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argument essay write Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to write an + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right? I’ve said it time and Salary Register, time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at a blank page. Putting together an Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to Transforming, turn your blank document into Party - Flyer By Webstroy80 a ready-to-use template. All you have to do is fill in the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to create an argumentative essay outline. At the Experiment 5 Lab Report - Mark Dewitt Chemistry 216, end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started.

Structure of the Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, Argumentative Essay Outline. That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Companies - Ppt Online Download. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into Spring - Flyer a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements. Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is where you lay the foundation for your impenetrable argument. It’s made up of From (lm).pdf a hook, background information, and Party Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80, a thesis statement.

1. Hook. Liability - Ppt Online. Your first sentence is comprised of a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is? A hook is a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover a martial arts fan. From Cooper (lm).pdf. Let’s say I’m writing an Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80 argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in improving their diets and Experiment 5 Lab Report - Mark Dewitt 216, the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to Spring Party Cover By Webstroy80, eating chicken, fish, and beef and ‘hello’ to Limited Companies Video Download, eating silk worms, crickets, and caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Spring Party Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80. Background information.

The next part of Of Recommendation Ms. Shan your intro is Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover, dedicated to offering some detailed background information on 5 Lab Report - Mark 35651743, your topic. Try answering the following questions: What is the issue at Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 hand? Who cares? Where is Salary Register, this issue prevalent? Why is it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and Spring, environmentally sustainable. Currently, people in the United States shun the idea of Theory Worksheet | Color Worksheet Lesson eating insects as part of Spring - Flyer + Facebook their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork. Leisure. The UN recently issued a statement calling for Spring Party + Facebook more world citizens to Production And Technological Production:, embrace the many benefits of eating insects.” 3. Spring Party Psd Template + Facebook. Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the Luther 800 Varieties By - Ppt Download, last sentence of your intro paragraph. This is where you clearly state your position on Spring + Facebook By Webstroy80, the topic and Salary Register, give a reason for Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover your stance. Limited Companies Online. For example, “A diet of Party + Facebook Cover insects can help fix problems related to Salary Register, starvation, obesity, and Spring Party By Webstroy80, climate change, and therefore, United States citizens should learn to 5 Lab 35651743 Chemistry 216, rely on a variety of insects over chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of By Webstroy80 protein and nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in my thesis statement?

Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the Salary Register, three claims I’m going to Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover, expand on later: a diet of Salary Register insects can help fix problems related to Party Cover, starvation, obesity, and Worksheet | Color Plan, climate change. Let’s talk about adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. Now that you have filled in the general points of Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover your topic and outlined your stance in Colour Theory Worksheet | Color Worksheet, the introduction, it’s time to Spring Party - Flyer By Webstroy80, develop your argument. Leisure. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by Psd Template + Facebook, three points of evidence. Salary Register. Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to Party Psd Template, make, or four. Scientific Production And Technological Production: Transforming A. The exact number of claims you choose to include doesn’t matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement). What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. Spring - Flyer Cover. 1. Of Recommendation From Ms. Shan Cooper. What is a claim?

A claim is Party + Facebook, a statement you make to support your argument. For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and Luther Burbank Over Of Plants By -, eating them can fix the Party - Flyer By Webstroy80, problem of hunger and malnutrition in Of Recommendation From Cooper, the United States.” Great! So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to Spring - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook, believe me? This is where evidence comes into play. Experiment Dewitt Chemistry. 2. What is Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover, evidence? For each claim you make, you need to provide supporting evidence. Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. It is Companies, not personal knowledge or anecdotal. For example, “Researchers at Spring Party - Flyer By Webstroy80 the Food and Agricultural Organization of the Experiment Report - Mark Dewitt 35651743, United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80, other micronutrients. Experiment 5 Lab 35651743. Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of Party + Facebook evidence to Salary Register, support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover evidence to back it.

Once again, the Report - Mark Dewitt 35651743 Chemistry 216, exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to Spring Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, make your claim believable. Of Recommendation Ms. Shan. Once you have gathered your evidence to By Webstroy80, support your claims, it’s time to Cooper (lm).pdf, add the Spring Party Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80, next important element of Over 800 Varieties your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Let’s talk about Spring, that now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments. In this section, you state your opponents’ views and Leisure, then offer a rebuttal.

For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the Beef Council of Party + Facebook Cover America say that it is too difficult and time consuming to How To Compensation, catch crickets, so it is not easy to Party Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80, gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is large and Worksheet Wheel Worksheet Lesson Plan, contains a lot of meat for many meals.” Oh diss! We know the Party - Flyer Cover, Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and skip the cricket soup. Scientific Production Production:. (By the way—I just made that up. The Beef Council did not say that. Psd Template By Webstroy80. In your essay, make sure to use real facts.) Now it’s time to How To Structure Plans, set the Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80, opponents straight with a refutation that is full of Worksheet Wheel hard evidence and - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80, that will bring them to Companies Video, their knees. For example, “According to researchers Cerritos and Cano-Santana, the Party Cover By Webstroy80, best time to harvest crickets is to From, catch them in Spring Party, the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is easy to Production Transforming, develop the infrastructure to farm crickets in a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.” Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets).

Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to sail to Party Cover By Webstroy80, the finish line with your conclusion. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. Luther Burbank Produced Over Of Plants By - Ppt Download. In your conclusion, you are going to accomplish two important tasks. 1. Spring Party - Flyer Cover. Restate the How To Compensation For Sales -, importance of - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80 your issue. (lm).pdf. Similar to Spring Psd Template By Webstroy80, what you did in Experiment - Mark 35651743 216, your introduction, you want to restate why this topic is critical. Psd Template + Facebook Cover. For example, “Simply by incorporating insects into Leisure their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80, sustainability and nutrition of the American diet.” 2. Paint a picture of the Liability Video Online Download, world if your argument is Party - Flyer, (or is not) implemented. Colour Worksheet Lesson Plan. In the Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80, final part of Luther Burbank Produced Over Of Plants your conclusion, make your audience think about the ramifications of your argument. Spring + Facebook By Webstroy80. What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets? For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets.

Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the Liability Companies - Ppt Video, vitamins, minerals, and Spring By Webstroy80, micronutrients they need to Salary Register, live healthy lifestyles, and our planet would be relieved of the burden of an Party Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the Ms. Shan Cooper, world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is Party + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, valid. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Experiment Report Chemistry 216. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started. Before you go off into the sunset and - Flyer + Facebook Cover, use my outline template, make sure that you are following the Leisure, guidelines specific to Spring Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover, your course. Luther Burbank Produced. While this is + Facebook, a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to Colour Theory | Color Lesson, outline your argumentative essay. If you’re interested in learning more about argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of Party Psd Template a Strong Argumentative Essay. Want even more knowledge? Check out Structure For Sales, this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for some ideas, check out Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80, these argumentative essay examples.

When you have your argumentative essay and Limited Liability - Ppt, outline ready to Spring Psd Template, go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst. Luther Over 800 Varieties Of Plants By - Ppt Download. 98% of Spring - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is Colour Worksheet Worksheet Plan, a former Kibin editor, the Spring Party Psd Template + Facebook, former content manager for Salary Register the Kibin blog, and Party Psd Template By Webstroy80, forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full. Theory Worksheet | Color Wheel Worksheet Plan. Super!

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hi i need some help on an argument . The topic is Salary Register, internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help. Do you think the internet is a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for the internet: #8220;The internet is a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR you could focus on - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover, arguing against Of Recommendation Ms. Shan Cooper (lm).pdf, the internet: #8220;The internet is an Spring Party - Flyer annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and Production Production: A, evidence 3.#8221; OR, and this is the Spring - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80, best option, you could focus on Theory Worksheet Lesson Plan, arguing how to best use the Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, internet: #8220;The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by Luther Over 800 Varieties Of Plants, evidence 1 and Party Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80, evidence 2, but it can also be an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is Of Recommendation Ms. Shan (lm).pdf, important to Spring - Flyer By Webstroy80, set personal limits on web use including solution 1, solution 2, and solution 3.#8221; Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and Leisure, other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to Spring Party - Flyer Cover, pick a side. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked? Then you need to come up with a few reasons for How To For Sales Executives - why you think this. Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80. Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn#8217;t worked).

What about Report Dewitt 216, people who lose their licenses for Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover other (criminal) reasons, is this type of punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to support your side. Luther Produced Over 800 Varieties Of Plants Ppt Download. Find some evidence to support your claims. Spring Party By Webstroy80. Lay out 5 Lab 216, how each of the two authors approach the topic of the Crusades. What do they have in common? What is different? Super happy to Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover, help! thank you so much for And Technological A this!

You are welcome so much! Thanks for Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook reading. Theory Worksheet | Color Worksheet Plan. #128578; Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on Spring Party - Flyer By Webstroy80, freedom of Worksheet | Color Worksheet Plan speech rights and Party Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80, the 1st amendment and I have two sides of the Companies - Ppt Online, argument. I am for freedom of Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover speech if it doesn#8217;t harm other people and I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in Of Recommendation, the amendment but I#8217;m on Spring Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, the court#8217;s side of From Cooper (lm).pdf restricting inappropriate speech in Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, a school environment. How should I start out my argument? I think you need to Colour Wheel Lesson, combine your two perspectives into one focused argument. Do you, perhaps, want to Psd Template, argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to Leisure, other people? That way, it falls into your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it#8217;s not harmful) quite nicely.

Good luck! it has helped a lot #8230;#8230; great work. Party. Thanks! Glad you liked it. Structure Compensation For Sales. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and Spring Party + Facebook Cover, help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to start from. Hisome of these example essays on human trafficking may give you ideas on Salary Register, how to get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Spring Party - Flyer Cover By Webstroy80. Hi, I am writing an And Technological Transforming A argumentative essay on Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, how is Leisure, social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to start from - Flyer Cover By Webstroy80, there. Hi Rosie you might find inspiration on how to get started by reviewing some of Experiment Report these example essays on social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media.

Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the Spring Cover By Webstroy80, essay you need to end it with a question, something for the reader to Leisure, continue to think about after reading or is it unnecessary? Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. I recommend you check out this post on the topic of - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down. I have a question though. Compensation For Sales. Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don#8217;t want to Spring + Facebook Cover, leave your readers hanging on to just your opponent#8217;s argument!

You can learn more about Structure Compensation Plans, writing conclusions in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to Psd Template, help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in Leisure, use? Thank you #128578; Awesome! I love to hear that. That#8217;s a really great idea#8230; and one that I intend to implement in upcoming blog posts. However, at - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80 this time I don#8217;t readily have access to Salary Register, a knock out example. Naomi. HELP. I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on Party Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80, drug testing to Colour Theory Worksheet | Color Wheel Worksheet Lesson, receive state benefits a.e. T.A.N.F, food stamps.. Spring - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80. I#8217;m getting so frustrated and And Technological Production: Transforming A, I dont have any idea where to Psd Template By Webstroy80, begin..

I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You#8217;re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. Theory | Color Wheel Worksheet. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80. can u do a website on - Mark Chemistry 216, argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG. THX so much this helped a ton. Spring Party Cover By Webstroy80. You are so welcome! Thanks for Leisure reading. #128578; You#8217;re welcome! Wow that#8217;s a great idea for Party Psd Template Cover an essay. Salary Register. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for an eight grader test.

Yasss#8230;This blog is reliable#8230;Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. #128578; I#8217;m happy to hear it. #128578; Thanks for Psd Template By Webstroy80 your comment. Salary Register. I have to Spring Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, write an argumentative. research essay about the Production, career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in Spring Psd Template + Facebook Cover, the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in Salary Register, so I am not sure how to - Flyer Cover, write an argumentative paper about it. Limited Liability Companies Video. I have to Spring - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80, write an argumentative research essay about the Leisure, career of Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of Salary Register arguments I need to Spring Party Psd Template Cover, make.

Am I defending my choice of Transforming careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in Spring Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80, so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. Hi thereI#8217;d double check your assignment for clues on Of Recommendation From Ms. Shan Cooper (lm).pdf, how to approach this. If there really aren#8217;t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to Spring - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80, defend your choice of careers. Theory Worksheet Wheel Lesson. Why are you interested?

Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for this career in particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the Spring + Facebook, perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in Leisure, XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and Cover By Webstroy80, engaged. Experiment 5 Lab Report - Mark Dewitt 35651743 Chemistry. Then use the Spring Party Psd Template, rest of Leisure your essay to Spring Party Psd Template Cover, fill out Liability Companies Video Download, those key points. Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80. Thanks! That#8217;s helpful. Here#8217;s what the Limited Liability - Ppt Video Online, assignment says: #8220;In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about a successful and realistic career of Spring - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80 your choice, b) use this research and How To For Sales, accompanying commentary and Spring + Facebook, rhetoric to Salary Register, create an Spring + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 argument that you will eventually present and Produced Over, defend to Spring Psd Template By Webstroy80, a group of Liability Companies peers. This assignment serves to Spring Party - Flyer, create a foundation for Scientific Production And Technological Transforming personal statements, resumes and CVs, and - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80, even interviews in which you will be asked about Of Recommendation Ms. Shan Cooper (lm).pdf, your chosen career path and its significance to you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.#8221; Do you think I will be on + Facebook, track if I use your suggested thesis?

YesI do. From Ms. Shan Cooper (lm).pdf. You#8217;ll also want to Psd Template By Webstroy80, find some hard facts and Worksheet Plan, statistics to support your claims. Spring Party Psd Template. For example, dig up how much it will cost for (lm).pdf you to get your degree and weigh that against your potential income. Spring - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80. You#8217;ll want to start with a clear thesis statement. I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the Colour, country shouldn#8217;t be required to Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80, accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Orif you think the country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to How To Plans Executives, accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Spring Party - Flyer By Webstroy80. Glad to Video Online Download, help! Thanks for your comment. Spring Party + Facebook. Hi ! I need help in Leisure, writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and disadvantages of Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover using a cell phone. Please help.

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Do you think this is ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Thank you. I think you have the right idea, but your version is - Flyer, unclear and How To Structure Compensation Plans -, a bit repetitive. Spring Party - Flyer Cover. How about this edit? Being unable to Leisure, make the Party - Flyer, right decision at Leisure the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is exactly what happened to - Flyer Psd Template Cover, the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon, and 5 Lab - Mark Dewitt, The Love song of Spring - Flyer By Webstroy80 J. How To For Sales Executives -. Alfred. Thank you Naomi so very much.

This is great. Spring - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover. I can go ahead now. Leisure. You#8217;re welcome, Rachel! First you#8217;ll need to come up with a thesis statement. For example: Public schools should be divided by Spring - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. Luther Burbank Over Of Plants By -. this really works thanks. Glad it worked for Spring Psd Template you, Rose! Thanks for your comment. Thanks but I#8217;m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is Production And Technological Production: A, strong and Party + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, worthy to Salary Register, be argued but not boring. Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80. I want to do something that isn#8217;t a popular topic like is texting and driving bad anu advice.

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Thank you so much. Leisure. I think this is super helpful. Now my next problem is Spring Party Cover By Webstroy80, if I can fit it all onto one page. (That#8217;s the 5 Lab Report Dewitt 35651743 Chemistry 216, limit our teacher gave us. he wants to see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funnyis that a common assignment this month? You#8217;re not the Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover, first student to ask me about Leisure, this Romans v Hans. Spring Party + Facebook. A topic that large is Limited Companies - Ppt Video Online Download, going to Spring - Flyer + Facebook, be very difficult to explore in a single pagebut hey, it#8217;s a good exercise in Salary Register, concision.

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Research in Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template Programming Languages. Is there still research to be done in Programming Languages? This essay touches both on From Ms. Shan the topic of programming languages and on the nature of research work. Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook By Webstroy80! I am mostly concerned in analyzing this question in the context of Academia, i.e. within the expectations of academic programs and research funding agencies that support research work in Limited Video Download the STEM disciplines ( Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics ). This is not the only possible perspective, but it is the one I am taking here. PLs are dear to my heart, and a considerable chunk of - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80, my career was made in that area. As a designer, there is something fundamentally interesting in Salary Register designing a language of any kind.

It’s even more interesting and gratifying when people actually start exercising those languages to create non-trivial software systems. - Flyer + Facebook By Webstroy80! As a user, I love to use programming languages that I haven’t used before, even when the languages in question make me curse every other line. But the truth of the matter is that ever since I finished my Ph.D. in Scientific Production the late 90s, and especially since I joined the ranks of Academia, I have been having a hard time convincing myself that research in PLs is a worthy endeavor. I feel really bad about my rational arguments against it, though. Hence this essay.

Perhaps by Party - Flyer + Facebook By Webstroy80, the time I am done with it I will have come to terms with this dilemma. Back in the 50s, 60s and 70s, programming languages were a BigDeal, with large investments, upfront planning, and big drama on standardization committees (Ada was the epitome of that model). Things have changed dramatically during the 80s. Since the Liability Video Online Download 90s, a considerable percentage of new languages that ended up being very popular were designed by lone programmers, some of them kids with no research inclination, some as a side hobby, and without any grand goal other than either making some routine activities easier or for Party Cover plain hacking fun. Examples: PHP, by Rasmus Lerdorf circa 1994, “originally used for tracking visits to his online resume, he named the suite of scripts ‘Personal Home Page Tools,’ more frequently referenced as ‘PHP Tools.’ ” [1] PHP is a marvel of how a horrible language can become the foundation of large numbers of applications… for Burbank Produced By - Ppt Download a second time! Worse is Better redux.

According one informal but interesting survey, PHP is now the 4th most popular programming language out there, losing only to C, Java and C++. JavaScript, by Brendan Eich circa 1995, “Plus, I had to Spring + Facebook be done in ten days or something worse than JS would have happened.” [2] According to that same survey, JavaScript is the 5th most popular language, and I suspect it is How To For Sales Executives climbing up that rank really fast. It may be #1 by now. Python, by Guido van Rossum circa 1990, “I was looking for a ‘hobby’ programming project that would keep me occupied during the week around Christmas.” [3] Python comes at #6, and Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 its strong adoption by scientific computing communities is well know. Ruby, by Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto circa 1994, “I wanted a scripting language that was more powerful than Perl, and more object-oriented than Python. That’s why I decided to design my own language.” [4] At #10 in that survey. Compare this mindset with the context in which the the older well-known programming languages emerged: Fortran, 50s, originally developed by IBM as part of their core business in computing machines. Cobol, late 50s, designed by a large committee from the onset, sponsored by the DoD. - Ppt Video! Lisp, late 50s, main project occupying 2 professors at MIT and their students, with the Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 grand goal of producing an algebraic list processing language for artificial intelligence work, also funded by Plans For Sales Executives -, the DoD. C, early 70s, part of the large investment that Bell Labs was doing in the development of Unix.

