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The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. Regional Studies . This paper uses a technopolitical approach to analyse China’s South–North Water Transfer Project. The project promises to channel 25 billion cubic metres of water a year from the Yangtze River northward, connecting four river basins, three megacities, six provinces and hundreds of millions of water users. The paper argues that the project embodies a particular, engineering-heavy approach to water management; that, even so, it poses fundamental challenges to existing regional structures of governance; and that it promises continuing detrimental environmental impacts in Top 25+ On Pinterest | Timeline source regions even as it invites similar future interventions in China’s hydrological environment. ??????: ??????? Regional Studies . ??????????,??????????????????????????????????????,???????,??????,???????????????????,?????????????????????; ????,????????????????????; ?????????????,?????????,?????????????????????? Le projet de transfert d’eau Nord-Sud: refaire la geographie de la Chine. Regional Studies . Cet article se sert d’une approche technopolitique afin d’analyser le projet de transfert d’eau Nord-Sud en Chine. Le projet cherche a acheminer vers le nord 25 milliards de metres cubes d’eau par an a partir du fleuve Yangtze, reliant ainsi quatre bassins hydrographiques, trois megalopoles, six provinces et des centaines de millions d’utilisateurs d’eau.

Ce present article affirme que le projet incarne une approche particuliere de la gestion des eaux lourde d’ingenierie; que, toutefois, il represente un defi fondamental aux structures de gouvernance regionales en vigueur; et qu’il annonce des effets prejudiciables environnementaux continus dans les regions d’origine tandis qu’il sollicite des interventions futures similaires au niveau de l’environnement hydrologique en Chine. Das Sud-Nord-Wassertransferprojekt: Umgestaltung der Geografie von China. Regional Studies . In diesem Beitrag analysieren wir mithilfe eines technopolitischen Ansatzes das Sud-Nord-Wassertransferprojekt in China. Durch das Projekt sollen pro 9+ Guest List Template Authorization, Jahr 25 Milliarden Kubikmeter Wasser vom Jangtse nach Norden umgeleitet und vier Flussbecken, drei Megastadte, sechs Provinzen sowie hunderte Millionen von Wasserverbrauchern angeschlossen werden. Wir argumentieren, dass das Projekt einen besonderen und techniklastigen Ansatz der Wasserbewirtschaftung verkorpert, dass es dennoch die vorhandenen regionalen Regierungsstrukturen vor grundlegende Herausforderungen stellt und dass es zu fortgesetzten schadlichen Umweltauswirkungen in den Quellregionen fuhren wird, wahrend es daruber hinaus zu ahnlichen kunftigen Eingriffen in die hydrologische Umwelt von China einladt. El proyecto de trasvase de agua del sur al norte: transformacion de la geografia de China. Regional Studies . Mediante un planteamiento tecnopolitico, en este articulo analizamos el proyecto de trasvase de agua del sur al norte en China. Con este proyecto se canalizaran 25.000 millones de metros cubicos de agua al ano desde el rio Yangtze hacia el norte, conectando cuatro cuencas hidrograficas, tres megaciudades, seis provincias y cientos de millones de usuarios de agua. En este articulo argumentamos que el proyecto implica un particular enfoque centrado en la ingenieria para la gestion del agua, que no obstante plantea retos fundamentales a las actuales estructuras regionales de gobernanza, que amenaza con continuos efectos perjudiciales para el medio ambiente en las regiones de fuente, y que ademas conlleva la creacion de programas similares en el futuro para el entorno hidrologico de China. The South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) is the most ambitious inter-basin water transfer scheme in the world. It is a complex of Best Timeline Infographic | Timeline diversion channels that promises to deliver tens of billions m 3 of fresh water a year over 1000 km from the relatively well-watered south of China to the drier north.

The project connects four major river basins, three megacities, six provinces, and hundreds of millions of water users and polluters. The project comprises three routes. 9+ Guest List | Card! The Eastern Route has the capacity to supply 14.8 billion m 3 per year from the lower Changjiang (Yangtze River) to Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline the provinces of Jiangsu, Anhui, Shandong and Hebei and the municipality of Tianjin through a system of pumps, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals, including the Report. Report Service Grand Canal, itself more than 2500 years old. The route began operating in late 2013. The Middle Route can provide 9.5 billion m 3 per year to the provinces of Henan and Hebei and Timeline Infographic | Timeline, the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin from Danjiangkou reservoir on the Han River (a tributary of the middle Changjiang). Engineer Job Description Template! Ten years in construction, it involved raising the wall of the dam at Top 25+ On Pinterest | Timeline Danjiangkou by nearly 15 m and constructing a pair of tunnels to carry water under the HuangHe (Yellow River).

Water began to Analysis Report. Report Service flow in late 2014 and there are plans to Timeline Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline expand its capacity to 13 billion m 3 per year. This Is A The! A third (western) route would be capable of diverting another 20 billion m 3 of water annually from tributaries of the upper Changjiang through tunnels to Top 25+ Timeline On Pinterest | Timeline the upper reaches of the HuangHe. The route is still being debated and there is no commitment to construct it, which would be the most expensive of the three routes, nor any information about when a decision will be made (Figure 1). The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. Figure 1. The three routes of the Writing Report. Book Report Service South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP). Figure 1. The three routes of the South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP).

Planning and design for the project were overseen by the Ministry of Water Resources (MWR), through its Planning, Design and Management Bureau of the SNWTP (Chinese Government Public Information Online, 2015 Chinese Government Public Information Online. ( 2015 ). ?????????????? [Ministry of Water Resources South–North Water Transfer Planning, Design and Management Bureau]. Retrieved from http://govinfonew.nlc.gov.cn/gtfz/i11-24-18362 [Google Scholar] ). In 2002, this bureau completed a blueprint for the construction period and, in 2003, the Office of the Construction Committee for the SNWTP (Office of the SNWTP) was established directly under the State Council to oversee construction (State Council, 2003 State Council. ( 2003 ). ?????????????? ??????????,??[2003]17? [Notice from the State Council on the founding of the State Council’s Construction Committee for the South–North Water Transfer Project, official communication (2003) No. 17]. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/content/2008-03/28/content_7672.htm [Google Scholar] ). Various design institutes and river basin commissions compiled the designs and plans, while construction was done by Hanjiang Water Resources and Hydropower Corporation on the Eastern Route and Danjiangkou Water Resources and Top 25+ Best Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline, Hydroelectric Corporation on the Middle Route (water-technology.net, n.d. water-technology.net. ( n.d. ). South-to-north water diversion project, China . water-technology.net. Retrieved from http://www.water-technology.net/projects/south_north/ [Google Scholar] ).

Estimates of the Diary Template | Coaching Tools From project’s cost differ enormously. Top 25+ Timeline | Timeline! The cost of List Template | Card constructing the Eastern and Middle routes has been estimated at US$79.4 billion (Chang, 2014 Chang, G. ( 2014 ). China’s water crisis made worse by policy failures. World Affairs . Retrieved from http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/blog/gordon-g-chang/china%E2%80%99s-water-crisis-made-worse-policy-failures [Google Scholar] ); an official of the Office of the Top 25+ Timeline On Pinterest | Timeline SNWTP told Li ( 2014 Li, Y. Network Engineer Sample Template! ( 2014 ). ?????????? 2100???????????? [Will the Top 25+ Best Ideas On Pinterest investment of RMB 210 billion in the Middle Route of the Daily From south–north water transfer be reflected in cost-based water pricing?]. 21st Century Business Herald . Retrieved from Best Infographic, http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/20140614/032619411109.shtml [Google Scholar] ) that the construction of the You Can The two routes would likely end up costing RMB 300 billion (US$47 billion at late 2015 exchange rates). There are many other estimates within this range.

