertical that of the I Write Life, reviewer. Sometimes these will be the same; often not. A critic has no obligation to share the author's view of the what has been done in the work. But the scholarly critic does have an obligation to grasp and accurately present the Math Printable Chart Templates Template, author's aims and orientation as they are conveyed in the work. When an author sees a review, the 10 Best Professional Images | Cover, author should not feel (1) the reviewer has said or implied I said something that I never said or implied or (2) the reviewer has said or implied that I failed to consider something that is Bar Graph Chart Templates Vertical, explicitly part of my presentation. Good scholars do not mind critical reviews, even highly critical ones, that are accurate and fair. Good scholars despise reviews that are inaccurate or unfair, even if they are positive. What a review covers depends on Academic Job Search Workshop Preparing Faculty the review's purpose, the audience, and the content and quality of the work being reviewed. No possible recipe of Math Chart Vertical Template ingredients will apply to Resume Templates Images On Pinterest | Cover, all or even most reviews. The closest we can come to this is to list common elements of Math : Blank Chart Vertical reviews, understanding that the reviewer must judge what weight, if any, each merits in a particular review.

Some of these common elements to |, consider in reviews include: Does the work have a central thesis, argument or claim that is clear, relatively unambiguous, fully presented, logically consistent, and not inherently flawed? Does the work adequately consider alternative arguments? Does the work provide evidence that effectively supports the advocated claim over alternative claims? Is the evidence well chosen, properly gathered, and effectively analyzed (or is the work methodologically sound)? How compelling is the evidence? Does the work neglect or misconstrue some relevant research or theory in ways that raise questions and significantly diminish confidence in its claims?

Are there serious logical flaws or gaps in the analysis? Overall, is the argument compelling? Overall, is the analysis a valuable contribution? Or, does it have something to say that is worth saying? *. What is the theoretical natural state: is it inequality or equality that should be explained? Sometimes a seemingly tangential question has the Math : Blank Bar Graph Chart Template, potential to gain us unexpected insights.

At least since Rousseau wrote the on the origins of inequality we have been able to conceive that either equality or inequality may be considered the problem to explain. Job Search Faculty! While modern sociology attributes little explanatory value to ideas about the natural state of humankind, we may still hope to enhance our understanding by juxtaposing efforts to Printable Templates Template, identify the For Medical And, social mechanisms responsible for Math Bar Graph Chart, inequality with those aimed at specifying the mechanisms that induce equality. Emile Durkheim – selections from The Division of Labor in Society – [Grusky – Classic] VIII. How do people experience inequality and why do these experiences matter – part 2?

This is a continuation of the previous week's topic.

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Civil Liberties Civil Rights Essay. Civil Liberties Civil Rights. 1. The clause in the First Amendment of the US Constitution that prohibits the establishment of religion by Congress. 1. The Free Exercise Clause is the accompanying clause with the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. 2. The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution is the part of the Math : Blank Bar Graph Printable Chart, Bill of Rights which guards against unreasonable searches and seizures, along with requiring any warrant to be judicially sanctioned and supported by probable cause. 3. The 5th Amendment states that a person can be tried for a serious federal crime only Blank if he or she has been indicted (charged, accused of that crime) by a grand jury. No one may be subjected to double jeopardy – that is, tried twice for the same crime. : Blank Chart Templates. All persons are protected against self-incrimination; no person can be legally compelled to answer any question in any governmental proceeding if that answer could lead to that person’s prosecution. Blank Job Application Pdf | | The 5th Amendment’s Due Process Clause prohibits unfair, arbitrary actions by the Federal Government. 4. The Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights that sets forth rights related to Math : Blank Printable Templates Vertical criminal prosecutions. The Supreme Court has applied the protections of this amendment to the states through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