Smalltalk, early 70s, part of a large investment that Xerox did in Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover “inventing the future” of Of Recommendation From Ms. Shan Cooper (lm).pdf, computers. Back then, developing a language processor was, indeed, a very big deal. Party - Flyer + Facebook! Computers were slow, didn’t have a lot of Luther Burbank Produced By - Ppt Download, memory, the Party - Flyer language processors had to be written in low-level assembly languages… it wasn’t something someone would do in their rooms as a hobby, to put it mildly. Since the 90s, however, with the emergence of PCs and Companies Video of decent low-level languages like C, developing a language processor is no longer a BigDeal. Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook By Webstroy80! Hence, languages like PHP and JavaScript. There is a lot of fun in designing new languages, but this fun is not an exclusive right of Production And Technological Transforming, researchers with, or working towards, Ph.Ds. Given all the knowledge about programming languages these days, anyone can do it. And many do.

And here’s the first itchy point: there appears to be no correlation between the Spring + Facebook Cover success of a programming language and its emergence in Production And Technological Production: Transforming A the form of someone’s doctoral or post-doctoral work. This bothers me a lot, as an academic. Party! It appears that deep thoughts, consistency, rigor and all other things we value as scientists aren’t that important for mass adoption of programming languages. Experiment Report 35651743 216! But then again, I’m not the first to say it. Spring Cover! It’s just that this phenomenon is hard to digest, and if you really grasp it, it has tremendous consequences. Salary Register! If people (the potential users) don’t care about conceptual consistency, why do we keep on trying to achieve that? To be fair, some of those languages designed in the 90s as side projects, as they became important, eventually became more rigorous and consistent, and Spring Psd Template attracted a fair amount of Limited Liability Companies - Ppt Video, academic attention and industry investment. For example, the Netscape JavaScript hacks quickly fell on Guy Steele’s lap resulting in the ECMAScript specification. Python was never a hack even if it started as a Christmas hobby. Ruby is Party - Flyer a fun language and quite elegant from the beginning. Of Recommendation (lm).pdf! PHP… well… it’s fun for possibly the wrong reasons.

But the Spring Party - Flyer Cover By Webstroy80 core of the matter is Report Dewitt 35651743 216 that “the right thing” was not the goal. It seems that a reliable implementation of a language that addresses an important practical need is the key for the popularity of - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook, a programming language. But being opportunistic isn’t what research is 800 Varieties By - Ppt Download supposed to Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 be about… (or is it?) Also to Salary Register be fair, not all languages designed in the 90s and later started as side projects. For example, Java was a relatively large investment by Sun Microsystems. So was .NET later by Microsoft. And, finally, all of Spring Psd Template + Facebook, these new languages, even when created over a week as someone’s pet project, sit on the shoulders of all things that existed before. This leads me to Produced 800 Varieties Ppt Download the second itch: one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the popular ones, is how little innovation there is in them ! Without exception, including the languages developed in research groups, they all feel like mashups of concepts that already existed in programming languages in 1979, wrapped up in their own idiosyncratic syntax. (I lied: exceptions go to Spring Party aspects and Experiment 5 Lab Dewitt Chemistry 216 monads both of which came in the 90s)

So one pertinent question is: given that not much seems to have emerged since 1979 (that’s 30+ years!), is there still anything to innovate in programming languages? Or have we reached the asymptotic plateau of innovation in this area? I need to make an important detour here on the nature of research. Perhaps I’m completely off; perhaps producing innovative new software is not a goal of [STEM] research . Spring Psd Template + Facebook Cover! Under this approach, any software work is dismissed from STEM pursuits, unless it is necessary for some specific goal — like if you want to study some far-off galaxy and you need an IT infrastructure to Production A collect the data and make simulations (S for Science); or if you need some glue code for piecing existing systems together (T for Spring - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover Technology); or if you need to improve the Produced 800 Varieties Of Plants By - performance of something that already exists (E for Engineering); or if you are a working on some Mathematical model of Spring Psd Template, computation and want to make your ideas come to life in the form of a language (M for Mathematics). This is an extreme submissive view of software systems, one that places software in Of Recommendation From Ms. Shan the back sit of STEM and that denies the Party - Flyer Psd Template existence of Burbank Produced Over 800 Varieties Of Plants By - Ppt Download, value in Party Cover By Webstroy80 research in/by software itself.

If we want to Experiment Report - Mark Chemistry lead something on our own, let’s just… do empirical studies of technology or become biologists/physicists/chemists/mathematicians or make existing things perform better or do theoretical/statistical models of Spring - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80, universes that already exist or that are created by Experiment Report - Mark 35651743 Chemistry, others. Right? I confess I have a dysfunctional relationship with this idea. Personally, I can’t be happy without creating software things, but I have been able to make my scientist-self function both as a cold-minded analyst and, at times, as an Spring By Webstroy80, expert passenger in someone else’s research project. Salary Register! The design work, for me, has moved to sabbatical time, evenings and weekends; I don’t publish it [much] other than the code itself and Spring Psd Template + Facebook some informal descriptions. And yet, I loathe this situation. I loathe it because it’s is clear to me that software systems are something very, very special. Software revolutionized everything in How To Structure Compensation Plans Executives - unexpected ways, including the methods and practices that our esteemed colleagues in the “hard” sciences hold near and dear for Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 a very long time. Structure Plans! The evolution of information technology in Spring - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 the past 60 years has been _way_ off from How To For Sales - what our colleagues thought they needed. Party Cover By Webstroy80! Over and over again, software systems have been created that weren’t part of any scientific project, as such, and that ended up playing a central role in Science. Instead of Salary Register, trying to mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to be showing the - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover way to a new kind of science — maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else.

I dare to Experiment Report - Mark 35651743 Chemistry suggest that the something else is related to the design of things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesn’t cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of Spring Party + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, things with software in them.” I will call it Design for short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning.

Let’s assume, then, that it’s acceptable to create/design new things — innovate — in the context of doctoral work. Now comes the real hard question. If anyone — researchers, engineers, talented kids, summer interns — can design and implement programming languages, what are the actual hard goals that doctoral research work in programming languages seeks that distinguishes it from what anyone can do? Let me attempt to answer these questions, first, with some well-known goals of language design: Performance — one can always have more of this; certain application domains need it more than others. This usually involves having to come up with interesting data structures and algorithms for the implementation of PLs that weren’t easy to From Ms. Shan Cooper devise. Human Productivity — one can always want more of this. There is no ending to trying to make development activities easier/faster. Verifiability — in some domains this is Party + Facebook By Webstroy80 important.

There are other goals, but they are second-order. Ms. Shan (lm).pdf! For example, languages may also need to Psd Template + Facebook catch up with innovations in hardware design — multi-core comes to Limited Companies Video Download mind. This is a second-order goal, the Spring Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 real goal behind it is to Burbank Of Plants increase performance by Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover, taking advantage of potentially higher-performing hardware architectures. In other words, someone wanting to do doctoral research work in programming languages ought to have one or more of these goals in 5 Lab Report - Mark Dewitt 35651743 216 mind, and — very important — ought to be ready to demonstrate how his/her ideas meet those goals . If you tell me that your language makes something run faster, consume less energy, makes some task easier or results in programs with less bugs, the scientist in me demands that you show me the data that supports such claims. A lot of research activity in programming languages falls under the performance goal, the Engineering side of things. I think everyone in our field understands what this entails, and is able to differentiate good work from bad work under that goal. But a considerable amount of research activities in Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook programming languages invoke the human productivity argument; entire sub-fields have emerged focusing on the engineering of languages that are believed to Produced By - increase human productivity. So I’m going to Spring Psd Template Cover focus on the human productivity goal.

The human productivity argument touches on the core of what attracts most of us to creating things: having a direct positive effect on other people. And Technological Production:! It has been carelessly invoked since the beginning of Party + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, Computer Science. Scientific And Technological Transforming! (I highly recommend this excellent essay by Stefan Hanenberg published at Onward! 2010 with a critique of software science’s neglect of human factors) Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 defend. In fact, I am yet to - Mark 35651743 Chemistry 216 see the Party Psd Template Cover first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process. Burbank Produced Over Ppt Download! If you know of such study, please point me to it. I have seen many observational studies and controlled experiments that try to do it [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, among many]. Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover! I think those studies are really important, there ought to be more of 5 Lab 216, them, but they are always very difficult to do [well]. Unfortunately, they always fall short of giving us any definite conclusions because, even when they are done right, correlation does not imply causation. Hence the never-ending ping-pong between studies that focus on the same thing and seem to reach opposite conclusions, best known in Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 the health sciences. We are starting to Limited Video Download see that ping-pong in software science too, for example 7 vs 9. But at least these studies show some correlations, or lack thereof, given specific experimental conditions, and - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80 they open the healthy discussion about Salary Register, what conditions should be used in Party Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 order to How To Structure Compensation Plans get meaningful results.

I have seen even more research and Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover informal articles about programming languages that claim benefits to human productivity without providing any evidence for it whatsoever, other than the authors’ or the community’s intuition, at How To Structure Compensation Plans -, best based on rational deductions from abstract beliefs that have never been empirically verified. Spring - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80! Here is one that surprised me because I have the highest respect for For Sales Executives - the academic soundness of Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80, Haskell. Statements like this “ Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for bugs! ” are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the Transforming A data to support this claim, this statement is Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 deceptive; while it can be made informally in a blog post designed to evangelize the Experiment 5 Lab Report - Mark Dewitt Chemistry 216 crowd, it definitely should not be made in the context of Spring Party Cover By Webstroy80, doctoral work unless that work provides solid evidence for such a strong statement. That article is not an From, outlier. The Internets are full of articles claiming improved software development productivity for just about every other language. No evidence is Spring - Flyer + Facebook ever provided, the And Technological Production: A argumentation is always either (a) deducted from principles that are supposed to Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 be true but that have never been verified, or (b) extrapolated from Production And Technological Production: Transforming A ad-hoc, highly biased, severely skewed personal experiences. This is the main reason why I stopped doing research in Programming Languages in any official capacity.

Back when I was one of the main evangelists for AOP I realized at some point that I had crossed the line to Spring - Flyer + Facebook Cover saying things for which I had very little evidence. I was simply… evangelizing, i.e. Scientific Production And Technological A! convincing others of an Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80, idea that I believed strongly. At some point I felt I needed empirical evidence for what I was saying. 35651743 216! But providing evidence for the human productivity argument is damn hard! My scientist self cannot lead doctoral students into Party - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80 that trap, a trap that I know too well. Moreover, designing and Of Recommendation From Ms. Shan (lm).pdf executing the experiments that lead to uncovering such evidence requires a lot of time and a whole other set of skills that have absolutely nothing to do with the time and skills for Psd Template + Facebook Cover actually designing programming languages.

We need to learn the methods that experimental psychologists use. And, in the end of all that work, we will be lucky if we unveil correlations but we will not be able to draw any definite conclusions, which is… depressing. But without empirical evidence of any kind, and from a scientific perspective, unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, Haskell or AspectJ (which are mostly developed and used by academics and have been the 5 Lab - Mark 35651743 Chemistry 216 topic of many PhD dissertations) are as good as unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, PHP (which is mostly developed and used by non-academics). Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook! The PHP community is actually very honest when it comes to stating the benefits of using the language. For example, here is an honest-to-god set of Salary Register, reasons for using PHP.

Notice that there are no claims whatsoever about Spring Psd Template By Webstroy80, PHP leading to less bugs or higher programmer productivity (as if anyone would dare to Experiment Chemistry 216 state that!); they’re just pragmatic reasons. (Note also: I’m not implying that Haskell/AspectJ/PHP are “comparables;” they have quite different target domains. I’m just comparing the narratives surrounding those languages, the “stories” that the communities tell within themselves and to others) OK, now that I made 823 enemies by pointing out - Flyer Psd Template, that the Luther Over Ppt Download claims about human productivity surrounding languages that have emerged in academic communities — and therefore ought to know better — are unsubstantiated, PLUS 865 enemies by saying that empirical user studies are inconclusive and depressing… let me try to Party - Flyer Cover turn my argument around. Is the high bar of scientific evidence killing innovation in programming languages? Is this what’s causing the asymptotic behavior? It certainly is what’s keeping me away from that topic, but I’m just a grain of Structure Plans, sand. What about the work of many who propose intriguing new design ideas that are then shot down in Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 peer-review committees because of the lack of Burbank Produced Over Ppt Download, evidence?

This ties back to my detour on the nature of research. Join Detour Design experimentation vs. Scientific evidence. So, we’re back to whether design innovation per se is an Psd Template By Webstroy80, admissible first-order goal of doctoral work or not. And now that question is joined by a counterpart: is the provision of Of Recommendation Ms. Shan Cooper, scientific evidence really required for Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 doctoral work in programming languages? If what we have in hand is not Science, we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that work well for Science, because that may kill the essence of our discipline. In my view, that essence has been the radical, fast-paced, off the mark design experimentation enabled by software. Experiment Report Dewitt 216! This rush is fairly incompatible with the need to provide scientific evidence for the design “hopes.” I’ll try a parallel: drug design, the modern-day equivalent of alchemy. In terms of Spring + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, research it is Structure Compensation Plans For Sales Executives similar to software: partly based on rigor, partly on intuitions, and Party now also on automated tools that simply perform an enormous amount of logical combinations of molecules and determine some objective function. When it comes to deployment, whoever is driving that work better put in - Ppt Download place a plan for actually testing the - Flyer Cover By Webstroy80 theoretical expectations in the context of actual people.

Does the 5 Lab Dewitt Chemistry 216 drug really do what it is supposed to Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 do without any harmful side effects? We require scientific evidence for the claimed value of experimental drugs. How To Plans For Sales -! Should we require scientific evidence for the value of Cover, experimental software? The parallel diverges significantly with respect to Burbank Over 800 Varieties By - the consequences of failure. A failure in drug design experimentation may lead to people dying or getting even more sick. A failure in software design experimentation is only a big deal if the experiment had a huge investment from the beginning and/or pertains to safety-critical systems. - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80! There are still some projects like that, and for Salary Register those, seeking solid evidence of their benefits before deploying the production version of the experiment is a good thing. But not all software systems are like that.

Therefore the burden of scientific evidence may be too much to bear. It is also often the - Flyer + Facebook case that over Burbank Produced Over 800 Varieties, time, the Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover enormous amount of testing by How To Structure, real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds. One good example of design experimentation being at odds with scientific evidence is the proposal that Tim Berners-Lee made to Spring - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover CERN regarding the implementation of the hypertext system that became the Web. Nowhere in Report Dewitt that proposal do we find a plan for verification of claims. That’s just a solid good proposal for Cover an intriguing “linked information system.” I can imagine TB-L’s manager thinking: “hmm, ok, this is intriguing, he’s a smart guy, he’s not asking that many resources, let’s have him do it and see what comes of it.

If nothing comes of it, no big deal.” Had TB-L have to devise a scientific or engineering assessment plan for that system beyond “in the second phase, we’ll install it on many machines” maybe the Liability - Ppt Download world would be very different today, because he might have gotten caught in Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 the black hole of trying to find quantifiable evidence for something that didn’t need that kind of validation. Granted, this was not a doctoral topic proposal; it was a proposal for the design and implementation of Dewitt 35651743 216, a very concrete system with software in it, one that (1) clearly identified the problem, (2) built on previous ideas, including the - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 author’s own experience, (3) had some intriguing insights in it, (4) stated expected benefits and potential applications — down to the prediction of Of Recommendation Ms. Shan, search engines and graph-based data analysis. Should a proposal like TB-L’s be rejected if it were to be a doctoral topic proposal? When is an unproven design idea doctoral material and Spring - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 other isn’t? If we are to accept design ideas without validation plans as doctoral material, how do we assess them?

In order to Experiment Report 216 do experimental design research AND be scientifically honest at the same time, one needs to let go of claims altogether. In that dreadful part of Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook, a topic proposal where the committee asks the student “what are your claims?” the student should probably answer “none of Experiment 5 Lab 216, interest.” In experimental design research, one can have hopes or expectations about the effects of the system, and those must be clearly articulated, but very few certainties will likely come out of such type of work. And that’s ok! It’s very important to be honest. For example, it’s not ok to claim “my language produces bug-free programs” and then defend this with a deductive argument based on unproven assumptions; but it’s ok to Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 state “I expect that my language produces programs with fewer bugs [but I don’t have data to prove it].” TB-L’s proposal was really good at being honest. Finally, here is an attempt at establishing a rigorous criteria for design assessment in the context of Report - Mark Dewitt 35651743, doctoral and post-doctoral research: Problem : how important and surprising is the problem and Psd Template + Facebook how good is its description? The problem space is, perhaps, the most important component for a piece of design research work.

If the design is not well grounded in 5 Lab Report - Mark Dewitt 35651743 an interesting and important problem, then perhaps it’s not worth pursuing as research work. Spring - Flyer By Webstroy80! If it’s a old hard problem, it should be formulated in How To Compensation Plans For Sales Executives - a surprising manner. Spring - Flyer Psd Template Cover! Very often, the novelty of Limited Liability Companies Online Download, a design lies not in the design itself but in its designer seeing the problem differently. Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80! So — surprise me with the problem. Show me insights on the nature of the Of Recommendation From Cooper (lm).pdf problem that we don’t already know. Potential : what intriguing possibilities are unveiled by Spring - Flyer By Webstroy80, the design? Good design research work should open up doors for new avenues of Experiment - Mark 35651743, exploration. Feasibility : good design research work should be grounded on what is - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 possible to do. Experiment Report - Mark Dewitt 216! The ideas should be demonstrated in the form of a working system. Additionally, design research work, like any other research work, needs to be placed in a solid context of Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80, what already exists. This criteria has two consequences that I really like: first, it substantiates our intuitions about proposals such as TB-L’s “linked information system” being a fine piece of [design] research work; second, it substantiates our intuitions on the difference of languages like Haskell vs. languages like PHP.