These costs do not include evicting and resettling 365,000–375,000 people for the enlargement of Danjiangkou reservoir and construction of canals (the Office of the SNWTP estimates 300,000 people, but later estimates are higher). The experience at Three Gorges (Webber, 2012 Webber, M. Best Timeline | Timeline! ( 2012 ). Making capitalism in rural China . Cheltenham : Elgar . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) suggests that the evictions cost at least RMB 100,000 each (excluding the costs to households), adding another US$5.75 billion to the construction cost. Nor do estimates of construction cost include environmental protection and evicting farmers from the catchment of Danjiangkou reservoir. To put these figures in perspective, Chinese state-budgeted investment totalled RMB 10,769 billion between 2004 and 2013, so the Templates | Theruntime.com project cost at least 3% of government investment while it was being constructed. This, then, is a huge project, linking four major river basins across the majority of China’s land mass. It is a complex engineering project that required the deployment of extensive representational resources to justify it. As a socio-technical infrastructure the SNWTP mediates between Chinese society and its environment, comprising a political and a material response to social needs and environmental demands and complementing at least another five interbasin diversion projects within China (Chen Wenger, 2014 Chen, H. , Wenger, R. B. ( 2014 ). Water diversion projects in China . In R. M. Clark S. Best Timeline! Hakim (Eds.), Securing water and wastewater systems, protecting critical infrastructure 2 (pp. 213 – 232 ). Cham : Springer . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). Is A Contract You Can The! Yet while it embodies elements of China’s long tradition of water resources management (Pietz, 2014 Pietz, D. Ideas On Pinterest! ( 2014 ). The Yellow River: The problem of water in modern China . Gratitude Template | Coaching Tools! Cambridge , MA : Harvard University Press . [Google Scholar] ), the SNWTP nevertheless poses challenges to the existing structure of China’s socio-environment.

The literature on the operation and implications of the SNWTP is Best Timeline Ideas still in its infancy, and #rent To Own Contract Get On, is principally concerned with the management of the project. Three topics dominate. One is the elucidation of the principles that should underpin operational management, including water allocation modelling and the pricing model (Nie, Duan, Liu, 2013 Nie, Y. H. , Duan, W. G. , Liu, D. ( 2013 ). Water allocation model for Shandong segment of the East Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project . Journal of Yangtze River Scientific Research Institute , 30 (8), 75 – 78 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Wu, Dong, Guo, Li, 2013 Wu, Z. N. , Dong, M. | Timeline! L. , Guo, R. L. , Li, Y. ( 2013 ). Study on two-part water price calculation and its impact factors for main line of Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 148 – 152 . Engineer Sample! [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Zhang, Lu, Fei, 2013 Zhang, L. C. , Lu, H. , Fei, X. X. ( 2013 ). Analysis and research on water resources optimal allocation of Henan province intake area of the Middle Route of South to North water diversion project . Yellow River , 35 , 61 – 63 , 67. [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ). Another concerns the evaluation of, and Top 25+ Best Timeline Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline, potential mitigating measures against, the principal risks that face managers of the project (Hu, Zheng, Li, Shi, 2013 Hu, D. Writing Report.! , Zheng, L. , Li, S. , Shi, G. K. ( 2013 ). Infographic On Pinterest! Study on the risk evaluation method for the open channel operation in the Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 98 – 101 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ), especially floods (Cong, Kang, Cheng, Ding, 2012 Cong, H. Daily Gratitude Diary From The Coaching! X. , Kang, L. , Cheng, X. J. , Ding, Y. ( 2012 ). Flood risk analysis in the Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project of China based on Bayesian network . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 10 , 10 – 13 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ), security of Best Timeline Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline water supply (Lin, Liu, Chen, 2012 Lin, C. Network Sample Template! S. , Liu, W. , Chen, H. Top 25+ Best Ideas On Pinterest! ( 2012 ). Unified allocation of water resources of intake area at Henan province in the South-to-North water diversion Middle Route project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 10 , 11 – 12 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Zhang, Jiang, Li, Yang, Sun, 2012 Zhang, Z. W. , Jiang, H. Resume Template | Resume Sheet! J. , Li, C. G. , Yang, J. , Sun, X. Z. ( 2012 ). Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of water security in central water source area of Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Timeline Infographic | Timeline, Water Science Technology , 10 , 16 – 21 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ) and high groundwater levels (Hu Weng, 2013 Hu, G. Q. , Weng, Y. Z. ( 2013 ). Variation of groundwater level along the section of To Own Contract Get On Sha River to Yellow River of the Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 120 – 124 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ). The risk of Top 25+ Best Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline pollution in sources and along the route has received particular attention (Guo Ren, 2014 Guo, P. , Ren, J. ( 2014 ). Variation trend analysis of water quality along the Writing Book Service Eastern Route of Top 25+ Best Timeline Ideas | Timeline South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 12 , 59 – 64 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Guo, Wu, Ren, 2013 Guo, P. Job Description | Ziprecruiter! , Wu, P. R. , Ren, J. ( 2013 ). Analysis of Top 25+ Timeline Infographic | Timeline annual variation of main pollutants discharge into the river along the Eastern Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 62 – 66 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Guo, Xiao, Shang, Wang, 2013 Guo, H. , Xiao, W. H. , Shang, J. S. Shower Templates | Theruntime.com! , Wang, W. C. ( 2013 ). Top 25+ Best Timeline Infographic On Pinterest! Impact assessment of Eastern Route of South-to-North water diversion project operation on the water environment of Nansi Lake . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 49 – 53 , 57. [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Xin, Li, Finlayson, Wei, 2015 Xin, X. K. , Li, K. , Finlayson, B. , Wei, Y. ( 2015 ). Evaluation, prediction, and protection of water quality in Danjiangkou reservoir, China . Water Science and Engineering , 8 , 30 – 39 . doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2014.11.001 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The third topic concerns the implications of the Daily Gratitude | Coaching From The Coaching SNWTP for source regions (Chen et al., 2013 Chen, D. Best Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline! , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. | Resume Blank! , Barnett, J. Top 25+ Best On Pinterest! , Chen, Z. Y. , Wang, M. ( 2013 ). The impact of water transfers from the lower Yangtze River on water security in Shanghai . Applied Geography , 45 , 303 – 310 . doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.09.025 [Crossref], [Web of Downloadable Baby Shower Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Fan, Yang, Tang, 2012 Fan, W. X. Top 25+ Timeline Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline! , Yang, Z. X. , Tang, H. F. ( 2012 ). On the construction of eco-economic zone in the water source area for Middle Route of South–North water diversion project . Forestry Economics , 2 , 39 – 42 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Huang Zhang, 2014 Huang, L. J. , Zhang, Z. W. Engineer Sample | Ziprecruiter! ( 2014 ). On Pinterest! Ecological compensation standard of Xiangyang section of Han River middle and lower reaches in the Central Route of To Own Contract You Can The South-to-North Water Transfer Project . Journal of Xiangfan University , 35 , 57 – 61 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Webber et al., 2015b Webber, M. , Li, M. T. Top 25+ Best Timeline Infographic! , Chen, J. Report. Book Service! , Finlayson, B. , Chen, D. , Chen, Z. Y. , … Barnett, J. ( 2015b ). Best Infographic Ideas On Pinterest! Impact of the Three Gorges Dam, the Daily Diary Template Tools South–North Water Transfer Project and water abstractions on the duration and intensity of salt intrusions in the Yangtze River estuary . Hydrology and Earth System Sciences , 19 , 4411 – 4425 . Best Infographic Ideas | Timeline! doi: 10.5194/hess-19-4411-2015 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) and the use of Template | Card Authorization local water resources in the destinations (Ling, You, Wang, Gan, 2014 Ling, J. , You, J. J. , Wang, L. , Gan, H. ( 2014 ). Scenario analysis on water source replacement effects of the 1st stage of South-to-North Water Transfer Project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Top 25+ Best Infographic Ideas | Timeline, Water Science Technology , 12 , 16 – 20 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ). None of these is concerned with the relations between the Downloadable Baby Shower Templates | Theruntime.com SNWTP and the broader development of China’s socio-environment or between the project and ongoing processes of water management. (Socio-environments are the manner of interaction of people, social groups, cities, firms, governments and Top 25+ Best Timeline Infographic Ideas, the like, as well as elements of the ‘produced environment’.) Relatively fewer are studies of the political and Report. Book Report, economic implications of the SNWTP, placing the Timeline Infographic | Timeline project within the framework of socio-environmental relations within China (Barnett, Rogers, Webber, Finlayson, Wang, 2015 Barnett, J. , Rogers, S. , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. , Wang, M. ( 2015 ). Sustainability: Transfer project cannot meet China’s water needs . Nature , 527 , 295 – 297 . doi: 10.1038/527295a [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Crow-Miller, 2013 Crow-Miller, B. ( 2013 ). Water, power, and development in Shower | Theruntime.com twenty-first century China: The case of the South–North Water Transfer Project (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California – Los Angeles. [Google Scholar] , 2015 Crow-Miller, B. ( 2015 ). Discourses of deflection: The politics of framing China’s South–North water transfer . Water Alternatives , 8 , 173 – 192 . [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Moore, 2014a Moore, S. M. ( 2014a ). Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: The politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . Top 25+ Best Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline! doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Crow-Miller argues that the SNWTP permits economic growth to continue on the North China Plain, helping the Chinese Communist Party to maintain political legitimacy. In doing this, the SNWTP is represented as an apolitical project that conceals the anthropogenic sources of water stress on the North China Plain; this argument resurfaces later. In arguing that the Writing Report. Report Service SNWTP embodies a form of authoritarian environmentalism, Moore ( 2014a Moore, S. M. ( 2014a ). Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: The politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , p. 959) observes that the ‘SNWTP reflects a powerful, technocratic, and controlling central government, but one capable of employing a variety of strategies, persuasive as well as coercive, to pursue its objectives’. Barnett et al. ( 2015 Barnett, J. , Rogers, S. , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. , Wang, M. ( 2015 ). Sustainability: Transfer project cannot meet China’s water needs . Infographic Ideas | Timeline! Nature , 527 , 295 – 297 . doi: 10.1038/527295a [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) comment that in many respects the Analysis Book Report Service SNWTP represents an alternative to better local management of water resources and thus contradict Berkoff ( 2003 Berkoff, J. ( 2003 ). China: The South–North Water Transfer Project – Is it justified?

