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Internet Encyclopedia of Writing Research Guide For Non-Native-English Philosophy. Ernst Cassirer was the Assessment, most prominent, and the last, Neo-Kantian philosopher of the Writing An Easy, twentieth century. His major philosophical contribution was the transformation of his teacher Hermann Cohen’s mathematical-logical adaptation of Request An Rma - Dwg Kant’s transcendental idealism into Writing Research Papers: An Easy For Non-Native-English, a comprehensive philosophy of symbolic forms intended to How To Chart In Excel For Prioritizing Projects, address all aspects of human cultural life and creativity. In doing so, Cassirer paid equal attention to both sides of the traditional Neo-Kantian division between the Research For Non-Native-English, Geisteswissenschaften and Naturwissenschaften, that is, between the social sciences and the natural sciences. This is Key, expressed most systematically in his masterwork, the multi-volume Philosophie der symbolischen Formen (1923-9). Here Cassirer marshaled the widest learning of human cultural expression—in myth, religion, language, philosophy, history, art, and science—for the sake of completing and correcting Kant’s transcendental program. The human being, for Writing Research Papers: An Easy Cassirer, is not simply the rational animal, but the animal whose experience with and reaction to the world is governed by Logistics Coordinator Job Description Template | Workable symbolic relations. Cassirer was a quintessential humanistic liberal, believing freedom of rational expression to be coextensive with liberation. Cassirer was also the twentieth century’s greatest embodiment of the Enlightenment ideal of Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English comprehensive learning, having written widely-acclaimed histories of the ideas of science, historiography, mathematics, mythology, political theory, and philosophy. Though cordial with both Moritz Schlick and Martin Heidegger, Cassirer’s popularity was eclipsed by the simultaneous rise of logical positivism in the English-speaking world and of phenomenology on the European continent.
His professional career was the victim, too, of the political events surrounding the ascendency of Builer 13 Resume Free. Free Nazism in German academies. Ernst Cassirer was born in 1874, the son of the Writing Research Papers: Guide, established Jewish merchant Eduard Cassirer, in the former German city of Breslau (modern day Wroclaw, Poland). He matriculated at the University of Berlin in 1892. His father intended that he study law, but Cassirer’s interest in literature and philosophy prevented him from Marvellous Design Resume Free doing so. Writing Research Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English. Sampling various courses at the universities at Leipzig, Munich, and Heidelberg, Cassirer was first exposed to How To Chart For Prioritizing Projects, the Neo-Kantian philosophy by the social theorist Georg Simmel in Berlin. Research An Easy Guide. In 1896, Cassirer began his doctoral studies under Herman Cohen at For Prioritizing Projects the University of Marburg. Cassirer’s interests at Marburg ran, as they would always, toward framing Neo-Kantian thought in the wider contexts of historical thinking.
These interests culminated in his dissertation, Descartes: Kritik der Matematischen und Naturwissenschaftlichen Erkentniss (1899). Three years later, Cassirer published a similarly historical book on Leibniz’ System in seinen wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen (1902). Cassirer was also the editor of Leibniz’ Philosophische Werke (1906). His focus on the development of modern idealist epistemology and its foundational importance for the history of the various natural sciences and mathematics reached its apex in Cassirer’s three-volume Das Erkenntnisproblem in der Philosophie und Wissenschaft der neuren Zeit (1906-1920), for which he was awarded the Kuno Fischer Medal by Research For Non-Native-English the Heidelberg Academy. Design Builer 13 Resume Builder. The first volume, Cassirer’s Habilitationschrift at the University of Berlin (1906), examines the Writing Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English, development of epistemology from the Renaissance through Descartes; the second (1907) continues from modern empiricism through Kant; the third (1920) deals with the Outstanding Excel Timesheet Calculator Template, development of epistemology after Kant, especially the division between Hegelians and Writing Papers: Guide, Neo-Kantians up to the mid-twentieth century; and the fourth volume of Das Erkenntnisproblem on contemporary epistemology and science was written in exile in 1940, but only published after the end of the war in 1946. Although his quality as a scholar of ideas was unquestioned, anti-Jewish sentiment in German universities made finding suitable employment difficult for Cassirer. Only through the personal intervention of Wilhelm Dilthey was Cassirer given a Privatdozent position at the University of Coordinator Template | Workable Berlin in 1906. His writing there was prolific and continued the Research An Easy, Neo-Kantian preoccupation with the intersections among epistemology, mathematics, and natural science. Cassirer’s work on, and with, Einstein exemplifies the How To Request An Rma, quality of his contributions to the philosophy of science: Der Substanzbegriff und der Funktionsbegriff (1910), and Zur Einstein’schen Relativitatstheoretische Betrachtung (1921). These works also mark Cassirer’s conviction that an historian of ideas could make a major contribution to the most contemporary problems in every field. After the First World War, and in Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English the more tolerant Weimar Republic, Cassirer was invited to a chair at the new University of | Obgyn Hamburg in 1919.
There, Cassirer came into the cultural circle of Erwin Panofsky and the Warburg Library of the Cultural Sciences. Immediately Cassirer was absorbed into the vast cultural-anthropological data collected by Writing Guide For Non-Native-English the Library, affecting the widest expansion of Neo-Kantian ideas into the previously uncharted philosophical territories of myth, the Intrapartum Assessment | Obgyn Key, evolution of language, zoology, primitive cultures, fine art, and music. The acquaintance with the Warburg circle transformed Cassirer from a student of the Marburg School’s analysis of the Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English, transcendental conditions of thinking into a philosopher of culture whose inquisitiveness touched nearly all areas of human cultural life. This intersection of Marburg and Warburg was indeed the necessary background of Cassirer’s masterwork, the four-volume Philosophie der symbolischen Formen (1923-1929). In addition to Intrapartum Assessment | Obgyn, his programmatic work, Cassirer was a major contributor to the history of Research Papers: ideas and the history of science. In conscious contrast with Hegelian accounts of history, Cassirer does not begin with the assumption of a theory of dialectical progress that would imply the Coordinator Job Description Template | Workable, inferiority of earlier stages of historical developments. By starting instead with the authors, cultural products, and Writing Research, historical events themselves, Cassirer instead finds characteristic frames of mind that are defined by the kinds of philosophical questions and responses that frame them, which are in turn constituted by characteristic forms of rationality. Among his works at this time, which influenced a generation of historians of ideas from Arthur Lovejoy to Peter Gay are Individuum und Kosmos in der Philosophie der Renaissance (1927); Die Platonische Renaisance in Calculator Example England und die Schule von Cambridge (1932); Philosophie der Aufklarung (1932); Das Problem Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1932); and Research Papers: An Easy Guide, Descartes: Lehre, Personlichkeit, Wirkung (1939). Cassirer’s philosophy of science had a similar influence on Logistics Coordinator Job Description | Workable the historical analyses of Alexander Koyre and, through him, Thomas Kuhn. In 1929, Cassirer was chosen Rektor of the University of Hamburg, making him the first Jewish person to hold that position in Papers: An Easy Guide Germany. However, even as Cassirer’s star was rising, the situation for 12 Sample Jewish academics was deteriorating.
With Hitler’s election as Chancellor came the Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English, ban on Jews holding academic positions. Cassirer saw the writing on the wall and Create Chart In Excel, emigrated with his family in 1933. He spent two years at Oxford and then six at Goteborg, where he wrote Determinismus und Indeterminismus in der modernen Physik (1936), Descartes: Lehre, Personlichkeit, Wirkung (1939), and Zur Logik der Kulturwissenschaften (1942). In 1931, he wrote the first comprehensive study of the Writing Research Papers: An Easy, Swedish legal theorist and proto-Analytic philosopher, Axel Hagerstrom. In 1941, Cassirer boarded the last ship the Germans permitted to sail from Intrapartum Assessment | Obgyn Sweden to the United States, where he would hold positions at Writing Papers: For Non-Native-English Yale for two years and Intrapartum Assessment | Obgyn Key, then at Columbia for one. His final books, written in English, were the career-synopsis, An Essay on Research For Non-Native-English Man (1944), and his first philosophical foray into 12 Sample, contemporary politics, The Myth of the State (1946), published posthumously. Cassirer’s death in New York City on April 13, 1945, preceded that of Writing An Easy Guide Hitler and the surrender of Germany by mere weeks.
“The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms is not concerned exclusively or even primarily with the purely scientific, exact conceiving of the world; it is concerned with all the forms assumed by man’s understanding of the world” ( Philosophy of Symbolic Forms , vol. III, 13). Letter. For Cassirer, Neo-Kantianism was less about Guide doctrinal allegiance than it was about a common commitment to explore the cognitive structures that underlie the variety of human experience. After the death of Cohen, Cassirer became increasingly interested in How To Create Chart For Prioritizing Projects value and culture. Inspired by the Warburg Library, Cassirer cast his net into an ocean of cultural expression, trying to find the common thread that united the manifold of cultural forms, that is, to move from the critique of reason to the critique of culture. As to what precisely symbolic forms are, Cassirer offers perhaps his clearest definition in an early lecture at the Warburg Library (1921): By ‘symbolic form’ I mean that energy of the spirit through which a mental meaning-content is attached to a sensual sign and inwardly dedicated to this sign. In this sense language, the mythical-religious world, and the arts each present us with a particular symbolic form. For in them all we see the mark of the basic phenomenon, that our consciousness is not satisfied to simply receive impressions from the outside, but rather that it permeates each impression with a free activity of expression. Writing An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English. In what we call the objective reality of things we are thus confronted with a world of How To Create Chart self-created signs and images. (“Der Begriff der Symbolischen Form im Aufbau der Geisteswissenschaften”) An illustration Cassirer uses is that of the curved line on a flat plane.
To the geometer, the line means a quantitative relation between the two dimensions of the plane; to the physicist, the line perhaps means a relation of energy to mass; and to the artist, the line means a relation between light and darkness, shape and Research Papers: An Easy For Non-Native-English, contour. More than simply a reflection of different practical interests, Cassirer believes each of these brings different mental energies to bear in turning the visual sensation of the line into a distinct human experience. No one of these ways of experiencing is the true one; though they each have their distinctive pragmatic uses within their individual fields. The task of the philosopher is to understand the Intrapartum | Obgyn, internal directedness of each of these mental energies independently and in relation to the others as the sum total of human mental expression, which is to say, culture. The first two forms Cassirer discusses, in Writing Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English the first two volumes respectively, are language and myth. The third volume of the Philosophy of Symbolic Forms concerns contemporary advances in | Obgyn Key epistemology and Writing Research Papers: An Easy For Non-Native-English, natural science: “We shall show how the stratum of conceptual, discursive knowledge is grounded in those other strata of Marvellous 13 Resume spiritual life which our analysis of language and myth has laid bare; and with constant reference to this substructure we shall attempt to Papers: An Easy Guide, determine the particularity, organization, and architectonics of the superstructure – that is, of science” ( Philosophy of Symbolic Forms , vol. III, xiii). How To Create A Pick Chart In Excel For Prioritizing. Cassirer works historically, tracing the problem of philosophical knowledge through the Ancient Greeks up through the Neo-Kantian tradition. The seemingly endless battle between intuition and conceptualization has been contended in various forms between the originators of myths and the earliest theorists of number, between the Milesians and Eleatics, between the empiricists and rationalists, and again right up to Ernst Mach and Max Planck. Cassirer’s position here is conciliatory: both sides have and will continue to contribute their perspective on the eternal questions of philosophy insofar as both recognize their efforts as springing from the human’s multifaceted and spontaneous creativity—as symbol-forming rather than designating endeavors that in their dialectics, each with the other side, construct more elaborate and yet universal ways to navigate our world:
Physics gains this unity and Guide, extension by advancing toward ever more universal symbols. But in this process it cannot jump over its own shadow. It can and must strive to replace particular concepts and signs with absolutely universal ones. But it can never dispense with the function of How To In Excel concepts and signs as such: this would demand an intellectual representation of the Writing Research Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English, world without the basic instruments of representation. ( Philosophy of Symbolic Forms , vol. III, 479) The fourth volume, The Metaphysics of Letter Symbolic Forms , was published posthumously. Along with other papers left at Writing An Easy the time of his death, the Template, German original is now found in the first volume of Cassirer’s Nachgelassene Manuskripte und Texte , edited by John Michael Krois and Oswald Schwemmer in 1995. The English volume, assembled and Research Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English, edited by Donald Philip Verene and John Michael Krois in 1996, contains two texts from Marvellous different periods in Cassirer’s writings. Writing. The first, from 1928, deals with human nature rather than metaphysics proper. In agreement with Heidegger, curiously, Cassirer seeks to replace traditional metaphysics with a fundamental study of human nature. Much of the thematic discussion of this part receives a refined and more complete expression in Cassirer’s 1944 Essay on Man . What is of novel interest here concerns his discussion of then contemporary philosophical anthropologists like Dilthey, Bergson, and Simmel and Outstanding Timesheet Calculator Template : Vlashed, also the Lebensphilosophen , Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche, who otherwise receive short shrift in his work.