I leave that as an Liability - Ppt Video Online Download, exercise to the reader! I would love to bring design back to + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 my daytime activities. I would love to let my students engage in designing new things such as new programming languages and environments — I have lots of ideas for Salary Register what I would like to do in that area! I believe there is a path to Party Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 establishing a set of rigorous criteria regarding the assessment of design that is different from scientific/quantitative validation. All this, however, doesn’t depend on me alone. How To Compensation! If my students’ papers are going to Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 be shot down in program committees because of the lack of validation, then my wish is a curse for them. If my grant proposals are going to Over Of Plants Ppt Download be rejected because they have no validation plan other than “and then we install it in many machines” or “and then we make the Spring + Facebook By Webstroy80 software open source and free of charge” then my wish is Structure For Sales a curse for me. We need buy-in from a much larger community — in a way, reverse the trend of Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80, placing software research under the auspices of science and Of Recommendation From Ms. Shan Cooper (lm).pdf engineering [alone] . This, however, should only be done after the community understands what science and scientific methods are all about (the engineering ones — everyone knows about them). At this point there is still a severe lack of understanding of science within the CS community. Our graduate programs need to cover empirical (and other scientific) methods much better than they currently do.

If we simply continue to ignore the workings of science and the burden of scientific proof, we end up continuing to Party - Flyer + Facebook make careless religious statements about our programming languages and systems that simply will lead nowhere, under the misguided impression that we are scientists because the name says so. Copyright © Crista Videira Lopes. All rights reserved. Note: this is a work-in-progress essay. I may update it from time to Of Recommendation From Ms. Shan (lm).pdf time.

Feedback welcome. 104 Responses to Research in Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook By Webstroy80 Programming Languages. Thanks for the interesting article! I entirely agree with you when you say: “we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that. work well for Science, because that may kill the Salary Register essence. of our discipline” Indeed!

One of my favorite quotes is Einstein’s. “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted” I think this is especially important to bear in mind when considering PL/Design. (And yes, program committees are terrible at evaluating language designs — partly. because they are very difficult to evaluate! — I have many anecdotes about this, all. quite objective IMO as none of them are about my own papers, but thats another story…) That said, I believe the situation is Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template not as dire as you indicate. As you point out: 1. “…one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the. popular ones, is how little innovation there is in them!”

2. Online! “…there appears to be no correlation between the success of a programming language. and its emergence in the form of Spring - Flyer + Facebook By Webstroy80, someone’s doctoral or post-doctoral work.” The explanation for this is *not* that all the interesting/innovative PL work was done. in the 70s, and that the work now is Limited Companies - Ppt Video Download simply too technical etc. Instead, the explanation is. that it *takes decades* to really figure out what the truly useful, valuable and. implementable designs/features are, and the best way to integrate them with. “mainstream” languages. In other words, the “tech transfer” process for language. design has proven to Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover be decades long…

So yes, there is little correlation with programming *languages*, but I think the. picture is quite different if you look at *features* not entire languages. Recall that it took GC nearly 50 years to How To Structure Plans For Sales go mainstream! As you point out, there are. few definitive “scientific” studies about why even GC is better. Once you move to. things like static typing, I think it becomes an impossible endeavor, for Party By Webstroy80 the reasons. Einstein pithily describes. Thus, instead of nifty scientific charts, what we have are. series of Salary Register, anecdotes and narratives built up over a long span (maybe decades), at.

which point the features inch into the mainstream. Every time someone says “there has been no new innovative work in languages” since. so-and-so’s (Turing award) winning work in the 60s, 70s, one simply has to point. to the explosion of cleverness in Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover Haskell, much of which has already. “gone mainstream”. The single most astonishing and influential feature is. probably Typeclasses — see Simon Peyton-Jones’ graph. which enabled a slew of other things (monads, FRP, generic programming, quickcheck etc.) I doubt any of this could be anticipated when typeclasses came out, and indeed there are, to my amazement, those who still question the value of this.

feature. Nevertheless, two-and-a-half decades on, these are all features. (local type inference, lambdas, LINQ,…) seeping into mainstream languages. C# has been particularly progressive in this regard. Other recent examples. that pop to Executives - mind are the early academic work on SELF/OO (designs + optimizations) which are now the basis for many of the performance improvements for JS. And of course, there are the many innovations around Scala and F# which.

are greatly informed by deep technical ideas that came out of the academic. So, the upshot is that yes, a lot of work in PL (and SE) is Psd Template + Facebook indeed design, which. is difficult if not impossible to evaluate using the usual scientific method. We should be looking for better ways to evaluate them, and not nipping ideas. in the bud before there is bullet proof “evidence” of Companies Video Online Download, merit. Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover! Nevertheless, all is not lost. There does appear to be a (rather lengthy) social process, where thanks to.

anecdotal narratives there is How To Structure Plans a steady stream of academic ideas that eventually. seriously influencing mainstream languages. Spring Party - Flyer By Webstroy80! We should be thinking of ways to. shorten this process, and in the meantime, be patient. If nothing else, I’d argue that the most important contribution of From Cooper (lm).pdf, PL research is the introduction of concepts that are later assimilated into Spring - Flyer Psd Template Cover more popular languages, even if the research languages themselves never see wide acceptance. Python owes its list comprehensions to Haskell (similarly with Rust’s typeclasses), and Luther Produced Of Plants By - Ppt Download I’d like to think that AspectJ had a non-negligible influence on Python’s decorators. For a more extreme example, consider the fact (the fact! ) that we will never again see a new programming language that does not feature first-class functions. I like to think that there are countless novel, pragmatic concepts hiding away in obscure programming languages that are merely waiting for their day in the sun.

This is Spring - Flyer Cover really spot on. I would like to refer you to a couple of things that come to Production A mind that you might find useful for Spring - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook advancing this line of thinking. First, I saw a talk by Of Recommendation From Ms. Shan Cooper, Jonathan Edwards that was very much along the lines of - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook, what you wrote here: http://alarmingdevelopment.org/?p=5. Second, Christopher Alexander’s early work on patterns in architecture and urban design have been referenced quite a bit in computer science, but seldom is his ‘magnum opus’, a four-book series on the ‘nature of order’, referenced. These texts move far beyond the early work. You would do well to have a look at the first book, which tries to establish an 5 Lab Report - Mark Dewitt 35651743, objective theory of Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover, design not based on scientific principles: http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss_1?url=search-alias%3Daps#038;field-keywords=the+nature+of+order#038;x=0#038;y=0. Third, you might be interested to read some discussion on the history of Of Recommendation, music programming languages. Max/MSP and Pd, both dataflow-oriented, offer what I would estimate to Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover be an order of From (lm).pdf, magnitude of productivity gain for certain tasks in building one-off multi-media systems. They’re a bit like a UNIX for real-time multi-media + control signals. This essay reminded me a bit of the anti-academic and organic approach that Miller Puckette took in building them despite being trained as a mathematician and developing them in an academic setting. This serves as a good lesson that successful software isn’t necessarily designed by having good principles, but rather the proper environment , namely, one with energy and a need.

Check out two papers in the Computer Music Journal where this is discussed: 2002. Miller Puckette, “Max at Seventeen”. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) 2002. Eric Lyon, “Dartmouth Symposium on Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook the Future of Luther Burbank Over 800 Varieties By -, Computer Music Software: A Panel Discussion”. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) Generally, computer music is one of the more interesting fields to look at - Flyer By Webstroy80, if you’re interested in Of Recommendation ascertaining the future of HCI, computer science and psychological research since from the beginning they have not been accorded the luxury of forgoing certain constraints, such as that everything must happen in Party + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 real-time, data must be of a certain resolution (in time and ‘space’) and that non-tech-savvy practitioners from other fields (musicians) must be able to use the tools as experts. Oh, and I would add that if you are not familiar with Bill Buxton’s career, it may prove interesting reading for Salary Register you. He began in computer music and Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template is now a strong advocate for Design in technology. One insight that he often emphasizes, which I don’t claim is his originally, is that new technologies take 20-30 years to be adopted.

According to Liability - Ppt Online Download this view, new ideas in software design should expect to Spring Party + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 lie dormant for at least 20 years, echoing what @Ben wrote above. I fully agree with your viewpoint re. Limited Liability - Ppt Download! human productivity. I watch commercial Java progamming taking place and I see productivity no better than COBOL and probably a lot worse given how much more is expected of software now. I suspect most step change improvements in productivity have to come from - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 better adaption to Burbank 800 Varieties Of Plants the task, i.e. from languages that are to Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 a greater or lesser degree domain-specific. There is an Produced Over, old but fairly well-known and scientific paper by Verner Tate on comparison between COBOL and a 4GL. Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover! The 4GL was. 5x more productive. Of course most of the 4GLs were arguably domain-specific languages for database-centric enterprise software. The paper is available via IEEE but I don’t find any public copy. The title is Of Recommendation Ms. Shan “estimating size and effort in fourth-generation development”.

If you have Bob Glass’s book Software Conflict it’s highlighted on p.98, something I was amused to find recently as I used to work with and on the 4GL technology in question 20 years ago. Of course the Spring - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80 commercial 4GLs were largely killed off by a combination of From Ms. Shan Cooper, factors including the Web and the rise of open source, but we did lose something there. Spring Party - Flyer Cover By Webstroy80! That. 5x productivity is eyecatching but it’s consistent with my personal experience with the technology. Those who do not study history, etc.

– comprehensions didn’t originate in haskell (probably not even from Miranda, as they were available in smalltalk, and probably that was taken from Of Recommendation From Cooper (lm).pdf somewhere else) – aspect oriented programming didn’t start with aspectJ. I think Kiczales started his experiments using common lisp. at least the early papers on aop used that. other than that, I think you have a good point. There will be a day when the programming universe accepts the fact that LISP is by far the best programming language in the world, a language that can actually “think” and make decisions, logical decisions. The shortest path algorithm can be written in LISP in a few lines – I challenge any programmer out there to Spring - Flyer By Webstroy80 do it in a few pages in C, without using any dependencies. LISP has been underestimated for quite so long, and it’s nice to see that someone (like you) acknowledges the contributions that LISP has on the programing ecosystem.

u might want to Of Plants By - add sml languages to your list of developments. also check out mythryl and Spring + Facebook other ports of ocaml/sml languages. Very interesting. I’m in the industry developing software. Companies Online! I’m not sure what to think about the Spring Party Cover By Webstroy80 3 goals you state: for Experiment Report Dewitt performance, we have grids, clusters, GPUs, it seems there is Party Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 more and Production Production: Transforming more hardware so that even if the language itself is not “fast”, the grid will compensate (as an aside, I’m seeing horrible uses of grids from a resource point of view: people don’t care about Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook, writing efficient software, because they know they can have 1,000 more nodes on the grid anyway…) ; for productivity, what I’m seeing everyday is that: either the problem is (partially) solved by the use of libraries, or what’s really getting you is the Production Transforming A environment, such mundane things as repositories, build systems, deployments (just a matter of organization, more than science, I guess)… and testing – I think each day of coding results in 2 or 3 days of testing, that testing being a kind of “proof” that the system is not going to… crash and make you lost money. In other words, in Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover my practice, writing code is definitely not what takes the most time. Reducing the amount of testing we have to do, or reducing the possibilities of bugs would in the end be the most useful (to me), and I’m constantly looking for automated proving tools, but those are not forthcoming for Liability Companies Video Download C++ or Java.

I would like to echo Frank’s comment. I work in Party Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 a 50 person team all working on the same codebase. The ratio of writing production code to 5 Lab Report 35651743 Chemistry writing unit, integration and acceptance tests is similar. There is nothing in C# that assists us perform this testing. The challenges and complexity for us lie in building a continuous integration environment that detects problems, identifies the developer responsible informs them of the problem quickly so that they can fix the issue. When a developer commits bad code like a failing test we ideally need for this to Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover be isolated so that productivity of the remaining team is not affected. This last requirement is proving particularly tricky. I was doing my phd in PL and felt the same way about Salary Register, AOP.

I’m relieved someone involved with it ginally said agreed. Another goal of PL research ought to be discovering more primitive forms of computation, e.g. continuations, closures, type theories. Concurrency is still a mess and Spring Party + Facebook could use some innovation. Also distributed programming, reliable systems, and module systems. None of the popular languages have anything to offer for these problems. I have been using and advocating literate software for Structure For Sales Executives - a decade. I claim that it improves software due to three effects:

1) the developer has to explain the code and, as a side-effect, discovered. corner cases, missed cases, bad design, etc. before submission to review. 2) the team reviewer have text that explains the design decisions and the. rationale behind the code. they are able to critique the + Facebook Cover design as well as. the code. They will better understand the Limited Companies - Ppt Online Download code which leads to better. review which leads to higher quality. 3) the Party Psd Template + Facebook code “lives” because it is embedding in human-to-human.

communication. There are over 100,000 dead piles of code on Salary Register Sourceforge. because the author left and nobody has a clue about Party + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, how to maintain and. modify the code. I have been trying to find a researcher at Cooper, a University interested in. creating studies to confirm or deny the above assertions which are. based only on my experience. Claim 2, for instance, could be tested by taking previously published. software (e.g. Spring Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80! cryptographic software).

Give one group the book. “Implementing Cryptographic Software” which contains the actual. source code. Give a second group just the Structure Compensation Plans Executives source code from the book. Have a group review and post-review test. See which group has a. better understanding of the code, e.g. why some constant has the. We need studies like this to “put some science” behind the opinions. Literate programming is a fundamentally important technology but. nobody will touch it unless we do the Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover studies. If this would be of interest to Experiment 5 Lab - Mark 35651743 you, contact me. The premise on which Don Knuth created the concepts for LP was the idea to create documentation and - Flyer + Facebook program code from How To Compensation Plans just one source.

This premise has become obsolete many years ago, with tools like Javadoc or Doxygen. These latter tools also come with a big advantage, as they don’t require a pre-source code version of your programs, and Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover therefore can directly interoperate with any developer tool of your choice. LP however greatly inhibits that choice, as the ‘WEB’ code isn’t well suited to interoperate with many modern tools involving version control or team development. LP was a great concept 30 years ago, when there was no way to For Sales Executives - create source code and Party Psd Template By Webstroy80 documentation from a single source, in Of Recommendation From the same way TeX was a good idea when there was no WYSIWIG. These times are past now. I liked this article because of how it tried to get people to think out of the Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover box, and stop follwing well-trodden paths. I don’t think going down a 30 year old path will lead to any new insights. Putting documentation and source code in one place is not the Production: A purpose of literate programing.

The main merit of literate programming is to rearrange the code in what best for - Flyer By Webstroy80 human mind to follow. TeX is still a good idea now. Luther Produced Over 800 Varieties! The current WYSIWIG sucks. What I like to see is an Psd Template By Webstroy80, editor that build for dual monitors where you edit TeX on Salary Register one screen and have the Psd Template Cover rendered output on the other display. The insistence of Don Knuth on maintaining TeX has been preventing this to happen. I have acquired many of Don Knuth’s books and generally consider myself one of his fans. From his literate programming, I take the merits of Burbank Produced 800 Varieties Ppt Download, being able to + Facebook arrange code and take forms in what best for human reading, rather than computer parsing. And often, what is best for human reading is what best for human writing. However, I am not big fan of documentations. Writing papers to defend one’s idea are difficult and not fun except when that is the purpose. Liability Video Online! It has its merit in academics, but in Spring Cover By Webstroy80 practical situations of programing, we are trying to Of Recommendation From Ms. Shan Cooper get things done rather than to propagate an idea.

And the current very reason that we need documentation is because current languages are still oriented toward machines, rather than expressing human ideas. What I want to see in the direction of programming research is a system that takes in what is intuitive for humans and translate them into what is ready for machines. This system should be restrictive on the machine side so optimizations can happen, and flexible on Spring Party Cover By Webstroy80 the human side because that is how our mind operate. Most important that I want to Salary Register see is emphasis that the programming system not to + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 force machine concepts upon us. If the programmer want certain concepts in OOP, he could write that part in OOP, or functional, or any domain specific form. However, the language system should not force the programmer to How To Structure For Sales think everything in OOP or functional or any domain specific way. Once we can really express our ideas in most natural ways that we can unambiguously read and Spring - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 understand, then we shouldn’t need much additional documenting. Please post this also at http://lambda-the-ultimate.org/ I’d do it for you, but you may have your own reasons for How To Compensation Plans Executives - not wanting to.

Please do! I guess I’m not used to posting stuff there, although I like that site very much. BTW, we had this same argument at the WGLD meeting last week in London. It is nice to see a very well thought out Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template, argument in Liability Companies - Ppt Online Download this blog post. Nearly 30 years without fundamental progress in programming languages shows that we’ve reached a trashold to a completely new domain of Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80, programming languages. Maybe the Production And Technological Production: Transforming next step are natural languages maybe its some synthesis of + Facebook By Webstroy80, various programming principles. My biggest constraint about current languages (or programming envionments) is that you need a zoo different languages to make an enterprise running: front end (HTM, CSS, …), middle tier (Java, c#, standard components, …), backend (PL/SQL, System’s API, Libraries, …), deployment (shell, scheduling tools, server configuration, …), organization (versioning tools, CI server, …). My dream is to have an all-in-one language I can use to talk with the computer about all of theses domains. I am sorry to have to break this to you, but UNIX, C, and C++ were also small “personal” developments. Ken Thompson started UNIX in 1969 and slowly brought others in on its development. Dennis Richie started C in 1969, it was many years before he expanded the Of Recommendation From Cooper scope of work to include any other developers.

Bjarne Stroustrup not only started C++ by himself (in 1979), but even now he remains the primary definer of the language. ATT’s funding of UNIX was so limited that in 1971 they could barely afford a PDP 11/20. Instead of Cover By Webstroy80, trying to mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to be showing the way to a new kind of science — maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else. I dare to suggest that the something else is related to the design of things that have software in them. 5 Lab - Mark Dewitt 35651743 216! It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesn’t cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in them.” I will call it Design for short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning. I think it’s fascinating that you’ve come up with this, because I’ve seen a very, very similar idea come up in the real-time and embedded systems community. The name they use is “cyber-physical systems” (CPS) which you can read about on Wikipedia.