Water Policy , 5 , 1 – 28 . [Google Scholar] ), who argues that the social disruption that would be caused if conservation measures were adopted on the North China Plain suffices to justify the project. This paper develops some of these political and economic arguments. It argues first that the project embodies a particular engineering-heavy approach to Best Timeline water management in China. This official technopolitical regime privileges concrete over 9+ Guest Template management, capital-intense over small-scale projects, and targets shortages rather than pollution. Secondly, the paper argues that, even so, the project poses fundamental challenges to the existing regional structures of governance (by requiring water management at a greater-than-basin scale) and power (empowering central as compared with provincial and local governments). Thirdly, it argues that the project both promises continuing detrimental environmental impacts in source regions even as it invites similar future interventions in China’s hydrological environment.

This paper does not survey the social and environmental impacts of the SNWTP (examining neither the resettlement of people for Top 25+ Infographic | Timeline, the project nor the decisions about Network Engineer Sample Template which regions should receive the water, for example); rather, it interprets some elements of the project in the light of concepts drawn from the study of technopolitics to substantiate these arguments. The paper begins by considering the theoretical status of such infrastructures. It then describes the representations that are offered to justify the project over Top 25+ Best Infographic Ideas | Timeline alternative forms of water management, and proceeds to #rent Contract Get On explain the challenges thrown up by the SNWTP and its continuing environmental impacts. Represented as a straightforward, technical solution to quantitative imbalances between the regional demand for and supply of Timeline Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline water in Report China, the project instead foregrounds the environmental, economic and Top 25+ Infographic | Timeline, political challenges posed by China’s patterns of growth. While technopolitical studies demonstrate how technical choices and political development march hand in hand, this paper reveals that huge infrastructure projects not only represent the state of relations between society and environment, but also – as Gandy ( 2014 Gandy, M. ( 2014 ). The fabric of space: Water, modernity, and the urban imagination . Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ) has emphasized – pose new challenges to those relations. THE TECHNOPOLITICS OF INFRASTRUCTURES.

Infrastructures are networks that enable the flow of Downloadable Baby goods, people or ideas and Best Infographic Ideas | Timeline, allow their exchange over space (Larkin, 2013 Larkin, B. ( 2013 ). The politics and poetics of infrastructure . Annual Review of Anthropology , 42 , 327 – 343 . doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-092412-155522 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). They have a topology and physical form that influence the speed and direction of movement, its temporalities and its vulnerability to breakdown. Infrastructures, in this sense, are technological objects. Template | Resume Blank! Water distribution systems are thus networks that link water in rivers, lakes and underground storages to plumbing in Top 25+ Best Timeline On Pinterest | Timeline people’s houses, to irrigation pipes in farmers’ fields or to Gratitude Diary Template The Coaching outlets in factories, enabling that water to perform social roles. Infrastructures mediate between societies and their environments. Water infrastructure consists of pipes, pumps and water treatment plants (machines); the links between those machines that make them into a system that delivers water; and techniques of organization – corporations, accounting, bureaucracies and Best Timeline Infographic Ideas, the like (Molle, Mollinga, Wester, 2009 Molle, F. , Mollinga, P. , Wester, P. ( 2009 ). Hydraulic bureaucracies and Diary Template | Coaching Tools From The Coaching, the hydraulic mission: Flows of water, flows of power . Water Alternatives , 2 , 328 – 349 . [Google Scholar] ). Anand ( 2011 Anand, N. ( 2011 ). PRESSURE: The politechnics of water supply in Mumbai . Cultural Anthropology , 26 , 542 – 564 . Best Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline! doi: 10.1111/j.1548-1360.2011.01111.x [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Baby Templates | Theruntime.com Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2012 Anand, N. ( 2012 ). Best Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline! Municipal disconnect: On abject water and its urban infrastructures . Ethnography , 13 , 487 – 509 . doi: 10.1177/1466138111435743 [Crossref], [Web of Gratitude | Coaching The Coaching Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), for Top 25+ Timeline Ideas, example, considers the provision of water to Mumbai in India, tracing the interaction of two infrastructures. 9+ Guest! One system delivers water, through networks of pipes, engineers and bureaucracy that make up the technique of water provision; the other comprises the Top 25+ Best social networks, forms of patron–clientship, and relationship-building that are also important to water delivery in Mumbai. These two infrastructures interact to produce what Anand ( 2011 Anand, N. ( 2011 ). PRESSURE: The politechnics of water supply in Mumbai . Cultural Anthropology , 26 , 542 – 564 . doi: 10.1111/j.1548-1360.2011.01111.x [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , p. 545) calls ‘hydraulic citizenship, a form of belonging to the city enabled by social and material claims made to the city’s water infrastructure’.

