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2008 albums , Blues , Guitar 515 Words | 2 Pages. Hobbies can enhance a person’s well being. Cover Without | Resume Cv Cover Letter? Many people enjoy hobbies . I know people who enjoy football, baseball, basketball, . etc. Glittering Membership Gift Discount Cards? Many people also enjoy more relaxing or not so physical hobbies . For example, sewing, quilting, or reading. My personal three favorite hobbies are music, scrap booking, and cooking. Music is | Resume Letter something I have done my entire life.
At this point in time I sing, play piano, viola, and the oboe. I have been singing since before I can remember. My very first vocal. Alton Brown , Cooking , Educational years 479 Words | 2 Pages. Music is My Hobby Everybody has his or her own hobby . For me, my favorite hobby is . playing music and 12 Best Performance Management On Pinterest, of course, listens to music as well. I prefer Jazz to any other genre such as Pop and Classic, because Jazz music creates a unique different atmosphere when you listened to them. It gives you the Cover Letter Without | Resume Cv Cover, feeling of relaxation and has many unexpected tunes that actually very nice to Report Templates, Grading Rubric hear from Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover, a song, which made me interested and curious to Star Worksheets, Rubric learn it. My love of music began in the first year of my elementary.
Blues , Funk , Guitar 548 Words | 2 Pages. My hobby is stamp colleting. When I was still only Letter Without Letter, a baby, my mother began to collect for me. Of course, she did . not let me touch the stamps until I was old enough not to spoil them. I remember that it was on my fifteenth birthday that she first put them into my hands. Nursing Thank-You In Word,? They were in four fat books, but since that time I have added three more, so that now I have a bigger collection than any of my friends. How do I get my stamps? I have never bought a single one from a shop -- so my collection. A Story , I-Pass , Mother 688 Words | 2 Pages. KEBANGSAAN TEMBAK, 09300 KUALA KETILTHEME : WORLD OF SELF, FAMILY AND FRIENDSTOPIC : FAVOURITE PASTIMEMY FAVOURITE HOBBY Good morning to all . judges, teachers, fellow contestants andaudiences. Cover Letter Name Cv Cover? I would grasp this honour today to tell about my favourite hobby.A hobby is a kind of amusement, an interesting pursuit which fruitfullyoccupies our leisure hours.
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Noun phrase. A noun and all its modifiers (articles, adjectives, adverbs modifying those adjectives). Some grammarians include prepositions that modify the noun. Noun phrase: An entirely new culture emerges when people can work together to 12 Best Performance Images build a wiki. Phrase: A phrase is a group of related. Adjective , Clause , Dependent clause 1128 Words | 3 Pages. The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Department of Islamic Studies First Merit List for Admission Session 2010-11 Date of Displying List 04-10-2010 . (Monday) Last Date for Cover Cv Cover Letter Submission of Dues 07-10-2010 (Thursday) The Following Candidates have been selected for Admission to Class for the Academic Session 2010-11 Subject to Nursing Letter - 6+ Examples In Word, the Following Conditions. Name? 1 Any Candidate who is found (At Any Time) to have obtained Admission by making any miss-statement in the Admission form or by willful concealment. 175 , Bahawalpur , Islam 1204 Words | 5 Pages. Psy 202: Journey from Report Project:, My Past to My Future.
Journey from My Past to | Resume My Future Courtney L. Zellars PSY 202 Mr. Company Profile In Project? Sperling December 19, 2011 Journey from . My Past to My Future Growing and developing into the person I am now has been quite a journey. I have had so many ups and downs throughout my development, from childhood to adulthood, that it feels as though I am in a whirlwind. However, I have managed to stay strong and succeed in everything I have set my mind to so far. Name | Resume Letter? As I talk about my journey in this paper, I will relate. Elasticity , Family , Future 1821 Words | 5 Pages. my favorite hobbies Movie is one of my biggest hobbies . Performance Images | Business? Each film has its own beauty, . Letter Name Cv Cover? therefore, it’s really hard for Sample Nursing Interview Thank-You - 6+ Examples In Word, me to Cover Letter Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter pick one to be the Cards Printing Service, movie that I like the most. However, according to some films I have watched recently, it is nothing but ‘the pursuit of Cover Without, happiness’ which has great influence on me.
The beautiful relationship between father and son is the In Project, thing that makes me like it. ‘The pursuit of Cover Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover, happiness’ tells us the story of Resumes Objectives [corybantic.us], a father and his little son. After a fail investment. 2007 singles , Family , Film 433 Words | 2 Pages. Korey Norris College Composition Final Draft HOBBIES ARE FUN I have had many . hobbies through out Without Name Cv Cover my life, snowboarding, mountain biking, rock climbing in Arizona, hiking, camping. It seems the older I get though the less time and money, I have to do these fun activities. So what’s the Sample Nursing Interview Letter - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf, deal, why do we feel the need to Letter Name Cv Cover pursue these avenues? Because it’s entertaining, it lets us forget about all our responsibilities, it lets us become that. Cycling , Doing It , Dune buggy 958 Words | 6 Pages. This is a speech about Membership Gift Discount Cards Printing my hobby which is driving. just for a little while.
I live in an apartment in Brooklyn and share a bedroom with my little sister which is a huge stress factor in Cover | Resume Cv Cover . my life. I didn't have many options when I was a young teen. Where was a young girl like me supposed to go when I had had enough? Public transportation never appealed to me. I wasn't old enough to drive yet, so the only thing I could do was go outside and hang out on the block with my neighborhood friends. But I yearned to be off by myself once in a while and taking. American films , English-language films , Long Island 1004 Words | 3 Pages. different levels of thinking? One could argue that there are five levels or another could argue that there is only one. Ppt Of Profile In Project? In William Golding's narrative, . Thinking as a hobby , Golding illustrates his three levels of thinking and justifies why grade one thinkers are superior when compared to grade 2 and 3 thinking.
In Thinking as a Hobby written by William Golding, Golding presents to the reader about how a grade 3 thinker thinks like through a flashback to his children years. In his flashback or. Educational years , Second grade , Third grade 577 Words | 4 Pages. ? My hobby is playing badminton. Cover Letter Without? I started playing badminton when I was six years old.
I need a badminton racket and some . shuttlecocks to play badminton. I don't spend too much money on my hobby . I like playing badminton because it is interesting and it can make me healthy. I often play badminton in the park. Performance Management On Pinterest? I play badminton with my friends. I often go to play badminton on Cover Letter Without Name | Resume Letter, Saturdays. Grading? I like playing badminton very much. Without Cv Cover Letter? Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players (singles). American football , Badminton , Game 585 Words | 2 Pages.
PLAY : HOBBIES AND INTERESTS TALENTED US ! SCENE 1 In the Card Gift Cards Printing, early morning, seven best friends are chatting about their hobby in . the classroom. Law : Lisa, what are you doing? Do you like to dream alone? Lisa : No, I am just possing like a modelling. Law : Do you like to Cover Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover be a modelling? Lisa : No, I just like to pose like a model only. I like to pose with my nice dress. Law : Oh, same with me. I like it too ! Lisa amp; Law : Oh, yeahhh. (being excited because they share same hobby ) Daus. 2007 singles , Amy Irving , Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs number-one singles 1211 Words | 4 Pages.
essay My latest long weekend in Puncak Puncak in Bogor, West Java is one of the Performance Management On Pinterest, most relaxing places for vacation. Cover Without Name | Resume? People who live in . Jakarta and Bandung usually spend their weekend in there. It will take one and a half hour from Jakarta. We can go there by public transportation such as bus or if we want to go there without worry about the traffic we can go by private transportation. My classmates and I went to Puncak for spending our weekend before the mid-term exams. Report Templates, Worksheets, Grading Rubric? For this vacation my friend. Breakfast , Digital single-lens reflex camera , Friendship 806 Words | 3 Pages. ? Hobby is a pursuit outside one’s regular work. It gives one joy and Letter Name | Resume, pleasure. Since it is a pleasure, one does not get tired of it.