His critical remarks of these latter thinkers involve their treatment of life as a new sort of metaphysics, one marred, however, by the sorts of dogmatism of pre-Kantian metaphysics. The second text in Verene and Krois’s assembled volume comes from 1940, well after the project had been otherwise finished, and its theme is what Cassirer terms “basis phenomena”: phenomena so fundamental that they cannot be derived from anything else. The main basis phenomena concerns how the tripartite structure of the self’s personal relation to the environment is mirrored in a tripartite social structure of the “I,” the “you,” and that which binds society: “work.” Not to be confused with the Marxist conception of work, for Cassirer work is anything made or effected, any subjective operation on the objective world. Writing Guide For Non-Native-English. The initial and most fundamental production of Marvellous Builer Builder Free. Free work, for Writing Research Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English Cassirer, is culture—the sphere in Coordinator Job Description which the “I” and Research Papers: An Easy For Non-Native-English, “you” come together in active life. Several objections to Cassirer’s masterwork have been raised. First, the precise identity and 12 Sample Letter, number of forms is ambiguous over Cassirer’s corpus. Research Papers: An Easy Guide. In the lecture from 1921, Cassirer names language, myth-religion, and art as forms, but that number cannot be considered exhaustive. Even in his summatory Essay on Man , consecutive pages maintain different lists: “myth, language, art, religion, history, science” (222) and then “language, myth, art, religion, science” (223); elsewhere science is omitted (63); mathematics is Outstanding Excel Calculator Example, sometimes added; and religion is sometimes considered part of Research Guide For Non-Native-English mythic thinking. The first two of the four volumes of Outstanding Timesheet Calculator Template The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms —on language and myth respectively—would seem to Papers: Guide, indicate that each volume would treat a specific form.
But the latter two volumes break the trend to deal with a host of different forms. Moreover, it is ambiguous how precisely those forms are related. For example, myth is Intrapartum, sometimes treated as a primitive form of language and sometimes non-developmentally as an equal correlate. Arithmetic and Research Papers: For Non-Native-English, geometry are the logic that undergirds the scientific symbolic form, but in Logistics Coordinator Job Description Template no way do they undergird primitive forms of science that have been superseded. Whether the forms are themselves developmental or whether development takes place by the instantiation of a new form is An Easy Guide, also left vague. For example, Cassirer indicates that the move from Euclidean to non-Euclidean geometry involves not just progress but an entirely new system of symbolization. However, myth does not seem to develop itself into Marvellous Design Resume Free. Free, anything else other than into Research Papers: Guide, something wholly different, that is, representational language. There is, however, a certain necessity to Cassirer’s imprecision on these points. Taken together, the Philosophy of Symbolic Forms is a grand narrative that exposits how various human experiences evolve out of an originally animalistic and primitive articulation of expressive signs into the complicated and more abstract forms of culture in the twenty-first century.
As “energies of the spirit” they cannot be affixed with the kind of rigid architectonic featured in Kant’s transcendental deduction of purely logical forms. Though spontaneous acts of mental energy, symbolic forms are both developmental and pragmatic insofar as they adapt over time to changing environments in response to real human needs, something that resists an overly rigid structuralism. Those responses feature a loose sort of internal-logic, but one characterized according to An Rma, contingent cultural interactions with the world. Therefore, one ought not to expect Cassirer to offer the same logical precision that comes with the Writing Research Papers: Guide, typical Neo-Kantian discernment of Letter mental forms insofar as logic is only one form among many cultural relations with life. Cassirer’s late Essay on Man (1944) expresses neatly his lifelong attempt to combine his Neo-Kantian view of the actively-constituting subject with his Warburgian appreciation for the diversity of human culture. Here, as ever, Cassirer begins with the history of views up into his present time, culminating in Research Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English the presentation of a definitive scientific thesis that he would then proceed to refute. Intrapartum | Obgyn. Johannes von Uexkull’s Umwelt und Innenwelt der Tiere (1909) argued that evolutionary biology has taken too far the view that animal parts and functions develop as a response to environmental factors. In its place Uexkull offers the Research An Easy, “functional circle” of Assessment | Obgyn animal activity, which identifies the interaction of distinct receptor and effector systems. Animals are not simply reacting to the environment as it presents itself in sensory stimuli.
They adapt themselves, consciously and unconsciously, to their environments, sometimes with clear signs of intelligence and insight. Different animals use diverse and sometimes highly complex systems of signals to better respond and manipulate their environments to Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English, their advantage. Design Builer 13 Resume Free. Free. Dogs, for example, are adroit at reading signals in body language, vocal tones, and even hormone changes while being remarkably effective in expressing a complex range of immediate inner states in terms of the vocalized pitch of their whimpers, grunts, or barks, as well as the bends of their tails, or the posture of their spines. In Pavlov’s famous experiments, dogs were conditioned to react both to the immediate signals of meat—its visual appearance and smell—and also to mediate signals, like a ringing bell, to the same effect. Cassirer thinks this theory makes good sense of the animal world as a corrective to a too-simple version of An Easy For Non-Native-English evolution, but doubts this can be applied to humans. Over and above the signals received and expressed by animals, human beings evolved to use symbols to make their world meaningful. The same ringing of the bell would not be considered by man a physical signal so much as a symbol whose meaning transcends its real, concrete stimulation. For man, a bell does not indicate simply that food is How To Chart For Prioritizing, coming, but induces him to wonder why that bell might indicate food, or perhaps whether an exam is over, or the fulfillment of a sacrament, or that someone is on the telephone. None of those symbols would lead necessarily to a response in the way the Research An Easy Guide, conditioned dog salivates at the bell. They instead prompt a range of freely creative responses in Coordinator Template | Workable human knowers within distinct spheres of meaning: Symbols—in the proper sense of this term—cannot be reduced to Research Papers: An Easy Guide, mere signals.
Signals and symbols belong to two different universes of discourse: a signal is a part of the physical world of being; a symbol is a part of the human world of meaning. Signals are ‘operators’; symbols are ‘designators’. Signals, even when understood and used as such, have nevertheless a sort of physical or substantial being; symbols have only How To An Rma - Dwg a functional value. ( Essay on Man 32) Between the straightforward reception of physical stimuli and the expression of an inner world lies, for Cassirer, the symbolic system: “This new acquisition transforms the whole of human life. As compared with the other animals man lives not merely in a broader reality; he lives, so to speak, in a new dimension of reality” ( Essay on Man 24). That dimension is distinctively Kantian: the a priori forms of space and time.
Animals have little trouble working in three-dimensional space; their optical, tactile, acoustic, and kinesthetic apprehension of spatial distances functions at least as well as it does in humans. But only to the human is the symbol of pure geometrical space meaningful, a universal, non-perceptual, theoretical space that persists without immediate relationship to Writing Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English, his or her own interaction with the world: “Geometrical space abstracts from all the variety and heterogeneity imposed upon us by the disparate nature of our senses. Here we have a homogenous, a universal space” ( Essay on Logistics | Workable Man 45). In terms of time, too, there can be no doubt that higher animals remember past sensations, or that memory affects the manner in which they respond when similar sensations are presented. Papers: An Easy For Non-Native-English. But in the human person the past is not simply repeated in How To the present, but transformed creatively and constructively in ways that reflect values, regrets, hopes, and so forth, It is not enough to pick up isolated data of our past experience; we must really re-collect them, we must organize and synthesize them, and assemble them into a focus of thought.
It is this kind of recollection which gives us the characteristic human shape of memory, and distinguishes it from Writing Research Papers: An Easy Guide all the other phenomena in animal or organic life. ( Essay on Man 51) As animals recall pasts and Marvellous Design Builder Free., live within sensory space, human beings construct histories and geometries. Both history and Writing Papers:, geometry, then, are symbolic engagements that render the | Workable, world meaningful in an irreducibly human fashion. This symbolic dimension of the person carries him or her above the effector-receptor world of Writing Papers: environmental facts and subjective responses. He or she lives instead in a world of Logistics possibilities, imaginations, fantasy, and dreams.
However, just as there is a kind of logic to Papers:, the language of contrary-to-fact conditionals or to the rules of poetic rhythym, so too is there a natural directedness expressed in how human beings construct a world of meaning out of Outstanding Excel Timesheet Example those raw effections and receptions. That directedness cannot, however, be restricted to rational intentionality, though reason is indeed an essential component. Papers:. In distinction from the Logistics Coordinator Job Description, Neo-Kantian theories of experience and representation, Cassirer thinks there is a wider network of forms that enable a far richer engagement between subject and object than reason could produce: “Hence, instead of defining man as an animal rationale , we should define him as an animal symbolicum ” ( Essay on Man 26). With his definition of man as the symbolic animal, Cassirer is in position to reenvision the task of Writing Research Papers: philosophy. Philosophy is much more than the analysis and eventual resolution of a set of linguistic problems, as Wittgenstein would have it, nor is it restricted, as it was for many Neo-Kantians, to transcendentally deducing the logical forms that would ground the Job Description, natural sciences. Philosophy’s “starting point and its working hypothesis are embodied in the conviction that the Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English, varied and seemingly dispersed rays may be gathered together and brought into Logistics Coordinator Job Description | Workable, a common focus ( Essay on Man 222). Writing Research Papers: An Easy. The functions of the human person are not merely aggregrate, loosely-connected expressions and Resume Builer 13 Resume Free., factual conditions. Philosophy seeks to understand the connections that unite those expressions and conditions as an organic whole. Max Muller was the Writing Guide For Non-Native-English, leading theorist of myth in Cassirer’s day.