The theoretical foundations for the notion that environments, social relations and technology are co-produced, each shaping and being shaped by the other, emerged in the 1980s. Network Job Description Sample! Various programmes, including the social construction of technology, large-scale technical systems and actor–network theory, all attend to the construction of the borders between the Top 25+ Best Timeline Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline social and the technical (Bijker Pinch, 2012 Bijker, W. E. Is A To Own Contract You Can Get On The! , Pinch, T. ( 2012 ). Preface to anniversary edition . In W. E. Top 25+ Best Timeline Infographic! Bijker , T. P. Hughes , T. Pinch (Eds.), The social construction of technological systems: New directions in Network Job Description Sample | Ziprecruiter the sociology and history of technology [1987] (pp. xi – xxxiv ). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ). They all contend that technologies are socially constructed, evolving to fill niches in Infographic Ideas | Timeline a world governed not only by biophysical laws but also by social rules and government policies. Writing Analysis Report. Report Service! A parallel argument contends that the environment, too, is socially and technologically constructed, depending not only on biophysical laws but also on social modifications and technologically mediated interfaces between people and the environment (Bakker, 2012 Bakker, K. ( 2012 ). Water: Political, biopolitical, material . Social Studies of Science , 42 , 616 – 623 . doi: 10.1177/0306312712441396 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Swyngedouw, 1999 Swyngedouw, E. ( 1999 ). Modernity and hybridity: Nature, regeneracionismo , and the production of the Spanish waterscape, 1890–1930 . Best Timeline! Annals of the Writing Analysis Book Report Association of American Geographers , 89 , 443 – 465 . doi: 10.1111/0004-5608.00157 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Swyngedouw, E. ( 2004 ). Social power and the urbanization of water: Flows of power . Oxford : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ). That environment in turn has agency over human beings and societies’ technological trajectories, posing conditions that shape people and their societies (Williams, 2010 Williams, J. C. ( 2010 ). Top 25+ Best Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline! Understanding the Downloadable Baby Invitation | Theruntime.com place of Timeline Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline humans in This #rent To Own nature . Top 25+ Best Ideas | Timeline! In M. Reuss S. H. Cutliffe (Eds.), Environment and technology in history (pp. 9 – 25 ). Charlottesville : University of Virginia Press . [Google Scholar] ). The co-production of societies, environments and technologies is summarized in Hughes ( 2004 Hughes, T. ( 2004 ). Human-built world: How to Daily Diary Tools From think about technology and culture . Top 25+ Ideas | Timeline! Chicago : University of 4+ Html Resume Template Blank Sheet Chicago Press . [Google Scholar] , p. On Pinterest | Timeline! 156): much of the world ‘consists of intersecting and Resume, overlapping natural and human-built systems, which together constitute ecotechnological systems’. An influential application of these ideas is the concept of the hydro-social cycle (Bakker, 2012 Bakker, K. Top 25+ Best Ideas! ( 2012 ). Water: Political, biopolitical, material . Social Studies of Science , 42 , 616 – 623 . doi: 10.1177/0306312712441396 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Swyngedouw, 2006 Swyngedouw, E. ( 2006 ). Power, water and money: Exploring the Writing Analysis Report nexus (Occasional Paper No. 2006/14). United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Human Development Report Office. [Google Scholar] ). As developed by Linton and Budds ( 2014 Linton, J. , Budds, J. ( 2014 ). The hydrosocial cycle: Defining and mobilizing a relational–dialectical approach to water . Geoforum , 57 , 170 – 180 . doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.10.008 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), the hydro-social cycle incorporates the ideas that the need to manage water affects the Best Timeline Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline organization of society in important ways, which in turn modify the Network Job Description Sample | Ziprecruiter flow of water, and in their in turn give rise to new forms of social organization; nevertheless, the material properties of water play an active role in the cycle – water obeys its own laws. Specific applications of the Top 25+ Timeline Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline concept of the Baby Shower Templates | Theruntime.com hydro-social cycle include Finewood and Stroop ( 2012 Finewood, M. Top 25+ Timeline Infographic Ideas | Timeline! H. , Stroop, L. J. ( 2012 ). Fracking and the neoliberalization of the hydro-social cycle in Pennsylvania’s Marcellus Shale . Journal of Contemporary Water Research Education , 147 , 72 – 79 . doi: 10.1111/j.1936-704X.2012.03104.x [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ), Clarke-Sather ( 2012 Clarke-Sather, A. ( 2012 ). State development and the rescaling of agricultural hydrosocial governance in Engineer semi-arid northwest China . Timeline On Pinterest | Timeline! Water Alternatives , 5 , 98 – 118 . [Google Scholar] ), Boelens ( 2014 Boelens, R. ( 2014 ). Shower Invitation | Theruntime.com! Cultural politics and the hydrosocial cycle: Water, power and identity in the Andean highlands . Top 25+ Timeline Infographic Ideas On Pinterest! Geoforum , 57 , 234 – 247 . doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.02.008 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) and McDonnell ( 2014 McDonnell, R. A. Downloadable Baby Invitation Templates | Theruntime.com! ( 2014 ). Circulations and transformations of Top 25+ Timeline Infographic Ideas On Pinterest energy and water in Abu Dhabi’s hydrosocial cycle . Geoforum , 57 , 225 – 233 . 9+ Guest Template Authorization! doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.11.009 [Crossref], [Web of Top 25+ Best Infographic | Timeline Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). People, networks, institutions, water (H 2 O in Linton Budds’, 2014 Linton, J. , Budds, J. ( 2014 ). The hydrosocial cycle: Defining and mobilizing a relational–dialectical approach to water . Shower Invitation! Geoforum , 57 , 170 – 180 . Best Timeline On Pinterest | Timeline! doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.10.008 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , language) and 4+ Html Resume Blank, other things, including elements of the environment, interact, producing effects, among which are particular socio-environments. This socio-environment includes human-modified climates, modified river regimes, canals, dams, delivered water and altered aquatic ecosystems.

Conventionally, some components of socio-environments are understood as society (in the traditional sense), some as environment (in the traditional sense) and some as infrastructures. However they are classified, the elements of Top 25+ Best Timeline Ideas socio-environments (things) then provide the Downloadable Baby Shower | Theruntime.com context or framework within which people, networks, institutions, water and the like interact as preformed agents in another iteration to produce yet further effects, in a continuous evolution. One set of the elements of a socio-environment is its infrastructures. These are, on the one hand, technological systems to be understood through an analysis of networked machines, bureaucracies and the like; on the other, they are political, used to constitute, embody or enact political goals – they embody a technopolitics (Hecht, 2001 Hecht, G. ( 2001 ). Technology, politics, and national identity in France . In M. T. Allen G. | Timeline! Hecht (Eds.), Technologies of power (pp. 253 – 294 ). | Resume Blank! Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ). Timeline Infographic Ideas | Timeline! Infrastructures in this sense are hybrids of technology and politics. This does not mean that infrastructures are politics, for their material effectiveness is not simply political but also grounded in Gratitude Tools From The Coaching their physical being. Top 25+ Timeline Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline! The history of rivers cannot be fully understood without considering infrastructures such as levees, locks, dams, hydroelectric plants, aqueducts and hydro-bureaucracies. | Card Authorization 2017! But those infrastructures cannot be understood without considering the ways of behaving of rivers and Timeline Ideas | Timeline, social groups.

The choices related to those infrastructures cannot be examined without understanding the administrative apparatus of Downloadable Baby Shower Invitation | Theruntime.com multi-jurisdictional governance peculiar to those rivers, or the policies that guide that apparatus. ‘Society’ and ‘nature’ meet in the history of a river (Cronon, 1990 Cronon, W. ( 1990 ). Modes of prophecy and production: Placing nature in history . Journal of American History , 76 , 1122 – 1131 . doi: 10.2307/2936590 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). But infrastructures encourage path dependence. Things grow hard or stable, and fixed patterns of structure (such as bureaucracies) and behaviour emerge around them (Bijker, 2007 Bijker, W. E. ( 2007 ). Best | Timeline! Dikes and dams, thick with politics . Isis , 98 , 109 – 123 . | Theruntime.com! doi: 10.1086/512835 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), sometimes persisting over changes in regime and travelling across cultural contexts (Sneddon, 2015 Sneddon, C. ( 2015 ). Concrete revolution: Large dams, Cold War geopolitics, and the US Bureau of Reclamation . Chicago : University of Chicago Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). Grounded in Best Infographic Ideas On Pinterest these institutions, technopolitical regimes (Hecht, 2001 Hecht, G. ( 2001 ). Technology, politics, and national identity in France . List Template Authorization! In M. T. Allen G. Top 25+ Best Timeline On Pinterest! Hecht (Eds.), Technologies of power (pp. 253 – 294 ). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ) consist of linked sets of people, engineering and industrial practices, artefacts, political programmes and institutional ideologies which act together to govern technological development and pursue technopolitics. In a society at a given time there may exist competing technopolitical regimes: in 18th-century China, Confucian and Daoist conceptions of water management (to actively direct the flow of rivers or move the population and ‘let the water be’, respectively) competed for primacy (Purdue, 2010 Purdue, P. C. ( 2010 ). Is there a Chinese view of Gratitude Diary | Coaching From The Coaching technology and nature? In M. Reuss S. H. Cutliffe (Eds.), Environment and Top 25+ Best Timeline Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline, technology in history (pp. 101 – 119 ). Charlottesville : University of Virginia Press . Template | Card 2017! [Google Scholar] ). In post-colonial Pakistan, centralist (Punjabi-dominated) conceptions of the ‘One Nation’ competed with regionalist imaginaries of Pakistan over the control and distribution of water from hydraulic infrastructures on the Indus River (Akhter, 2015 Akhter, M. ( 2015 ). Infrastructure nation: State space, hegemony, and hydraulic regionalism in Pakistan . Antipode , 47 , 849 – 870 . doi: 10.1111/anti.12152 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). These studies do not, however, consider the political, social and environmental challenges that are posed by huge infrastructure projects – and that is the principal purpose of this paper.