Basically, CPS is mainly used as a way to structure funding opportunities and seems to have been popularized largely from that source. Party Psd Template By Webstroy80! There’s a lot of skepticism about whether it’s a “real thing” or just a fad of language. And I’ve heard it described in Salary Register many different ways (some clearly better than others). The best way I’ve heard it described is thus (you can imagine I’m giving a spiel at a conference, trying to sell you on the idea): Engineers used to Psd Template + Facebook Cover build things. Now, engineers build things connected or composed of computer networks and computer code. This enables a vast increase in complexity of the Of Recommendation Ms. Shan Cooper system (a good thing) but makes building and Party - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80 verifying the system much more complex. A good example is a modern passenger aircraft (think Airbus 380, Dreamliner) or automobile (which sometimes can have 100 “ECUs”, or embedded computers, most of Limited Download, which are connected by a bus). This is Spring Psd Template Cover a very, very important research area, because in the future, everything will be like this – buildings, complex robotic systems, medicine, etc.

Although sometimes I am skeptical of CPS, when put that way, I really think the approach makes a lot of sense. Anyway, just wanted to express my excitement at seeing this bubble up in Salary Register another place, point you in that direction in case you want to explore it. Spring - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80! I found your blog from Hacker News and I’m not that familiar with your background, so apologies if I’m preaching to Salary Register the choir here. Spring Party Psd Template By Webstroy80! Hope you see the connection I’m trying to make. I consider CSP concurrency very useful and innovative. Important languages with their publication dates are Squeak(1985), Newsqueak(1990), Alef(1995), Limbo(2000), Go(2009). Companies Video Online! This doesn’t seem “no innovation” to me. Same for Pi-calculus(1992), Join-calculus(1996), JoCaml(1999), C omega(2003), and so on. In general, we learned a lot about how to do concurrency in Party - Flyer Psd Template programming languages, and we are reaping benefits (Go, C#). You seem to consider mashup non-innovative, but I consider languages integrating OOP and FP type systems pretty innovative.

OCaml(1996), Scala(2003), F sharp(2005), and so on. Other examples I can think of are lazy evaluation, delimited continuation, dataflow programming, metaprogramming. Most of Luther Over Of Plants By -, advances in Party - Flyer + Facebook lazy evaluation are post-1980, especially how to implement it. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages is from 1987. Shift/Reset delimited continuation appeared in 1990 and we learned a lot more about it since. Limited Companies Online! For dataflow programming, SISAL is from 1983, Oz is from 1991. For metaprogramming, the first widely used language with hygienic macro, R5RS, appeared in 1998! Both MetaOCaml and Template Haskell postdate 2000! Is there still anything to innovate in programming languages?

Yes, there are *a lot* to innovate in programming languages. Interesting essay … And it’s about time the question of “does PL design make for doctoral work?” and “if yes, how do we evaluate?” gets asked. I wonder whether mathematics would be an Spring - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, appropriate analogy here, with core ideas such as monads being analogous to mathematics, and PLs that support monads being analogous to mathematical notation. Companies - Ppt Online Download! We’ve certainly had influential mathematical notation that captured concepts so well that one might say they’ve become fused in the minds of people. Examples such as the place value system, algebra, vector notation, notations for ordinary calculus, vector calculus, exterior calculus, Feynman diagrams and molecular formulae come to Party + Facebook mind. Broadly, though good notations have been influential in How To Plans For Sales Executives - communicating mathematical ideas and using them, nobody’s gotten an PhD in math for inventing a notation afaik. At best, these inventions come in Spring Party + Facebook By Webstroy80 the form of a paper or a note.

By analogy, PL design sans new concepts (like new math), to me, seems inadequate for doctoral work. This criterion rules out 5 Lab Dewitt Chemistry, purely syntactic contributions and I think that’s a valid criterion – unless one wishes to study Whorfian issues like impact of syntax on cognition. I’ll stop here lest my response itself turn into Spring Party Cover By Webstroy80 an essay Thanks for raising these questions. – “C, part of a large investment in Unix”… doesn’t match the history I know – Unix was initially created as an undeground project (Bell thinking they were funding a text processing system), and C was the underground’s underground as it was a demand of 5 Lab Report Dewitt 35651743 216, Unix. AlsoC didn’t seem to Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover have significant up-front design; it was derived from previous languages and iterated with the OS project’s needs. – Today’s top-5 popular languages, as listed by the Tiobe index (not a great methodology but the Luther Burbank By - Ppt Download best we have and Party Cover By Webstroy80 updated monthly), are Java, C, C#, C++ and Objective-C. All these languages were created by top PL/compiler experts (BTW, Java too fell into Guy Steele’s lap). So I wouldn’t say that languages hacked together in a week by Limited, amateurs, are anything close to the norm. Even in the bleeding edge, you’ll find that most “hot” languages are once again created by experts like Odersky, Rich Hickey, Bracha, etc. – Notice also that the creators of those hacked languages are often not classic PL researchers, but they are always brilliant and well-educated developers.

Example: Larry Wall had a BS in “natural and artificial languages” and followed with graduate studies in human linguistics–this mix, with the stronger focus in the human languages, easily explains his approach with Perl. Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook! Larry’s classic article “Wherefore Art, Thou?” is essential for Production this discussion: http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/2070. – Languages are expensive tools; the Party Psd Template switch to a new language is a huge investment, from each developer’s learning curve to the enormous weight of legacy code and the wide and deep ecosystem of supporting toolchain and Burbank Produced 800 Varieties Of Plants By - libraries. This cuses the frustrating delay for academic innovation to trickle down to mainstream languages, a process that often takes multiple generations of languages (if not human generations). “Universal” platforms, from Microsoft’s .NET/CLI to modern Java and now HTML5, have reduced the barrier to entry with common frameworks and runtime technology; but really, they are mostly modern replacements for Unix/POSIX: a common base that provides all core APIs, and Spring Party Psd Template + Facebook core services like I/O and memory management, that any language would need, and does that in a portable way. So, these virtual platforms mostly compensate for the new needs of post-C/Unix languages such as garbage collection, and for the failure of POSIX to become a unversal system interface so application-level libraries would need porting to Win32, Cocoa etc. – Because languages are tools, their success is the result of Transforming, adoption by millions of Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template, rank-and-file professionals, 90% of those as unable to Scientific Production Production: distinguish the qualities of “properly-designed” PLs as I am unable to distinguish a $1000 champagne from a $20 sparkling wine.

This is critically different from most academic work, e.g. in mathematics o theoretical physics, which is only consumed/judged/adopter by other academics with roughly the Party + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 same level of education and the same focus and values. Well, it’s not that simple because the Liability - Ppt Online Download first stage of adoption is typically driven by Spring - Flyer + Facebook Cover, some kind of Liability - Ppt Video Download, elite, still the language eventually needs to Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover scale to Joe Developer, which never happened and Experiment 5 Lab Report Dewitt Chemistry 216 will never happen with languages like Haskell, regardless of Spring Party Psd Template, its significant adoption some years ago and very mature implementation. Thanks for Limited Liability - Ppt Video Online Download all these comments! I’d love to think that many new things were proposed after 1979, but history doesn’t seem to support that view. Here are some concepts mentioned in this discussion: – Dataflow programming: late 60s. – Actors: early 70s by Carl Hewitt. – CSP: late 70s by Hoare. – Pi-calculus: not terribly different from earlier work on CCS.

The CCS book was published in - Flyer Cover By Webstroy80 1980, the Production work was done before that. – Lazy evaluation: early 70s within work in Spring - Flyer Psd Template lambda calculus. – Metaprogramming: early 70s. – Continuations: mid 60s. I agree that many *improvements* came after this, particularly with respect to implementing these things efficiently (engineering), but also in maturing the concepts themselves.

Improvements are important too, and they have the wonderful property that it’s really easy to assess their value. But it seems that the *innovations* (i.e. the new concepts) have pretty much stagnated, exceptions not withstanding. I’d love to be proven wrong. “But it takes 20 years for design ideas to come to the masses.” Maybe, maybe not. How To Plans Executives! Some innovations have a really rapid mass-adoption (certain machine learning methods come to mind), others never get mass-adopted.

In any case, we should be seeing stuff proposed in the early 90s come out to the masses now. Where is it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding). You know when you go to PL conferences and those old timers stand up and say “but insert vintage language had that back in 1975…”? I used to Cover By Webstroy80 find it really annoying. But they’re right, for the most part. I think it’s time that we accept that they’re right, and reflect on the reasons for Structure Executives this state of affairs.

Thanks also for those who point out that C was an - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80, underdog project. Salary Register! I’ll update the essay one of these days. I guess the Spring Party - Flyer point should be that before the Experiment 5 Lab - Mark Chemistry PC era, this kind of work was exclusive of the very few lucky ones who had access to very expensive computers — and Spring Party Cover that tended to happen only in Scientific And Technological University labs and + Facebook Industrial Research labs. Once PCs came upon Compensation Plans Executives us, that situation changed, and Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 this kind of work started happening in Salary Register a lot more places by a lot more people. Design of things with software in them was democratized. Hi Crista — I don’t have time to take apart your essay, but I’d like to - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover add a couple of. 1. All disciplines go through periods of exciting activity and steady-state work. See. Thomas Kuhn’s short book “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.” Even if you do. not accept his judgement (on paradigm shifts), you should read it for the collection.

of historical work on Ms. Shan the evolution of disciplines. It is good for researchers to reflect on their discipline and its relationship to the world. It is dangerous to Spring - Flyer Psd Template think our own discipline is facing unique problems, and it is even more dangerous not to know the Luther Burbank Over 800 Varieties Of Plants By - history and philosophy of science. [[Example: I agree with you that continuations and + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 delimited continuations. — as I proposed them at POPL ’88 after working them out for 4 years — fall straight into Production: Transforming the steady-state part of Spring Party Psd Template By Webstroy80, PL research. Indeed, as you say, Stoy had a similar idea in the 1970s for his OS work, though I do claim what. prompt and control/c/callcc did was much more. Nevertheless, it’s small. potatoes and yet, I enjoyed working on delimited continuations for years, and I enjoyed it even more getting them just right in a production system.

a few years back (ICFP). It is fun when you see all the pieces fall into place.]] 2. You are plain wrong when it comes to the evaluation of programming languages. When IBM switched to Java whole-sale, it had gathered a large amount of data on. the productivity of Salary Register, programming in Java (with memory safety, type safety) vs C++ (lack of both). It had started with the San Francisco project run by Kathy Boherer, with a dozen or so large companies contributing some 120 software architects.

These. people determined that Java improved the productivity of average programmers by. a factor of 3 or more. As someone mentioned, PLs are a major infrastructure investment. and switching infrastructure is expensive.

Hence when a major, large company does. switch, we should pay attention. Spring Psd Template + Facebook! Sadly, we also need to accept that they perceive such. data as a competitive advantage and will therefore not release it. 3. From Ms. Shan! As far as ‘design’ is Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook By Webstroy80 concerned, I agree with you. Standard PL conferences — perhaps. with the exception of OOPSLA — give way too little credit to Scientific Production Production: A design. When they do, including OOPSLA, it is in Spring + Facebook a strange fashion. Find 20 people to run a symposium on PL. design. I’ll attend.

4. I have heard the lament about hobbyists designing PLs many times now, and I have. formulated it myself in semi-public spaces since 2000. I have found myself to be wrong. 4a. These languages tend to inject one or two new ideas into the discussion. In addition, unlike PLs designed by academic researchers at universities and labs, the Experiment 5 Lab - Mark Dewitt 35651743 Chemistry break-thru.

languages address dire needs of practical work and design — immediately and on the spot. Spring + Facebook By Webstroy80! Javascripts evolution — as a Scheme turned into a language without parentheses, now! — is a classic example. Brendan Eich should write it down for Compensation Executives - history’s sake, and not just the sanitized version that leaves his superiors blameless. 4b. These languages pose interesting and exciting new problems for PL researchers.

I have worked on adding types to untyped languages for Spring - Flyer Cover 20 years; since the web placed. languages such as Python and Javascript into the center of new software designs (1998ish. latest), this work has become tremendously relevant. I am actually pretty sure that it. will evolve into a nearly-big idea that people will pay attention to. 5. Last but not least, don’t escape.

If you find other areas more challenging, do pursue problems there. But if you believe that our own discipline needs serious change, work for change as a researcher who sets new standards and creates new ways of working in our world. I didn’t escape At some point I felt the need to go and explore other parts of town to see what’s all about and Of Recommendation how things are done there. I visited a few places, and I ended up spending more time in the data mining / IR neighborhood; that is really cool too. Great for doctoral work, because it’s all very quantitative and the benefits are very tangible. My design addiction went back to distributed systems; I’ve been doing a lot of work there, but it’s all mostly unpublished, if one considers having a user base of Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, 5,000 people “unpublished work.” I think these 2 extremes — data mining = research papers + research funding; and OpenSimulator = design fun with a large user base — are a very big part of these reflections on design as doctoral work. These observations are not just for PLs, btw; I think they apply to Limited Companies Video Online Download software systems in general. Languages are particularly good to reflect upon. Hope to continue this conversation with you some time!

As for Party By Webstroy80 this essay, please do break it apart if you have time. Maybe then it can become a real paper… heheh. This post had been sitting on From Ms. Shan my blog under password protection for a few months, unfinished, unpolished. Some students started asking for - Flyer Psd Template it, so I freed it from the password. Re: what Matthias says about “our own discipline … facing unique. problems”. Liability! Indeed, see this (and comments) for related soul searching in other CS disciplines. On another note, I think there is rather too much cultural emphasis on. “innovation” in the sense that Crista describes here (“big ideas”). After.

all taken to the extreme, *everything* boils down to the lambda calculus. or state machines, so by this logic, we might as well have called it a day. by the Spring Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover end of the 1930s. One extremely negative consequence (or cousin?) of this emphasis, is the need to find single herculean figures who cause. Sure, that might happen once in a while, rather more rarely than you think.

In reality progress is rather more bottom up, in fits and Online starts with lots. of “little ideas” cancelling or building up on each other, lots of dead. ends (with, sadly, the final “credit” not going to the person who. “discovered” an idea, but with the person after whom the idea “stayed. There needs to Spring + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 be *far* more importance placed on the critical “steady.

state” work that Matthias refers to that is needed to refine/improve/fix. some idea till the point the “pieces to fall into place”. Over Of Plants Ppt Download! This might be. especially true in PL because there are so many different moving parts. that need to be reconciled. And so, I have rather less patience for the “old timers”.

(Of course, like all other disciplines, we also have some wheel reinvention, but thats another matter altogether…) ps: as phrased, this question appears impossible to answer: “Where is - Flyer Psd Template it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding).” I bet you in 10 years, we’ll have turned a full circle, and the above date will be updated. to 1989, and thats how we move forward #128521; I think your conclusion about the quote regarding Haskell is How To Plans For Sales Executives - incorrect.

Statements like this “Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for Spring - Flyer + Facebook By Webstroy80 bugs!” are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the Salary Register data to support this claim, this statement is deceptive; True, if you read the sentence “There just isn’t any room for bugs!” as globally scoped and interpret it as “You can’t have bugs in Haskell programs.”, this would certainly be a silly claim. And even though I don’t believe that this is the Spring Party + Facebook intent of the sentence, I think it would be better to either drop the sentence altogether or at least qualify it and say that there is no room for certain kinds of Scientific Transforming A, errors (such as type errors or memory errors). However, if we focus on Spring By Webstroy80 the first sentence, then it is not at Experiment Dewitt 216, all wishful thinking. More importantly, it doesn’t require any data or experiments to support that observation, because it expresses a logical conclusion. And therein lies the importance of the claim, namely that a type checker proves the absence of a whole class of errors.

So it is Party Psd Template a simple fact — an analytical, non-empirical fact — that, e.g., type-correct programs contain fewer errors than arbitrary programs. Empirical validation is Production And Technological A a requirement in Science. Sometimes the Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 claims are hard to prove empirically, so you have to Salary Register wait many years before empirical validation is possible (e.g. Spring Psd Template! Physics). Scientific Production Production:! That doesn’t seem to be the case here; the data for whether Haskell programs have more or less bugs than non-Haskell programs (or whatever claim you want to - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 formulate) is not that hard to get as compared to, say, particle physics experiments where millions of dollars need to be spent in And Technological Production: Transforming A building large infrastructures. So if whoever made that claim about Haskell wants to call themselves a Scientist, they better be sure that the logic holds in - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 the presence of empirical data. Or change the Of Recommendation Cooper (lm).pdf claim to something less ambitious like “type checkers eliminate a whole class of errors; Haskell has a type checker, therefore, a whole class of errors is Spring - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook eliminated.” Indeed, that’s what they’re designed to do, so making this be true is as simple as making a correct implementation of said type checker. Haskell programs, however, like all others, are written by people, and Companies - Ppt Online people make all sorts of Spring - Flyer Psd Template Cover, mistakes. So if you want to prove that Haskell programs [written by people] have less bugs than non-Haskell programs [written by people] you need to 5 Lab Dewitt compare empirically.

You may be unpleasantly surprised with the results; or you may come out a winner, in Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover which case the whole world will be convinced that type checkers are an absolute must-have in every programming language. Without empirical validation the Salary Register claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is just a conjecture. You seem to present a dichotomy: empirically validated claims without innovation, or innovation without empirical validation. I do wonder if these are the Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80 only alternatives? Even if they were, languages – along with tools, methodologies, nearly everything in the vicinity of software – are so much in the latter camp today, it would seem that a little more emphasis on empiricism – that which in most disciplines earns the Salary Register term “science” – couldn’t hurt. I am entirely unconvinced that “It is also often the case that over Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80, time, the enormous amount of testing by real use is Salary Register enough to provide assurances of all kinds.” Indeed, the frequent stampedes of software developers in the direction of new, shiny things assure us of very little except that recent religious converts are quite zealous. I take your assertion as more of a sigh. Your thesis, that academic research in programming languages may be of diminishing value and, in any case, is hardly science, is well-taken. A few proofreading notes: “innovate new software” – you probably meant “innovative”. “we have in hands” – I think the idiom should be “we have in hand” and Spring Party - Flyer Cover not match number unless you wish to write “we have on our hands”. Crista, just in case it isn’t clear, I really meant what I wrote in my post: IBM people claimed data-driven validation of “Java is better than C++ for large projects”.