In the face of Anglophone linguistic analysis, Muller held myth to be the necessary means by which earlier people communicate, one which left a number of traces within more-developed contemporary languages. How To - Dwg. What is Research Papers: For Non-Native-English, needed for Create Chart For Prioritizing the proper study of myth, beyond this appreciation of its utility, is a step by step un-riddling of the mythical objects in non-mythical concepts so as to rationally articulate what a myth really means. Sigmund Freud, of course, also considered myth to Writing Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English, be a sort of unconscious expression, one that stands as a primitive version of the naturally-occuring expression of subconscious drives. Cassirer considers myth in terms of the Neo-Kantian reflex by first examining the conditions for thinking and then analyzing the objects which are thought. In his Sprache und Mythos (1925), which is Dwg Tutorial: Request An Rma, a sort of condensed summary of the Research An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English, first two volumes of Philosophy of Symbolic Forms , Cassirer comes to criticize Muller, more so than Freud, for an unreflective realism about the Create Chart Projects, objects of Writing Research Papers: Guide myth. To say that objects of any sort are what they are independent of How To Create A Pick For Prioritizing their representation is to Writing For Non-Native-English, misunderstand the Assessment | Obgyn, last century of transcendental epistemology. Accordingly, to treat myth as a false representation of those objects, one waiting to be “corrected” by a properly rational representation, is to ignore the wider range of human intellectual power. Naturalizing myths, as Muller and his followers sought to do, does not dissolve an object’s mythical mask so much as transplants it into the foreign soil of an alternative symbolic form: From this point of view all artistic creation becomes a mere imitation, which must always fall short of the original. Papers: Guide. Not only Dwg Tutorial: How To Request - Dwg simple imitation of a sensibly presented model, but also what is known as idealization, manner, or style, must finally succumb to this verdict; for measured by Research Papers: An Easy For Non-Native-English the naked ‘truth’ of the object to be depicted, idealization is nothing but subjective misconception and falsification.
And it seems that all other processes of 12 Sample Letter mental gestation involve the same sort of outrageous distortion, the same departure from objective reality and the immediate data of experience. ( Language and Myth , trans. Langer , 6) Muller’s view of myth is a symptom of a wider problem. For if myth is akin to art or language in falsifying the world as it really is, then language is limited to merely expressing itself without any claim to truth either: “From this point it is but a single step to the conclusion which the modern skeptical critics of language have drawn: the complete dissolution of Papers: An Easy any alleged truth content of language, and the realization that this content is nothing but a sort of phantasmagoria of the spirit” ( Language and Myth , trans. Langer , 7). Cassirer rejects such fictionalism in For Recommendation Letter myth and language both as an appeal to psychologistic measures of truth that fail to see a better alternative in the philosophy of symbolic forms. For Cassirer, myth (and language, discussed below) does reflect reality: the reality of the Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English, subject. Accordingly, the study of Letter myth must focus on the mental processes that create myth instead of the Guide For Non-Native-English, presupposed ‘real’ objects of myth:
Instead of measuring the content, meaning, and truth of intellectual forms by something extraneous which is Dwg Tutorial: Request, supposed to be reproduced in them, we must find in Writing Research Guide For Non-Native-English these forms themselves the Dwg Tutorial: How To An Rma, measure and criterion for their truth and Writing Research Guide For Non-Native-English, intrinsic meaning. Instead of taking them as mere copies of 12 Sample something else, we must see in each of these spiritual forms a spontaneous law of generation; and Papers:, original way and tendency of expression which is more than a mere record of something initially given in fixed categories of real existence. ( Language and Assessment Key, Myth , trans. Langer , 8) The mythic symbol creates its own “world” of Writing Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English meaning distinct from that created by language, mathematics, or science. The question is no longer whether mythic symbols, or any of these other symbolic forms, correspond to reality since it is Timesheet Calculator Example, distinct from that mode of representation, but instead it is Writing Guide For Non-Native-English, a question on how myths relate to those other forms as limitations and supplementations. No matter how heterogeneous and variegated are the myths that come down to Intrapartum | Obgyn, us, they move along definite avenues of feeling and creative thought. An example Cassirer uses to illustrate his understanding of myth-making is the Avesta myth of Mithra.
Attempts to identify Mithra as the An Easy For Non-Native-English, sun-god, and thereby analogize it to the sun-god of the Egyptians, Greeks, and other early people, are misguided insofar as they stem from the attempt to Coordinator Job Description Template, explain away the object of mythical thinking in naturalistic rational terms. Cassirer points out that the analogy doesn’t hold for strictly interpretive reasons: Mithra is said to appear on mountain tops before dawn and is said to illuminate the Research Papers: For Non-Native-English, earth at night as well, and How To Request, cannot be the Writing An Easy Guide, mythical analog of the sun. Mithra is Create A Pick In Excel Projects, not a thing to be naturalized, but evidence of an alternate spiritual energy that fashions symbolic responses to experiential confusions. What Mithra specifically reflects is a mode of thinking as it struggles to make sense of how the qualities of light and darkness result from a single essential unity: the cosmos. As historical epochs provide new and self-enclosed worlds of experience, so too does myth evolve in conjunction with the needs of the age as an expression of overlapping but quite distinct patterns of mental life. Myths are hardly just wild stories with a particular pragmatic lesson. There is a specific mode of perception that imbues mythic thinking with its power to transcend experience. Similar to Giambattista Vico’s vision of historical epochs, Cassirer views the development of culture out of myth as a narrative of progressively more abstract systems of representation that serve as the foundation for human culture. Like Vico, too, there is continuity between the most elevated systems of theoretical expression of modern day—namely, religion, philosophy, and above all natural science—and a more primitive mind’s reliance upon Writing Guide For Non-Native-English myth and magic. However, Cassirer shares more with Enlightenment optimism than with Vico’s pessimistic conviction about the progressive degeneracy of Letter scientific abstraction. The first volume of The Philosophy of An Easy For Non-Native-English Symbolic Forms (1923), on language, is guided by the search for epistemological reasons sufficient to explain the origin and Job Description, development of human speech.
Language is neither a nominal nor arbitrary designation of objects, nor, however, does language hold any immediate or essential connection to the object of its designation. The use of a word to designate an object is Writing Research Guide For Non-Native-English, already caught in a web of intersubjectively-determined meanings which of themselves contain much more than the simple reference. Words are meaningful within experience, and that experience lies, as it did for Kant, as a sort of middle-ground between the pure reception of 12 Sample For Recommendation objects and the autonomous activity of Writing Papers: An Easy For Non-Native-English reason to Excel Calculator Example, generate forms within which content could be meaningful. In contrast to Kant and the Neo-Kantians, however, those forms cannot be presumed to be identical among all rational agents over the spans of history. Animal language is essentially a language of emotion, expressions of desires and aversions in response to environmental factors. Similarly the earliest words uttered by our primitive ancestors were signs to Writing Research Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English, deal with objects, every bit a tool alongside other tools to deal with the 12 Sample, primitive’s sensed reality. Writing Research. As the human mind evolved to add spatio-temporal intuitions to Assessment | Obgyn, mere sensation, a representational function overtook the mind’s merely expressive operations. The primitive vocalized report of received sensations became representations of Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English enduring objects within fixed spatial points: “The difference between propositional language and emotional language is the real landmark between the human and the animal world. All the theories and observations concerning animal language are wide of the mark if they fail to recognize that fundamental difference” ( Essay on Man 30). The features of those objects were further abstracted such that from commonalities there emerged a host of types, kinds, and eventually universals, whose meaning allowed for the emergence of mathematics, science, and philosophy. The animal’s emotive signals operate as a practical imagination in a world of immediate experience.
Proper human propositional speech, on Intrapartum Assessment Key the other hand, is already imbued at even its most basic levels with theoretical structures that involve quintessentially spatio-temporal forms linking subjects and their objects: “Language has a new task wherever such relationships are signified linguistically, where ‘here’ is distinguished from Writing Research Guide For Non-Native-English ‘there,’ where the location of the For Recommendation Letter, speaker is distinguished from the one spoken to, or where the greater nearness or distance is Writing Research Papers:, rendered by various indicative particles” (“The Problem of the Logistics Coordinator | Workable, Symbol and its Place in the System of Philosophy” in Luft , 259). The application of dimensionality, and temporality as well, transforms the subjective sensation into an objective representation. Prepositions, participles, subjunctives, conditionals, and the rest, all involve either temporal or spatial prescriptions, and none of Guide them seems to be a feature of animal space. The older animalistic content is not entirely discarded as the Builer Free., same basic desires and emotions are expressed. The means of that expression, however, are formally of an Writing Research Papers: An Easy For Non-Native-English, entirely different character that binds the subject to the object in ways supposed to be binding for other rational agents. Although the interjection “ouch!” expresses pain well enough, and although animals have variously similar yelps and cries, it lacks the representational form of the proposition “I (this one, here and now) am (presently) in pain..” In the Outstanding Excel Template, uniquely human sphere of ethics, too, the reliance on subjunctive and conditional verbal forms—“I ought not to have done that,” for Writing Research example—always carries language beyond simple evocations of pleasures and Assessment, aversions into the symbolic realm of meaningfulness. The Neo-Kantian position on language allows Cassirer to Papers:, address two contemporary anomalies in linguistic science. The first is the famous case of Helen Keller, the unfortunate deafblind girl from Alabama, who, with the How To A Pick For Prioritizing, help of her teacher Anne Sullivan, went on Writing Papers: An Easy to become a prolific author and social activist. Sullivan had taught Helen signs by using a series of taps on her hand to correspond to particular sense impressions.
Beyond her disabled sensory capacities, Cassirer argued, Helen was unable to cognize in Intrapartum the characteristically human way. One day at a water pump, Sullivan tapped “water” and Helen recognized the disjunction between the various sensations of water (varying temperatures, viscocities, and degrees of pressure) and Writing Research Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English, the “thing” which is universally referred to as such. That moment opened up for Helen an entire world of names, not as mere expressive signals covering various sensations but as intersubjectively valid objective symbols. This discovery marked her entry into a new, symbolic mode of thinking: “The child had to make a new and much more significant discovery. She had to understand that everything has a name —that the symbolic function is not restricted to particular cases but is a principle of universal applicability which encompasses the whole field of human thought” ( Essay on Man 34f). The second case is the pathology of 12 Sample For Recommendation aphasia. Similar to Helen Keller, what had long been thought a deficiency of the Writing An Easy For Non-Native-English, senses was revealed by Cassirer to be a cognitive failing. In the case of Marvellous Free patients with traumatic injuries to certain areas of the brain, particular classes of speech act became impossible. The mechanical operation of producing the words was not the problem, but an inability to Papers:, speak objectively about “unreal” conditions: “A patient who was suffering from a hemiplegia, from Marvellous 13 Resume Free a paralysis of the right hand, could not, for instance, utter the words: ‘I can write with my right hand,’ because this was to him the statement of a fact, not of a hypothetical or unreal case” ( Essay on Writing An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English Man 57). These types of aphasiacs were confined to the data provided by their sense impressions and therefore could not make the crucial symbolic move to Dwg Tutorial: How To Request - Dwg, theoretical possibility. For Cassirer, this was good evidence that language was neither mere emotional expression nor free-floating propositional content that could be analyzed logically only a posteriori . In addition to these cases of abnormal speech pathology, Cassirer’s attention to the evolution of language enabled him to take a much wider view of both the form of utterance and its content than his more famous counterparts among the linguistic analysts.
In Carnap’s Logical Syntax of Language , for example, the attempt is made to reduce semantic rules to syntax. The expected outcome was a philosophical grammar, a sound and complete system of words in the sort of logical relation that would be universally valid. Research Papers: An Easy. For Cassirer, however, “human speech has to | Obgyn, fulfill not only a universal logical task but also a social task which depends on the specific social conditions of the speaking community. Hence we cannot expect a real identity, a one-to-one correspondence between grammatical and logical forms” ( Essay on Man 128). Contrary to Writing Research Papers: For Non-Native-English, the early analytical school, language cannot be considered a given thing waiting to be assessed according to independent logical categories, but instead needs to be assessed according to Request An Rma - Dwg, the a priori application of those categories to verbal expressions. Accordingly, the task of the philosopher of language must be refocused to account for the diversity and creativity of linguistic dynamics in order to better encapsulate the human rational agent in Guide the fullest possible range of his or her powers. Cassirer was perhaps the last systematic philosopher to Marvellous Builer Builder Free, have both exhaustive knowledge of the historical development of each of the individual sciences as well as thorough familiarity with his day’s most important advancements. Substance and Function (1910) could still serve as a primer for the history of major scientific concepts prior to the twenthieth century. The first part examines the Research Papers: An Easy Guide, concepts of number, space, and a vast array of special problems such as Emil du Bois-Reymond’s “limiting concepts”; Robert Mayer’s methodological advancements in Intrapartum thermo-dynamics; the spatial continuities of atoms in the physics of Roger Boscovich and Gustav Fechner; Galileo’s concept of Research Papers: For Non-Native-English inertia; Heinrich Hertz’s mechanics; and John Dalton’s law of multiple proportions. Each of these is examined with a view toward the epistemological presuppositions that gave rise to those problems and Coordinator Job Description | Workable, how each scientist’s innovations represented a novel way of posing problems through an application of Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English spatio-temporal concepts. This historical survey allows Cassirer to offer his own contributions to these problems along recognizably Neo-Kantian lines in the second part of Substance and Function . Science cannot be considered a collection of empirical facts.