REPRESENTING THE NEED FOR THE SOUTH–NORTH WATER TRANSFER PROJECT. The imaginary of a water-rich south versus a water-scarce north – ????,???? ( Xinhua Net , 2014 Xinhua Net . ( 2014 ). ??????:?????’????’????? [The south–north transfer Middle Route project: Water security is the ‘century project’ bottom line]. Top 25+ Ideas On Pinterest! Xinhua Net . Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/2014-12/17/c_127312541.htm [Google Scholar] ) – is central to all accounts of the SNWTP, which seeks to ‘balance’ the 9+ Guest List | Card 2017 allocation of water at the national scale. As Xinhua Net ( 2014 Xinhua Net . ( 2014 ). Top 25+ Best Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline! ??????:?????’????’????? [The south–north transfer Middle Route project: Water security is the Daily | Coaching The Coaching ‘century project’ bottom line]. Xinhua Net . Top 25+ Best Infographic! Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/2014-12/17/c_127312541.htm [Google Scholar] ) expressed the Engineer Sample Template | Ziprecruiter words of prominent Chinese geographer, Liu Changming: [China’s per capita water resources are low – only Top 25+ Best Timeline On Pinterest | Timeline one quarter of the world average. A special characteristic is uneven spatial and temporal distribution, with much agricultural land but little water in Shower Invitation the North and little agricultural land but more water in the South. In addition, the water resources are concentrated in the summer. The South–North Water Transfer Project is needed to balance this unevenness.] This geographical imaginary is evident in maps of the Top 25+ Ideas | Timeline project, and in the expression used to describe its overall outcome, which refers to ‘four horizontals, three verticals’ (????): the four major rivers – Changjiang, HuaiHe, HaiHe and HuangHe – provide horizontal movement, while the Network Template three routes of the Top 25+ Best Timeline On Pinterest | Timeline SNWTP provide vertical movement ( People’s Daily Online , 2014 People’s Daily Online . ( 2014 ). ??????????? [Spanning more than half a century of water diversion dreams]. People’s Daily Online . Retrieved from Downloadable Shower | Theruntime.com, http://politics.people.com.cn/n/2014/1210/c1001-26178581.html [Google Scholar] ). | Timeline! This imaginary implies absolute control over the water resources within China’s territory: water no longer flows west to east as it did for Is A #rent To Own Contract, centuries; it is also now flowing south to north. The maps communicate the delivery of water over space and Top 25+ Best Timeline Infographic On Pinterest, the delivery of a political project to dominate hydrological landscapes that began thousands of Resume Template | Resume Sheet years ago.

In light of the historical association between political legitimacy and the control of resources, including water (Mukerji, 2003 Mukerji, C. Top 25+ Best Timeline Infographic | Timeline! ( 2003 ). Intelligent uses of This Is A #rent You Can Get On The engineering and the legitimacy of state power . Technology and Culture , 44 , 655 – 676 . doi: 10.1353/tech.2003.0175 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), the visible forms of the SNWTP are important political symbols, signifying the Top 25+ Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline authority of the state. Rather than approaching water management from a local or bioregional perspective in Downloadable Shower Invitation | Theruntime.com which hydrological units (watersheds and river basins) serve as the Timeline Ideas | Timeline management unit (Thayer, 2003 Thayer, R. L. Daily Diary | Coaching From! ( 2003 ). Bioregional thought and practice . Best! Berkeley : University of California Press . [Google Scholar] ), the Downloadable Baby Shower Invitation Templates | Theruntime.com SNWTP locates the problem of north China’s water shortage at the national scale. The threat of Best Infographic On Pinterest water shortage is a threat to the survival of the Chinese nation, according to former premier Wen Jiabao (quoted in Moore, 2009 Moore, S. M. ( 2009 ). Climate change, water and China’s national interest . China Security , 5 , 25 – 39 . [Google Scholar] ); former president Hu Jintao identified water as exerting an ‘evident impact on China’s economic security, ecological security and national security’ ( China Daily , 2011 China Daily . ( 2011 ). 4+ Html Resume Template Blank Sheet! China to set up water facilities construction. China Daily . Top 25+ Infographic Ideas On Pinterest! Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2011-07/11/content_12875128.htm [Google Scholar] ). Water is needed to | Resume Sheet secure food supplies and energy production, vital to continuing national development and therefore the survival of the Timeline Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline state and Party (Yong, 2006 Yong, J. ( 2006 ). China’s water policy and practice . Water International , 31 , 127 – 130 . doi: 10.1080/02508060608691922 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) (Figure 2). The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. Figure 2. The SNWTP as a national project (‘The South–North Water Diversion Project – a noble undertaking of a thousand years’): the Middle Route canal outside Baoding City, Hebei province. Figure 2. The SNWTP as a national project (‘The South–North Water Diversion Project – a noble undertaking of Writing Report. Book Report Service a thousand years’): the Top 25+ Best Timeline Infographic Ideas Middle Route canal outside Baoding City, Hebei province.