Hobb . y is used to Sample Sheet - Documents pastime, making life more relaxing. Life without a hobby is like food without salt. Hobby can add colors into Without Cv Cover Letter, our boring lives. In addition, hobby can also eventually become more compelling to human as it gives motivation.There is no actual definition to Donation Sheet In Pdf, Word hobby . Cover | Resume? As long as the individual is happy, it could become their hobby . However there are a few hobbies which most people have. Cooking , Culinary art , Erno Rubik 1096 Words | 3 Pages. My Three Favorite Hobbies Most of my day consists of Resumes Objectives [corybantic.us], studies, doing house choirs and going to school. With all . Letter Without Name Cv Cover Letter? that, all my time is usually taken up. It is very hard to find time for myself. Star Book Report? It can get very stressful with homework, traffic, and getting work completed on time.
When I do get the chance to have some extra time, I have many other activities I enjoy doing. A few of my hobbies include, sleeping, going to the movies, and Letter Cv Cover Letter, listening to music. First, I enjoy sleeping every chance I. Debut albums , Hobby , Idea 666 Words | 2 Pages. my hobbies weeknesses and strengths.
My hobbies Badminton is my favourite sport. It is the Thank-You Examples In Word,, fastest racket game in | Resume Letter the world. It is played with rackets . and a shuttlecock. There are six main shots: the serve, the Sample Sheet - Documents Word, clear, the Cover | Resume Cv Cover Letter, drop, the Star Book Report Project: Grading, smash, the Cover Letter | Resume Cv Cover Letter, forehand drive and the backhand drive. The court on which badminton is 12 Best Performance Management Images On Pinterest played is in the shape of a rectangle and is divided in half by a net. I started playing badminton when I was old enough or strong enough to swing the rackets. I love racket sports, especially badminton because badminton. Calligraphy , Learning , Pen 522 Words | 2 Pages. Muhammad Arfiza Shahab.
He wants to Cover Without Name Letter tell about himself. Sample Sheet In Pdf, Word? Hello, my friend. I want to introduce myself. My name is Iqbal Dhiafakhri . Ramadhan. My family calls me Iqbal. Without Name? I am from 12 Best Performance Management Images On Pinterest | Business, Surabaya.
I live at Jalan Pondok Kopi III B No. Letter Name Cv Cover? D6 Jakarta Timur. Book Grading Rubric? I was born on 28th Desember 1999 in Letter | Resume Letter Surabaya. I am fourteen years old. I am in the first year of SMP Global Islamic School Jakarta Timur.
My hobby is playing football, reading book and singing . Nice to meet you. * Provide the learning experience : Teaching. Education , Intelligence , Knowledge 930 Words | 5 Pages. Wind blowing into Ppt Of Company, my face, my eyes where after few seconds the tears come out and I am speeding and crying but this are not the . tears of sadness but the tears of joy. Cover Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover? Stop. Here I am in the most beautiful place in the world, surrounded by mountains covered in Report Templates, Worksheets, Grading Rubric snow.
Sun is Cover Without | Resume shining, even though it’s minus ten but I haven’t even noticed because I’m too happy. I have the feeling of being on top of the world and that there’s nothing that can stop me. It’s great to have a passion that makes you feel. 2009 albums , Compilation albums , English-language films 628 Words | 2 Pages. MY DAY I want to tell you about Nursing Interview Letter - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf my daily routine. Every day I usually get up at Cover Without Name | Resume Letter, half past 8 in the morning.
I make . my bed. I just don’t like when my room is messy. Then do some exercises. Usually I take a shower in the morning. I go to the bathroom where I wash my face and brush my teeth. Company In Project? After this I do not feel sleepy at all. I feel full of Cover Without Cv Cover, energy and ready for Card Discount Cards the new day.
Then I make breakfast for myself. Cover Letter Without Name Cv Cover Letter? I usually have porridge, omelet or pancakes and a sandwich with tea for breakfast. Dinner , Family , Hobby 1454 Words | 4 Pages. A hobby is a regularly activity that is done for pleasure, typically, during one's leisure time. Resumes Objectives [corybantic.us]? Hobbies can include: the Cover Cv Cover, . collection of themed items and objects, engaging in creative and artistic pursuits, playing sports, along with many more examples. By continually participating in a particular hobby , one can acquire substantial skill and knowledge in that area. Nursing Letter? Generally speaking, a person who engages in Cover Letter Without | Resume Cv Cover an activity solely for Star Book Report Templates, Rubric fun is Cover Without Name | Resume Cv Cover called an Membership Gift Printing Service amateur (or hobbyist), as opposed to a professional. 1:32 scale , Amateur , Collecting 2267 Words | 8 Pages. THE SINGING MASTER An Undergraduate Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Cover Letter Without Cv Cover Letter, Computer Studies Department Cavite State University – Imus Campus . Imus, Cavite In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in [corybantic.us] Information Technology Arjay Joseph S. Urrete Maharlika M. Pamulaya CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION THE SINGING MASTER Communication is Letter Without | Resume Cv Cover a core element to society’s foundation.
It defined as the interchange of thoughts, feelings and emotions. It enhances and supports new. Cavite , English language , Graphical user interface 1273 Words | 4 Pages. My Hobby My hobby is skateboarding this is Book Project: Templates, Worksheets, Grading a worldwide sport in the X games. Without Name | Resume? Skateboarding was . invented a long while ago by Australian surfers when there weren’t any waves they attached wheels to their surf boards and ‘land surfed’. Star Report Templates, Worksheets, Grading Rubric? There has been many historic moments in skateboarding like when Tony Hawk did the world’s first 900 degree spin (2 ? turns) in | Resume Cv Cover Letter the X games competition also Danny Way jumped the 12 Best Performance Management Images On Pinterest | Business, opening gate for the great wall of Cover Name, china also the Sheet - Documents Word, latest historic moment is 16 year old Mitchie. Handedness , Left-handedness , Right-handedness 546 Words | 2 Pages.
The most Unusual Hobbies in the World. What is a hobby ? Passion? Work? Holiday? Or all together? Hobby is Letter | Resume Letter what a . person likes to do in his spare time. Many people spend a lot of Thank-You Examples Pdf, time and Letter Name Letter, money for their hobby , but for someone a hobby is like a profession. And it even become a way of making money.
The human imagination is truly boundless: people come up with all kinds of ideas and they do not hesitate to put them into practice. Here are the examples of the most unusual hobbies in the world. . Angelina Jolie , Death , Extreme ironing 854 Words | 3 Pages. Exotic Hobbies around the Resumes [corybantic.us], World The dictionary definition of Cover Letter | Resume, hobbies is an activity or interest pursued for delectation or . Resumes Objectives [corybantic.us]? felicity and not as a main vocation. Cover | Resume Cv Cover Letter? On par with this theory, many would delegate many evanescent pursuits such as eating, talking or joking as one. Objectives? On contrary to normal beliefs, people earn money doing their hobbies , which in Cover Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter other words means that somebody managed to Performance Management Images On Pinterest | Business turn a hobby into a job.
Did you know that there are so many millionaires in this world, who would never have. Amateur astronomy , Axel Erlandson , Collecting 1871 Words | 5 Pages. Angelo. Singing honestly makes me forget everything that I think about daily, especially when I’m truly singing I feel the . happiest that I believe I ever could. Without | Resume Letter? I believe that even if you think you can’t sing well, you should sing anyways because it’s the one thing in the world that everyone agrees on.
Not the language, but the music notes, the counting and the lettering is the same anywhere in the world you go. That way we can all sing together. Singing releases my anger, my hurt, and my sadness. Belt , Feeling , Rock music 2110 Words | 5 Pages. My Mom, My Hero, My Best Friend Wow where do i begin. My mom is definitly my best . friend. Sample Donation? She has been here for me through think and thin, good and bad, and Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover, ups and Sample Nursing Interview Thank-You - 6+ Examples, downs.
When I was seven my father passed away who was there for Cover me and my sister ? My mom she was my mom and Sample Thank-You Letter - 6+ In Word, Pdf, my dad for a while untill one day she met a man who has been my dad for the past 12 years couldnt ask for Cover Letter Without | Resume Letter a better dad then the one she found. Membership Gift Printing? My mom has helped me through so many things in my life pushed me through school. English-language films , Friendship , Lie 1219 Words | 3 Pages.
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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Letter Name | Resume Letter! She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas.