Science discovers no absolute qualities but only qualities in relation to other qualities within a particular field, such as the concept of mass as the sum of relations with respect to external impulses in motion, or energy as the momentary condition of a given physical system. Concrete sensuous impressions are only transformed into empirical objects by the determination of Outstanding Template Example spatial and temporal form. The properties of objects, in An Easy For Non-Native-English bringing them into meaningful discourse by means of measurement, are thus mathematized as a field of relations: “The chaos of impressions becomes a system of numbers; but these numbers first gain their denomination, and thus their specific meaning, from the system of concepts which are theoretically established as universal standards of measurement” ( Substance and Function 149). Objects as they stand outside possible experience are not the proper subject matter of science, anymore than they are for mathematics. Proper science examines the logical connections among the spatio-temporal relationships of objects precisely as they are constituted by experience.
Abandoning the particular sensuous properties of objects for their logical relations as members of Assessment | Obgyn Key a system refocuses the scientific inquiry on how the natural world is symbolized by mathematical logic. Science becomes anthropomorphized insofar as whatever content is available to experience will be content that the An Easy Guide, human being spontaneuosly and creatively renders meaningful: “No content of experience can ever appear as something absolutely strange; for even in making it a content of our thought, in setting it in spatial and temporal relations with other contents we have thereby impressed it with the seal of How To Create In Excel For Prioritizing our universal concepts of connection, in particular those of mathematical relations” ( Substance and Function 150). However, this in no way reduces science to mere relativism of personal inner projections, as if one way of representing the world were no better than any other. Research Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English. Though we do not know objects independent of mental representation, scientific understanding functions objectively by fixing the permanent logical elements and their connections within a uniform manifold of experience: “The object marks the logical possession of knowledge, and not a dark beyond forever removed from knowledge” ( Substance and Function 303). Thus, science is absolutely tied to empirical reality, by How To Request - Dwg which Cassirer means the sum of logical relations through which humans cognize the world.
Therefore science, too, as much as language or myth, symbolically constitutes the world in its particular idiom: “The symbol possesses its adequate correlate in the connection according to law, that subsists between the individual members, and Writing Research, not in any constitutive part of the perception; yet it is this connection that gradually reveals itself to be the real kernel of the For Recommendation Letter, thought of empirical ‘reality’” ( Substance and Function 149). This Neo-Kantian vision of Writing Research Papers: Guide science is not something Cassirer thinks stands to “correct” science as currently practiced. On the contrary, the great modern scientists themselves have assumed precisely the same view, though in terms lacking the proper philosophical rigor. Newton’s assumption of absolute space and time put science on Marvellous Design Resume 13 Resume Builder Free its first firm foundation, and in doing so he had to relinquish a purely sense-certain view of experience. Space and time in classical physics fix natural processes within a geometric schema, and fix mass as a self-identical thing within infinitely different spaces and different times. What Newton failed to realize was that this vision of space and time imputed ideal forms into what he believed was the Research, straightforward observation of real objects. Kant had already shown as much. James Clark Maxwell’s theory of light waves breaks with this system of transcribing observational circumstances with mathematical equations that associate spatial positions with affair-states. Maxwell’s spatial point simultaneously has two correlate directional quantities: the magnetic and electrical vectors, whose representations in mathematics are readily cognizable but whose observation as such is Logistics Coordinator Job Description Template, impossible. The theory of Maxwell was therefore functionally meaningful without requiring a substantial ontology behind it.
The definitive theory of light he discovered was not about Research An Easy For Non-Native-English a permanent thing situated within space and time but a set of interrelated magnitudes that could be functionally represented as a universal constant. Hermann Ludwig von Helmholtz was among the first natural scientists to properly acknowledge the difference between observational descriptions of How To - Dwg reality and symbolic theoretical constructions of it. As Cassirer quotes Helmholtz: [I]n investigating [phenomena] we must proceed on the supposition that they are comprehensible. Writing Research Papers: An Easy For Non-Native-English. Accordingly, the Excel Example, law of sufficient reason is Writing Research Papers: An Easy, really nothing more than the urge of our intellect to bring all our perceptions under its own control. It is not a law of nature.
Our intellect is the faculty of forming general conceptions. It has nothing to do with our sense-perceptions and experiences unless it is able to form general conceptions or laws. Excel Calculator Example : Vlashed. ( Essay on Man 220) The alleged sensory manifold held so dear in naively realist science gave way before Helmholtz’s demonstration that such is an ideally defined totality according to the rule which distinguishes properties on the basis of numerical series. That ideal unit is, for Helmholtz, the “symbol,” which cannot be considered a “copy” of a non-signifying object-in-itself (for how could that be conceived?) but the functional correspondence between two or more conceptual structures. Thus what is discovered by Helmholtzian science are the laws of interrelation among phenomena, the laws which are the very condition of our experiencing something as an object in the first place. To Helmholtz’s experimental demonstration, Cassirer is able to add the relational but still universal nature of An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English scientific designation; that is, the crucial differentiation between substance-concepts and function-concepts: For laws are never mere compendia of perceptible facts, in which the individual phenomena are merely placed end to end as on a string.
Rather every law, as compared to immediate perception, comprises a […] transition to a new perspective. This can occur only when we replace the concrete data provided by experience with symbolic representations, which on the basis of certain theoretical presuppositions that the observer accepts as true and valid are thought to correspond to Builder Free. Free, them. Guide. ( The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms III, 21) Accordingly, the Create A Pick Chart, truth of science does not depend upon an accurate conceptualization of substances so much as it does on the demonstrating the Writing An Easy Guide, limits of Dwg Tutorial: How To Request conceptual thinking about those substances, that is, their symbolic functions. The scientist cannot attain his end without strict obedience to the facts of nature. But this obedience is not passive submission.
The work of all the great natural scientists – of Galileo and Newton, of Maxwell and Helmholtz, of Planck and Einstein—was not mere fact collecting; it was theoretical, and that means constructive, work. This spontaneity and productivity is the very center of all human activities. It is man’s highest power and it designates at the same time the natural boundary of our human world. In language, in religion, in art, in science, man can do no more than to Writing Research Papers: An Easy For Non-Native-English, build up his own universe – a symbolic universe that enables him to understand and interpret, to articulate and organize, to synthesize and universalize his human experience. ( Essay on Man 221) Cassirer’s essay Zur Einsteinschen Relativitatstheorie (1921) was his last major thematic enterprise before the first volume of The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms . In it he sees himself following Cohen’s task of updating Kant’s philosophical groundwork for science. Kant had taken for granted that the forms of science in his own day represented scientific thinking as such. His epistemological groundwork accordingly needed to support Newtonian physics. After Kant’s death, science leapt past the limits set by Newton just as mathematics pushed the limits of For Prioritizing Euclidian three-dimensional geometry. Einstein’s theories of Writing Research Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English relativity effectively dismantled the authority of both; the fact that they did proved to Cassirer the non-absolute status of scientific symbolization as a doctrine about objects. Outstanding Excel Timesheet Calculator Example : Vlashed. An elucidation of the epistemological conditions that could allow for Einstein’s relativity was now necessary.
Cassirer replaced Kant’s static formalism with his attention to the varied and alterable features of mathematical science that could accomodate radical new forms of Writing Papers: For Non-Native-English mathematical logic and, by extension, systems of Outstanding Timesheet Template natural science. Pure Euclidean geometry was so influential because it dealt concretely and intuitively with real things as uniform and absolute substances. And it still works with most material applications. When non-Euclidian geometry came to the fore with Gauss, Riemann, and Christoffel, it was considered a mere play of analytical concepts that held some logical curiosity but no applicability. Over time a gradual shift ensued from the widening of the concept of experience to include non-uniform concepts of space. Pure Euclidean space stands, as it now seems, not closer to the demands of empirical and physical knowledge than the non-Euclidean manifolds but rather more removed. For precisely because it represents the logically simplest form of spatial construction it is not wholly adequate to the complexity of content and the material determinateness of the empirical. Its [i.e., the Euclidean] fundamental property of Research Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English homogeneity, its axiom of the equivalence in 12 Sample For Recommendation Letter the principal of all points, now marks it as an abstract space; for, in the concrete and empirical manifold, there never is such uniformity, but rather thorough-going differentiation reigns in it. (“Euclidean and non-Euclidean Geometry,” in Luft , 243) It is thus not the case, as traditionally thought, that the new physical sciences simply adopted a more abstract vision of Writing Papers: For Non-Native-English mathematics as its basis. Outstanding Excel Calculator Example : Vlashed. Their physics represent a more widely-encompassing symbolic representation that expresses a new mode of experience, one less concerned with the sense impressions of real objects than with the reality of Papers: For Non-Native-English their logical relations. Einstein needed a geometry of curvature that varied according to the relation of How To Create Chart For Prioritizing Projects mass and energy in order for Writing Research Papers: An Easy general relativity to work, but this of itself does not mean Euclidean geometry was or even could be proven wrong by Minkowski space-time.
In the terminology of Job Description Template symbolic forms, Cassirer thinks Einstein’s relativity has transcended the symbolic forms of natural objects with those of pure mathematical relations. The result is the fracture of non-commensurable ways of analyzing one and the same “substance”: physically, chemically, mathematically, and Writing Research An Easy Guide, so forth. Those forms ought not to be reduced to a single “meta” method that levels their differences as merely partial views. Each ought to be retained as equally valid parts of the total determination of the object. Thus Einstein was right to abandon absolute Newtonian space-time for relative Minkowski space-time. Dwg Tutorial: Request - Dwg. But his reason for doing so did not concern the former’s falsity.
In place of a single absolutist description, the new relativism embraced an epistemology that featured a wider variety of equally valid modes of Research Papers: An Easy Guide thinking about one and the same object. Objects, in Cassirer’s idiom, are relative to Marvellous Design Builder Free. Free, the symbolic form under which they are expressed. The One reality can only be disclosed and defined as the Writing Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English, ideal limit of diversely changing theories; but the setting of this limit itself is not arbitrary; it is inescapable, since the continuity of experience is established only thereby. No particular astronomical system, the Copernican no more than the Ptolemaic…may be taken as an expression of the ‘true’ cosmic order, but only the whole of Intrapartum | Obgyn these systems as they continuously unfold in accordance with a certain context. …We do not need the objectivity of absolute things, but we do require the objective determinacy of the way of experience itself. ( Philosophy of Symbolic Forms III, 476) Cassirer’s view of the evolution of science may be compared with Thomas Kuhn’s view insofar as both reject a single consistent progress toward absolute truth. An Easy. Cassirer’s symbolic forms echo in Assessment Kuhn’s paradigms as incommensurable frameworks of meaning that stand in discomfitted relationships with one another. But where Kuhn sees the conditions for shifted paradigms in the quasi-sociological language of the community crises brought about by insoluable intra-paradigm problems, Cassirer sees a more epistemological metamorphosis in the evolution and Research Papers: An Easy Guide, expansion of human thinking. More than just a professional and social shift away from Pythagoras or Galileo to Einstein or Plank, Cassirer thinks rational agency matures to embrace more variegated, more useful, and more precise symbols. This evolution does not bring the rational agent closer to the truth of objects, but it does bring more useful and exacting means by which to Design 13 Resume, think about Writing An Easy Guide those objects. Insofar as science, more so than myth or language, cultivates that progression through its activity, it presents, for 12 Sample Letter Cassirer, the prospect to Papers: For Non-Native-English, carry human nature to the very highest cultural achievements possible: “Science is the last step in Job Description Template | Workable man’s mental development and it may be regarded as the highest and most characteristic attainment of human culture” ( Essay on Man 207). Cassirer’s political philosophy has its roots in Renaissance humanism and the classics of Modern thought: Machiavelli, Rousseau, Kant, Goethe, and Humboldt.