The imaginary of the SNWTP as a solution to the water scarcity of the north through the use of abundant water from the south hides the anthropogenic drivers of water insecurity in north China. It is true that China’s north has less water resources per Gratitude | Coaching The Coaching unit area and per capita than the south (outside Manchuria, at least); in Top 25+ Best Timeline Infographic | Timeline the Huang, Huai and Downloadable Shower Invitation Templates, Hai river basins, annual average per capita availability of water ranges between 314 and Best Timeline, 672 m 3 , well below the levels at which water shortages can threaten food production and Template | Ziprecruiter, economic development (Jiang, 2009 Jiang, Y. ( 2009 ). China’s water scarcity . Journal of Environmental Management , 90 , 3185 – 3196 . Ideas On Pinterest! doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.04.016 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Wang Jin, 2006 Wang, X. Writing Report. Book! C. , Jin, P. K. ( 2006 ). Water shortage and Top 25+ Best Timeline Infographic, needs for This #rent Contract, wastewater re-use in the north China . Water Science and Technology , 53 , 35 – 44 . doi: 10.2166/wst.2006.267 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Top 25+ Best On Pinterest | Timeline Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Furthermore, in one year of four, discharges in the Huai and Hai rivers fall to less than 70% of their annual average (Berkoff, 2003 Berkoff, J. ( 2003 ). China: The South–North Water Transfer Project – Is it justified? Water Policy , 5 , 1 – 28 . [Google Scholar] ). The shortfall is met by mining groundwater resources (Jiang, 2009 Jiang, Y. ( 2009 ). China’s water scarcity . Journal of Environmental Management , 90 , 3185 – 3196 . doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.04.016 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Varley, 2005 Varley, R. C. G. Downloadable Baby Templates! ( 2005 ). Infographic | Timeline! The World Bank and China’s environment 1993–2003 . Washington , DC : World Bank Operations Evaluation Department . [Google Scholar] ), the over-extraction of which affects over 70% of the north China plain (MWR, 2007 MWR (Ministry of Water Resources). ( 2007 ). The 11th Five-Year Plan of national water resources. Development Gazette of the Network Engineer Job Description Sample Template Ministry of Water Resources of the People’s Republic of China 2007 , 34–48. [Google Scholar] ). However, China’s rapid economic growth since 1978 has resulted in Top 25+ Best Infographic On Pinterest large increases in agricultural and industrial production in the drier northern provinces, causing significant increases in demand relative to supply, as well as pollution on such a scale that much of the north’s water is unfit for consumptive uses (Barnett, Webber, Wang, Finlayson, Dickinson, 2006 Barnett, J. , Webber, M. Daily Template | Coaching Tools The Coaching! , Wang, M. Top 25+ Best Infographic On Pinterest! , Finlayson, B. , Dickinson, D. ( 2006 ). Ten key questions about the management of 9+ Guest List Authorization 2017 water in Top 25+ Timeline Ideas On Pinterest the Yellow River Basin . Environmental Management , 38 , 179 – 188 . doi: 10.1007/s00267-005-0068-7 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Jiang, 2009 Jiang, Y. ( 2009 ). China’s water scarcity . Journal of Environmental Management , 90 , 3185 – 3196 . doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.04.016 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Diary Template | Coaching Tools From The Coaching Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Ma, Hoekstra, Wang, Chapagain, Wang, 2006 Ma, J. Top 25+ Best On Pinterest | Timeline! , Hoekstra, A. Job Description! Y. , Wang, H. , Chapagain, A. K. , Wang, D. X. Ideas! ( 2006 ). Virtual versus real water transfers within China . Philosophical Transactions of the Report. Book Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 361 , 835 – 842 . doi: 10.1098/rstb.2005.1644 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Webber, Barnett, Wang, Finlayson, Dickinson, 2008a Webber, M. , Barnett, J. Top 25+ Best Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline! , Wang, M. , Finlayson, B. Writing Analysis Report. Book Report Service! , Dickinson, D. ( 2008a ). The Yellow River in transition . Environmental Science and Policy , 11 , 422 – 429 . doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2008.02.002 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Yang, Zhang, Zehnder, 2003 Yang, H. , Zhang, X. , Zehnder, A. Z. B. ( 2003 ). Water scarcity, pricing mechanism and institutional reform in northern China irrigated agriculture . Agricultural Water Management , 61 , 143 – 161 . doi: 10.1016/S0378-3774(02)00164-6 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). In the north, 40–60% of the Top 25+ Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline region’s water is continuously in the non-functional water classification categories (Jiang, 2009 Jiang, Y. ( 2009 ). China’s water scarcity . Template 2017! Journal of Environmental Management , 90 , 3185 – 3196 . Infographic Ideas | Timeline! doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.04.016 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of This Is A #rent Contract You Can Get On The Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Xie, 2009 Xie, J. ( 2009 ). Addressing China’s water scarcity: Recommendations for selected water resource management issues . Washington , DC : World Bank . [Google Scholar] ). Many people within China have pointed to these sources of water insecurity in the north. Xie ( 2009 Xie, J. ( 2009 ). Addressing China’s water scarcity: Recommendations for selected water resource management issues . Top 25+ Infographic! Washington , DC : World Bank . [Google Scholar] ), in a report for Is A #rent To Own Get On, the World Bank, argued that to address China’s water scarcity there needed to Top 25+ Best Infographic Ideas be improvements to water governance, the Is A #rent Get On The development of water markets, increases in Best | Timeline the price of Job Description Sample water, new ecological compensation payments for the use of ecosystem services and controls over water pollution; the report did not even discuss the SNWTP. Xie was joining a long line of Chinese environmental scientists who had argued that water-saving measures, protection of resources from pollution and improved water management were the key means of resolving water shortages (Chinese Academy of Engineering, 2000 Chinese Academy of Engineering. ( 2000 ). Top 25+ Best Infographic Ideas! Report of research on integrated water resources strategy for sustainable development in | Card China . Engineering Science , 2 , 1 – 17 . 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Such views, moreover, were represented within the central government itself: the then Vice Minister of 9+ Guest Template | Card Authorization 2017 Housing and Urban–Rural Development, Qiu Baoxing (Qiu, 2014 Qiu, B. X. Top 25+ Best Timeline On Pinterest | Timeline! ( 2014 ). ???:???????????? [Qiu Baoxing: Urban water security in Engineer Template China and its countermeasures]. China Water Network News . Retrieved from http://news.h2o-china.com/html/2014/02/125350_1.shtml [Google Scholar] ), observed that if one-third of Beijing’s buildings collected and used rainwater, that would have saved the investment in the SNWTP. At the time when the critical decisions to proceed with the Best Timeline Infographic | Timeline project were made, all nine members of the Politburo standing committee were trained as engineers (Kuo, 2014 Kuo, L. ( 2014 ). China is so bad at conservation that it had to launch the most impressive water-pipeline project ever . Retrieved from Analysis Report Service, http://journal.probeinternational.org/ [Google Scholar] ); and party leaders have close personal ties to Top 25+ Timeline On Pinterest | Timeline the corporations in China’s water machine – Hu Jintao is a former employee of Sinohydro and Diary Template, Li Peng was father of the Top 25+ Timeline Ideas president of Huaneng.

Perhaps it is not surprising that such difficult and sensitive reforms to administration and governance attracted little official attention. In other words, representations of the need for the project carry two important characteristics. First, the problems of water supply are represented as national imbalances of national strategic significance rather than shortages that principally affect Beijing and Tianjin and that would be the responsibility of Resume | Resume Blank Sheet Beijing and Top 25+ Best Timeline Ideas On Pinterest, Tianjin to resolve. Secondly, they are represented as issues of quantitative shortage rather than induced by Job Description Template, poor pollution control (as argued by World Bank SEPA, 2007 World Bank and SEPA [State Environmental Protection Administration, People’s Republic of Best China]. ( 2007 ). Cost of Daily Diary From pollution in China . Washington , DC : World Bank . [Google Scholar] ) and a national growth pattern that has seen the north’s share of agricultural production expand dramatically in the past 40 years (Webber et al., 2008a Webber, M. , Barnett, J. , Wang, M. , Finlayson, B. , Dickinson, D. ( 2008a ). The Yellow River in transition . Environmental Science and Policy , 11 , 422 – 429 . doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2008.02.002 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Even though alternative diagnoses of China’s regional water shortages had been available long before the decision was made to commit to the SNWTP, the solutions to which those diagnoses pointed were ignored in a political decision that prioritized investment in technology and Timeline Infographic On Pinterest, infrastructure over reforms to administration and governance. The infrastructure carried a political as well as a technological message. CHALLENGES TO EXISTING REGIONAL STRUCTURES. The project in Downloadable Invitation Templates | Theruntime.com this sense reflects the distribution of power in China – that the central government has greater capacity to invest billions in an infrastructure scheme than to reform water management systems in which local jurisdictions have a high degree of Top 25+ Best local autonomy and Network Job Description Template, little incentive to manage water at Top 25+ Best Infographic the expense of jobs (Wang, Webber, Finlayson, Barnett, 2008 Wang, M. , Webber, M. Baby Shower Invitation! , Finlayson, B. , Barnett, J. ( 2008 ). Best Timeline On Pinterest! Rural industries and Baby Invitation | Theruntime.com, water pollution in China . Journal of Environmental Management , 86 , 648 – 659 . doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.12.019 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The project is consistent with a model of growth in the 1990s and 2000s that was dominated by Top 25+ Infographic On Pinterest, investment, including central government-led investment: according to World Bank data, gross capital formation in China exceeded 35% of gross domestic product (GDP) in the 1980s, and since 1991 has averaged over 40%. Yet the SNWTP is throwing up challenges to China’s political order – the infrastructure is doing political work (now and into 9+ Guest Template the future) as well as reflecting political work of the Top 25+ Infographic Ideas On Pinterest past. The first challenge is to China’s governance regime. The governance of the SNWTP intervenes in an already highly complex regime, what some have called fragmented authoritarianism (Lieberthal Oksenberg, 1988 Lieberthal, K. Daily Template | Coaching Tools From! , Oksenberg, M. ( 1988 ). Policy making in China: Leaders, structures, and processes. Princeton : Princeton University Press . Best Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline! [Google Scholar] ; updated in Gratitude Diary Template From The Coaching Mertha, 2009 Mertha, A. Infographic! ( 2009 ). ‘Fragmented authoritarianism 2.0’: Political pluralization in the Chinese policy process . China Quarterly , 200 , 995 – 1012 . doi: 10.1017/S0305741009990592 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The management of | Resume Blank water in China is highly decentralized (Webber, Barnett, Finlayson, Wang, 2008b Webber, M. , Barnett, J. , Finlayson, B. , Wang, M. Best On Pinterest! ( 2008b ). Pricing China’s irrigation water . Global Environmental Change , 18 , 617 – 625 . doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.07.014 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) and characterized by inter-jurisdictional conflicts (Moore, 2014b Moore, S. Gratitude Template | Coaching Tools The Coaching! M. ( 2014b ). Hydropolitics and inter-jurisdictional relationships in China . China Quarterly , 218 , 1 – 21 . [Google Scholar] ). Best | Timeline! The state is unbundled into ill-coordinated congeries of territorial bureaucracies and Job Description Template, vertically and horizontally segmented administrative boundaries, which do not map well onto the hydrological cycle (Nickum Lee, 2006 Nickum, J. E. , Lee, Y. Timeline Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline! S. List Template Authorization 2017! F. ( 2006 ). Same longitude, different latitudes: Institutional change in urban water in China, North and South . Environmental Politics , 15 , 231 – 247 . doi: 10.1080/09644010600562492 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , p. 232).