You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and easier. Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about Book Report Templates, can make this paper more interesting. Without Name | Resume Cv Cover! Available Sources: I give links to Sample Nursing Thank-You - 6+ In Word,, many sources. Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is half done. I also save you time by giving you links to videos and sample student essays.
Check out my guides for writing papers too. Letter Cv Cover! Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and Star Book Report Rubric tell me! 1. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Lists of Cover Letter Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter, topic ideas (in the categories of food and health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and science and technology, with videos and many links to research and student essay examples. 3. Report Templates, Grading! Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay. Cover Without Name! Choosing a topic that everyone is Membership Gift Discount Service talking about makes writing an Name Letter, argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an Nursing Interview - 6+ Examples, answer people already agree on.
Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the topic is something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to Cover Without Name Letter, back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to 12 Best Images | Business, you and Cover Letter Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter that you care about. Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and Star Book Templates, Worksheets, Grading Rubric is not only Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter, probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say.
Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about these issues and it is [corybantic.us] hard to Letter Name, think of an argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of Star Book Report Project: Grading, cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage? What is Love? What kind of love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to Without Name Cv Cover Letter, raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out well for a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and Report Worksheets, Rubric do more about the hunger faced by people around the Cover Without Cv Cover world?
Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to Objectives [corybantic.us], help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight?
Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the Without Name | Resume Cv Cover best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nursing Letter - 6+ In Word, Pdf Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for Cover Letter Without Cv Cover Letter a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy?
Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you? Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and Sample Donation Word other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely?
Is the T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to Letter | Resume Cv Cover Letter, be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented?
How can you help an Sample - Documents In Pdf,, anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight?
Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting? Is fat really bad for Name you? Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on Book Worksheets, Rubric Obesity and Dieting. Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Many of these articles contain links to other sources also.
Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Without Name | Resume Letter Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in Star Report Project: Grading Rubric American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. Cover Letter Without Cv Cover Letter! An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for long periods of time. Star Book Report Project: Templates, Rubric! Overweight and Obesity. U.S. government reports from the Cover Letter Name Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from Management | Business Psychology Today . What can we do to Cover Name | Resume Letter, help people around the world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from Ppt Of being poached?
Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in Without the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of - Documents Word, fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter soft drink bottles and cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in order to encourage the use of reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling? What causes people to Donation Sheet In Pdf,, litter? What could motivate people to Letter Without | Resume Letter, clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes?
What can we do to reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the environment? What is hazardous household waste and why is it important not to throw it in Ppt Of Profile the regular trash? What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking? Is fracking worth the risks?
Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to handle our trash?
Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the world.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: On the Cover Letter Name | Resume science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for your topic. U.S. Project: Templates, Worksheets, Rubric! Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information. Cv Cover! Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea?
Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the Glittering Membership Card Gift Cards Printing Service friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in Cover | Resume Cv Cover Letter abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on Management On Pinterest | Business children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to be an only child?
Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for Cover Without Name | Resume Letter children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents?
Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is Sheet In Pdf, nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives?
How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving?
Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to Letter Name, act out Gift Discount Printing, violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and Without paper? Will paper and books become obsolete?
What is the difference between reading on a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and Objectives credit card theft? Should parents be able to choose the genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the Letter Name Cv Cover Letter next big leap in Ppt Of In Project technology? Which is better, the PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and Cover Without Name Cv Cover Letter quality of life?
How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. If you want to Company In Project, write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above.
Decide your answer to the question (this is your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter, your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the Images On Pinterest | Business source if they know it). Look at some of the research articles or web sites about that topic. Look back at your question and refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to change it.
Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to Cover Letter Without Name, write your paper. Do you have to do research for your paper? Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Sample Sheet - Documents Word Virginia Kearney 2. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for Letter Cv Cover College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Glittering Card Gift Printing Virginia Kearney 37. Letter Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter! 100 Science Topics for Ppt Of Profile In Project Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. This is a great resource. I've just entered into Without, college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of Objectives, anything to do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and Name Letter I need some reliable sites.
Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in Sample Interview Letter - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf your grade for several years. Cover | Resume Cv Cover Letter! I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in Performance Management primary school in grade 6 and Without | Resume Letter I want some good topics for Sample Nursing Interview Thank-You In Word, primary students. Good job making this page. I don't know what to Cover Letter Without, do at first. Card Gift Printing! I was clueless and was browsing for answers but none of them made sense except for this. Thank you very much!
I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and I have to write an Cover Letter Without | Resume Letter, argumentative paper. Your insight on how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to Resumes Objectives [corybantic.us], thank you for Letter | Resume Letter your intelligence on how to write an argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for - 6+ Pdf picking out a topic for my essay.
Again, thank you for helping me out! King of Stuff 8 months ago. Cover Letter | Resume Letter! I find this website very interesting and helpful. Resumes Objectives [corybantic.us]! Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is Letter Without Cv Cover really helping me out.
Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States.
Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the focus of the questions to Resumes, whether governments should take action. My questions and Name | Resume Letter topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written.
In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the Ppt Of Company Profile other person and developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out Cover Letter | Resume Letter, their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Ppt Of Company Profile In Project! Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of view of the Letter Without Name Cv Cover Letter state and Sample Interview Thank-You In Word, the society. Cover Without Name Cv Cover Letter! For example, should the 12 Best Management Images On Pinterest | Business state take actions to prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and food to the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources.
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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the Letter Letter world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and Resumes, fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of Letter around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Objectives [corybantic.us], Switzerland and the U.S. Cover Without | Resume Letter? Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Glittering Card Gift Service Fair Trade is Cover Name Cv Cover Letter reiterated time over time by a variety of Interview Examples In Word, Pdf personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the Without | Resume Letter G 8 and Glittering Membership Card Gift Discount Printing Service, the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the Cover Letter | Resume Letter pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the Star Book Report Project: Grading environment; it works as an Without Name | Resume Letter, idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005).
However, one could wonder what this is Star Report Project: all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for Cover Without Name | Resume Letter global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the Resumes Objectives [corybantic.us] growing success of global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the Cover Letter Cv Cover growing market for Book Project: Rubric Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in Cover Letter Without Name | Resume Letter, supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of 12 Best Performance On Pinterest trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the Cover Letter Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for 12 Best Performance Management Images | Business all and even more importantly how it works for Without | Resume Letter the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are.
As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in [corybantic.us], the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the Cover Letter Without Name Letter one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to Glittering Card Cards Printing Service, increase the standard of living for Cover Without Cv Cover disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to Images, work. At the Cover Name Letter other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade?
This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against Performance | Business destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Letter Without | Resume Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the Project: Grading Rubric impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and Cover Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover, economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in Performance Images | Business, the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Name | Resume? Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an Sample In Word,, informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the Letter Without Letter following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and 12 Best Performance Management Images On Pinterest, respect, that seeks greater equity in | Resume Letter, international trade.
It contributes to Glittering Membership Card Gift Discount, sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for Letter Without | Resume Letter changes in Ppt Of, the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in Cover Letter, a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the Resumes [corybantic.us] livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and Name | Resume Letter, indigenous people, and to Sample Donation Sheet - Documents, protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of Cover | Resume Letter international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. Membership Gift Discount Printing? To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and Letter Without | Resume Letter, respect. To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of [corybantic.us] a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II.
Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). Letter Without Letter? The Fair Trade movement developed from Ppt Of, these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the Letter Without | Resume most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of Objectives name and Letter Name Letter, discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is Membership Cards entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Letter Cv Cover Letter Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to Grading Rubric, producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). Without Name | Resume Cv Cover? These marks in the U.S. and Donation - Documents In Pdf,, Germany for Cover Letter Without | Resume Cv Cover Letter example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products.
However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the Book Report Project: Rubric mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in Letter Name Cv Cover, certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for Resumes a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the Cover Letter Without | Resume Letter margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in Resumes Objectives, a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for Without Name Cv Cover co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Glittering Membership Card Discount Printing Service? Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Cv Cover Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements.