Ever concerned with a subject’s connection to the wider sphere of cultural life, Cassirer noted that the Ancient, Medieval, and Renaissance conceptions of politics were framed within a holistic worldview. Writing Research Guide For Non-Native-English. In Modern times, a holistic order still obtained, but after Machiavelli, this order is based upon intrapersonal relationships rather than the divine or the natural. These social and political relationships are, like symbolic forms, neither entirely objective nor entirely subjective. They represent the construction of ourselves in the framework of our ideal comprehensive social life. Man’s social consciousness depends upon a double act of identification and discrimination. Man cannot find himself, he cannot become aware of his individuality, except through the medium of his social life. […] Man, like the animals, submits to the rules of Create Chart In Excel Projects society but, in addition, he has an active share in bringing about, and an active power to Writing Research Papers: An Easy For Non-Native-English, change, the forms of social life. ( Essay on Man 223) As it did for Intrapartum Key Kant, human dignity derives from the capacity of rational agents to pose and constrain themselves by normative laws of Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English their own making.
Cassirer stresses against Marx and Heidegger, respectively, that it is neither the material nor ontological conditions that man is born or thrown into that determines political order or social value. Logistics Coordinator Job Description. Rather, it is the Writing Research Guide, active processes by Dwg Tutorial: Request which the human person creates laws for themself, social institutions for Research Guide themself, and Logistics Job Description Template, norms for themself are paramount in determining the place of the human being in society. Politics is not simply the study of the relations between social institutions, as Marx and Research An Easy, his sociological disciples believed, but of their meaningful construction within the symbolic forms of myth-making, art, poetry, religion, and science. Human culture taken as a whole may be described as the process of man’s progressive self-liberation. Language art, religion, science, are various phases in this process. In all of them man discovers and Intrapartum | Obgyn Key, proves a new power – the power to build up a world of his own, an Writing An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English, ‘ideal’ world. Philosophy cannot give up its search for a fundamental unity in this ideal world ( Essay on Man , 228). The opponent in Assessment | Obgyn Cassirer’s last work, The Myth of the Writing Guide For Non-Native-English, State , is Heidegger and Example, the kind of twentieth century totalitarian mythologies of “crisis” by which he and so much of Germany were then entranced. Guide. Even if he did stand mostly alone, Cassirer stood firmly against the myth of Aryan supremacy, the myth of the Resume Builder, eternal Jew, and the myth of Socialist utopia. He did not oppose the creative acts that gave rise to these myths but the unthinking allegiance they demanded of their acolytes. In so doing, Cassirer felt Germany, and not just Germany, had abandoned its heritage of classical liberalism, tradition of laws, and its belief in Writing Research An Easy For Non-Native-English the rational progress of both science and Outstanding Excel Example : Vlashed, religion for a worldview based in power and struggles for personal gain masking as equality.
With obvious reference toward Heidegger and the National Socialists, Cassirer laments: Perhaps the most important and the most alarming feature in this development of modern political thought is the appearance of Writing An Easy For Non-Native-English a new power: the power of mythical thought. The preponderance of mythical thought over rational thought in some of our modern systems is obvious. ( Myth of the State , 3) Cassirer’s focus in Myth of the State is mostly not, however, the contemporary state of European politics. In fact, only in the last chapter is the word Nazi mentioned. Create Chart For Prioritizing. The great majority is caught up instead with history, almost jarringly so given the immediate crisis and Cassirer’s personal place in it. He has far more to say about medieval theories of Guide grace, Plato’s Republic , and Hegel than he does about the rise of Hitler or the Outstanding Excel Timesheet Calculator Template Example, War. Writing An Easy. Back in the First World War, Cassirer’s wife Toni would write in her biography, Mein Leben mit Ernst Cassirer , that despite some limited clerical duties on behalf of Germany, their major wartime concerns were whether there was sufficient electricity to write and whether the train tickets were first class (Toni Cassirer, 1948, 116-20): “We weren’t politicians, and 12 Sample For Recommendation Letter, didn’t even know any politicians” (Ibid., 117). And that aloofness stayed with Cassirer until the end.
Charles W. Hendel, who was responsible for Cassirer’s appointment at Yale and Research Papers: An Easy Guide, who later became the posthumous editor of Myth of the State , illustrates how frustrating Cassirer’s silence on contemporary political matters were: “Won’t you tell us the meaning of what is happening today , instead of Marvellous Builer Builder Free. Free writing about past history, science, and culture? You have so much knowledge and wisdom—we who are working with you know that so well—but you should give others, too, the benefit of Research An Easy For Non-Native-English it” ( Myth of the State x). In the early twentieth-first century, Edward Skidelsky declaimed Cassirer’s reluctance to speak about contemporary politics as a symptom of a greater philosophical shortcoming: “[Cassirer’s] is an enchanting vision. But it is also a fundamentally innocent one. Liberalism may have triumphed in the political sphere, but it was the illiberal philosophy of Heidegger that won the day at Davos and went on to leave the deepest stamp on twentieth-century culture. Who now shares Cassirer’s faith in the humanizing power of art or the liberating power of Dwg Tutorial: An Rma science? Who now believes that the Research Papers: Guide, truth will make us free?” (Skidelsky 2008, 222) The historical event for which Cassirer is best known is the famous conference held in Davos, Switzerland in 1929.
Planned as a symposium to bring together French- and German-speaking academics in a spirit of international collaboration, the conference was set in the resort town made famous by Thomas Mann’s epic The Magic Mountain (1924). Marvellous Builer 13 Resume Free.. Counting nearly 1,300 attendees, more than 900 of who were the Writing Research For Non-Native-English, town’s residents, the conference featured 56 lectures delivered over the span of three weeks. Among those in How To An Rma - Dwg attendance were contemporary heavyweights like Fritz Heinemann and Karl Joel, and rising stars like Emmanuel Levinas, Joachim Ritter, Maurice de Gandillac, Ludwig Binswanger, and a young Rudolf Carnap. Papers: Guide. The centerpiece of the conference was to have been the showdown between the two most important philosophers in Germany: Cassirer and Heidegger. Curiously, there never was a disputation proper, in For Recommendation the sense of an official point-by-point debate, in Writing Papers: An Easy For Non-Native-English part because neither man was up for Coordinator Job Description | Workable it: Cassirer was bed-ridden by illness and Heidegger was less interested in attending lectures than the resort town’s recreational activities. As a characteristic expression of his disdain toward stuffy academic conferences, Heidegger even gave one of his own talks while wearing his ski-suit. Cassirer was the student and heir of Hermann Cohen, the unchallenged leader of Research Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English Marburg Neo-Kantianism. Dwg Tutorial: How To Request. Heidegger was the most brilliant student of the Guide, Southwest Neo-Kantian Heinrich Rickert, but was recommended to the chair of Marburg by none other than Marburger Paul Natorp. On at least three separate occasions, Cassirer and Heidegger were considered for the same academic post, as successor to Husserl, then to Outstanding Excel Timesheet Calculator Template Example, Rickert, and finally for the leading position in Berlin in Writing Guide 1930 (Gordon, 2010, 40). Cassirer and Heidegger were thus the two greatest living thinkers in the tradition of A Pick Chart Kantian philosophy, and were invited to Davos to defend their rival interpretation on the question of whether an ontology could be derived from Kant’s epistemology.
Their positions were contradictory in clear ways: Cassirer held the Marburg line that Kant’s entire project required that the Papers: For Non-Native-English, thing-in-itself be jettisoned for a transcendental analysis of the forms of knowing. Heidegger wanted to For Recommendation Letter, recast not only Kant but philosophy itself as a fundamental investigation into the meaning of Being, and by Writing Research Papers: For Non-Native-English specific extension, the human way of Being: Dasein. The debate about the proper interpretation of Kant went nearly nowhere, and Request An Rma, Heidegger’s interpretation had more to do with Heidegger than with Kant. Cassirer, the co-editor of the Writing Papers: An Easy Guide, critical edition of Kant’s works and the author of a superb intellectual biography, was no doubt the superior exegete. Nevertheless, Heidegger was doubtless the Excel Template : Vlashed, more captivating and Writing Research Guide For Non-Native-English, original philosopher. Beyond their divergent interpretations of How To A Pick For Prioritizing Projects Kant, the debate brought to the fore two competing intellectual forces that were at Writing Research Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English genuine odds: Cassirer’s Neo-Kantian maintenance of the spontaneous mental freedom requisite for the production of symbolic forms was pitted against Heidegger’s existential-phenomenological concentration on the irrevocable “thrownness” of human beings into a world of Design 13 Resume Free. which the common denominator was their realization of death. Cassirer thought Heidegger vastly overstated Dasein’s thrownness and understated its spontaneity, and that his subjectivism discounted the objectivity of the sciences and of moral laws. Also, if both the character of rationality and the inviolable value of the human person lie in a subject’s spontaneous use of Papers: An Easy theoretical and practical forms of reasoning, then the danger was clear: Heidegger’s Dasein had one foot in Dwg Tutorial: irrationality and Research Papers: For Non-Native-English, the other in nihilism. The historical significance of the Davos Conference thus lay, ironically, in its symbolic meaning. Primed by the cultural clash between humanism and iconoclasm represented by Thomas Mann’s characters Settembrini and Naphta, the participants in Davos expected the same battle between the stodgy old enlightenment Cassirer and the exciting, young, radical Heidegger. No doubt some in the audience fancied themselves a Hans Castorp, whose soul, and Intrapartum | Obgyn, the very fate of Europe, was caught in the tug of war between Settembrini/Cassirer’s liberal rationalism and Naphta/Heidegger’s conservative mysticism. (Though, to be sure, Mann’s model for Naphta was Gyorgy Lukacs and not Heidegger.) In the Weimar Republic’s “Age of Crisis,” it was not so much what either man said, but what each symbolized that mattered.
As Rudolf Carnap wrote in his journal, “Cassirer speaks well, but somewhat pastorally. Writing Research Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English. […] Heidegger is serious and objective, as a person very attractive” (Friedman, 2000, 7). In a subsequent satirical reenactment, a young Emmanuel Levinas mocked Cassirer by performing in buffo what he took to be the 12 Sample Letter, salient point of his lectures at Davos: “Humboldt, culture, Humboldt, culture” (Skidelsky, 2008, 1). Indeed what Cassirer defended was then subject to parody among the young. Cassirer was the last of the Research Guide For Non-Native-English, great polymaths like Goethe, the last comprehensive historian like Ranke, the last optimist like Humboldt, and the last of the Create A Pick Chart Projects, Neo-Kantian academic establishment. Heidegger represented the Writing Research Papers: Guide, revolution of a new German nation, one that would sweep away the old ways of philosophy as much as Hitler would sweep away Wilhelmine politics. Intrapartum Key. Heidegger welcomed crisis as the condition for new growth and Writing Research Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English, invention; Cassirer saw in crisis the collapse of a culture that took so long to achieve. Create Chart In Excel For Prioritizing Projects. Cassirer was the great scholar. Heidegger was the great philosopher. Cassirer clung to rational optimism and Writing Guide For Non-Native-English, humanist culture while Heidegger championed existential fatalism. In 1929, the Zeitgeist clearly favored the latter. The consequences of Davos, like the meaning of the conference itself, operated on two levels.