It involves the MWR; for most river basin management issues, the MWR’s responsibilities are delegated in Top 25+ Timeline Infographic Ideas one line of command to river basin commissions and in Downloadable Baby Shower Invitation Templates | Theruntime.com another line to provinces, counties and townships or cities. But many other ministries have their hand in water management, including the ministries of Environmental Protection, Housing and Urban–Rural Development, and Agriculture. Now this ministerial separation and Top 25+ Best Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline, localization of management are being overturned for the SNWTP. The construction phase has been managed by the SNWTP Construction Committee chaired by the Vice Premier, and under the auspices of the State Council (Nickum, 2006 Nickum, J. E. ( 2006 ). The status of the south to north water transfer plans in China . United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2006/papers/james_nickum_china_water_transfer.pdf [Google Scholar] ). List Template Authorization 2017! The committee includes representatives of line ministries – the ministers of Water Resources and of Environmental Protection as well as the Chair of the Infographic Ideas On Pinterest National Development and Downloadable Shower | Theruntime.com, Reform Commission (NDRC) – and of provincial-level administrations – the mayors of Beijing and Tianjin, and the governors of Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline Hebei, Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan, Hubei and Shaanxi provinces (State Council General Office, 2013 State Council General Office. ( 2013 ). ??????????????????????????????? [State Council General Office notice on revision of the This #rent Contract You Can Get On South–North Water Transfer Project Construction Committee]. Top 25+ Timeline | Timeline! Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2013-07/04/content_2440461.htm [Google Scholar] ). The committee directed the Downloadable Baby Invitation | Theruntime.com SNWTP Construction Committee Office, which actually managed the construction. The institutions to manage the operations of the project are now being stitched together, though with disagreements ( Caijing , 2014b Caijing . ( 2014b ). ???????:???????? [Chinese engineering academy scholar: Diverted water should be a last resort].

Caijing . Retrieved from http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/hgjj/20140707/105619627126.shtml [Google Scholar] ). The Ministry of Environmental Protection is responsible for pollution control (State Council General Office, 2014 State Council General Office. ( 2014 ). ????????????? [South–North Water Transfer Project water management regulations]. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2014-02/28/content_2625325.htm [Google Scholar] ). Responsibility for deciding on the volumes to be transferred lies with the MWR and its Bureau of South–North Water Transfer Planning, Design and Management, which should seek final approval for allocations from the State Council (State Council General Office, 2014 State Council General Office. ( 2014 ). Top 25+ Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline! ????????????? [South–North Water Transfer Project water management regulations]. Retrieved from 4+ Html | Resume Blank, http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2014-02/28/content_2625325.htm [Google Scholar] ). These decisions are intended to reflect abstractions proposed by Top 25+ Best Timeline Infographic | Timeline, the river basin commissions and water-use plans prepared by provincial and municipal governments. However, the Template 2014 regulations did not conclusively establish a specific management unit responsible for the operation of the project, with the result that the MWR and the SNWTP Construction Committee Office are disputing their roles in Best Timeline Infographic Ideas this decision-making (MWR General Office, 2012b MWR (Ministry of Water Resources) General Office. ( 2012b ). ???????????????????????????? [Notification concerning the issuance of the south–north water transfer Eastern and Gratitude Diary Template | Coaching, Middle Route first phase water volume dispatch plan]. Infographic Ideas On Pinterest! Retrieved from http://max.book118.com/html/2014/0205/5779368.shtm [Google Scholar] ; Caijing , 2014a Caijing . ( 2014a ). ??:???????????????????? [Media: Ministry of Water Resources and SNWT office disagree on who will run the management].

Caijing . Retrieved from http://news.ifeng.com/a/20140707/41050790_0.shtml [Google Scholar] ). #rent! The SNWTP Construction Committee Office proposal seems to be ( Caijing , 2014a Caijing . ( 2014a ). ??:???????????????????? [Media: Ministry of Top 25+ Infographic Ideas Water Resources and Baby | Theruntime.com, SNWT office disagree on who will run the management]. Top 25+ On Pinterest! Caijing . Network Job Description Sample! Retrieved from http://news.ifeng.com/a/20140707/41050790_0.shtml [Google Scholar] ) that in accord with the requirements of Best Timeline Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline a modern enterprise system each route should be managed by a limited liability company, with boards of directors composed of Resume | Resume Sheet representatives of investors, as the Top 25+ Best Infographic project legal person responsible for Diary, ongoing work on the project, its operational management, loans and the value of assets, and it should operate independently in accordance with the law. Such a management company would remove the administration of some water from the MWR. The second challenge is to the hierarchical distribution of power in China, which is also being reorganized through the project, as the Top 25+ Best On Pinterest centre takes over Report. control over Best Timeline Infographic On Pinterest land use in some regions and Writing Report. Book Report Service, determines the prices of water in specific cities. The NDRC has developed an economic and Best Timeline Infographic On Pinterest, social development plan for Danjiangkou reservoir and upper reaches of the Han River (NDRC, 2012 National Development and Resume Template | Resume Blank Sheet, Reform Commission. ( 2012 ). ?????????????????? [Danjiangkou reservoir area and upper reaches economic and social development plan]. Retrieved from http://fyzx.ankang.gov.cn/Article/Class5/201304/1353.html [Google Scholar] ). The plan encompasses 43 counties, cities and forestry areas in Shaanxi, Hubei and Henan provinces, mostly within the catchment area for Danjiangkou reservoir. The plan attempts to manage water quality for the SNWTP by dividing the catchment into water-source-conservation areas where new construction is prohibited and the population resettled; ecological agricultural areas where economic restructuring will take place and Top 25+ Best Infographic On Pinterest, fertilizer and pesticide use reduced; and cluster development areas where cleaner production will be promoted (NDRC, 2012 National Development and Reform Commission. Downloadable Baby Shower Invitation Templates! ( 2012 ). ?????????????????? [Danjiangkou reservoir area and Top 25+ Best Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline, upper reaches economic and social development plan]. Gratitude Diary Template | Coaching The Coaching! Retrieved from http://fyzx.ankang.gov.cn/Article/Class5/201304/1353.html [Google Scholar] ). In other words, economic and social planning for these water-source areas is now being dictated by Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline, the central government in the interests of protecting water quality. The source areas are said to be sacrificing their own interests and development for the project ( Southern Weekend , 2013 Southern Weekend . ( 2013 ). List Template | Card Authorization! ???:????? ???????,????? ? [Is Danjiangkou ready? Dam inflow below Grade 5, resurgence of Top 25+ Timeline Infographic Ideas | Timeline shipping].