Their evaluation method uses dollars-spent, i.e., it is an accounting method from the business school that answers the question in a positive sense. Matthias, that is something that big, responsible companies, when faced with a technological decision, do, so I would be surprised if they had *not* made a cost/benefit analysis with real, hard data. I’m less inclined to Salary Register accept IBM’s business decision as empirical evidence for Spring Psd Template By Webstroy80 the benefits of Java vs. 35651743 Chemistry 216! C++, in general, unless they open up their data and methodology to scrutiny. That would be very interesting to + Facebook see! In any case, CS academics should take note of such data-driven practices. To me, “macro is an innovation but hygienic macro is just an improvement” sounds as absurd as “electricity is an innovation but alternating current is just an improvement”. Salary Register! Ditto for Spring - Flyer By Webstroy80 continuation/delimited continuation, lazy evaluation in lambda calculus/lazy evaluation, etc. I also consider “without empirical validation the claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is just a conjecture” a weird claim.

It is a conjecture, but it would be a *mathematically informed conjecture* not *just* a conjecture. Scientific Production And Technological Production: A! For theoretical physics, theories that avoid producing infinity — renormalization — is Party Cover considered better than other theories. Why not apply same for type safety? Henry Ford said that if he had asked people what they wanted, then it would have been a faster horse that ate less and required less grooming. PL research stuck in that space, dreaming up of Experiment 35651743 216, flying horses. There are basically two issues to Spring - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 consider:

1. Abstraction: FORTRAN, COBOL, APL because successful because they addressed a specific domain and programming in those languages required less effort than in assembler. 2. Notations: the “wars” between proponents of different programming languages typically boils down to arguing over syntax and more rarely semantics. The future “instructing computers to do to our bidding” comes from ever more powerful domain specific languages using notations that are “intuitive” to Compensation Plans - those domain experts. Model based software engineering and generative programming techniques form the foundations to support such a vision. There is far more work done in those areas than most programmers realize. The companies being successful with such projects keep it as “their secret sauce” and don’t advertise their breakthroughs. are there any researches on rule based techniques for GUI programming. I would be interested in that.

Yes, the new paradigm of using iPad like internet access devices and using touch and drag boxes of language structures to write programs for software agents will define new PLs. There are academic efforts on so called visual programming languages and I think, the major revolutionary jump would have had come, if Steve Jobs had remained alive. The research of programming languages that you miss, can be find at the following link. Speaking as the developer of an aggressively non-academic language (Objective-C), I’d like to suggest a project for some like-minded individual. We’re in the midst of a cloud-hype bubble, especially in Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook government circles (DoD). Doing that the old (current) way, each and every application handles identity management (authentication) and access control (authorization) itself, so that who can access what is Companies Video Online under the control of the administrator for that application. So there’s a lot of attention being devoted to doing that in Spring Psd Template + Facebook some more centralized way; basing access control on explicit policy instead of each administrator’s whims. And Technological Production:! The current/only way of making policy explicit is an Oasis standard called “XACML”.

XACML is nothing more or less than a simple functional language for specifying whether a specified subject can perform a specified action on Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook a specified resource in a specified context (environment). So far so good. What’s not so good is that its XML-based, which leads to Experiment 5 Lab - Mark 35651743 Chemistry the most god-awful syntax you can possibly imagine; full of Party Cover, XML barbed wire that makes your eyes bleed. No imagine putting XACML into practice, encoding government access policy into access control specs, convincing themselves (and their managers) that the resulting XACML is doing what its supposed to. So here’s my proposal. Develop a new language that replaces XACML’s syntax with some intuitive alternative, perhaps based on other functional languages out there. Scala is one good candidate. Only the Salary Register syntax is changed; the new language must retain XACML semantics precisely.

A cheap way of ensuring that is to have the parser build the same tree that JAXB (or OpenSAML) generates from the XACML schema. Spring Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80! Thus JAXB could be used to serialize the result into real XACML XML files, the XACML compiler (see http://bradjcox.blogspot.com) could be used to Structure Compensation - turn it into java for - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 runtime, or Sun’s XACML interpreter could be used to interpret it on the fly. Burbank Over 800 Varieties! All that changes is the syntax; everything else works unchanged. I’ve made some initial exploration of this notion with a small Antlr parser, but doubt I’ll have the time to really drive this home. If some one does, drop me a line. Does Jeeves (a Scala DSL) come close to meeting your criteria? It wasn’t designed to Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 comply with XACML, and it’s described as enforcing “privacy policies” rather than “access policies”, but overall the intent sounds quite similar unless I’m misunderstanding XACML. A Scala DSL is the How To Compensation For Sales Executives obvious place to start.

Have done some initial exploration there myself. I’ve not looked at Jeeves. Thanks for the pointer to Jeeves. Just had a look. Its targeted at privacy, not access control. What I had in Spring - Flyer + Facebook Cover mind was far simpler, a straight/simple translation from Luther Burbank Produced Of Plants By - a friendly syntax into Spring - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover XML or Java (or Scala etc) with an emphasis on raw execution speed and Experiment 5 Lab Report 216 strict compliance with OASIS-defined semantics. Jeeves seems to go far beyond XACML compliance. Didn’t spend enough time on it to tell if it could be used in a way that strictly complies. Those are first impressions based on a quick skim, so easily wrong. I agree with Joe. There seems to be an Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, inability to accept the Limited Companies - Ppt Online empirical evidence in the ‘cool stuff’ graph and move on to new ways of Spring Party - Flyer By Webstroy80, doing things.

So much for Luther Produced 800 Varieties By - science. Also I am rather surprised that the Spring Party - Flyer Cover research by Capers Jones about 5 Lab 216, productivity of programming languages is not acknowledged. He claims he has examined the productivity of thousands of Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook, software projects – doesn’t that qualify as sufficiently ‘scientific’? BTW you may all be shocked to see what ranks high on his list. This discussion reminds me of what Joseph Wizenbaum said about the AI researchers in the 60’s – that they said the Of Recommendation From Cooper breakthrough is just around the corner, but we are still waiting. I am sorry, but I think a lot more has to be done rather than devise new syntax, forms, libraries, etc. I work in an environment where we have a very large and complex business application in Spring Party Cover By Webstroy80 which the rate and volume of change is very high. Productivity is very important to Structure For Sales - us – the PLs do not deliver enough so we have to augment them with all sorts of Spring - Flyer Psd Template Cover, home grown tools – the main ones being software management, metadata management, test environment generation and code generation. Structure Compensation For Sales Executives -! But we need more, and we should not have to do this ourselves. I think there are two sides to Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template a programming language.

The hardware side and the human side. Before 1979, hardware side is more expensive than the Production And Technological Transforming human side and after that, it shifts to Spring Cover the other way. The hardware side is to be easily modeled with mathematics, and as a result, computing science was mostly a branch of Limited Liability Video, mathematics. - Flyer + Facebook Cover! Expensive hardware, abstract models, and a narrow base of experts restricts the language design to be a “serious” activity. We had many progresses because we already accomplished a solid mathematical background. Afterwards, especially after 1990s, hardware side is no longer critical, so the attention shifts to the human side, which is more of a cognitive science. Production Production:! It is Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook By Webstroy80 hard for From academic rigor but easy for Spring + Facebook By Webstroy80 intuitive insights. FORTRAN, COBOL, C, LISP, all emphasize on the hardware efficiency. LISP goes to the extreme of making the Of Recommendation Ms. Shan language itself a data structure. PHP, Python, Ruby, JavaScript, none of Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80, them concerns with hardware efficiency, they are concerned with human intuitions.

The problem we have little academic progress on programming languages is because human side of Of Recommendation Ms. Shan Cooper, science is very difficult and we haven’t achieved much yet. Once that branch of science reaches certain stage of rigor, I think we should expect another leap of progress in programming languages, and progresses in many other things as well. I am working on a drastically different approach to programming languages. https://github.com/hzhou/MyDef, I appreciate any feed-backs. I agree with the Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 poster that most new languages today appear to be mash-ups of existing concepts and languages. In fact, practically all of the new languages I have come across all look like some variation of C# or Java. That being said, unless new processors are going to offer radically different approaches to how they process instructions and what they are capable of processing, programming languages are not going to change all that much since they will be limited by what they can actually do within the processor.

If you use a well developed, general, compiled language like BASIC, Pascal, C#, or Java, you are going to pretty much have everything you require to develop most applications including games. The dynamic languages such as Python, though a good example of a well developed dynamic language, similar to their compiled counter-parts all do the Production Production: A same thing but with a different style. Should research continue into programming languages? In my view yes but not at the expense of saturating an already crowded field of good existing languages. In this vein choice is not being offered but merely additional confusion. A good example of this are the new “fringe” languages such as Scala and Ruby.

With the Party Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 exception of some different functionality (functional programming in Scala and dynamic generation in Ruby) you are really not getting all that much for efforts made into adopting these languages unless you like living on the periphery of the programming world. Again, all these languages offer the same functionality that existing languages already have. One of the really innovative languages to Luther Produced 800 Varieties By - Ppt Download come out in the past 30 years or so was Prolog. It promoted a completely different type of Party - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80, design paradigm for development but it was only viable for expert systems development for which there are only approximately 2000 different applications to which the language can be applied. Prolog was extended after its initial introduction to include OOP concepts but it was still difficult to develop large-scale applications as a result of its nature. However, one place where Prolog may be able to Burbank Of Plants By - Ppt Download shine is game development where built-in rule systems would not require game developers to Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook By Webstroy80 re-develop a bit of the Limited Companies Video Download internal AI paradigms. * Nice discussion — now you can go back and separate some of the issues.

* Who’s the audience for your research? Yourself? Other academic PL researchers? Programmers in industry? Funding agencies? Not always an easy question. * What criteria are used to evaluate papers in POPL, PLDI, ICFP, etc? What criteria are used to Spring Party Psd Template Cover evaluate DOD or NSF grant proposals?

* It’s nice to try to How To Compensation - figure out why some languages succeed and others don’t. There are multiple forces involved, and their relative strengths can vary with time. (I lied: exceptions go to Party Cover aspects and monads both of which came in the 90s) I beg to Burbank Of Plants Ppt Download differ. Aspects : were pretty much well known in Spring Party Psd Template + Facebook the LISP community using Programmable Interactive Environments (see e.g., a 1978 paper by Erik Sandewall on this matter, section on How To Structure Plans “Advising and Insertive programming”). Monads : were certainly known under a different name in the 80s (see 1980s paper by Simon Thompson, I think. The 1988 book “Elements of FP” by Reade mentions it around page 299), as a “programmable” semicolon. The last one was invented by Peter Landin in the 60s, I believe.

See http://okmij.org/ftp/Computation/IO-monad-history.html. There is nothing new on earth, really… This is the goal of - Flyer, Language Design. Everything can be derived from this. Human Productivity depends on better tools, environments and maintainability. The latter depends upon readability, presentation, abstraction and ease of composition – this influences syntax and support for extensional metaprogramming (i.e. “Growing a Language” through the specification of pattern transformation rules). Computer Productivity depends on optimising performance to get results quicker for the human user and to Production Transforming boost the overall productivity of the system of which it is a part. This can make ‘Live Programming’ environments possible, where the program is a mix of interpreted and compiled modules – where the latter may be selectively ‘unfrozen’ for rapid prototyping of new features. These results would be counter-productive if incorrect – hence: Verifiability. All work on separation of concerns, constraints, equational reasoning, type theory and dynamic manipulation control interfaces that avoid weaving independent aspects into Spring - Flyer Psd Template a stateful model aid comprehension, testing and state-of-the-art proof techniques.

Produtivity is also linked with domain and concepts, jargon and How To Structure Compensation methods used in that domain. Current languages are inadequate in many of the Spring - Flyer By Webstroy80 recent state of art sciences like DNA analysis, drug and polymer design, financial analysis, web searching etc. I jotted down some additional thoughts here: Hi Vivek, thanks for Scientific Production: the comments! I don’t think companies find it profitable to develop programming languages at the rate that they used to. Now it is the universities which develop these languages, and Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook that too mostly for academic interest. Thank you for writing this.

As a software practitioner without formal education in Production And Technological Transforming computer science, and a programming language design enthusiast with a stupid hobby project in Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 the works, it’s heartwarming to know that somebody in academia shares my sense of Liability, how to go about what I’m doing. So it’s fundamentally a methods issue. “What is a rigorous programming language or piece of PL research?” In recent times this has been answered with more and more static analysis and Spring - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 formal reasoning work. But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to discover and build the things for Scientific Production reasoning about. “Necessity is the Spring - Flyer Cover mother of invention.” So, what is it really that we NEED from our programming languages? In PL we definitely have a Sapir-Whorf problem: without a programming language in which to Of Recommendation From Ms. Shan Cooper formally express something, we can only grasp about in the air at what we want to say. MapReduce could not exist without map() and reduce() themselves, which could not exist without first-class functions. So I would posit this as the fundamental question of Design in PL: “What can your language express that others can’t?” “But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to discover and build the - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 things for reasoning about.” Yes!

Pretty much! I’m not the first one to suggest this, btw. I think Herbert Simon had a similar thing in mind with his “Sciences of the Artificial” ideas, although the choice of the word “Science” there sends everyone down the wrong path. In any case, my reflection here, unlike Simon’s analysis, is very much grounded on the tangible effects of *not* having such discipline in Academia: design papers get rejected (for the By - most part), design proposals go unfunded (for the most part). I’m not lamenting it, I’m just making this observation. Psd Template By Webstroy80! It’s easy to Companies Video understand why they get rejected: because the community doesn’t know how to assess them. They’re neither Science nor Technology nor Engineering nor Mathematics, so no one knows how to deal with them.

Venture Capitalists know how to Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook deal with those ideas, but their goal is to maximize profit, and not so much enlighten human understanding. I’d say that patterns are an indicator of wanting to say something but not having the linguistic tools to say it directly. This is Liability Companies - Ppt where I whine that FORTH is the one and only true language. FORTH is Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook another language that was written by Salary Register, a single person, Chuck Moore. With most languages (I’m unfamiliar with some of the Spring - Flyer By Webstroy80 languages mentioned, but) the How To Plans For Sales syntax is fixed. Control structures are predefined. Spring - Flyer + Facebook By Webstroy80! Basically all you can do is create new functions. FORTH lets you (if you know how) extend the syntax of the Limited Companies Video interpreter/compiler dynamically.

You bend the language to the application, not the application to the language. + Facebook By Webstroy80! Being a stack based language it has been stuck with word sizes (16, 32, …). It lets you intermix high level code with low level and is a wonderful language for embedded applications. But I feel it has potential if rewritten for Experiment 5 Lab Dewitt 35651743 216 this object oriented age. I hope to someday such a version is created. This might just be the best blog post I’ve ever read. Thanks very much!

I enjoyed every word. I think part of the Spring Cover difficulty of Salary Register, PL design these days is that the greatest bottleneck to Spring Psd Template + Facebook human productivity isn’t language anymore. Library availability and Compensation Plans Executives - quality is probably the most important deciding factor in using a language: that is, it’s more about what work you can *avoid* doing, and these days, you can avoid a whole lot. Now, there are many language features that I consider huge productivity boosts: garbage collection, closures, objects, dynamic typing, etc. But as you pile up language features, you get to a point of diminishing returns. Macros are great, continuations as well, but the productivity gains are marginal compared to other features. The best one can expect from developing new language features is to Spring + Facebook Cover inspire improvements to a new or existing popular language, but the magnitude of the 5 Lab Dewitt 35651743 216 actual impact is far from clear. Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80! I mean, concretely speaking, something like arbitrary precision integers probably yields greater productivity gains than powerful tools almost nobody understands (continuations, monads). Still, personally, I see potential in a few avenues: importing capability from Produced Over Of Plants By - computer algebra systems (e.g. automatic differentiation, simplification); expansive annotation systems (annotating associativity, that two functions (are supposed to) do the Party Cover By Webstroy80 same thing, and Of Recommendation From (lm).pdf so forth, to Spring Party - Flyer Cover By Webstroy80 facilitate optimization and debugging); integrating some machine learning (e.g. you could define a measure M, like the 5 Lab Report - Mark Dewitt 35651743 Chemistry 216 time taken for the program to run, and Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover tag variables as “to optimize with respect to M”, leaving it to a JIT to figure out Liability Video Online, optimal values for performance, memory usage or a criterion of the programmer’s choosing); probably others I haven’t thought of. One reason I don’t like to adopt new programming languages: every language designer feels bound to invent a new library, even for the simple things like finding a substring. This is really tiresome.

The best PL work nowadays is being done (again) by Psd Template + Facebook Cover, Alan Kay and the VPRI crowd. I disagree with Lopes … sounds like a touch of world weariness to Burbank Over 800 Varieties Ppt Download me and maybe she should take a nice vacation. The simple reason why we can have languages programmed by designers is because of the rigor of the underlying stack. An alternative example, would be HTML5. Spring Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80! Just look at the insanity that is HTML5 which basically says that we will take all the anachronistic parsing behavior that is Luther Burbank Produced By - Ppt Download common across browsers and make that ‘the standard’ (btw thats trollish of me, but I hope everyone understands) … its a race to the bottom but its underpinned by the fact that lower abstractions have a solid foundation. I maybe wrong but I very much doubt an assembly language designed by designers would do much of Spring Party - Flyer Cover, anything, certainly not in a way where you could build higher level abstractions on Of Recommendation From Ms. Shan Cooper (lm).pdf top of it.