5. The Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights (ratified 1789) prohibiting the federal government from imposing excessive bail, excessive fines or cruel and unusual punishments, including torture. 6. The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution each contain a Due Process Clause. Determination For Speech. Due process deals with the administration of justice and thus the Printable Templates Vertical Template, Due Process Clause acts as a safeguard from Blank Pdf | arbitrary denial of life, liberty, or property by the Government outside the sanction of law. 7 . The 14th amendment is a very important amendment that defines what it means to Math Printable be a US citizen and Pdf | | protects certain rights of the people. There are three important “clauses” in the 14th amendment ·Citizenship Clause – the Math Bar Graph Printable Templates Vertical Template, citizenship clause gives individual born in the United States, but especially at that time, African Americans the right to citizenship. ·Due Process Clause – the due process clause protects the 1st amendment rights of the people and prevents those rights from being taken away by any government without “due process.” ·Equal Protection Clause – This part of the fourteenth amendment states that there may be no discrimination against them by How Do Contract | Better the law. 8. The incorporation of the Math : Blank Printable Template, Bill of Emily's Love | Rights (or incorporation for short) is the process by which American courts have applied portions of the U.S. Bill of Rights to the states. 9. Prior restraint (also referred to as prior censorship or pre-publication censorship) is censorship imposed, usually by a government, on expression before the expression actually takes place.

An alternative is to allow the expression to take place and to take appropriate action afterward, if the expression is found to violate the law, regulations, or other rules. 10. Symbolic speech is a legal term in United States law used to describe actions that purposefully and discernibly convey a particular message or statement to Math Printable Templates Vertical those viewing it. Academic Job Search Future Faculty. Symbolic speech is recognized as being protected under the First Amendment as a form of speech, but this is not expressly written as such in : Blank Vertical Template the document. 11. In United States criminal law, probable cause is the standard by which an officer or agent of the law has the grounds to make an How Do An Employment Contract | Better arrest, to conduct a personal or property search, or to obtain a warrant for arrest, etc. when criminal charges are being considered. 12. The exclusionary rule is a legal principle in the United States, under constitutional law, which holds that evidence collected or analyzed in violation of the Math Printable Chart, defendant’s constitutional rights is sometimes inadmissible for a criminal prosecution in Letter | a court of law. 13. Some of the things you can do in Math : Blank Printable Chart Templates the “real world” you cannot do in school. 14.

The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a nonpartisan non-profit organization whose stated mission is “to defend and preserve the Love, individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and : Blank Bar Graph Printable Template laws of the United States. In the years following World War I, America was gripped by the fear that the Communist Revolution that had taken place in Russia would spread to the United States. As is often the case when fear outweighs rational debate, civil liberties paid the price. In November 1919 and January 1920, in what notoriously became known as the “Palmer Raids,” Attorney General Mitchell Palmer began rounding up and deporting so-called radicals. Thousands of people were arrested without warrants and without regard to constitutional protections against unlawful search and seizure. Those arrested were brutally treated and Academic Job Search Future Initiative held in horrible conditions. 15. ·A wharf owner sued the city of Baltimore for economic loss occasioned by the city’s diversion of streams, which lowered the water level around his wharves. He claimed that the city took his property without just compensation in Math Bar Graph Printable Vertical Template violation of the Fifth Amendment. ·Gideon is a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Fourteenth Amendment to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants who are unable to afford to pay their own attorneys, extending the identical requirement made on the federal government under the Sixth Amendment ·The Supreme Court decision in Miranda v. Arizona required (for the first time) that someone accused of a crime be informed of his or her constitutional rights prior to interrogation.

This protected the I Write An Employment Contract Life, rights of the accused, or the defendant, in Math Bar Graph Printable Templates Template two new ways: 1) It educated the person about relevant constitutional rights; and 2) It inhibited law enforcement officials from infringing those rights by applying the Exclusionary Rule to any testimony/incriminating statements the defendant made unless he intentionally waived his rights. ·State Courts are held to the same standard as Federal Courts when evidence is obtained without the use of a search warrant, ensuring material obtained without a legitimate search warrant or probable cause cannot be used to prosecute a defendant in any court. This was an important application of the Bill of Preparing Faculty Initiative Rights to criminal procedure. ·Gitlow v. New York was a decision by the United States Supreme Court decided on June 8, 1925, which ruled that the : Blank Bar Graph Printable Vertical Template, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution had extended the reach of certain limitations on federal government authority set forth in the First Amendment—specifically the Academic Preparing Future, provisions protecting freedom of speech and freedom of the press—to the governments of the individual states. 16. The U.S Constitution safeguards the rights of Americans to privacy and personal autonomy. Although the Constitution does not explicitly provide for such rights, the U.S. : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates. Supreme Court has interpreted the Constitution protect these rights, specifically in the areas of marriage, procreation, abortion, private consensual homosexual activity, and How Do An Employment | Better Life medical treatment.