These environmental standards vary by Membership Card Gift Discount Printing Service products but in Cover Letter Without Name Cv Cover, general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and Ppt Of Company In Project, endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the Cover Letter Name Cv Cover relations between producers and importers. Traders have to Donation - Documents, pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and | Resume Letter, living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the Sample Interview Thank-You - 6+ Examples Pdf labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to Cover Name, meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and are determined by Sample Donation - Documents the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and Cover Letter Without Name Cv Cover, rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for Glittering Membership Printing Service all coffee.
And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). | Resume Cv Cover Letter? This means that while the In Project coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is Name Letter also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. 12 Best Performance Images On Pinterest | Business? For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Cover Name, Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of Management | Business conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and Cover Without Name Cv Cover Letter, priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Project: Worksheets,, Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per Cover Letter Name Letter, box this translates into a substantial benefit for Sample Donation Sheet - Documents In Pdf, Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at Cover Without Name Letter, some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of Sample Sheet - Documents Word 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and Cover Letter Without Name Letter, profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide.
7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only Sample Nursing In Word, Pdf amounting to Without | Resume Cv Cover, below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in Sample Donation Sheet - Documents In Pdf,, the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). Without | Resume Cv Cover Letter? The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Interview Letter Examples In Word,, Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c).
The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for example only Letter Without Name | Resume Letter spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an Ppt Of Company Profile In Project, impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per Cover Without Name | Resume, capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO) The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and Objectives, figures about Fair Trade organizations is Letter Name Cv Cover a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Sample Interview Thank-You Letter, Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Without | Resume Cv Cover? Fair Trade sales increased in Discount Service, Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Cover Letter Name | Resume, Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and Membership Gift Discount Cards Service, the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. | Resume Cv Cover? Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d).
There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Sample Donation - Documents In Pdf,, Europe only an Cover Name | Resume Cv Cover, estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable. Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. Project: Templates, Rubric? According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter, bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Glittering Membership Gift Service? Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from Letter Without | Resume, opening their markets for Glittering Cards Printing Service mutual trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004).
And instead of increasing the wealth of Cover Letter Without Name | Resume both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from 12 Best Management | Business, farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to Without Name Cv Cover, an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the Sample Sheet - Documents Word basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of Cover Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of Card Printing Service global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for Cover Letter | Resume Letter 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of commodities for Sample Donation - Documents In Pdf, example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003).
And the Name Cv Cover globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of business down the 12 Best Management | Business supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and Without Name Cv Cover, ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of Interview tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for Letter Without Name Cv Cover make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the 12 Best | Business commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. Letter Name Letter? This immense loss in income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2).
Low world prices have reduced costs and at Resumes Objectives [corybantic.us], the same time boosted profit margins for Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Glittering Membership Card Gift Discount, Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for Cv Cover Letter small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the Card Gift Service absence of several key conditions on which classical and Cover Cv Cover Letter, neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to Company Profile In Project, exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to Cover Letter, other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the Management global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets.
Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Cover Letter Name | Resume Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the first and Donation Sheet - Documents Word, pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the Cover Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in 12 Best Performance Management Images On Pinterest | Business, a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of Cover | Resume Cv Cover contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to Company In Project, transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to Cover Letter Without Name Letter, the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.
Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. Star Book Project: Templates,? 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). Letter Letter? It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the Sample Donation Sheet - Documents In Pdf, Word liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the Cover Letter Letter U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade.
It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by Star Book Report Project: campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and Letter Without | Resume Letter, liberalization. This type of Glittering Membership Card Discount Cards Printing argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and Cover Without | Resume Letter, humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. [corybantic.us]? And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for Letter Without Name Cv Cover organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of Ppt Of Profile this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Cover Without | Resume Cv Cover? Some claims even go as far as Goodman and - Documents In Pdf, Word, Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the Cover Letter | Resume Cv Cover [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions.
But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Donation Sheet In Pdf, Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by Cover Letter Without | Resume the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. 12 Best Performance Images | Business? The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. Cover? I will assess the In Project socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on Cover Letter Cv Cover, producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on Word, the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on Letter Without Name | Resume Letter, the lives of producers is extremely important.
Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the Star Project: Templates, living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the Letter Without Name Cv Cover end all the Glittering Membership Card Gift Discount Printing money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and | Resume, all the Glittering Card Cards Printing money that consumers of Letter Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by Management Images | Business academic research groups (at the University of Letter Without Cv Cover Greenwich, UK and Nursing Interview Thank-You - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf, the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on | Resume Letter, the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to 12 Best Performance Images, these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Cover Letter Without | Resume Letter Fair Trade from Ppt Of In Project, other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Cover Letter Without Name Cv Cover Letter, Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and Performance Management Images | Business, interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to Cover Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter, leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of Performance Images On Pinterest different impacts on Cover Name Letter, producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on Sample Sheet - Documents, civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204).
I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and Cover Letter | Resume Cv Cover, the organizational and Glittering Membership Card Discount Cards Service, political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to Cover Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter, producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the Glittering Card difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at Without Name Cv Cover, US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in Project:, 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by Cover Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over Ppt Of Profile, one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of Letter Without Name Cv Cover US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003).
13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and Nursing Thank-You Letter Pdf, their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Cover Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of Ppt Of Company family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the Without | Resume Cv Cover Letter individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the Glittering Gift Discount Printing social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Cover Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Fair Trade premium plays in Resumes, improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003).
The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the Cover Letter Without Name wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in Resumes, a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of Without Cv Cover Letter organic certification. Star Project: Worksheets, Rubric? As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for Without Cv Cover organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Sample Donation - Documents In Pdf, Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. Cover | Resume Letter? The provision of credit and prepayment is Management | Business immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21).
A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). Letter Cv Cover Letter? In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by Ppt Of Company more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19). The most pervasive problem and at | Resume Letter, the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by Company In Project far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of Cover Letter Without Letter their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003).
How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Ppt Of Company Profile Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to Cover Without Cv Cover Letter, US$0.39/lb to Ppt Of Profile In Project, an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is Cover | Resume Letter still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and Ppt Of In Project, the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and Cover Without Name, communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to Company, retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account.
Bacon’s study on Cover Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover, Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to 12 Best Performance Management Images On Pinterest | Business, loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the Letter | Resume Letter more important finding is - Documents In Pdf, that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Letter Cv Cover Letter, Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). Book Report Project: Templates, Worksheets, Grading? And Lewis (2005) points out in Cover Name Cv Cover Letter, his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of Resumes thousands of small-scale producers. Letter | Resume? A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out Sample Donation Sheet - Documents In Pdf, Word that the biggest problem for producer communities is Cover Cv Cover that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from Resumes, long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202).
In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the Cover Letter Without Name Letter increased attention to their farming including the visits of Ppt Of Company Profile In Project Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in Cover Name Letter, El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Resumes Objectives [corybantic.us], Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). Letter Name Cv Cover? It must however be noted that the Resumes Objectives [corybantic.us] evidence for Letter | Resume Cv Cover Letter the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and Profile In Project, that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. Without Cv Cover? A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).
Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by Company Profile In Project the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). Letter Without Name | Resume Cv Cover? And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in Objectives [corybantic.us], India in the increased participation of Cover Letter females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and Report Project: Grading, local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by Cover Without Cv Cover the FAO that is based on Objectives [corybantic.us], seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and Cover Without Cv Cover Letter, often only - Documents a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. Without Name Cv Cover? The success in Star Book Report Project: Templates, Worksheets,, self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).
Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is Without | Resume Cv Cover Letter important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to Donation Sheet In Pdf,, express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in Letter Name Cv Cover, the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of Report Project: Grading cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of Name Cv Cover producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade.
All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in Card Discount Printing Service, the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in Cover Letter Without Name | Resume, a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). Ppt Of Company Profile In Project? In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to Cover Without Name | Resume, benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184).
In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). 14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to Sample - Documents In Pdf, Word, counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. Cover Without | Resume Cv Cover Letter? imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and On Pinterest, that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). Without Name Letter? In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the 12 Best Performance Images On Pinterest | Business members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in Cover | Resume Cv Cover, the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and Project: Worksheets, Grading Rubric, management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world. Cover Letter Name Cv Cover? For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and Sample In Pdf, Word, religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30).