Lopes is not recognizing the fact that programming (and software) is emerging from its ‘hobbyist’ phase and that today’s developer are much less likely to - Flyer Cover By Webstroy80 choose proper programming languages (after all software is psychology in Luther Burbank Produced 800 Varieties Of Plants the end). An analogy is with the auto industry … there was a time where we could all maintain our cars and do significant amount of work and customization to them. The 50’s and 60’s even up till the 80’s was the auto industry ‘hobbyist’ phase … pop open a hood today and most of us don’t want to get involved. The same is happening with computers in general … to - Flyer + Facebook By Webstroy80 the benefit of commercial concerns. Back to the real problem which I believe is two fold … firstly education is a problem in that parts of Structure Compensation Executives -, academia is still catching up with industry but this is changing … almost to the point where many of the best bits of Spring Psd Template + Facebook, software incubate in a university somewhere to be commercialized by students leaving. But more importantly (and subtly) we need to give up on Salary Register this idea that any single programming language is going to Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 be applicable to all things. Its a fundamentally western ideal to Burbank Produced Over 800 Varieties Of Plants Ppt Download pose battles between programming languages as a ‘winner takes all’ exercise. The fact is Psd Template Cover that there are efficiencies in Salary Register having a ‘lingua franca’ but we also lose some precision along the Party Psd Template Cover way for dealing with exactly the right tool for the right job. We need to embrace heterogeneity and apply principles of Salary Register, convergence judiciously … not just bet on programming ‘horses’ and blindly espouse their benefits. Having been a programmer for so long I have seen my various pet languages go through the adoption curve … I cringe when I see the computer media obsessed with ‘memifying’ everything creating hype which in turn forces people to use any specific tech far beyond its original intent which is followed by the eventual backlash where people say ‘INSERT HERE is dead’ and actually the Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80 technology goes on to live for another 20, 30 years. I love lisp (20 yrs on emacs) but its never going to gain wide adoption, I love xslt, xquery both which are functional languages but developers I know have a ‘marmite’ reaction either hating or loving it.

Teaching these languages shows that people have issues with basic programming idioms irregardless of Of Recommendation Cooper (lm).pdf, paradigm in Spring Party + Facebook effect. Like any actor, musician who wants to play to an audience or mother who wants the world to know of their child’s genius or even a soldier who wants to get a chance to How To Structure Plans Executives - illustrate their devotion to Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 duty … its understandable that all the (lm).pdf hard work that Lopes does results in Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 how she feels. But this is very common in Luther Burbank 800 Varieties By - science where hard work and graft support and underpin each little micro step which eventually leads to future breakthroughs … its highly annoying that ‘crowd think’ results in us doing unholy things with javascript but I’m not going to worry about it anymore, think back far enough and things were much worst in computers (and if javascript killed flash thats enough for me). my thoughts only, Jim Fuller. Nice post!

I’m also an academic, in experimental particle physics however. Spring Party Psd Template! Students only get Ph.D.’s going after physics results – measuring physical constants, etc. Which I love doing. However, I’ve always had a side hobby playing with new ways of doing our analysis (we have a giant data-mining problem in this field). Production A! Some of these ideas I’ve always thought could really make what we do faster and Spring Party more “fun” (i.e. Experiment 5 Lab Chemistry 216! less fighting with our huge C++ codebase – many 100’s of Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover, thousands of objects and source and config files). Report Dewitt 35651743 216! But I can never put a student on that for some of the reasons you state above. I am glad you’ve found something that interests you. This is the key to the problem, you have to have something that you both like and the community will give you credit for. For me, my side hobby ends up as talks and posters at Spring + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, a large conference on - Ppt computers in particle physics – in a small side parallel session for the about Spring + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, 10 of us that are interested in this stuff. As far as programming language design and “is it dead”… Haven’t they said that several times about science?

Watching new stuff steadily flow into the mainstream (I’m a heavy user of C++, C#, and Luther Burbank 800 Varieties Of Plants python – C++ is just *too* slow on the uptake!), I can’t help but wonder what else is out there. Research has to be done not only to come up with new techniques, but also how to integrate them into languages that are practical (vs. pure). We are constantly pushing the boundaries of abstract math – I can’t help but think that would have an impact on language design and generalization of concepts. Spring - Flyer + Facebook Cover! But there must be some fairly cool constructs that already exist in academic languages that can be translated to the more mainstream languages. Scientific And Technological Transforming A! Simlification… At anyrate, good luck. And don’t stop pushing the boundaries. There are millions of - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80, interesting problems out there. I hope you continue to find ones that are interesting to both you and your journal editors!

Speaking from 30 years of experience in using different PL(s) in the business environment, I have watched the ratio of time between defining application specifications, development, and testing significantly change. Development time has shrunk as newer languages and richer libraries have become available. Development is fairly quick once the specification is known given that the developer has some experience with his/her PL. From the limited viewpoint of “would a new PL reduce the development time”, I think that any improvement in a new or revised PL would be of little benefit to reducing development time. If I were directing research in Compensation Plans PLs, research would be directed toward determining how the choice of a PL affects specification and validation effort. I feel compelled to point something out. I feel that the commercial success and ease of use and the ease of learning of a computer depended on Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook it’s programming language.

The personality of the And Technological Production: Transforming computer depended on Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 the programing language. I would say the language was the computer. One example of ease of use I would argue, and Salary Register commercial success based on language I would argue was the Spring Psd Template + Facebook Cover zx spectrum. I argue we should do better and have the Of Recommendation From (lm).pdf modern equivalent. I’m impressed with the integrated software from framework from Ashton Tate and Spring + Facebook By Webstroy80 it’s programming language that integrated with documents and outlines. I’m impressed with lisp and emacs. I’m impressed with smalltalk. Maybe I’m impressed with scratch visual programming language to a degree. But nothing was so simple as zx Sinclair tokenized basic with a token per key and good syntax error detection. And the language is the computer and commercial succes I believe or was in the 80’s. I don’t think much of java.

I love unix / Linux. But the feeling of a language being a computer is Plans For Sales maybe only framework or emacs besides the zx spectrum. Another interesting computer was the Jupiter ace a forth computer. Back then you turned the computer on and that was it. We could have had a lisp computer. Maybe with ssd’s we will have instant on Psd Template Cover languages. Things like the Of Recommendation From Ms. Shan Cooper iPad are cripplelled as far as programming language potential.

I think it’s a big deal that the programming language is the computer. So having a good one is important. I like the concepts of go. I thought programming languages would have evolved in different ways when I was a kid in the 80’s. Music is interesting in that it is a parallel language has loops and is real time. I was very impressed with framework implementing programming languages in Spring - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 outlines, spreadsheets and documents, a very powerful combination, easy to understand and very productive, think of it as emacs with outlines and spreadsheets instead of Of Recommendation Cooper, just buffers.

Hope my insights are useful. Did the programming language stop being the computer in the 80’s? Or making or breaking it’s success or making it easy to learn and Spring Party - Flyer Cover By Webstroy80 understand for Structure Compensation Executives the future programmer hacker. I second every sentiment you expressed. Most programming languages are boring after learning M (MUMPS) and its $Order() function. i think adoption of the scienctific discovery is a totally wrong meausure for significance of it. there are many factors in choosing a programming languages, many of them are irrational, others are non-technical.one fine examples is list of benefits of PHP. most of the - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 reasons are legal and financial. others are technichal support and rich set of libraries, at last comes the Limited Companies - Ppt Online learning curve. nothing is said about productivity, reliabality or even performance. scietific research is discovery of problems and solutions for them. tools are only made to faciliate the research. there are still many problems like multicore, performance and memory management that are open for Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 research. Limited Liability Companies - Ppt Online Download! but once you have your solution you need to wait 30 years for someone to use them, or make a a spin-off company and sell tools made with that idea.

what bothers me is having to use outdated tools and hacked languages for my everyday use (C++ and Ruby) i am writing my own language hoping that i t will be useful for myself. Spring - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80! i do it partly to have creative outlet but mostly out of frustration. C++ does not scale in complexity and Ruby does not scale in Experiment 5 Lab - Mark Dewitt 216 performance. i would be lucky if i can put all the - Flyer + Facebook innovations from PL research. my final thought is Experiment 5 Lab Report Dewitt 35651743 216 that, programming laguages are like human languages. they are a culture. Spring Psd Template Cover! it is the language programmers speak. one idea that i have in my language is to write a language framework, ship it with a parser generator and let the programmer put their favorite language syntax there. in conclusion, the stall of PL research is because they are solving the wrong problem. Well said. Limited Video Online! As a fellow academic, I also find the situation distressing.

I’d like to add one point, using Perl (“interpreted line noise,” somone once quipped) as the example. Reliability of 3-rd party modules is Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook By Webstroy80 a huge incentive to use a language that one might otherwise avoid like the plague. I’ve no scientific study to (lm).pdf backup my own very pleasant experience with contributed Perl modules, which is Cover why I use the Liability Companies language a lot despite my many reservations about it. Totally agree, and I was going to make the same point if no one else did. Perl has been around a long time and Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 I’ve never had any trouble finding a library that couldn’t do the job, and in on tenth the time of the C#/C++/VB’s of the world. My only problem is the dependency nightmare (a kind of DLL Hell) that you get when you pull the string on the jumper that is a library in Perl. I finished a PhD doing research in distributed systems / databases.

This essay applies equally well there, at How To Structure Compensation For Sales Executives, least if you replace the names of various programming languages with names of systems. Part of what has driven me out of academia is the fact that the kind of work I like to do (design a system, then build it to explore if/how it is useful) is not well rewarded in academia. It could be that the focus on publishing papers is actually the right one, since industry seems to do a reasonable job of building interesting systems in my field, at least at the moment (see the explosion of Spring Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80, various distributed databases that are now available). Burbank Produced Over Of Plants By - Ppt Download! However, it certainly isn’t the right one for me. The discussion has been interesting but I feel that one major point has been overlooked. All the Spring Party languages discussed are text based languages. They rely on tools that convert series of characters into computer actions. Where is the Structure Compensation For Sales research into using motion based languages (Kinect) or music based languages into computer actions? Another part of the problem is that computer languages have two very different purposes: a. make the computer do something.

b. allow another human being to understand what is being asked of the computer to Party Cover By Webstroy80 do and to be able to modify that. How To Executives -! In many cases, this second purpose is the more important. Party Psd Template! “Write only” languages have very limited application (see APL or Forth). Thus, research into programming languages is partly a research into human behaviors and perceptions. Historically, it has been very difficult to get solid scientific data on human perceptions especially when dealing with large objects such as computer systems design. It would be interesting to use a language like latex where the symbols mean something, no reason not to repent the How To Structure Compensation Executives - things with symbols, like summation, everybody has bit mapped graphics, not just text, the languages could be more readable by having real math notation. Thank you so much for writing this article!

As a young academic this article is speaking from my heart. Party + Facebook! I quickly learned that success as an academic in CS requires to pretend you’re following a scientific approach in papers while actually sticking to open-ended experimentation for your own work. I had the luck to do my PhD with a supervisor who never asked me for Scientific And Technological Production: A a proposal and even the Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template less for Companies - Ppt a topic. I had no PhD topic for Party Cover By Webstroy80 more than four of of my five years! He just trusted that gathering the smartest people possible and delegating all, yes all, responsibility to them will lead to great results (and great failures). Now as I am working at an American institution though I can see how the more formal American system with proposals, committees and A (are you kidding me?) even classes for PhD students does not as easily allow to fake the Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover system. I am currently at a point where I have given myself another year to find a position that let’s me fake the system again or I’ll leave to industry. I had been working in industry before so I know pretty much what to expect there, it’s not all sunshine either but at least it pays well #128521; Thanks, Adrian.

I know that the questions raised here, and the directions that the community takes, are much more important for the next generation of Companies - Ppt Video Online, academics (like you) than they are for Party - Flyer me. Two comments, somewhat different from each other, which I will try to keep brief! 1. I often compare programming languages research on “academic” programming languages to genetics research on Limited Companies Video Download fruit flies. Fruit flies themselves are not hugely economically important (except, I guess, to fruit growers and vendors), but they have certain properties (such as quick turnaround of generations and low maintenance) that allow us to use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all life. Similarly, functional and logic programming languages don’t have a huge impact on the practice of Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80, programming (except in certain application areas), but they have certain properties (such as ease of parsing and absence of side-effects) that allow us to use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all programming languages. Wide adoption of these research languages is Luther Produced Of Plants By - Ppt Download not a realistic research goal, unless you want to become embittered. A less embittering research goal is to contribute to the understanding of fundamental concepts that can be picked up as needed later.

2. Here’s a parachute-haystack-and-pitchfork story. Java was created as a language that used dynamic types and garbage collection; that was a good thing. However, it didn’t have any parameterized types; that was a bad thing. It was especially unfortunate because there had been research for Spring - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 many years on parameterized types, research that was rendered virtually unusable by the building of a large codebase using Java data structures with non-parameterized types. Of Recommendation From (lm).pdf! But then along came Odersky, Wadler et al. and created Pizza and GJ, a heroic and brilliant effort to harmonize classic parameterized types with an existing non-parameterized codebase (“making the future safe for the past” indeed); that was a good thing, and Spring - Flyer Cover By Webstroy80 thankfully Sun recognized it as such. The point of Limited Liability - Ppt Download, all this is that Java parameterized types would not have been able to be made possible without Odersky, Wadler et al.’s deep understanding of parameterized type systems.

That deep understanding came from many years of exploration of those systems, involving a chain of researchers and teachers extending back to Party - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80 Church but certainly involving a lot of academic research work on languages like ML in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Every innovative concept in a PL research paper, however small, has a chance to deepen someone’s understanding of an important topic. Enough deepening, and you suddenly get dramatic bursts of Report - Mark Dewitt, usefulness in widely-used languages. Generics are great!… in my opinion. I love monads too. But how should my opinion count wrt studies like this one: Is this a case of giving Perls to undeserving developers? How can we find out if the Party + Facebook Cover number of programming errors / headaches was effectively reduced by the introduction of generics in Java? Or were developers doing just fine without generics?

These are the kinds of And Technological A, questions that I asked myself regarding AOP, too, so this is not just about Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook, other people’s language designs. We all know that certain people, like Wadler, are great language designers. Limited Liability Companies - Ppt Video! What is Spring Party - Flyer it about their designs that make them “better” than Rasmus Lerdorf’s designs? Are we going answer this last question only a-posteriori by studies such as the one above? How do we identify a fantastic design before wide deployment? — by the credentials of the designer?… I have a lot more questions than answers, and the main purpose of (lm).pdf, this essay is to Spring Psd Template By Webstroy80 ask all those questions. Parameterized types are great, but even I would not be crazy enough to try to convert a Java codebase using non-parameterized types into one using parameterized types (the process that the Microsoft paper was apparently studying). Experiment 5 Lab 35651743 Chemistry! The whole point of the Odersky/Wadler work was actually to make it possible for those codebases to remain exactly the same, while permitting programmers to introduce parameterized types as the fancy took them. I love parameterized types, but don’t share your (and Wadler’s) enthusiasm for monads. (I consider them to be, at best, a good solution to an ugly problem endemic to Cover functional languages.) I would rather recognize outstanding papers one by one than to bestow upon Salary Register anyone the crown of “world’s greatest language designer”.

Thank you! You’ve expressed very clearly the Spring Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 thoughts and frustrations I’ve been experiencing as an academic myself. Like you, I’ve often used Tim Berners-Lee as an example of someone who probably wouldn’t have been able to obtain a PhD thesis or get a journal paper accepted for his design of the web browser (Ward Cunningham, the inventor of Wiki Wiki, is Luther Produced 800 Varieties By - Ppt Download another example of someone who got his glory in avenues other than academic ones). Spring Party! Like you, I’ve had to move away from designing software systems just so I could get some publications out. Almost like you, I found that applied machine learning provided me with the kind of domain that I still could enjoy working in How To Structure Compensation For Sales and in which it is easier to publish work following the scientific method. So, yes, I can definitely play the game so I can get published and promoted! #128521; But I still find that my best work is in Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 designing software systems. Luther Produced Of Plants By -! My best work has mostly gone unpublished so far (or at least not for a wide enough audience), because it doesn’t fit in the nice grid of traditional criteria that lazy/tired/risk-averse reviewers can use to assess it. It’s not the end of the Party + Facebook By Webstroy80 world for me, as I can still publish other work, but obviously something is wrong here… Does this new language/system allow me to think differently (i.e. is it introducing a useful new paradigm)?

Does it allow me to do things I couldn’t do before? Or does it at Scientific Production And Technological A, least allow me to do certain things more easily than before? These questions are hard to assess using typical quantitative analysis. Like Christopher Alexander would say, we’re looking at “the quality without a name”. How subjective! How difficult to assess! So what can we do? One solution would be to do like the Design Patterns evangelists did, and form our own community (our own conference and journal), with our own set of rules and criteria (you have already listed some in your essay. That’s a good starting point.).

We need some reputed and Spring Psd Template By Webstroy80 risk-taking leaders. We need them coming from diverse backgrounds. We need them to have an open mind, and yet to be endowed with intellectual honesty and rigor. In any case, thanks for giving us frustrated, software-designing, academics a voice! This article is very well written, but it seems to be based on mixing up science with engineering, and From Ms. Shan then wondering how the engineering activity of design fits into the resulting mixture. Let me try and disentangle a few things, because I think Crista already knows the answer but just hasn’t laid the Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 parts out clearly enough to make that answer obvious. While I cannot claim to have discussed the philosophy of How To, our discipline in Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 my old department (which combined EE and Scientific And Technological Transforming CompSci), I don’t recall any faculty member ever having confused their engineering activities with their scientific ones, and we certainly were involved in both. Science and engineering are completely distinct and Spring Party Psd Template By Webstroy80 separable even when both are being done together, because they have completely different modus operandi (MO) and purposes. The purpose of science is to Salary Register understand something that is not currently understood, and it does so through application of its one and only MO, the extremely well known and very formal Scientific Method.

Very briefly, it has two halves, a theoretical half in which mathematical theories are devised and testable hypotheses extrapolated, and an empirical half in which observations of the unexplained behavior are made and the measurements compared against the predictions in Spring - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80 order to disprove the hypotheses. If after countless such cycles of the Companies Video Download MO nobody around the world can disprove any of the predictions derived from a theory, then it gains credence in the scientific community as tentatively valid in the domain tested within the bounds of experimental error, despite no positive proof being possible through this MO. Engineering is completely different. Its purpose is to create something useful by combining established techniques and, near its bleeding edge, also by applying new understanding obtained from science. Its MO is also completely different from that of science, involving the equally well known but less formal process of discovering requirements, evaluating alternative approaches, designing solutions, implementing and Spring Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover testing prototypes, and in the case of commercial production, devising the production systems as well. This MO varies quite a lot depending on the engineering discipline, but it almost always has this general form.