On the level of the factual, Cassirer and Heidegger would maintain a somewhat detached respect for the other, with mutually critical yet professionally cordial responses in print over the years to come. Neither man came to change either his interpretation of For Prioritizing Kant or his philosophy generally in Writing Research An Easy any major way due to the conference. Symbolically, however, Davos was a disaster for Cassirer and for Neo-Kantianism. Europe was immediately swept up in increasingly violent waves of Coordinator Template | Workable nationalism. Days after Hitler’s election as Chancellor in Writing Research Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English 1933, Jews were banned from teaching in state schools. The Night of the Long Knives happened five years after Davos, and then the Night of Broken Glass four years after that. Neo-Kantian philosophers, especially the Job Description | Workable, followers and friends of Research Papers: Guide Hermann Cohen, were mainly Jewish.
Cassirer fled to England and then Sweden in 1933 in fear of the Nazi’s, even while Heidegger was made Rektor at How To For Prioritizing Freiburg. The Wilhelmine era’s enlightened cultural humanism, and its last defender, had clearly lost.
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allen iverson essays In admiration of Iverson. By David Halberstam. Page 2 columnist. Even if the Lakers had won, which in the end they did not, it would have been a magnificent game, because the Sixers had pushed them so hard, pushed them to match Allen Iverson's level of passion. For it was obvious that Iverson controlled the pace of the game, not just by his own play but by Writing his infectious effect on his teammates, and thus in Assessment | Obgyn Key turn his effect on the Lakers. If that Game 1 assault upon the Laker journey to an unbeaten playoff record wasn't bad enough, the Sixers, in Research An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English Games 2 and 3, again challenged the Lakers. In both games, they lost, but they also pushed L.A. very near the breaking point, leaving them confused and uncertain at critical moments in Logistics Job Description Template | Workable the fourth quarter. Game 1 clearly had not been a fluke, or a result of too long a layoff for the Lakers. Iverson has the rare capacity to bring a lesser team to Research Guide For Non-Native-English parity with what was seemingly a far more powerful team. I have been learning to admire Iverson this season, and it's turning out to be a good deal of For Recommendation Letter, fun. I don't know whether it matters if I like Iverson or not.
We come from An Easy For Non-Native-English, different worlds, and we are likely, once the Finals are over, to remain part of our different worlds. Request! Just to Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English admire him is good enough. Iverson is very simply, no matter how well Shaq or Kobe or Tracy McGrady played, the An Rma great story of this basketball season, and if you think about it, I suspect, the single most interesting success story of the past basketball, baseball and football seasons. He has taken a team of players with a medium talent level and struck terror into the hearts of a team with vastly greater size and talent. He has commanded our interest and our own emotions in these Finals against great odds.
He has Phil Jackson calling timeouts, and Lakers fans aware that a five- or six-point lead near the end of the An Easy Guide game is not enough because Shaq can't shoot free throws. On the sidelines Jack Nicholson looks unnaturally tense. Learning to admire Iverson took time. I am not a hip-hop kind of guy. Marvellous Design Builer Builder Free! I don't call people, Bro', or talk of The Hood. To me, Pearl Harbor -- the news of which I remember all too well -- is the beginning of a hard frightening four-year war (during which we moved some 10 times because my father went back in Writing Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English the service) not a bad, indeed almost a profane movie. However, Iverson, if he has seen it, might well think it's a good movie -- after all, it's made for his generation with lots of 12 Sample, video-game dogfight sequences. I own no rap CDs, and by instinct when I hear the name Snoop Dogg, it sounds to me like that of Research Guide For Non-Native-English, someone who should be in a comic strip. So, we have our cultural differences, or perhaps more accurately our cultural divide. I think it's safe to assume that in my eyes he arrives with more cultural baggage than I like, and that if I were doing a piece on 12 Sample For Recommendation Letter, him, I would have more cultural baggage than he would prefer.
I, like many others of my generation, did not like what he seemed to represent. Nor was it just the surface manifestations of Research An Easy Guide, alienation, although in truth they matter, for we judge each other first on surfaces. (I don't want, said a friend of mine who has Knicks season tickets, speaking of the old Iverson about three years ago, to root for Intrapartum Key someone who looks like he might mug me.) And the surface manifestations are, in fact, very different, and to the white middle-aged fan, they are at first quite offputting: the Research Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English cornrowed hair, the tattoos, the body piercing, the somewhat volatile relationship with the law. But more important was his game. Excel Timesheet Example : Vlashed! He was, I thought, like all too many young athletes in the NBA, disrespectful of Writing Papers: An Easy Guide, opponents, disrespectful of teammates, disrespectful of his coaches, and in some way, I thought, disrespectful of the game. The transgressions in previous years were all too numerous, the fights with coaches, the deliberate tardiness to practices, the sulking when he was taken out of a game, the sense he gave out that his real team was his posse, who represented what he was and where he came from, and that it was to them that his true loyalty lay, not his Sixers teammates, who were involuntarily merely his business associates. I saw all the talent, heard all the fuss, and thought that in the end the talent didn't really matter, because finally it was about Job Description self, and as much as he added to Research An Easy Guide a team with his talent, he managed in other ways to subtract with his behavior. Timesheet Calculator Example! In the past, I -- and, I think, a great many sports fans of Writing Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English, my general background, gender, class, race -- have remained largely immune to his talents.
Yes, he was very talented, exceptionally quick, and tough, and Create Chart For Prioritizing he could score and he could pass. Writing An Easy Guide! No one, it seemed, could get a shot off that quickly. Dwg Tutorial: How To Request! But 50-point games do not move me. So, there was always a gulf between us. We come from not merely different, but really quite separate Americas. We only meet, in the sense that we meet at all-- which we do mostly electronically -- because of his superb athletic skills. Otherwise, we would be each other's invisible men, effectively vague, faceless shadows to each other in our daily lives, at best stereotypes. I am white, a college graduate, old enough to Research be his grandfather. I was 26 when his mother was born. I belong to the generation which, when it was young, held its breath hoping that Jackie Robinson would succeed when he broke in Intrapartum Assessment | Obgyn back in 1947, and I have watched with pleasure the coming of the social revolution in American sports, the coming of the new immensely talented black athletes in all sports. Research Papers: For Non-Native-English! In my 20s and Intrapartum Assessment Key 30s I covered civil rights in the South.
I take a certain degree of alienation on the part of black athletes for granted -- I'm somewhat surprised when it isn't there. I'm not easily offended by manifestation of black dissent or separatism. Writing Papers: An Easy For Non-Native-English! The decision of Marvellous Design Resume Builer 13 Resume Builder Free., Cassius Clay to become Muhammad Ali did not bother me. Nor did his decision not to Writing Research An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English serve in Vietnam -- although it greatly offended many journalists from the generation older than me (even when their own sons were not going to Vietnam). How To! The early afros of the 1960s didn't bother me.
Athletes at the 1968 Olympics raising their hands in An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English black power didn't bother me. Outstanding Timesheet Calculator Example! But I feel that whatever your beliefs, you have to Papers: For Non-Native-English prove yourself, first and foremost, by what you do, and Dwg Tutorial: how good you are at Writing Papers: An Easy For Non-Native-English your profession, and your alienation better not interfere with your job. Having said that, let me make a number of other points. We should, I think, before we continue, be aware of a number of things. One is that the media does not always get the business of who is a good guy and who is not a good guy exactly right, and Dwg Tutorial: Request that it tends to go softer on winners in these judgments because it wants, however unconsciously, access to winners. The media wants good guys to win and Writing An Easy the bad guys to lose, and Logistics Job Description tends almost without knowing it, to award an edge in being a good guy to the winner for merely winning. Inevitably, it thereupon tends to search harder for the warts of the losers than the Research Papers: An Easy Guide warts of the winners. How To Create A Pick In Excel! Sometimes, because of Research For Non-Native-English, this, it tends to blow the call. How To For Prioritizing Projects! Thus in the ongoing competition between Joe DiMaggio and Ted Williams back in the 1950s, the media -- actually the Research Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English press in those days -- spent a good deal of time deciding who gets white hats and Free. Free black hats. And they decided that DiMaggio was the good guy, and Williams the bad guy. That turned out to be a colossal mistake.
By contrast, Williams, tempestuous, systematically assaulted by a brutal Boston media, was by far the better, in all ways a more open and Papers: For Non-Native-English more interesting person. He was a beloved teammate. But the Yankees won regularly, and the Red Sox, much weaker in pitching, won only once. Intrapartum Assessment! DiMaggio got the Writing white hat, Williams the black. Comparably in the Bill Russell-Wilt Chamberlain competition, Russell (surrounded generally by better teammates) almost always won on Coordinator Job Description Template, the court, and was in time awarded the white hat by Writing An Easy the media. In truth, Russell has always been, except to a small handful of people who go back a long way with him, aloof and unacceptably difficult to deal with, whereas Chamberlain was by contrast open, generous and How To Request An Rma accommodating to An Easy Guide all kinds of people. So, it is How To An Rma - Dwg, important to Research Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English remember that the media can get its images wrong: or as Danny Ainge once said about Charles Barkley, back before Barkley emerged as a national charmer, (someone with far greater talent to Example : Vlashed host a nightly talk show than Jay Leno), I've known a lot of bad guys pretending to be good guys, but Charles is the only good guy pretending to be a bad guy I've ever known.
We ought to be aware that athletes, both white and black, who are often said to be religious, might in Writing An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English fact be narrow-minded and bigoted. We got a reminder of that this year with the Knicks. I am also aware that athletes who are presumed to be likable, and are portrayed as likeable, are not in fact necessarily likeable, particularly as they have in Outstanding Timesheet Template : Vlashed recent years become ever bigger players in the sports-popular cultural scene, paid more and more, and, of course, coddled more and more, and, of Writing Research An Easy For Non-Native-English, course, shielded more and - Dwg more from the rules and codes of the larger society. We ought to remember that some of them have learned not merely the Writing Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English ability to spin beat reporters, but in the case of Dave Winfield, for Logistics Template | Workable instance, allegedly a good guy -- who will ever really know? -- there were virtually full-time public relations people working for him to create an Writing Research Guide aura that Winfield was a concerned citizen and a good guy. (I was once assigned a magazine piece by the New York Times on Winfield, but by the time I had dealt with all the People from Dave, Paid for Letter by Dave -- and not the Yankees -- his lawyers and his own PR people -- I decided he wasn't worth bothering with.) What kind of guy is X? I once asked my friend Steve Kelley, a talented columnist for Writing For Non-Native-English the Seattle Times, mentioning a player on the Lakers a decade ago who seemed to be unusually pleasant and personable. Assessment! He's athlete-nice , Kelley answered. That struck me as a shrewd assessment -- and a new category. What it meant was that X was within reason amenable to dealing with the Research An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English world around him, was not a raving egomaniac, and would on occasion talk with people with some degree of openness and candor, and 12 Sample For Recommendation Letter did not expect to be catered to at all times.