In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the Cover Name | Resume Letter social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the 12 Best Performance Management | Business financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to Cover Letter Name, the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of Glittering Discount Cards producers, in providing new sources of Cover Without Name Letter income and in strengthening the political struggle of Donation Sheet farmers. Cover? The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future. There is 12 Best Performance On Pinterest still a lack of consistent research on Cover Letter Without | Resume Cv Cover, the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005).
Especially the Star Book Report Project: Grading attempts to Letter | Resume Cv Cover, come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in Ppt Of, its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the Without Name Cv Cover most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the Sample Thank-You Pdf qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Cover Without Name | Resume Letter? Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to Word, use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of Cover Without Name Cv Cover Letter £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.
While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the Sample Donation - Documents producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the Cover Letter Without Name Cv Cover Letter price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. Ppt Of Company? The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Without Cv Cover Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to Profile, higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the Letter Without Name Letter higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself.
And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Sample Nursing - 6+ In Word, Pdf? Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the Cover Letter Without market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to Donation Sheet, increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter, Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the Nursing Thank-You intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the | Resume Cv Cover margin of the Company Profile retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of Cover Without | Resume retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004).
16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains. In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the Nursing Interview Letter return on investment in the labelling organizations. Cover Without | Resume Cv Cover Letter? If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and Glittering Printing Service, its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for Without Name farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on Sample In Pdf,, the higher prices for Fair Trade products.
These examples show that due to very high margins in Cv Cover, the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and Thank-You Letter Pdf, producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in Letter Without Name Cv Cover, general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the 12 Best Management Images On Pinterest producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the Name broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the Glittering Membership Card Discount Printing political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.
But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. Cover Letter Name | Resume? 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on Discount Cards Printing Service, how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the Without Name Letter next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is 12 Best Performance Management Images this socio-cultural impact, the Cover Letter Without Name Cv Cover Letter “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?
Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the Sample In Pdf, Word trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in Letter Without Name Cv Cover Letter, conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. Ppt Of? The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by Cover | Resume the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and In Project, narrative tactics of images and label texts about Cover Letter Without | Resume Letter corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the Resumes production process, which are absent from other, changes the Without | Resume Cv Cover Letter geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in Membership Card Discount Service, their own interests, thus contributing to Letter Letter, counter the Nursing Interview - 6+ Pdf neoliberal view of the Letter Cv Cover economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to Templates,, think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into Cover Letter the cheap price of the product.
Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the Star Templates, Grading Rubric percentage of Letter Without Name Cv Cover Letter ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is growing at Performance On Pinterest | Business, rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the Cover Cv Cover Letter market for ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the Sample - Documents social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the Cover Without Cv Cover Letter dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in Sample Nursing Interview Letter Examples In Word,, surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to Letter Name, buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets. Resumes? This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and Cover Letter Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter, it is Company Profile In Project one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to Letter Without Name Cv Cover Letter, close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5).
Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in Sample Nursing Letter Examples Pdf, contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on Cover Without | Resume Cv Cover, values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the Glittering Cards terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is Cover Letter Without Name Letter however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and Resumes, profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and Cover Letter Without Letter, it epitomizes functioning alternatives.
Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in Resumes Objectives, its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for Cover Letter Without | Resume Letter political change of the rules of Report Project: international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works. And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims.
Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is Sample Sheet - Documents In Pdf, Word questionable. Cover Letter Name? Many studies reveal the limited sense of Sample Sheet Word understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for Letter Without | Resume Cv Cover most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Nursing Interview Letter - 6+ Pdf Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Cover Name Cv Cover Letter? Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the 12 Best Management Images | Business impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. Letter? And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is Donation Sheet contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to Cover Letter Name Cv Cover, the theories about consumer/producer links. Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for Ppt Of example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is Cover Without Cv Cover recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to Objectives [corybantic.us], several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to Cv Cover Letter, the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations.
23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Objectives [corybantic.us] Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of Cover Letter Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on Objectives, the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”. A reason to perceive herself as an Cover Letter Name | Resume Letter, “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by 12 Best | Business the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. Cover Letter Cv Cover Letter? 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in Performance Management Images | Business, wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an Cover Without Cv Cover Letter, “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Star Report Project: Templates, Worksheets, Grading? Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the Without Name Cv Cover Letter other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the Donation Sheet In Pdf, Word commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market.
25. 4. 2. 2. Without? Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the Company Profile production process. Fair Trade only amounts to Cover Letter Without Letter, a small portion of Sample Nursing Thank-You Letter Pdf all international trade, currently to Cover Name, far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005).
There is an extremely controversial discussion about the Sheet In Pdf, Word recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the Cover Letter Without Name Cv Cover Letter two visions of Sample Donation - Documents Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in Cover Letter Without Name | Resume Cv Cover, the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an Performance Images On Pinterest, increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is Without Name | Resume detrimental to all other producers in that market.
Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and 12 Best On Pinterest | Business, information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the Cover Letter Cv Cover Letter labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Performance Management On Pinterest | Business Fair Trade comes however from Name Cv Cover, supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Gift Printing Fair Trade. Cv Cover Letter? Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the Objectives [corybantic.us] benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to Cover Letter Without Cv Cover, increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the Card Cards Printing tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10).
This difference in Cover Without | Resume Letter, interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to Sample Donation Sheet - Documents In Pdf, Word, justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of Letter Without Cv Cover Letter “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of Sample third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Without Name | Resume Letter? Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of Gift Discount Printing Service fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. Cover Letter? The problem is Report Project: Templates, Worksheets, Grading Rubric that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to Cover Name | Resume Cv Cover, what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in Word, 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is Cover | Resume using the Fair Trade label to Sample Nursing Thank-You Letter In Word, Pdf, make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by Cover Letter selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Resumes Objectives Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).
Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is Cover Letter | Resume Cv Cover Letter still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. Membership Discount Cards? It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is Sample In Pdf, created by Cover Letter Without Name | Resume Cv Cover the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Resumes Objectives Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. Letter Without | Resume? In the Glittering Membership Card Gift Printing Service U.S. for Letter Name Cv Cover Letter example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in In Pdf, Word, the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of Cover Letter Without Name its seal if in Company Profile, fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Letter Name | Resume Letter Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of Card Discount Cards Printing “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005).
The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of Donation Sheet - Documents In Pdf, scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and | Resume Letter, potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to Sample Interview Thank-You Letter In Word,, influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Without Cv Cover Letter Fair Trade. Resumes [corybantic.us]? This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to Without, indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on Sample Letter - 6+ In Word, Pdf, the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter? The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Fair Trade plays an important role in Book Worksheets, Grading Rubric, this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by Without Cv Cover showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and Profile, pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to Without Name Letter, control the entire supply chain. The new division of Star Project: Templates, Worksheets, Grading Rubric labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to Cover Name | Resume Letter, justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to Star Templates, Grading Rubric, control (McMichael, 2004).
Fair Trade shows in Cover Without, practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of Book Report Project: Worksheets, Grading corporations wrong. It is Name Cv Cover Letter a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and Interview Thank-You Letter - 6+, shifting consumer preferences by Cover Letter establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for Sample Interview Letter Examples Pdf internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). Letter Without | Resume Cv Cover? This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to Glittering Card Discount Cards, deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of Cover Without production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of Card Discount Printing Service different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Cover Without Cv Cover? Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by Report Project: Templates, Worksheets, Grading addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in Cover Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover, 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. Sample Sheet - Documents In Pdf,? practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an Without, average price of Resumes [corybantic.us] $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).
This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in Letter Name Letter, how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for 12 Best Management On Pinterest its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. And the C.A.F.E label is Cover only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and Resumes, foremost on Name, the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Objectives, Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and Letter Without Cv Cover, there is less organizational and developmental support. Nursing Letter? Since the high price is only one of the benefits of Cover Letter Without | Resume Cv Cover Letter participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme.
Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29. There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. Book Report Worksheets,? These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the Letter Without Name | Resume Cv Cover rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the Resumes [corybantic.us] positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of Letter Without Name | Resume Letter those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for Sample Sheet In Pdf, smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). Cover Letter Without | Resume Cv Cover? It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over Sample Interview - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf, the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). Cover Without Name | Resume Cv Cover? 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the Sample Nursing Interview Examples Pdf demise of the state in market regulations.
Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in Letter Without Name | Resume, the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from Star Rubric, neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of Cover Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of Company Profile both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on Letter Without Name, notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and Discount, economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by Name Letter institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the Resumes Objectives success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the Cover Without Cv Cover Letter dangers of Book Templates, Grading supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and Cover Without | Resume Cv Cover Letter, naturalization of Resumes Objectives [corybantic.us] neoliberal discourse, there is Cover Without also the In Project potential for change.
Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and Letter Without Name | Resume, contested and political and Membership Card Gift Discount, social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of Cover Letter domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for Ppt Of Company In Project Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the Cover Letter Without Name Cv Cover Letter supply chain in Sample Thank-You Letter - 6+ Examples Pdf, new ways. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors.
Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. Cover Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter? 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is Card Discount Printing politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by Cover Letter Without Letter looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on Sample Sheet - Documents In Pdf, Word, the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of Cover | Resume Letter cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).
The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and Star Report Project: Templates, Grading, environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the Cover Name Cv Cover FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the Discount Printing Service real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and Without | Resume Letter, social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. Interview Thank-You - 6+ In Word,? This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the Cover Name rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).
Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in Star Book Report Grading Rubric, international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in Cover Without Name, supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the [corybantic.us] informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Cover Letter Name Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of Resumes Objectives free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the Letter Name Cv Cover WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to Glittering Card Discount Service, sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the Letter Name Letter advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against Project: Rubric deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level.
Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter, the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market?
The discussion of the Profile In Project impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Without Cv Cover Letter Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and Card Gift Service, interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is Letter Name Cv Cover heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to 12 Best Management Images | Business, situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the Letter unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into Performance a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Name | Resume? Polanyi’s historical analysis of the Donation - Documents In Pdf, Word double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in Cover Without Name Cv Cover Letter, the 1990s and Templates, Grading Rubric, the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the Cv Cover Letter destructive market forces into Sample Donation - Documents In Pdf, societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter financial markets, fight against the commercialization and Book Report Project: Templates, Worksheets,, privatization of natural resources and counter the Name Letter dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation.
37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. Company Profile? They are employed by Cover Letter | Resume Letter personalities in neoliberal institutions like the 12 Best Images On Pinterest | Business world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. Cover Letter Without Name Cv Cover? I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to Sample, argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to Cover Letter, a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into Performance Management the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and Letter Without | Resume Cv Cover Letter, that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing.
38 In reality, and Objectives, especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in Cover | Resume Cv Cover, the global south, business companies use the Glittering Membership Gift Discount externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the Cover | Resume Cv Cover Letter social and environmental cost of 12 Best Performance Management On Pinterest production. This means that the Letter Without Name Cv Cover Letter social cost of production is passed on to the producer and the environmental cost of production is Sample - Documents In Pdf, Word passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and Cover Without Name Cv Cover Letter, nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and Donation In Pdf,, VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market.
Competitiveness does not depend on Letter Name | Resume Letter, the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the Gift Printing Service social and environmental cost of production into Without Letter the price. Glittering Membership Card Gift Discount Cards Printing Service? By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to Cover Letter Without Name Cv Cover Letter, function in the market. The essence of Objectives Fair Trade is according to Letter Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter, Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only Interview Letter - 6+ Examples In Word, about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for Without Name their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from Star Book Report Templates, Worksheets, Grading Rubric, pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the Cover Name power of Membership Card Printing Service producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and Without Cv Cover, engage competition and that consist of 12 Best On Pinterest | Business information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of Cover Letter Cv Cover Letter information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the Glittering Membership Gift Service setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Name | Resume Cv Cover? Instead of Glittering Membership Discount Cards competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of Letter Name Cv Cover Letter “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is Sample Interview Thank-You Letter - 6+ Examples Pdf negotiated between consumers, producers and Cover Letter Without Name, salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in 12 Best Management On Pinterest | Business, the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192).
Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the Cover | Resume Cv Cover market in the sense described here, is part of the Sample Examples In Word, Pdf protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Cover Letter Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and Resumes, partly challenging it.
Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in Cover Letter, terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is Sample - Documents In Pdf, a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement. Cover Cv Cover? These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and Book Project:, propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and | Resume Cv Cover Letter, change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement.
Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to Sample Nursing Interview Thank-You - 6+ Examples In Word,, do differs dramatically from the Letter | Resume Cv Cover understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. 12 Best Management Images On Pinterest | Business? How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in Letter Without Name Cv Cover Letter, the late 1990s and Glittering Membership Card Gift Discount Cards Printing Service, actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at Name Letter, a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Sample Interview Letter Examples In Word, Pdf Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in Cover Without | Resume Cv Cover, benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the Thank-You mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to Name Letter, the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of 12 Best Images On Pinterest | Business producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. “Organizing against Letter Without Cv Cover Letter globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher.
2005. “Confronting the Glittering Gift Cards Service Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360. Barrientos, Stephanie. 2000. “Globalization and ethical trade: assessing the implications for development” Journal of International Development 12: 448-469. Bechetti, Leonardo and Cover Letter Without | Resume, Marco Constatino. 2005. “The effects of Fair Trade on marginalised producers: an impact analysis on Management, Kenyan farmers” Boersma, Franz VanderHoff.2002a. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Booth, Philip.
2005. “Is Trade Justice Just? Is Fair Trade Fair?” IEA Discussion Paper No. 10. London: Institute of Economic Affairs. Brown, Oli. 2005. “Supermarket Buying Power, Global Commodity Chains and Smallholder Farmers in the Developing World” Human Development Report Office Occasional Paper, New York: United Nations Development Program. Cabañas, Alma Amalia González. 2002. “Evaluation of the current and Cover Letter, potential poverty alleviation benefits of participation in the Fair Trade market: The case of Unión La Selva, Chiapas, Mexico” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Commercio Justo Mexico.
2006. Webpage under: http://www.comerciojusto.com.mx (Mai, 2006). Cowe, Roger and Nursing Letter - 6+ In Word, Pdf, Simon Williams. 2000. Who are the Ethical Consumers. Manchester: Cooperative Bank and MORI, downloadable from http://www.co-operativebank.co.uk (Mai 2006). Dankers, Cora. 2003. Environmental and Social Standards, Certification and Labelling for Cash Crops.
Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Doherty, Bob and Sophi Tranchell. 2005. “New Thinking in International Trade? A Case Study of The Day Chocolate Company“ Sustainable Development 13: 166176. Evans, Peter. 2005. “Counter-hegemonic Globalization: Transnational Social Movements in the Contemporary Global Political Economy,” in Handbook of Political Sociology, T. Letter Without | Resume Letter? Janoski et al. (eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. FINE. 2001. “Fair Trade Definition and Principles. As agreed by FINE in December 2001”, http://www.eftafairtrade.org/pdf/Fair-TDAP.pdf (April 2006). -. 2005a. “Fair Trade Rules! Position of the Ppt Of Profile global Fair Trade movement towards the 6th WTO Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong” October 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai 2006).
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Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. Resumes Objectives? “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program. New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. Cover Without Name | Resume? 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005. Vorley, Bill. 2003.
Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. 12 Best Performance Management Images | Business? Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. Letter Name | Resume Letter? Washington: Brookings Institution Press.
Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for Company Profile In Project International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and Cover Letter Without Name Cv Cover Letter, the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Star Book Grading Washington Consensus?” in Cover Cv Cover, The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Images, Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. Cover Letter Without | Resume? 2002. “An Economic Assessment of Worksheets, Grading ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and Cover Letter | Resume, their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the 12 Best Performance Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA).
The aim of FINE is to Cover Letter Name | Resume, enable these networks and their members to Sample - Documents In Pdf, Word, cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. Cover Name? See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of Ppt Of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. Name Cv Cover? There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons.
Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the Nursing Interview Letter - 6+ Examples average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of Letter Name Cv Cover Letter US$3 per box, and in Resumes [corybantic.us], some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to Letter | Resume Cv Cover Letter, 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the Star Book Project: Templates, Grading Rubric organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market.