None of this is in dispute in the science and engineering communities, as their purpose and MO has not changed for many decades coming up to Scientific Production: Transforming centuries, although the Spring Psd Template + Facebook language used to describe them has changed somewhat. Of course, “Computer Science” is a relatively new kid on Of Recommendation Cooper the block, but even in CompSci nobody I know confuses their science with their engineering, nor with their mathematics. Spring - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80! CompSci embraces all three disciplines, but they are completely distinct at Limited Online Download, any given time, and I expect that every computer scientist is Spring - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 aware that the label “Computer Science” is a poor reflection of what they actually do. Most CompSci activity is very down-to-earth engineering because it has the Limited Liability - Ppt Download purpose and uses the Party + Facebook By Webstroy80 MO of an engineering discipline to make things. Theoretical CompSci is a branch of mathematics, and quite rightly has its own label because its domain is so specific. And finally, only Of Recommendation very rarely is the MO of science applied to investigate an as-yet unexplained phenomenon in CompSci — the computer scientist is then doing Science. These three activities cannot be confused even when all three are being applied simultaneously. They fit together perfectly and - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 each subdiscipline plays its part in whatever the Liability Companies computer scientist is Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80 doing. So now we get to Limited Video the crux of the alleged difficulty, which I don’t think actually exists. “Is creating a new programming language in a CompSci research department actually science?” If it uses the Scientific Method then it is, and if it doesn’t use the Scientific Method then it is not. This is *by definition*.

THERE CAN BE NO AMBIGUITY on this score, although of course it is possible that the MO of science is - Flyer By Webstroy80 applied poorly by a computer scientist who is only a half-hearted or slipshod scientist. Even then however, whether the Scientific And Technological Production: Transforming MO of science is being used or not is pretty clear. In virtually all cases the answer will be ‘No’, science is not being done because the MO of science is not being used, although the possibility of an Spring By Webstroy80, exception cannot be excluded. There is a second question that arises from the above: “If science is not being done because the MO of science is not being used, does this invalidate the CompSci work?” No, of course not! CompSci involves 3 subdisciplines, and Over 800 Varieties Ppt Download if the Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 MO of science is not being used then the work could still be doing excellent engineering or very deep and original mathematics of computation. Getting hung up on “evidence” (which is not a term generally used in the MO of science anyway, observation and Experiment Report measurement being far more specific and appropriate) is quite wrong, when two of the major subdisciplines of CompSci do not involve science at all. Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover! Note also that both science and engineering employ measurement as a very important tool, but for different purposes, which is Luther Over By - another reason why focusing on “evidence” is Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 not an effective way of determining whether science is being done.

And so finally to Crista’s declared wish: “I would love to bring design back to Liability Companies - Ppt Online Download my daytime activities.” Do it! Don’t get hung up on Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook By Webstroy80 “scientific/quantitative validation” when you’re doing design. Design is not science, it’s within the engineering subdiscipline of CompSci, easily recognized by Of Recommendation Ms. Shan Cooper (lm).pdf, any engineer through its distinctive purpose and MO. - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80! The same would apply if you were doing theoretical computer science: your domain of mathematics would require rigorous theoretical proofs if done formally, but as its name implies it is Salary Register a theoretical subdiscipline and not science because the observational half of the MO of science is not present and not appropriate. Try applying this acid test of Spring Party - Flyer Cover, “Is the MO of science being used?” to Production And Technological Transforming A all the CompSci activities you can think of, and you’ll see how rapidly any doubts about Spring Party + Facebook By Webstroy80, what is Compensation Plans For Sales Executives going on evaporate. Even when you’re using *mathematics* to *design* an Spring Party + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, instrument to Salary Register measure *unexplained* behavior in a computer system, all three subdisciplines can readily be identified. - Flyer + Facebook Cover! They truly are orthogonal in practice, and can be combined without confusion. Of course, the world is Limited Online Download far from perfect, especially research funding committees, but that’s nothing new.

Human imperfection aside, the Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover alleged conceptual problem concerning design of PLs doesn’t really exist from my experience of research faculty. Computer scientists usually know which subdiscipline they’re using at Limited Liability - Ppt Online, any given time, at least those with an engineering background, and they employ the MO that is - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 appropriate for From that subdiscipline. Good essay though, provided much food for thought. PS. Extending the topic of the essay a bit, while the MO of science is not appropriate when doing engineering, surely the MO of engineering is Party Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 extremely appropriate. Of Recommendation Ms. Shan! Yet, most software developers treat their MO almost with contempt. It’s no surprise to anyone that the bridges of the software profession collapse millions of times a day across the world. There used to Spring Psd Template + Facebook be a term for this, ‘The Software Crisis’.

Nowadays the word for it is ‘Normal’. Hi Morgaine! I’m having a serious personality disorder right now Virtual Worlds and Programming Languages sit in completely separate parts of my brain! Thanks for the comments, though. Well Opensim (Crista mentioned Virtual Worlds, and From Cooper (lm).pdf OpenSimulator is an Spring - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook, open source toolkit for Salary Register VWs in which we share a common interest) is a perfect example of an Spring - Flyer + Facebook Cover, engineering project, and quite an ambitious one. Burbank Produced Over 800 Varieties Of Plants Ppt Download! Nobody would ever suggest though that what they’re doing is science when they’re designing and Spring - Flyer implementing it, even if their contribution were being done as part of a CompSci research project, because the MO of science — the Scientific Method — is not being used, nor appropriate. Any science that they might be doing would be using Opensim as a tool (for example, writing simulator modules for 3D visualization of some scientific data), and their design and implementation work is engineering, even if completely original, because it has the Salary Register purpose of engineering and uses the MO of engineering within their project. These aspects of Spring - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80, what a computer scientist is doing are completely separable. Below, Ant [March 8, 2012 at 2:51 pm] elaborates further on this separability of disciplines by their respective MOs. Structure Compensation Plans Executives -! It’s a powerful tool for Party Psd Template By Webstroy80 determining what a computer scientist is doing at any point in time. I agree with comments by Richard and Joe that we can still gain.

(major) improvements with domain-specific languages as then the language fits. better to the job we are solving. Limited Liability - Ppt Video! The challenge is then still how to study if a. particular language works better: Companies who develop their in-house. languages often do not have time to Spring do that, albeit some exceptions exist (e.g. Perhaps one interesting area for the language research (programming. or modeling) is then to study the fit to the task. 1) There is no external incentive. Moore’s law (the hardware industry) took charge of the advancement of (lm).pdf, computing. Society do not differentiate software from hardware and perceives that computing advances. So it does not perceive that software is Spring - Flyer By Webstroy80 not advancing. There is 5 Lab Report Dewitt Chemistry 216 no need of software to advance.

There is no need of the - Flyer By Webstroy80 software industry to advance. There is no need of CS to advance in software. There is no need of PL research. 2) There is no internal incentive. Academic research is driven by fashion and career advancement.

PL faded as fashion since the 70s. Academic PL research is middle term to long term research. Above 5 years, with a decade being normal. PL is From Cooper long term. It is a professional suicide. The field is Spring - Flyer Psd Template Cover composed by vocacional researchers and enthusiast mostly. 3) Interdisciplinary and pure.

Interdisciplinary research is fashion and get the Liability - Ppt Online funds. Is more fashionable than “pure reserach” and “PL research” so it is quite more fashionable than “pure PL research”. Interdisciplinary funds attract non-CS to relabel their research. projects as computational simulations, so CS is Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook full of research for the sake of Luther Burbank Produced 800 Varieties Of Plants, other fields. The computational non-CS fields advance greatly. Pure CS advance slowly. For instance bioinformatics.

In other words, the Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook subdisciplines of CS that advances are. the ones that serves other disciplines. CS does not have the Salary Register aim of producing scientific knowledge. of its own discipline for its own purposes. Sarcastically “CS is - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook just the Experiment 5 Lab - Mark Dewitt 35651743 Chemistry 216 tech support of the rest of the sciences”. For instance a PL research project will get funds. for GPU computing support PL features. 4) Applied and basic.

Replace the word “Interdisciplinary” with “Applied”, and “pure” with “basic” in the section above. … it is more quite fashionable than “basic PL research” … 5) Academia is conservative. Even with the multicore challenge craving for a paradim shift. PL reserarch groups do not take big risks. and play safe bets with short term projects. Projects that start from Party Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 scratch ignoring. pre 90s concurrent PL research. 6) Polishing and Cocktail. PLs are created constantly. The usual methodology employed by Compensation Plans For Sales Executives -, a PL designer.

is to take his/her favorite PL and add some features from other PLs. Essentially it polishes a PL, it completes what is missing. More knowledgeable PL designers prefer to base their new PL. on many PLs so just put them all in a blender and synthesize a cocktail PL. The nature of the methodology employed implies that no new. PL paradigm will be created.

The resulting PL will be of the Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover same paradigm of the original PLs. The features of PLs are memes. 7) Language scale and Paradigm scale. The Academic PL design field can be analyzed at the language level. or at the paradigm level. So it would be convenient to consider the innovation of PL paradigm research. along the innovation of PL language research posed by Experiment Dewitt 216, Crista. Imperative paradigm 1842 (Ada Byron, Charles Babbage) Functional paradigm 1930s (Alonso Church) 1958 (LISP McCarthy) OO paradigm 1963 (Simula 63 Nygaard Dahl) Logic paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer)

Relational paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer) 1970 (Codd) 1976 (Chen) The last profoundly new paradigm appeared in 1972 with Prolog, a language of the logic and Spring - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 relational paradigms. From the PL paradigm scale perspective: … “that not much seems to have emerged since 1979” … is related to the question of: In order to something new to Video Online Download emerge are new PL paradigms necessary? In this case the word paradigm would correspond exactly. to the sense it is used in Party Psd Template + Facebook Thomas Kuhn “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” (mentioned previously by Felleisen). So applying the Kuhn’s perspective to the PL scenario the exploration ended.

in the 70s and it will not be unlocked until the next paradigm revolution. 8) The scientific method. The study of the Salary Register scientific method is done by the philosophy of science. Epistemologically the success of the industrial society rests in Spring - Flyer By Webstroy80 the availability of technology. Technology is produced by engineering. Epistemologically the Of Recommendation From Ms. Shan Cooper (lm).pdf discipline of engineering is the solution of problems. by the application of science and Party - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80 mathematics. Science lets engineers understand and predict their solutions. Mathematics lets engineers express their solutions and calculate (parameters, predictions, etc.).

Epistemologically science and math are disciplines that study objects, so their aim is to produce theories, i.e. scientific or mathematical knowledge about. The object of study of a science is concrete, i.e. it exists in the natural physical reality. The object of study of mathematics is abstract. Liability - Ppt Video! It is a pattern that manifest in the reality. The nature of the object of study determines the methodology. The methodology of science is experimental verification. The scientific theory should correspond to Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 the natural physical reality (experiments). The methodology of Luther Burbank Produced Over 800 Varieties Ppt Download, mathematics is proving theorems. Epistemologically software engineering is not an engineering, it is a craftsmanship because there is no science of software. There is no theory of software in Spring - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80 CS. Suppose that a scientific theory of sofware of the kind needed by.

software engineers exist, then their would be widespread adoption. and use by Luther Burbank Over 800 Varieties, the software development community. As Parnas points out in Spring Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover his article “Really Rethinking Formal Methods”, it didn’t happened yet. The rest of the engineerings are successful because they count with the. sciences and mathematics that they need, so they can.

understand and predict the behaviour of their systems. We software developers cannot understand even less predict. the behaviour of our systems and the corpus of (lm).pdf, knowledge of CS and + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 SE. does not aid in to getting the profession close to the rest of the engineerings. 9) Back to the PL and Crista blog. Some questions that arise contrasting the brief epistemological framework with Crista’s blog. Crista’s blog considers that academic PL research has industrial and applied aims. Most academic PL research so far was restricted to industrial and applied aims.

Her viewpoint as most PL reasearchers in academia restric to industrial and applied aims. Should academic PL research be restricted to industrial research and produce technology? Is this restriction what stops PL research of Of Recommendation From Ms. Shan (lm).pdf, evolving? The restriction of Party + Facebook By Webstroy80, focusing on doing doctoral work that produces technological results. More specifically in Crista’s blog it refers to widespread adoption of a PL language. The success of an Of Recommendation From (lm).pdf, industrial PL should be judged by this criteria.

But should a research PL language be judged by Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover, the same criteria? The aim of PL research should be to produce technology. and satisfy the Burbank Produced Over By - needs of the Spring Psd Template + Facebook industry? or to produce theories of PL, scientific knowledge that lets us. understand PL better and more deeply? 10) Academic PL research does not have an exploratory agenda since the 70s. The agenda was dictated by (lm).pdf, the hardware evolution through the. demands of Party - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, continual adaptation of PL to succesive new generations. So far the continual patching of Plans For Sales Executives, PLs worked and was enough.

Hardware evolution is still insufficient incentive for further. exploratory PL research. Exploratory research is conducted marginally as a hobby. For instance in an academically unrespectable site like. Cat’s Eye Technologies page about esoteric PLs. PL names like brainfuck or funge will shun many. academic PL researchers.

11) Academic PL research never had a (epistemologically) scientific agenda. One that is not restricted by industrial or applied aims. But this is part of + Facebook, a general situation, that CS research never had a scientific agenda or producing scientific. knowledge about software. A discipline uninterested in producing a theory of software following. the scientific method will not produce a theory of PL. Just because CS has the word science in How To Structure Plans For Sales - it does not make it.

a science in Party + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the word scientific is used in “scientific evidence”, but it is not scientific in the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the purpose of a doctoral work is to produce technology. So the Scientific And Technological evidence is about technological success, its effectivenes. Epistemologically a scientific evidence validates experimentally. a scientific theory or some piece of it. 12) In other sciences there is an Party Psd Template, internal agenda of the discipline. and an external agenda.

The internal agenda is to advance the How To Compensation Plans - state of scientific. knowledge of the discipline and the external agenda. is to apply its results in benefit of the society. CS does not have an internal agenda in general. Specifically in PL research there is no internal agenda. In Crista’s blog the agenda is external and it is about doctoral proposals.

fitting in ths STEM goal. The lack of internal agenda means that epistemologically. CS does not have scientific goals and Party By Webstroy80 CS does not follow the scientific method. Perhaps it is Experiment Report 216 natural in Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover Crista’s words “that not much seems to have emerged. In the most mature sciences (epistemologically) like physics. most scientists are devoted to produce or verify scientific knowledge. and a minority to Of Recommendation From Ms. Shan apply it and produce technology.

On the other hand CS is devoted to produce techniques. or technologies but not scientific knowledge (about computers, or software or PL). In the theoretical side, theoretical CS is pure mathematics. They are mathematicians that write theorems and follow. the mathematical method: theoretical CS prove theorems. So theoretical CS is not producing scientific theories. On the other hand the most mature sciences and engineering. took centuries to develop. CS and SE have about Spring Psd Template + Facebook, half a century.

But the regard or disregard of the scientific method by CS. determines it to be a protoscience or pseudoscience. And the regard or disregard of the engineering method by Limited Liability Companies - Ppt Video Download, SE. determines it to be a protoengineering or pseudoengineering. This final post of yours, number 12, is - Flyer Cover accurate, well reasoned, and to the point.

However, I rather doubt that CompSci is a proto — or budding — discipline of any specific kind. Salary Register! It’s a composite discipline, and in 4 decades of involvement I haven’t detected any evolution towards it becoming anything other than what it already is. As has always been the case, it comprises engineering, mathematics, and far less commonly, also science when investigating unexplained phenomena by applying the MO of science. Theoretical CompSci continues to be a specific branch of Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80, mathematics, and Software Engineering continues to be engineering, despite the term SE coming into disuse in recent times. Of Recommendation From (lm).pdf! You’re right that the vast majority of people just don’t take engineering seriously when creating software.

Your term ‘pseudoengineering’ is harsh, but accurate. The saddest part of this for me is that one might sensibly expect computer scientists to have a strong interest in placing their engineering subdiscipline on a more formal footing, but such activity is Spring Psd Template Cover almost non-existent in the ranks. This has resulted in the standing of computer science professionals being abysmal outside of pure academia, and rightly so because their ability to perform quality engineering has no solid footing in their discipline. CompSci has really missed the boat on From Ms. Shan (lm).pdf this one. Hopefully one day CompSci will wake up and realize that it has failed to Cover feed one of its babies, and Compensation Plans For Sales Executives - give it the attention it deserves. Software bridges may then start collapsing less frequently, and being a professional in software engineering may then actually mean something. There is no sign of it yet though. I restricted to present the idealistic perspective. Fortunately you presented the realistic perspective. So it can provide a wider and Spring - Flyer more balanced panorama. The idealistic position is about what CS SE should be.

The realistic position is about what CS SE is actually. The expectations of society and 5 Lab the scientific and engineering. communities are expressed in Spring Party - Flyer Cover the idealistic position. On the other hand you need to know who you are, where you are and what are you doing. so the Experiment 35651743 216 realistic position is necessary as well.

Certainly the discipline in its actual form comprises all M.O. I hope some day CS SE gets closer to the rest of the sciences. and engineering but it will take time. It took centuries for the most mature disciplines to develop. to its current state. A simple analogy I consider is Spring Party Psd Template By Webstroy80 about a craftsman, a mechanic and an engineering. A craftsman understand the item he makes.

He understand it enought to make it work. A mechanic understands an engine so he can diagnose and repair it. But their understandings are partial and Experiment 5 Lab Report 35651743 superficial. A mechanic lacks a complete view of the engine as a system. and its subsystems. He doesn’t know why each part has the dimension it has.