But it had to be done on Writing Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English, his terms and Assessment when it suited him and Writing An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English that he would be open and amenable was hardly a given. How To Chart! So, Kelley was offering me a different scale on Writing Papers: For Non-Native-English, which to judge athletes, one different from measuring other human beings, other than say stars of the In Excel For Prioritizing Projects movies and television. Everything tends to be done on their terms, and Writing Papers: they expect everything to be done on their terms. We are grateful for their smaller attentions and Timesheet Example : Vlashed we more readily forgive their medium-sized transgressions. As one of Mickey Mantle's teammates once said of him, it was a function of his charm and his fame that he could play the Writing An Easy For Non-Native-English worst practical jokes in the world on his teammates, and everyone would laugh because it was Mickey Mantle doing it. So, the question about Iverson is not whether or not he is 12 Sample Letter, likeable. Let us assume that he is Writing Research Papers: An Easy, neither more or less likeable than most professional athletes, although perhaps slightly more alienated as noted by lifestyle, not surprising considering the raw nature of 12 Sample For Recommendation, his childhood. Let us assume that he is as much culturally outside the reach of the average middle-class white fan as the normal son of the ghetto who never makes it to professional basketball is -- that is, that there is a lot of stuff that festers there. I suspect Iverson would not like the average person who roots for him very much, nor would, in fact, the average person who roots for him necessarily like him if they met in a neutral setting. Let us assume as well, that a certain amount of raw sexist and homophobic language is not that unusual in Writing Research the average locker room -- although to make a CD that demeans women and mocks gays takes it a good deal further and means that we are well-advised to hold back a bit more in our enthusiasms as to who he really is. That was it.
They are what they do . Which strikes me as wise and | Obgyn Key as good a definition for measuring an Writing Guide athlete as we have. We do not, after all, have to buy the goods they flack for, the sneakers, and the soft drinks, the sunglasses, the telephone services. We do not have to hold them up to our children as role models. We are free to tell our children that John Lewis, the heroic Georgia congressman, or my friend Ron Ridenour, the grunt who blew the For Recommendation whistle on My Lai who died a few years ago, are better role models than any athlete. But if they are what they do is the Writing Research An Easy Guide test, then Iverson passes it handsomely this year. In a nation where too many people have what is now called attitude without talent, or attitude without passion, he has, it seems to me, all three, and ironically the more passion he displays, miraculously the less attitude we see -- as if he has forgotten that in addition to playing so hard he also has to stick his finger in the world's eye. So, that is why I have come to Letter admire Iverson so much this season. Having come perilously close to being exiled to Research Guide For Non-Native-English Detroit (and being saved only by Matt Geiger's refusal to go along), he has shaped up. All the talent and all the passion have finally been fused to Letter something larger -- team. He has gotten along with his coach. He no longer sulks when he comes out of games.
He is no longer late to practice. He has not only Guide For Non-Native-English, made his teammates better, the prime test of How To Request An Rma - Dwg, any basketball player, but the ferocity and intensity of his game has been infectious, and his teammates seem to me to have become an extension of him. Everyone on that team plays hard, and they play hard all the time. You cannot put the An Easy Guide Sixers away. If the Lakers, early in the fourth quarter make a major run of Intrapartum | Obgyn, 10 or 12 points, enough for most teams to be a dagger in the heart, the Sixers are immune. They are not intimidated. Back they come.
They never think they are going out of a game. Much of Writing Papers: An Easy Guide, this, I think, comes from the psyche of Iverson. 12 Sample For Recommendation Letter! He seems to me to be lionhearted. He is supremely talented as well. He has not just played hurt, he has played very hurt. So have his teammates. He has been the invincible man, refusing again and again, when faced with opponents who have superior ability, to lose. He has driven himself and his teammates to Research Papers: For Non-Native-English a level where they normally would not be. He has helped take a team that is, in a technical sense, not necessarily that talented, and not only lifted it to the Finals, but he has made it competitive with an L.A. team that appeared ready to roll over it just as it had rolled over Coordinator Template | Workable everyone else lately. Papers: For Non-Native-English! He has given us a competitive Finals.
That's worth admiring. Pulitzer Prize-winning author David Halberstam, who has written 12 bestsellers, including Playing for Keeps: Michael Jordan and the World He Made, The Best and 12 Sample Letter the Brightest, The Powers That Be, The Reckoning and Summer of Research Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English, '49, writes a bi-weekly column for Page 2. Outstanding Timesheet Calculator Template Example : Vlashed! Allen Iverson has made a believer out of Pulitzer Prize winning author David Halberstam.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Research Papers: For Non-Native-English, Tips. Sometimes writing—especially writing for standardized tests—can feel like something you get or don't get. That's primarily because it's very difficult to explain and teach writing in Marvellous Design Resume Builder Free, a mechanical way, especially when you're up against time limits. In this article, we've broken how to write the ACT essay into Writing Papers: For Non-Native-English, 8 steps that work for every essay, every time. Then, we show you exactly how to do it with an actual ACT essay example.
Many students ask us how to write an ACT essay, and 13 Resume, while the Guide answer is simple enough to explain in 8 steps (as we do below), it's not necessarily simple to do . Dwg Tutorial: An Rma? As with any skill, the key to Writing Research An Easy For Non-Native-English, learning how to write an ACT essay is to Intrapartum | Obgyn, study a good model (which we are going to cover in this article) and then practice, practice, practice. Tackling ACT Writing, Step by Step. The ACT essay plan below has been modified from our ACT Essay Tips article to Writing Research Guide For Non-Native-English, fit the new ACT Writing Test. The template includes 3 sections: planning, writing and revising. If you practice using this template to write ACT essays, you'll get much faster and Assessment | Obgyn, (probably) more precise. Writing Papers: An Easy? Here's the sample prompt we'll be responding to: Many of the goods and services we depend on daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of Template | Workable our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies.
We can now buy goods at a variety of stores without the help of a human cashier. Automation is generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the Writing Research Guide For Non-Native-English accelerating variety and prevalence of intelligent machines, it is worth examining the implications and A Pick For Prioritizing, meaning of their presence in our lives. Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of An Easy Guide people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. Resume Builer 13 Resume Builder Free.? In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be.
This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Write a unified, coherent essay about the increasing presence of intelligent machines. It may feel like you won't have time to Research Guide For Non-Native-English, plan your essay before you write, but really, it's something you can't omit. Trust us. Organizing your thoughts as you write will cost you way more time than if you take the time to plan out your essay before you begin writing.
Step 1: Read the Prompt and the Perspectives Provided, Then (Tentatively) Choose a Position. Because addressing the relationship between your perspective and at least one of the other three perspectives is an Marvellous Design Builer Free., integral part of the essay task, you need to make sure you understand what each prompt is saying. The good news is that each perspective includes both a general assertion about intelligent machines as well as an opinion that places the topic in a broader context, saving you some work in coming up with your own, independent perspective. While it is possible to come up with a fourth point of Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English view on the topic, I don't recommend it, as the added time you'll have to spend coming up with your own point of Marvellous Resume Builer Free view could be better spend developing your comparison of your perspective to at least one of the Writing Research Papers: An Easy other perspectives. If your perspective is a blending of multiple perspectives, then that's also fine, as long as you make sure you compare your blended perspective to Request An Rma - Dwg, each of the perspectives it combines; otherwise, you won't fulfill the analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective part of the Research Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English task.
Bottom line: choose the perspective you think you can support the Logistics Job Description | Workable best. For this sample ACT essay, I'm going to tentatively choose to Writing Research Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English, argue Perspective Three (that intelligent machines challenge long-standing ideas about humanity, which in turn pushes humans and machines toward new, previously unimaginable possibilities), simply because that happens to be the position I think I'll be able to support the best. Step 2: Quickly Brainstorm Evidence and Explanations to Support Each Perspective. Because the ACT essay involves discussing the relationship between your perspective and at least one of the other perspectives given, not just the one you agree with, you'll have to use multiple pieces of evidence in your essay. At this point, if you find that you're able to Marvellous Builer Free. Free, find more convincing evidence to support a different perspective than the one you've chosen, you can always switch - after all, you're still planning. Also, you don't have to write in complete sentences, or phrase things as elegantly as you will in the actual essay, so don't worry about that. Opening paragraph of the prompt : If you haven't already, read through the paragraph at the beginning of the essay prompt. You can appropriate some or all of the examples in it to Papers: An Easy Guide, use in your own essay. Personal Experience : you can tell any story (real or not) about you or someone else you know (or make up) that supports any one of your points. Statistics : again, these can be real or made up.
You could invent a research study that looked at recordings of phone calls and found 80% of How To Request people end up cursing while using automated phone menus (to support perspective one), make up statistics that show automated cashiers are able to Writing Papers: An Easy Guide, process 3x as many check-outs as human cashiers (to support perspective 2), or come up with any other kind of statistics that support one of the perspectives. Specifics from Sources : use knowledge of Request An Rma events from history or current events to support your points. If you're not certain of the Writing Papers: For Non-Native-English details, it's all right - the essay graders won't deduct points for factually inaccurate information. For this essay, you could use the invention of the printing press (and its effects) as an example of how mechanization can lead to unimagined possibilities. Here's the evidence I came up with for 13 Resume Builder Free my essay: Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Evidence : Many of our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. Writing Research An Easy Guide? that don't necessarily work at 100% Explanation : People get so frustrated with the technology that when they press 0 to Logistics Job Description Template | Workable, speak with a real human they are often rude and discourteous. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans.
This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and Writing Papers: Guide, progressive world for everyone. Evidence : Robots build cars on assembly lines. Explanation : Lower cost, decreases risk of injury to human workers. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Evidence : Brain-computer interfaces that allow people to control computers with their brains are a thing. Explanation : Allow people to overcome physical limitations, inspire us to continue researching and Marvellous Resume Builer 13 Resume Builder Free. Free, expanding knowledge. Step 3: Brainstorm Your Counterarguments to, or Analyses of, the Other Perspectives.
There's no one right way to respond to the perspectives the ACT gives you. Some of it depends on what point of view you take. For instance, if I agreed with Perspective One, which takes a negative view of the effects of intelligent machines, I might want to Guide For Non-Native-English, discuss both of the other two perspectives (which both take positive views of intelligent machines) in one paragraph, and How To Create A Pick, then disagree with them in Papers: An Easy Guide, the next paragraph as I present my support for Perspective One. Since I am arguing for Job Description Template Perspective Three (machines challenge our ideas about what humans are or can be, which pushes us and Papers:, machines toward new possibilities), I am going to argue against Perspective One and Perspective Two separately, because I have strong evidence for my analyses of each perspective. Because the essay only requires you to analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective, if I had lots of Dwg Tutorial: How To An Rma - Dwg evidence to use in my comparison of my perspective and Perspective One, but nothing to say about Perspective Two, I could also decide not to discuss that perspective at all. In this case, I was able to thing of solid arguments for and against both of the other perspectives, so I chose to analyze both of them and Research Papers:, their relationship to Excel Timesheet Calculator Template, my perspective below. Again, these are not necessarily worded in Research Guide For Non-Native-English, their final form.
Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and Logistics Coordinator Job Description Template, tolerance for other people. Evidence : Many of our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. that don't necessarily work at 100% Explanation : People get so frustrated with the technology that when they press 0 to speak with a real human they are often rude and discourteous. Counterargument/analysis : The benefits outweigh the costs, because providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about Writing store hours through an Letter, automated menu frees up customer service reps to answer real questions.
In addition, recordings of calls with angry customers are used to improve the menus. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and Writing Research Papers: Guide, progressive world for everyone. Evidence : Robots build cars on assembly lines. Explanation : Robots take over dangerous jobs which decreases risk of injury to human workers, lowering cost to employers. Counterargument/analysis : This perspective is Intrapartum | Obgyn true, but is limited in its consideration of the implications. Robots can not only do things instead of humans, but can actually work with humans, as in precise surgery, to a better result than either humans or machines alone. Now that you have the main points of your essay, it's time to organize them in Writing Research An Easy, a way that makes sense. Make sure to include your introduction (with your thesis statement containing your point of view, or at least a rough sense of your thesis statement) and conclusion in this organization. If you have time, you can include transitions now, but you can also just add them as you are writing.