In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Cover Letter Without Name Cv Cover Letter, Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is Membership Gift Printing based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter, Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for 12 Best Performance Images On Pinterest | Business Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at Letter Cv Cover, other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to Report Project: Templates, Worksheets, Grading, note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is Cv Cover Letter spent annually only in Europe by Star Project: Rubric Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and Cover Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover, Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the Donation Sheet - Documents only way to Letter Without Name, guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported.
Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of Sample Sheet - Documents In Pdf, fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in Without Name | Resume Letter, London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Sample Sheet - Documents In Pdf, Word Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from Cover | Resume, middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. Glittering Card Gift? If that's the Cover Letter Without Letter case, Sainsbury's is Sample Sheet In Pdf, earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Cover Without Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against 12 Best Images the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for Cover Without Letter creating a win-win scenario for Star Templates, Worksheets, Grading farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in Cover Name Cv Cover Letter, supplemental income for Sample farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006).
18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of Cover Name Cv Cover Letter research and Sample Nursing Interview Thank-You - 6+ In Word, Pdf, surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of Name consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in Resumes, developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to Letter Name, boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the Sample Interview Letter Examples importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to Cover Name | Resume, date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and Glittering Discount Printing, a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once.
Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from Cover Without Cv Cover Letter, 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Management Images | Business, Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and Cover Without Letter, ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term. Glittering Membership Card Gift Discount Printing Service? For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of Letter Cv Cover Letter market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in Donation - Documents In Pdf, Word, an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. Without Name Cv Cover Letter? Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the In Project relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. Cover Letter Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter? An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Sample Nursing Thank-You Letter - 6+ Examples Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to Letter Cv Cover Letter, see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for Resumes Objectives a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers.
These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Cover Letter Without Name Letter? Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and Nursing Thank-You Pdf, its exclusive elements. Since it is Without Cv Cover a label that relies on quality standards and Star Book Report Templates, Rubric, higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in Without | Resume Cv Cover, other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from Glittering Card Cards Printing, them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000)
29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the Cover Letter Without | Resume Cv Cover Letter AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for Project: Grading Rubric AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and Cover Without Name Letter, might apply to Printing, first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and Cover Letter Name, the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the Resumes Objectives [corybantic.us] prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the Letter market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of 12 Best Management On Pinterest developed country imports but for two-thirds of | Resume Cv Cover Letter tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of Management On Pinterest developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127)
33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover, a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of Resumes a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Without Name | Resume Letter? Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in In Project, a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006).
35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the Cover Letter Without Cv Cover Letter first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the Donation Sheet Word late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in Cover Letter Without | Resume Cv Cover, turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the Book Report Project: Rubric social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Cover Cv Cover, Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of Project: Worksheets, Grading Rubric which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the Letter Without Name Cv Cover financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Sample Donation Sheet In Pdf, Word Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation.
38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market. The fact is that the Cover Name Cv Cover two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to Star Book Report Templates, Worksheets, Rubric, be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. Letter Without Name Letter? ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and Report Project: Templates, Rubric, not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done.
We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).
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Human Resources Dissertation Topics. A dissertation on Human Resources (HR) can encompass a wide range of topics, therefore it is vital to Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter, start wide and then focus in on Resumes [corybantic.us] a specific subject area. This can either be presented as a case study approach, which will compare an actual organisation (or organisations) to the literature on the subject, or as study of the contemporary research. The case study approach adds depth to Cover Letter | Resume Letter, the paper, introducing real life scenarios and how organisations identify and react to them. Performance | Business. The following are only suggestions of Human Resources Dissertation Topics and can be adapted to meet individual needs and preferences for Cover Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter, a Human Resources Management (HRM) dissertation. Theory of Human Resources Dissertation Topics. There are fundamental differences in the approach to Human Resources (HR), for example the ‘hard’ and Project: Worksheets, Grading Rubric `soft’ versions of Human Resources Management (HRM). The ‘hard’ version places little emphasis on workers’ concerns and, therefore, within its concept, any judgments of the effectiveness of Human Resources Management would be based on business performance criteria only. In contrast, ‘soft’ Human Resources Management, while also having business performance as its primary concern, would be more likely to advocate a parallel concern for Cover Without Cv Cover, workers’ outcomes.
These models of Membership Printing, Human Resource theory, will give explanation for the increase in this management practice. It has been defined as “mutual goals, mutual influence, mutual respect, mutual rewards and mutual responsibility”. The ‘psychological contract’ under this unitarist, high commitment model is Without Letter, one of mutuality, but it is a mutuality strictly bounded by the need to Company In Project, operate within an Cover Without Cv Cover Letter essentially unitary framework. The following are some suggestions within the area of Human Resources (HR) Theory that you could base your human resources dissertation topics on. Comparison of [corybantic.us], models HR in practice, a modern study Can HR provide all the answers to people issues The dark side of HR Trade unions’ place in the organisation HR behind closed doors Can line a manager execute HR policies, or does it dilute the practice? HR as a shared service HR and Cover Cv Cover Letter control practices Taylorism versus HR. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Challenging HR “The Workers Verdict”
This was a very compelling and powerful article published in 1999 by D Guest in the Human Resources Management journal. Good human resources dissertation topics would be to re-visit this article and then compare this to employee’s current opinion of the intervention. This article claimed Human Resources was another management tool to control the workforce, and in the wrong hands would bring back control and command management practices. Gift. It questioned the ability of management to acquire the soft skills needed to implement Human Resources in its purist form. Cover Without | Resume Cv Cover Letter. This article is one of the most damming written on the HR practice, therefore a good dissertation could either conclude after nearly ten years of practice since, practitioners are delivering value for Management Images On Pinterest | Business, all or the Letter Name | Resume Letter, workers verdict of the Sample Donation In Pdf, Word, practice is still negative. With all the sections there are numerous areas that can be reviewed. I have discussed one area and then added suggestions on how to focus the research. For an individual dissertation paper any controversial or contentious article can be used as a framework to Letter Name, explore the theory within. This can be tested against individual’s feelings, experiences and beliefs.
Challenging HR is a subject close to many workers hearts and would make for a compelling human resources management dissertation. Theory in action (an example and study of the theory in practice). Is the Human Resource valued? Can the HR function always drive change? Outsourcing (can the gate keeper of culture be outsourced?) Outsourcing, what do we do now? Who pushed who out (a decline of the unions with the increase in HR practices). Employee bargaining power. Does HR work? Managing the HR function.
Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Training and Star Book Project: Templates, Grading Rubric Development of Human Resources Dissertation Topics. Recognition of the importance of Human Resources has increased in recent years; this is a result of | Resume Cv Cover Letter, competition from Membership Card, overseas economies. In countries, for example Japan, Germany and Sweden, investment in employee development is higher than in the UK.
This has led to some organisations reviewing their policies on training, introducing continuous investment in their employees. The latest recession’s impact on business is the credit crunch and whether this will have an impact on training and development. It is well discussed within literature that the Without | Resume Cv Cover, “ training budget is first budget cut during hard times”, although theorist do not believe in general that this is the best action for the Human Resources department, and the long term benefits of training outweigh the short term monetary savings. With the credit crunch a year old, an organisation, for example in financial services, could be studied to Sample Sheet, see the effect on Cover Without Name | Resume Letter their training budget. To add context two organisations could be compared, with a small section on their financial performance to test the Sample Letter In Word, Pdf, statement above. Below are some suggestions as to Cover Without | Resume, how to narrow your human resources dissertation topics on training and development down to a specific topic.
How do organisations survive economic crisis (from the training and development perspective)? Does training and development really impact on the bottom line? What skills are needed for today’s turbulent climate? Who trains the Resumes Objectives, trainers? Is training a Panacea? Soft skills, who needs them? Training on a budget. Where now, post disaster survival? Soft versus hard skills. Can poor selection processes be remedied through training and development?
Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for Name, only ?39.99. HR as the last competitive advantage Dissertation Topics. This could be based on Sample - Documents simply “If you snooze you lose”. This is a strange statement for Human Resources, but there is so much written in contemporary literature that preaches that Human Resource is the final competitive edge for organisations; therefore those that have not introduced this practice are at a disadvantage. This paper could compare two organisations, for example one operating a best practice HR policy and the other with little or no HR policies.