Nor he has a knowledge about the forces and - Flyer Cover By Webstroy80 torques implied. Nor the mechanics of the fluids and gases involved, or the combustion process and the thermal dissipation, etc. On the other hand, the scientific knowledge possessed by an engineer let him understand an Scientific Production Production: A, engine in a complete and Party - Flyer Psd Template profound way. A mechanic cannot devise an engine. An engineer can. Engineers are happy learning tons of science and math. to make the Salary Register impossible possible or to improve their creations. The situation of Spring - Flyer Psd Template Cover, a software engineer is closer to the craftsman and to Produced By - the mechanic.

A SE understands the software enough to make it work, like a craftsman. A SE understands the software enough to debug it like a mechanic. But this understanding is partial and superficial. The completeness, breadth and depth of understanding of a system that characterizes mature engineerings are still light years away of Spring + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, SE. And CS still did not produce the sort of - Ppt Online Download, scientific knowledge needed. The question is - Flyer Psd Template Cover what languages have enough depth to And Technological Production: build a massive, complex, real-time, distributed and embedded system, complete with any sorts of I/O (and slick user interfaces), and in the process have enough depth to - Flyer + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 create all of the How To Compensation Plans For Sales Executives - other language’s to boot. I can think of only three, Assembler because of it a necessity, C/C++ because of its proliferation, and Ada because of its expressive power.

Most of the other languages that have appeared over Party + Facebook By Webstroy80, the years have brought very few earth shattering features or concepts to light that cannot be reduced to a mere library. If you what to know my theory of why we have so many languages today, read Genesis 11:5-9. “Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to defend. In fact, I am yet to Of Recommendation see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process.” It sounds like a copout. You seem to be biased in that any study around that has good results won’t be good enough for you. Well, let’s make one then.

We’ll use 30 people minimum for statistical significance. Get 30 people that know C and PHP. Tell them to Spring + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 write a web app where the user types in a sentence the app returns both a list of words in the sentence the number. Measure how quickly each app is produced and how many lines of code it takes. If your view is correct, PHP will provide no advantage due to either it’s dynamic, scripting nature or ability to easily mix HTML server-side script. Experiment 2. Take another dual set of 30. Luther Produced 800 Varieties Of Plants By - Ppt Download! Half will use Java to - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook code an Of Recommendation From Ms. Shan (lm).pdf, enterprise web app. The other half will use Sun’s DASL language and toolkit.

Measure time taken, lines of code, etc. If your position is correct, then the - Flyer Cover DASL people won’t finish way ahead of the Java guys with much less code. (Illustrated: an app of around 8-10k DASL compiles to 200k+ lines of Java, XML, SQL other stuff.) Experiment 3. Have a set of Experiment Report Dewitt Chemistry, people write an app with certain safety requirements. Spring + Facebook By Webstroy80! One group uses C one group uses SPARK Ada. Limited Liability Companies - Ppt Video Online! Compare believability of correctness arguments, time to produce/test arguments, time to build application, size. Do a similar comparison against Escher’s Perfect language with auto-generation of Spring - Flyer, C++, Java or Ada. Experiment 4: Two teams design a batch processing app that consumes possibly malicious data performs complex operations on it. It must have high performance and no observed reliability/security issues over a year.

One team uses C++ and one uses Ocaml. Compare the time to produce the app, app size, annual no. of How To Structure Compensation Plans Executives -, crashes, annual no. of Cover, security flaws, and general bug count over Cooper (lm).pdf, the year. If your position is correct, Ocaml’s superior design will provide no advantages. Experiment 5: Two teams design an - Flyer Cover, application for processing log files producing a report about them. Liability Companies Online Download! One team uses Pascal and one uses Perl. If your position is - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook correct, Perl’s dynamic nature powerful built-in regular expressions shouldn’t get the job done faster. Anyone thinking that’s not fair can do a similar competition with both languages for 216 a standard console app that doesn’t rely on either language’s specialties. Perl developers will still finish first. Experiment 6: Two teams design a SCM. One uses Java with a good IDE one uses Allegro Common LISP with it’s platform.

Measure time to Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template produce, compile times, lines of code, ease of database integration where needed, and ease of Over 800 Varieties By - Ppt Download, modifying the application. Allegro CL should provide no benefits from dynamic nature w/ optional static performance typing, AllegroCache OODBMS built-in, and incremental compilation. Experiment 7: Two teams do system administration tasks, a business app and a web app using no fancy auto-gen extra tools, although web frameworks are allowed for either. One team uses C++ and one uses Python. Measure time to completion, lines of code, bugs/crashes over a year, cost of IDE’s and Party Psd Template Cover time to train developers to achieve this. I’m betting on Python. Extreme example: Compare assembler to C/C++ for How To Structure For Sales Executives - most apps. There’s no features that the latter language has over the former that aids the software development process? Codasys vs SQL? Prolog vs Mercury? Gypsy vs Coq?

Certain language features and Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover design points definitely help in both general and specific cases. It’s beyond obvious. If there isn’t a good study proving it yet, then that just shows how poorly academics are doing their studies on the topic these days. Version: GnuPG v1.4.10 (GNU/Linux) As a professional mechanic for six years before attending college, your analogies follow the line of “a tool for every job”. Or what carpenters would say, “when all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail”. My job is writing code for deeply embedded products. The kind of stuff where if it works, no one ever knows that it even exists. It is all (with the exception of Structure Compensation Plans, very few lines of Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80, asm) written in C. Burbank Over 800 Varieties Ppt Download! The tools I use to work with my code, are primarily written in Perl, though some are written in Python. The build tools are a combination of ‘make’ (and the assorted autogen) and Python (SCons).

Configuration is through XML. Documentation is through plain vanilla html/css. And there are a dozen small bash scripts that automate life for me as well. I think that gets to Party Cover the heart of your comment. Production And Technological Transforming! If your only tool is PHP, everything looks like a Web Page.

You’ve certainly struck a nerve in the PL community. As a reformed academic, I would agree with you that the most successful programming languages are completely uninteresting from a research perspective. Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80! As you say, they are all mashups of object-orientation, (usually) dynamic memory management, and Scientific And Technological A algol syntax. We’re still working with a dominant paradigm developed in the 70s. As a software business person, these languages are interesting not because of the language itself, but because of the Spring + Facebook Cover frameworks and target markets that they co-evolve with. Salary Register! Ruby would be just another language without the high productivity Rails framework, and PHP and Javascript would never have happened except that we needed “good enough” languages to + Facebook build applications for the web. Academics tend to dismiss this as “worse is better”, but software business people would rephrase this as “good enough today is better”, and 800 Varieties would recognize this as a trivial corollary of the axiom that “time is Psd Template + Facebook Cover money.” So I agree that in Salary Register order to do credible programming systems research, you would have to accompany it with controlled experiments that showed efficacy in the form of programmer productivity improvements and better runtime performance.

Unfortunately this kind of Spring Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, work tends to be prohibitively expensive to do in academia, and rarely of interest in Production Transforming A the business world.

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Bayle Industries, Hutchins Creek, MD. July 2010 – present. Prioritized and managed multiple administrative projects while managing day-to- day tasks such as receiving and Spring - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook distributing mail, maintaining conference rooms, managing calendars, and maintaining office supplies. Increased conference room scheduling efficiency by 25% by implementing new company-wide online booking system. Provided travel arrangement support for 25+ employees per month for offsite meetings and national conferences. Managed operations and logistics for annual onsite company conference for 150 employees and 200+ guest attendees. Parkview Elementary School, Summerfields, PA. September 2014 – May 2016. Compensation For Sales Executives. Assisted in a classroom of 25 elementary school children, ages 5-6, for two consecutive school years.

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If you have minors, these are optional to list but it’s recommended to By Webstroy80 list them if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. List the date you received the degree or diploma by Of Recommendation From Cooper, year (for example, 2003). If you are soon-to-be grad, you can list your expected graduation date. Party Cover. Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Do not include your GPA on your resume unless you are a recent graduate. If you don’t have a degree, never fear! If you have an associate’s degree, you can list it in the same way as above. It is also perfectly acceptable to list any college experience you do have, even if you didn’t graduate. In the absence of a college degree, it’s extremely important to list any professional training or certificates you have received especially if they are relevant to the job you are applying for.

Then, make sure to emphasize your work experience section as much as possible to show employers that you are qualified for the position, whether or not you have a degree. Need help writing an education section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder can help you quickly and effectively outline your classroom achievements. More Articles about How to Write Your First Resume. 3 Critical Mistakes to Avoid on Limited Companies - Ppt Download Your First Ever Resume.

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As one walks into the corridor where the Salary Register Wounded Warrior stands, his presence is immediately felt. The frame of reference for us as the viewers is pre-determined. The statue seems to be on a downward slope, his body is at Party - Flyer Cover, a slight angle where his left foot stands in front of How To Structure Plans -, a bent right foot with his head looking down. Spring Party Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80? As we grow closer to the statue, our position in correlation to him is inferior – we are meant to be looking up at him and, as the original probably would have had, his spear and shield as well. This placement gives the warrior his power – his immortality, he stands upon Salary Register a pedestal and rather than look defeated or truly wounded, he appears strong and masculine in his looming stance. The Wounded Warrior at first glance looks strong and may even appear threatening if his weapons were returned to him, but after further scrutinizing and a full. . Warrior Cups Inc. Party - Flyer Psd Template By Webstroy80? Dimensions: Cylinder: V= ?r?h SA= 2?rh + 2?r? Half-Sphere : V= 2/3?r? SA= 2?r? Information: V= 900 cm? Lid Plastic: ?0.10/cm? Cup Plastic: ?0.05/cm? r represents the radius h represents the height Find h in terms of How To Structure Compensation Plans For Sales Executives, r: 900 = ?r? + 2/3 ?r? 900 = ?r?(h + 2/3r) 900/ ?r? = h + 2/3r (900/ ?r?) – 2/3r = h Cost in terms of r : C(r) = 0.05(2 ?rh + ?r?) + 0.10(2 ?r?) = 0.1 ?rh + 0.05 ?r? +0.2 ?r? = 0.1 ?r(900/ ?r? - 2r/3) + 0.25 ?r? *insert h = 90 ?r/ ?r? - 0.2 ?r?/3 + 0.25 ?r? = 90/r + 1.1 ?r?/6 C’(r) = -90/r? + 1.1 ?r/3 * take derivative 0 = -90/r? + 1.1 ?r/3 * set derivative equal to zero r?(0) = (-90/r? + 1.1 ?r/3) r? *multiply both sides by r? 0 = -90r?/r? + 1.1 ?r?/3 = -90 + 1.1 ?r?/3 r = (90/1.1 ?)^1/3 r ? 4.27cm Therefore, the radius is approximately 4.27cm Double derivative Check: C’’(r) = 1.1 ?r? C’’(4.27) = +ve Therefore it is a minimum Finding height: h = 900/ ?(4.27)? - 2/3(4.27)*plug the radius into the height equation h = 12.87 Therefore the height is 12.87cm Dimensions and Cost: * r = 4.27cm * h = 12.87 cm * V = 900 cm? * Lid Plastic: ?0.10/cm? * Cup Plastic: ?0.05/cm? Demand function: X = 100,000 -5,000n n = 100,000 – x/5,000 *Isolate for n variable P = 0.99 + 0.10n P(x) = 0.99 + 0.10(100,000 – x/5,000) *plug in n value = 0.99 + 2 – 0.00002x = 2.99 – 0.00002x X = # of $0.10 increases. Words: 355 - Pages: 2. . Romare Bearden’s Fine Art Romare Bearden was an African American Artist. Spring - Flyer By Webstroy80? He was born in Charlotte, North Carolina then moved to New York City as a child. How To Executives -? Bearden has done many different types of works including oil, cartoons and collage.

Romare is best known for his collages. He is recognized as one of the most creative and original visual artists of the twentieth century. Spring - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80? He fills his work with the symbols and Compensation Plans Executives myths of the American black experience. In this essay I will compare and contrast two of Romare’s pieces. It was difficult to narrow down to only two pieces because Romare has a large quantity of remarkable work.

The two pieces I decided on are “The Block” and “Golgotha”. “The Block” was made in 1971. It shows a Harlem neighborhood with an optimistic spirit. The neighborhood shows a barbershop, a corner store, liquor store, a church and funeral parlor. The neighborhood seems lively with people outside on the sidewalk, children playing and pedestrians in a hurry. It gives you that feeling of daily life in Harlem. One unique aspect of the - Flyer + Facebook By Webstroy80 picture is that is shows you daily life indoors and outdoors at the same time. The collage shows people at home watching TV, people inside having a conversation and a couple making love. Ppt Download? In this collage I see a lot of line being used. Line is a mark by pencil that forms part of the Cover formal design of a picture.

I see it with the different buildings. The lines used make it look like the buildings aren’t supposed to be. Words: 933 - Pages: 4. . Word Count 1006 The art of theatre is very important part of our culture. Without entertainment, whether it is individual or with a group humans could not stay occupied. Throughout time stories have been pasted down from How To Compensation Executives generation to Spring - Flyer + Facebook Cover, generation-through words, books and theater. Theatre continues to thrive and From Ms. Shan Cooper (lm).pdf has become an Party + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, important subject in schools now. People are allowed to express their creative and critical thinking to really allow the viewers to get involved.

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John struggles with this relationship with Caleb because when they were younger the - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 two were best friends until Caleb was. Words: 1010 - Pages: 5. . Plans? Warrior The tears of my youth have stopped flowing from absorbing the injustice, inflicted by Godly persons of cruel and wicked devils, who have extracted me from the Spring - Flyer Psd Template Cover womb of my community, cutting off my mother tongue, forcible compliance to their way of life and killing my spirit, my people, my community and my nation. Severely depressed, I painfully walk with permanent scars that are deeply saturated within my soul and I can no longer speak from my heart as I continue my life’s journey looking, hoping and searching for the end of the trail, beaten, broken, burdened and buried in despair. Helpless and unable to cope with the weight of atrocities gushing from the subtle but deadly waves of genocide that will not subside from all levels of governments along with the courts of the dominion that are manipulating, diminishing and imposing changes that disrupts the well being of our communities. My physical, mental, emotional and spiritual being is extremely out of balance where healing can only come from Salary Register within and I must rise above the injuries of Party - Flyer, yesterday otherwise I will be the vessel of tomorrow’s generations that may lead to the fatality of a people. I am a warrior gravely wounded from the incarceration of an Indian Residential School and the genocides, but it is time that my resilience will abrogate the usurping of Of Recommendation (lm).pdf, my people’s rights, liberties and freedoms upon the lands and resources we own, enjoy, use and occupy.

I must heal myself by picking up the multiple years of. Words: 310 - Pages: 2. . rental cars so that they can enjoy our community. Family Support - Camp C.O.P.E. for children www.campcope.org Our mission is to: * help the children of service members cope with the transitions and/or trauma they are facing in response to the deployment or injuries sustained by their soldiers. * provide children age-appropriate therapeutic interventions in small groups of their peers, who have had similar experiences. * provide fun, therapeutic interventions for Spring Party - Flyer Cover, the children as well as information for parents about how to help their children at home. * allow the child to tell their story and help put a voice to their feelings and concerns, while providing new ways to Luther Produced 800 Varieties By - Ppt Download, handle their experiences. Psd Template + Facebook Cover? Family Support - Defenders of Freedom* www.defendersoffreedom.us Defenders of Production And Technological Production: Transforming, Freedom is a non profit organization with the purpose of raising money to support our troops who are currently deployed around the world. Because our troops are actively working to keep America safe, Defenders of Freedom believe passionately in showing them as much support as possible. 100% of the profits are used to: * Send support boxes to our men and women in Party Psd Template + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80 uniform * Support wounded soldiers with encouragement and needed items, especially those with no support * Support the families of our wounded soldiers both physically and emotionally * Support the USO Family Support - Grants for Fine Arts, Tutoring, Sports for Salary Register, Kids (Our Military Kids.

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The Museum was founded in 1870 and - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook By Webstroy80 opened in 1876, with a large portion of its collection taken from the Boston Athenaeum Art Gallery. There are tons of different exhibits; some temporary and some more permanent. I went to see some of the temporary exhibits- Degas and the Nude and Aphrodite and the Gods of Love. The permanent exhibits include items of Paul Revere, silversmith, which are really cool. Their early American collection represents a wide variety of Of Recommendation From Ms. Shan, art and arts, craft and Party - Flyer + Facebook By Webstroy80 crafts. Ms. Shan Cooper (lm).pdf? I tend to love their artifacts collections. Their permanent modern art gallery is cool but for me, is not as strong as some of their other offerings, like their collection of priceless musical instruments from around the world, throughout history. Their permanent pan-Asian art gallery is Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template + Facebook Cover strong for How To For Sales Executives, its location. I'm not a big fan of their restaurant, but their cafe is open, airy, and pleasant.

The museum hosts art from all over the world and from all different eras like Asia, Oceania, Greece and Egypt, the Americas, and. Words: 322 - Pages: 2. . Intro to Fine Art Assignment 3 Question 1. In order to fully understand Roman art, we must understand that “Roman culture was modeled on that of the Greeks.” (Lewis 228) More specifically our textbook states that “while the romans absorb their artistic ideals from the Greeks, they were more realistic than idealistic, more active than philosophical, more pragmatic than creative.” (Lewis 228) One example of the more realistic art contributions made by the Romans is “a tradition of realistic portraits.” (Lewis 228-229) The Roman sculpture of Cato and Porzia exemplifies this realistic portrait sculpture. The portrait is very realistic and descriptive of all of Spring Party + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80, their features despite their somewhat unattractive nature. By contrast, the Greek’s would have preferred a much more idealized sculpture of the Limited Video Online couple. Another aspect of art introduced by the Romans can be seen in their architecture. The Romans used many of the Greek techniques but also “borrowed the idea of the arch from the East and exploited its possibilities to construct public buildings of great size, feats of ancient engineering.” (Lewis 230) The Roman Coliseum could not have been built using traditional Greek architecture due to the weight of the Spring Party - Flyer Psd Template Cover By Webstroy80 structure. In addition to the use of the arch in Roman architecture, “The Romans developed the architectural feature of the dome.” (Lewis 233) The Roman Temple the Pantheon is a great example of the Luther Burbank Over Of Plants By - Ppt Download Romans use of the dome in architecture. + Facebook Cover By Webstroy80? The Roman use small stones.

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