State and federal laws may limit some of these rights to privacy, as long as the restrictions meet tests that the Supreme Court has set forth, each involving a balancing of an individual’s right to Bar Graph Template privacy against the state’s compelling interests. 10 Best Resume | Cover. Such compelling interests include protecting public morality and the health of its citizens and improving the quality of life. In Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965), the State of Connecticut convicted two persons as accessories for giving a married couple information on and a prescription for a birth-control device. The U.S. Supreme Court overturned the convictions and found the Connecticut law to Math Bar Graph Chart Templates Template be unconstitutional because it violated a right to privacy in the marital relation.

1. The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments were important to Blank the Civil Rights Movement. 2. Its Equal Protection Clause requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people within its jurisdiction. : Blank Printable Chart Vertical. This clause was the basis for Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the Supreme Court decision which precipitated the Mark Reference Letter, dismantling of racial segregation in United States education, and for Reed v. Reed (1971), where the Supreme Court struck down a law based on gender (with no “rational relationship to a state objective”) — the first such application based on sex. 3. Legislation frequently involves making classifications that either advantage or disadvantage one group of persons, but not another. States allow 20-year-olds to drive, but don’t let 12-year-olds drive. Bar Graph Vertical. Indigent single parents receive government financial aid that is denied to millionaires. Obviously, the Equal Protection Clause cannot mean that government is obligated to treat all persons exactly the Mark Md Professional Letter, same–only, at most, that it is obligated to treat people the same if they are “similarly circumstanced.” Over recent decades, the Supreme Court has developed a three-tiered approach to analysis under the Chart Templates Vertical Template, Equal Protection Clause. 4. ·There were 3 thing said that day that would chage the way people looked at Professional On Pinterest | Cover, slavery -The court said that dread Scott had no right to sue because the framers of the Bar Graph Printable, Constitution (founding fathers) didn’t intend for blacks to Blank be treated like citizens. Congress had no right/authority to take away a person’s property. (Slaves often thought of as property) An if slaves were property the federal government could not restrict the slave master from bringing an housing the on : Blank Templates Vertical Template federal land that been off limits to slave owners. The Missouri compromise was unconstitutional . ·The Plessy case does not impact society . It was overturned by Brown vs. Board of Md Professional Reference education in 1954.

However, as a contributor commenting on Printable Templates Vertical this post, I must say that it led to further dispute over civil rights which eventually led to the Supreme Court reconsidering their decision in Brown v. Board of education and How Do I Write Contract | Better eventually overturning it. · Brown v. Board of Education was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and Math : Blank Bar Graph Templates Template white students unconstitutional. ·U.S. was an important United States Supreme Court case dealing with the Emily's Love |, busing of Math : Blank Vertical students to promote integration in public schools. Emily's |. After a first trial going to the Board of Bar Graph Chart Template Education, the Court held that busing was an appropriate remedy for Love Letter |, the problem of racial imbalance in schools, even when the imbalance resulted from the selection of students based on geographic proximity to the school rather than from deliberate assignment based on race. 5. : Blank Chart Vertical Template. They deliberated for a year, at which point they issued a second ruling, Brown II, which avoided specifying what sort of racial balance might constitute compliance. Brown II stated that desegregation should be carried out with “all deliberate speed.” 6. De jure (Latin for “from the law”) segregation is the separation of people on the basis of race as required by Guidelines Determination For Speech And by law.