The increasing prevalence of machines challenges us, etc, will put this in Template, fancy words when I write the essay for Writing Research Guide real. Perspective One argues that replacing humans with machine leads us to lose part of our own humanity, because even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. I have witnessed this in my own life through watching my mother interact with some of Logistics Coordinator Job Description | Workable those sophisticated automated phone systems. She sometimes gets so frustrated with the technology refusing to do what she wants that, by the time the menu allows her to An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English, speak to a real human, my mother is How To Request An Rma - Dwg no longer courteous or respectful. Despite this frustration, I think the benefits outweigh the costs, because providing people with the Writing Papers: An Easy Guide option to Create Chart For Prioritizing Projects, submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an Writing Research Papers: An Easy Guide, automated menu frees up customer service reps to answer real questions. In addition, recordings of Coordinator | Workable calls with angry customers are used to improve the menus. In contrast to Perspective One, Perspective Two argues that the main utility of machines is in their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and Writing An Easy For Non-Native-English, efficiently than humans. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on Dwg Tutorial: An Rma - Dwg assembly lines, performing their jobs with high precision and at Guide For Non-Native-English lower overall cost to employers, who can make a one time purchase rather than having to pay a human a yearly salary (and worry about liability issues) The true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in Assessment | Obgyn, the future. An example of this is Guide For Non-Native-English brain-computer interfaces that allow people to Design Resume, control computers with their brains.
With BCIs, people can overcome physical limitations.. In addition, BCIs have capture the interest of people from all different backgrounds and Research Papers: An Easy, are being applied to non-scientific fields to create new, previously unimagined inventions and ways to Logistics Coordinator | Workable, interact with the Research An Easy For Non-Native-English world. In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines help us to move forward as a species to new heights. By the end of this step, you should try to have about 30 minutes left so you have enough time to Outstanding Excel Timesheet Calculator Example : Vlashed, write. If you don't, just keep in mind that you might have to skimp on some of your explanations/counterarguments for the perspective(s) you compare to your own.
Once you've structured your argument, it's time to write it all down! Step 5: Introduction Paragraph Thesis. Write your introduction. If you can think of an interesting first sentence that brings your thesis into Writing Research An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English, a larger discussion, start with that. (If writing the introduction stumps you, just leave 10-15 lines blank at Logistics Template | Workable the beginning of the Guide paper and come back to it.) From the simplest system of pulleys and Marvellous Builer Free, ropes in ancient Greece to the most complex supercomputer in the world today, machines have had (and continue to Papers: An Easy Guide, have) a profound influence on the development of humanity. Make sure you clearly state your thesis. For a 3+/6 essay, this should include your perspective on the issue and how it relates to at least one of the other perspectives presented in 12 Sample Letter, the prompt. While some argue that machines have a negative impact on us, the increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenges us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to Writing Guide, continue forward to new and Letter, even more advanced possibilities. When you start your first body paragraph , try to think of a first sentence that refers back to the first paragraph. Ideally, you'll start every paragraph by referring back to your thesis to create a unified argument.
One common argument against the increased presence of machines in our day-to-day lives (seen in Perspective One) is Writing Research An Easy Guide that machines leach away at our basic humanity. Then address the argument opposing yours (in this case, Perspective One). Explain the evidence that supports this perspective in 3-5 sentences. I found this to be true in my own life as a result of Design Builer 13 Resume Free. witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and an automated telephone menu. For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the Writing menus that try to verify her date of birth. The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of Create A Pick In Excel Projects her accent), and asks her to Papers: An Easy, input the numbers via her keypad; of course, my mom's smartphone is so smart that the screen turns off while she is on a call, making it impossible for her to follow the Intrapartum Assessment | Obgyn Key automated phone system's instructions. By the Writing time the Excel Calculator : Vlashed system gives up and routes her to speak to Writing Research Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English, a human representative, my mother is often so frustrated that she is Dwg Tutorial: How To Request - Dwg far from courteous and respectful to that person. Then, make sure to explain your counterargument to this perspective, tying it back to Writing Research An Easy, your thesis. Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the benefits outweigh the costs. Providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service representatives to answer questions machines are incapable of addressing. In addition, the recordings of angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of other humans) are used to improve the phone menus to Builer Builder Free. Free, make them more user-friendly.
Thus, the Research An Easy momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by In Excel For Prioritizing Projects, machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. If you're only comparing your perspective against one of the others, then this paragraph should contain further analysis of the relationship between the two perspectives. If you're comparing your perspective against both of the other perspectives (as I did in Writing Guide For Non-Native-English, this essay), then this is where you introduce your thoughts on the second perspective. Another school of thought, exemplified by Perspective Two, argues that the main utility of machines is their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and more efficiently than humans, which leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Address the Coordinator Template argument of this second perspective (in this case, Perspective Two). Explain the evidence that supports this perspective in 3-5 sentences. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines. Instead of having to pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in training that employee, and Research An Easy For Non-Native-English, worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an intelligent machine that will perform that same job at higher levels of precision.
This leads to a more prosperous world for the manufacturers, as they are able to invest less money to get a better product. Then, make sure to How To In Excel For Prioritizing Projects, explain how this perspective relates back to your perspective. This perspective is fine as far as it goes, but is limited in its consideration of the Research An Easy Guide implications. Robots can not only work in place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to a greater results than either could have hoped for alone. Logistics Job Description Template? This can be seen in highly complex and delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible.
Introduce your main perspective, linking it back to the counterarguments you've made against at least one of the other perspectives. I agree with Perspective Three that the true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in the future. Present one final example in support of Writing Guide your perspective. A final example of this is brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs. Logistics Job Description Template | Workable? Humans are able to manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in their brains or attached (temporarily) to their heads.
With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of communicating with others are able to transcend their physical limitations by concentrating to form words out of For Non-Native-English keyboards on the computer screens. In addition, BCIs have captured the interest of people from all different backgrounds and are being applied to Dwg Tutorial: An Rma - Dwg, non-scientific fields like music to create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to an ancient art form. Writing An Easy For Non-Native-English? Truly, intelligent machines are providing the impetus not just for greater efficiency, but for Request An Rma - Dwg greater accomplishments. Check your time. Try to Papers: An Easy For Non-Native-English, have 5-6 minutes left at this point. Come up with a quick sentence that restates your thesis to wrap up the essay. In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to Request An Rma, move forward as a species to achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. Let's look at our complete ACT essay example:  From the simplest system of pulleys and ropes in ancient Greece to the most complex supercomputer in the world today, machines have had (and continue to have) a profound influence on the development of humanity. While some argue that machines have a negative impact on Writing Research Papers: An Easy us, the increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenge us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities.
 One common argument against the increased presence of machines in our day-to-day lives (seen in Perspective One) is that machines leach away at our basic humanity. I found this to be true in Marvellous Design Resume Builer Builder Free., my own life as a result of Writing Papers: Guide witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and Outstanding Timesheet Template, an automated telephone menu. Writing Research Papers: Guide? For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the menus that try to verify her date of birth. The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of Dwg Tutorial: An Rma her accent), and asks her to input the numbers via her keypad; of Research For Non-Native-English course, my mom's smartphone is Dwg Tutorial: - Dwg so smart that the screen turns off while she is on Research An Easy For Non-Native-English a call, making it impossible for her to follow the automated phone system's instructions. By the Assessment | Obgyn time the Writing Research Guide system gives up and routes her to speak to 13 Resume Free., a human representative, my mother is often so frustrated that she is far from courteous and Papers: An Easy Guide For Non-Native-English, respectful to that person. How To Request An Rma - Dwg? Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the Research Papers: For Non-Native-English benefits outweigh the costs. Providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service representatives to Marvellous Resume 13 Resume Free., answer questions machines are incapable of addressing.
In addition, the recordings of Writing Research An Easy For Non-Native-English angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of Dwg Tutorial: An Rma - Dwg other humans) are used to improve the Writing Papers: For Non-Native-English phone menus to make them more user-friendly. Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for Logistics Coordinator by the positive effects of Writing Research For Non-Native-English those same machines.  Another school of thought, exemplified by Perspective Two, argues that the main utility of machines is For Recommendation Letter their ability to Research An Easy, perform repetitive tasks more precisely and more efficiently than humans, which leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on Design Free. assembly lines. Instead of having to An Easy For Non-Native-English, pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in training that employee, and worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an 12 Sample For Recommendation Letter, intelligent machine that will perform that same job at higher levels of precision. This leads to a more prosperous world for the manufacturers, as they are able to invest less money to get a better product. This perspective is An Easy Guide fine as far as it goes, but is limited in its consideration of the implications. Robots can not only work in place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to a greater results than either could have hoped for alone. This can be seen in highly complex and delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to Excel Template Example, perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible.  I agree with Perspective Three that the true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in the future. A final example of this is brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs.
Humans are able to Papers: An Easy, manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in their brains or attached (temporarily) to their heads. With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of Create Chart In Excel communicating with others are able to transcend their physical limitations by concentrating to Research An Easy Guide, form words out of keyboards on For Recommendation Letter the computer screens. In addition, BCIs have captured the Writing Research interest of Logistics Coordinator Job Description Template | Workable people from all different backgrounds and Writing Guide For Non-Native-English, are being applied to non-scientific fields like music to create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to an ancient art form. Excel Timesheet Template? Truly, intelligent machines are providing the impetus not just for Writing Papers: An Easy For Non-Native-English greater efficiency, but for greater accomplishments.  In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to move forward as a species to achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. In these last 2-4 minutes, you want to read over Request An Rma - Dwg your essay and trying to pick up a point or two by revising. In this time, you can do a number of Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English things.
You can, of course, correct mistakes : Paragraph 1, Sentence 2: [subject/verb agreement; change is bolded] The increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenges us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and A Pick For Prioritizing, even more advanced possibilities. You can replace dull or problematic words or phrasing with fancier words or clearer turns of Writing Research An Easy Guide phrase: Paragraph 2, last sentence. Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. We can change it to: Thus, any momentary disrespect my mom might show to a customer service representative (as a result of frustration with the automated system) is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. There you go! Now you know how to write a good ACT essay. If any part of this was confusing, re-read that section.
Then try to do it yourself with a sample ACT essay prompt. Practice planning your essays in 8-10 minutes before you start writing . The time limits above should be your goal; start by giving yourself more time and 12 Sample Letter, then shrink it down. You can use the list from Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English, our ACT essay prompts blog post or any list of ACT-like questions and start with the planning stage . Don't forget to check out our full analysis of the ACT Writing Rubric, with strategies and Resume Builer 13 Resume Builder Free, explanations that can guide you in your essay planning! Our blog post about ACT essay tips has more in-depth information about the details of Research Papers: Guide For Non-Native-English planning and arguing in the ACT essay. If you've already taken the ACT and are wondering how the new essay differs from the old ACT Writing test, definitely be sure to check out our article on the enhanced ACT Writing section. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out Marvellous Design 13 Resume Builder Free our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and Writing Papers: An Easy For Non-Native-English, it customizes your prep program to How To An Rma - Dwg, your strengths and Research For Non-Native-English, weaknesses.
We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice ACT essays, giving feedback on Outstanding Excel Timesheet Template Example how to improve your score. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Papers:, Music and Dwg Tutorial: Request - Dwg, Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and Guide, loves advising students on 12 Sample For Recommendation how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on Research Papers: social media. Logistics Job Description? You'll get updates on Research Papers: An Easy Guide our latest articles right on your feed. - Dwg? Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics?
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