This would identify what added value there is in best practice Human Resources, and if this adds the same value to all organisations. The organisations for the study would need to Cover Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover, be in similar markets and employ the same number of employees. Change is endemic, and the Human Resources department should be a forefront of change, driving it though the organisation. Suggested topics you could choose as human resources dissertation topics could include: If you snooze you lose. Keeping up with change, how do organisations cope with change? HR replaced personnel, what can replace HR? Value, how do you assess the HR value? Why bother, I will catch the next fad. A study on an organisation to Sample - Documents Word, advise them of Letter Name | Resume, their options. A study of change in an organisation.
Change for change sake (is new always best?). Benefits of HR. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Performance Management Dissertation Topics. Reward systems that are implemented under the umbrella of - 6+ Pdf, Human Resources are frequently a tool used to Letter Name | Resume Cv Cover, raise commitment, competence and equivalence, and Glittering Membership Discount Cards Printing these instruments are extremely cost effective when executed correctly. Today the individualism of contract gives employees more control on their reward. At the basic level this can motivate, and at the higher level can introduce self-esteem and self worth. Performance reward or incentive pay is Cover Letter Without Cv Cover Letter, a tool that can be used to Book Project: Templates, Worksheets, Grading Rubric, set targets and then reward when theses targets are met. Performance management consists of a cycle, consisting of five parts (1) setting of performance objectives (2) measuring the outcomes (3) feedback of results (4) reward linked to the outcomes and Without | Resume Cv Cover Letter (5) amendments to objectives and activities.
There are many companies that use performance management strategies, and use them in different ways, giving you different topics to Sample Donation Sheet - Documents, research and companies to compare and contrast. Some ideas for good human resources dissertation topics are listed below. Is performance management effective? Can skills be increased through performance management? Is it possible to manage all? Can wages be capped through performance management? Do individuals have control over their reward? Upskilling. Reviewing and reacting on results. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics?
Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and Letter Without Name Letter impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. A topic area could be the subjectivity of the appraiser. Performance management is widely used to assess employees’ capabilities and to set targets for the next year. Donation Sheet - Documents In Pdf,. The main contentious issues with performance management are the Cover | Resume Cv Cover, appraisals; they are conducted with the Report Worksheets,, subjectivity of the Letter | Resume Cv Cover, appraiser, who will often enter the appraisal interview with pre-conceived conclusions of both the appraisee and the interview. The gravity of this is Company Profile, immense as it forms the Without | Resume Cv Cover Letter, foundations of performance management. If they are not conducted fairly, there are no beneficial outcomes to Resumes Objectives, either the appraisee or the organisation. A paper on Cover Letter Without Cv Cover the “Subjectivity of the Appraiser” could be based on the theory from psychology and management practice, and Sample Donation Sheet Word reviews methods and techniques to reduce bias from the appraisal interview. If you are interested on basing your human resources management dissertation on appraisals, there are some suggested human resources dissertation topics below. Can subjectivity be removed? Halo, what Halo?
Was that fair? A comparison. Cv Cover. Can I have a pay rise? Are they honest? 360 degree appraisals. Public sector appraisals and the spinal pay reward. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive.
Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. In theory a motivated worker is a productive worker. Contained within the Ppt Of Profile In Project, function of Letter Without Name | Resume Cv Cover Letter, all organisations are numerous individual interrelated components (including the human aspect), which have a direct impact on the organisational performance. It is widely recognised that the “human resource” is regarded as the Glittering Membership Card Gift Cards, most valuable resource an organisation has. However, this resource does not always receive the attention, respect and Cover Without Letter the financial recognition to develop, to Sample Word, allow the employees’ full potential to be realised. The complex relationship between employee and employer has been studied from both a psychological and sociological aspect. The findings from both these fields of Cover Letter Name Cv Cover, research have identified four main categories of theories on employees’ motivation. (1) Economic needs of man, money is the motivator for example: Taylorism (2) Social man from the Hawthorne studies: (3) Self actualisation – this extended the results from the Hawthorne studies to include psychological issues: (4) The contingency approach – this identifies that individual motivation is influenced by a number of variables. If you are keen to discuss motivation within your dissertation, here are some human resources dissertation topics to get you started.
Contemporary versus traditional theory. HR and motivation. Motivation and job satisfaction. Cross organisation comparison, who gets it right? HRM is a motivator. Link between motivation and Membership Gift Service performance. Motivation and retention levels. Does motivated work force increase productivity?
Motivation versus total reward. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Strategic Human Resources Dissertation Topics. There has been a significant rise in the interest of strategic Human Resource Management in the past decade. These contemporary theories on strategic Human Resource Management introduce different levels of integration within organisations. Although there are various differences in models, most commentators agree that Strategic Human Resource Management increases the Without | Resume Cv Cover Letter, organisation’s value. With the global economy and the increase in competition this brings, the human resource is viewed as the last competitive edge.
It is how this resource is managed and the value that is Resumes [corybantic.us], place on it, that makes a difference between organisations. | Resume Letter. When the Report Project: Grading, organisational strategy has not considered the implications to the human resource i.e. are there enough trained employees or do we need to employ more, the strategy runs a high risk of Letter Name Cv Cover Letter, failure. Therefore it is vital to align the Ppt Of Profile, human resource with the Cover Letter Without, organisation’s strategy. Strategic HRM lends some interesting human resources dissertation topics for you to discuss. Does HR sit and fit on the board? Future planning or fire fighting? Reactive or proactive? Future planning or justifying role? Can HR be strategic? SHRM, another new fad? HR driving the organisation.
Operations or planning the HR function? Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for Sample Donation Sheet - Documents, only ?39.99. The underlying assumption is the way “things get done” in Letter Without | Resume Cv Cover Letter, the organisation and that individuals know how to behave. When an assumption is broken, it is Nursing Thank-You - 6+ Pdf, questioned by members of the organisation. This helps to Letter Name Cv Cover Letter, maintain the culture (Phelan 2005). The culture is significant and important to an organisation and its members. For the Donation Sheet In Pdf, Word, individual and group member, culture is the “social glue that helps hold the organisation together by Cover Letter Without | Resume, providing appropriate standards for what employees should say and do”. Consequently, the culture will reduce an Company In Project employee’s uncertainty and anxiety about Letter expected behaviour.
This behaviour is individual to the organisation, and Sample In Word, is difficult to Cover Name | Resume Letter, transfer. The organisation’s culture differentiates it from Resumes [corybantic.us], others, and partly explains why employees are attracted to one employer versus other employers. The culture of an organisation can reduce uncertainty and complexity, providing a consistent outlook that its values make possible. This is Cover Without Name | Resume, visible in the decision-making process, co-ordination and control. Excellent leaders are not merely aware of the organisation’s basic assumptions, they also know how to take actions and mould and refine them. Report Project: Rubric. To discuss culture in you dissertation, some human resources dissertation topics are suggested below.
Gatekeeper or owner? Placing values in the organisation. Culture is the organisation. It’s the | Resume Cv Cover, way we do it around here. Inducting new employees into the culture.
Recruiting to change the - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf, culture. Managing cultural change. Training and culture. Letter. Change agent. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Over the past few decades the nature and [corybantic.us] the composition of the work force has been changing. There are numerous challenges and opportunities for organisations within the new formation. Cover Without Name | Resume. In reply, diversity management has become an essential component of human resource management (HRM). Diversity management is a relatively new, but significant area of HRM.
This new area of management brings learning and challenges to the individuals that supervise and manage employees. Diversity management does assume different forms and models in practice, but is defined as an organisation’s active investment in the integration, development, and advancement of individuals who collectively represent the work force. When developing an organisational strategy, diversity is Ppt Of Company, placed in the culture, policies, and practices which support respect and communication, as well as individual, team and Cover Without Cv Cover organisational performance in a diverse environment. Possible human resources dissertation topics on diversity are: Differences between diversity and discrimination. Sample Donation Sheet - Documents Word. Managing the new workforce. Cross national diversity. Can discrimination be removed?
Managing diversity and cultural differences. Training for diversity. The line and diversity. Diverse and cosmopolitan. The global village. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99.
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