For example, after the Civil War and the ending of slavery by the 13th Amendment to the Constitution (1865), the : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates Template, governments of the former slave states found new ways to discriminate against black Americans. They enacted laws to Guidelines Necessity Determination And require separate public facilities for blacks and whites. Math Bar Graph Chart Vertical. Blacks were required, for example, to attend separate schools, to use separate public rest rooms, and to use separate public drinking fountains. Academic Workshop. The separate facilities for blacks were supposed to be equal to the facilities provided for whites. This “separate but equal” doctrine was endorsed by Math : Blank Printable Chart Template the Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). In reality, however, the facilities for black people were rarely, if ever, equal in quality to those provided for Academic Job Search Preparing Faculty, whites. Racial separation that exists as a matter of custom rather than as a legal requirement is known as de facto (Latin for “in fact”) segregation. For example, one neighborhood may include only white families, and another nearby neighborhood may include only black families.

However, this racial segregation may have developed informally in response to : Blank Chart Vertical Template social and economic factors, not as a requirement of the law. De jure segregation has been declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court. In Brown v. Board of For Medical Necessity For Speech And Education (1954) the Math Chart Template, Court ruled against Emily's Love Letter, de jure racial segregation in public schools. In subsequent cases the : Blank Bar Graph Printable, Court outlawed racial discrimination in other areas of public life. In 1964 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, which outlawed de jure segregation. 7. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 enacted July 2, 1964 is a landmark piece of civil rights legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against Guidelines For Medical For Speech, racial, ethnic, national and Math : Blank Printable Chart Templates Vertical religious minorities, and also women. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the Job Application Pdf | |, general public known as “public accommodations”.

8. Math Bar Graph Printable Chart Vertical Template. The 1965 Voting Rights Act was a natural follow on to the Guidelines For Medical Necessity For Speech, 1964 Civil Rights Act. Ironically, the 1964 Act had resulted in an outbreak of violence in the South. White racists had launched a campaign against the success that Martin Luther King had had in getting African Americans to register to vote. The violence reminded Johnson that more was needed if the Math : Blank, civil rights issue was to Walsh, be suitably reduced. 9. The Twenty-fourth Amendment prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax. The amendment was proposed by Congress to the states on : Blank Printable Chart Templates Vertical Template August 27, 1962, and was ratified by For Medical Necessity Determination the states on January 23, 1964. 10. White primaries were primary elections in the Southern States of the United States of America in which any non-White voter was prohibited from participating. 11. Shaw v. Reno was a United States Supreme Court case argued on April 20, 1993.

The ruling was significant in Chart Templates Vertical Template the area of redistricting and racial gerrymandering. 10 Best Resume. The court ruled in a 5-4 decision that redistricting based on race must be held to a standard of strict scrutiny under the equal protection clause. On the other hand, bodies doing redistricting must be conscious of race to Bar Graph Chart Template the extent that they must ensure compliance with the Voting Rights Act. The redistricting that occurred after the 2000 census was the first nationwide redistricting to apply the results of Shaw v. Emily's Love |. Reno. 12. Korematsu v. United States was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship.In a 6-3 decision, the Court sided with the government, ruling that the Math Printable Chart, exclusion order was constitutional. Six of Emily's eight Roosevelt nominees sided with Roosevelt. The lone Republican nominee, Owen Roberts dissented. : Blank Bar Graph Chart Vertical Template. The opinion, written by Supreme Court justice Hugo Black, held that the need to protect against espionage outweighed Fred Korematsu’s individual rights, and the rights of Americans of Japanese descent. (The Court limited its decision to the validity of the exclusion orders, adding, “The provisions of other orders requiring persons of Japanese ancestry to report to 10 Best Professional Templates Images On Pinterest | Cover assembly centers and providing for the detention of such persons in assembly and relocation centers were separate, and their validity is not in Math Templates Vertical issue in this proceeding.”) During the case, Solicitor General Charles Fahy is alleged to have suppressed evidence by keeping from the Love |, Court a report from the Office of Naval Intelligence indicating that there was no evidence that Japanese Americans were acting as spies or sending signals to : Blank Bar Graph Chart Templates Template enemy submarines. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

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