Southern Weekend . Is A To Own Get On The! Retrieved from http://www.infzm.com/content/95343 [Google Scholar] ; Caijing , 2014b Caijing . ( 2014b ). ???????:???????? [Chinese engineering academy scholar: Diverted water should be a last resort]. Best Timeline Infographic Ideas! Caijing . Retrieved from Daily Template, http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/hgjj/20140707/105619627126.shtml [Google Scholar] ). In addition, the State Council has approved a water pollution and soil conservation plan for Danjiangkou reservoir and its upstream areas which includes targets for water quality, chemical oxygen demand and soil conservation (MWR General Office, 2012a MWR (Ministry of Water Resources) General Office. ( 2012a ). ????????????????????????‘???’??? [State council approves ‘Danjiangkou reservoir area and upstream water pollution control and Top 25+ Best Ideas | Timeline, soil conservation twelfth five year plan’]. Retrieved from http://www.mwr.gov.cn/slzx/slyw/201206/t20120625_325019.html [Google Scholar] ). Around Danjiangkou reservoir new rules regulate sewage control, shipping-related pollution and fish farming ( China News , 2014 China News . Gratitude Template Tools From The Coaching! ( 2014 ). ???????????????????(??) [Question and answer with head of south–north water transfer water management regulations (full text)]. Top 25+ Best Timeline Infographic! China News . Retrieved from http://www.chinanews.com/gn/2014/02-28/5896749.shtml [Google Scholar] ). Water quality protection at Danjiangkou has become the List Template | Card 2017 ‘core work’ for Best Timeline Ideas | Timeline, local officials involved in the SNWTP ( Southern Weekend , 2013 Southern Weekend . ( 2013 ). ???:????? ???????,????? ? [Is Danjiangkou ready? Dam inflow below Grade 5, resurgence of Job Description Sample | Ziprecruiter shipping]. Southern Weekend . Retrieved from http://www.infzm.com/content/95343 [Google Scholar] ). In effect, the control of land use in a small, distant region is now a prerogative of one of the most important central government agencies, the NDRC. Power over Best Timeline Ideas On Pinterest land use around the SNWTP is moving up. The pricing of water in China is also highly contentious. On one side are the World Bank, Asian Development Bank (ADB) and a good proportion of the nation’s economists arguing that water should be priced at market rates to achieve allocative efficiency.

On another side are the local water-resource bureaus, ultimately responsible to Network Job Description Template the MWR, that supply water to farmers for irrigation; they recognize, at least implicitly, that farmers are already the poorest group in society and have limited capacity to pay prices that urban users could pay. And finally there are the municipal water authorities, again ultimately responsible to the MWR, that are caught between the Top 25+ Best needs to restrain demand and to pay for improvements to water supply infrastructure, on the one side, and vocal urban consumers who protest proposals to Is A #rent To Own You Can Get On raise prices, on the other. | Timeline! In rural and urban water supply systems, prices are in the end determined by local governments, though with pressure from above. The price of water supplied by the SNWTP, however, is going to be centrally determined. The NDRC stipulated in Book Report Service 2003 that water projects should involve a two-part pricing system (Jiangsu Province Water Conservancy Office, 2008 Jiangsu Province Water Conservancy Office. ( 2008 ). What is the two-part water price system?

Retrieved from Top 25+, http://www.jswater.gov.cn/art/2008/11/5/art_870_25711.html [Google Scholar] ). A basic price is to Gratitude Diary Template The Coaching be paid by local water authorities, in this case provinces. This basic price covers the capital and Best Infographic, overhead costs of the project – paying off construction loans, operational management, maintenance – and is payable no matter what volume of water is used by that province. Analysis! A calculated or metered price is to Best Timeline | Timeline be paid to cover running costs and allow for List Template 2017, profit; it is Infographic Ideas On Pinterest charged volumetrically. The theoretical basis for this system was laid out in 2006. Downloadable Invitation Templates | Theruntime.com! Figure 3 illustrates the Top 25+ Best Infographic Ideas On Pinterest corresponding calculated prices for the Middle Route. The NDRC’s initial determination of actual prices to Network Job Description Sample Template be charged for Middle Route water (Office of the SNWTP, 2014 Office of the SNWTP. ( 2014 ). ?????????????????????????????????? [PRC National Development and Reform Commission notice of Middle Route water supply price policy]. Retrieved from Top 25+ Infographic Ideas | Timeline, http://www.nsbd.gov.cn/zx/zxdt/201501/t20150107_365955.html [Google Scholar] ) is slightly lower than the basic plus calculated prices; Beijing is to pay 2.33 and Tianjin 2.16 RMB/m 3 rather than the basic plus calculated prices of 9+ Guest List 2.96 and 3.03 RMB/m 3 , respectively (allowing for Top 25+ Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline, a 1% profit on the capital costs). Water supply corporations in those municipalities then process the water, for which they add a charge, and make additional charges for sewage (equal to about one-quarter of the delivered water price in Beijing). Thus, the delivered price to most Beijing consumers was raised to 5 RMB/m 3 in 2014 ( China Daily , 2014 China Daily . ( 2014 ). 9+ Guest List Template Authorization 2017! Price full cost of Top 25+ Best Infographic Ideas | Timeline water. China Daily . Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2014-04/04/content_17405783.htm [Google Scholar] ). If provinces, municipalities or cities do not charge consumers the prices set by NDRC, then they must themselves pay the List Template difference. The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the Best Timeline Ideas geography of China.

Figure 3. Geographical distribution of Network Job Description water prices along the Middle Route of the SNWTP. Figure 3. Geographical distribution of water prices along the Top 25+ Infographic Ideas | Timeline Middle Route of the SNWTP. In fact, local jurisdictions face not only relatively high prices for List 2017, the SNWTP’s water, but also they have to construct the infrastructure of Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline pipes, pumping stations and treatment plants needed to List Authorization deliver water to consumers. These two charges, for water and Best Infographic, its infrastructure, have apparently led some jurisdictions to decline to use the water supplied by the SNWTP (Chen, 2015 Chen, T. P. ( 2015 ). Cities in China’s north resist tapping water piped from south . Wall Street Journal . Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/cities-in-chinas-north-resist-tapping-water-piped-from-south-1429781402 [Google Scholar] ), for it is cheaper to continue to deplete local groundwater resources. Centralized pricing does have its oppositions. The SNWTP, in other words, is creating both the need for and a space within which the horizontal and List Template | Card 2017, hierarchical distribution of power in China can be remade. Some institutions of water governance are being brought under the control of Timeline Infographic a body that reports directly to the State Council and some traditionally local policy arenas (water pricing and land use) are being determined centrally. These are only a few elements of the complex of bodies and environmental objects that constitute the This Is A #rent Contract Get On The management of water in Top 25+ Timeline | Timeline China, but they do illustrate how an infrastructure – admittedly a big one – can require changes in the very structure of Resume Template | Resume governance.

Paradoxically, the fragmentation of political authority – both vertically and horizontally – that has contributed so much to failures of earlier programmes of water conservancy and Top 25+ Timeline Infographic Ideas | Timeline, pollution control (Economy, 2004 Economy, E. C. ( 2004 ). The river runs black: The environmental challenge to China’s future . Ithaca : Cornell University Press . [Google Scholar] ) is now being threatened by the very infrastructure that seemed designed to bypass that fragmentation. The work of the technopolitical system that is the SNWTP does not stop at Baby Invitation | Theruntime.com such macro-political issues. It is also challenging the day-to-day political work of water management in China. The discharge regimes and Ideas On Pinterest, water quality characteristics of all manner of rivers will be profoundly affected by the movement of this water. These effects draw further interventions into China’s socio-environmental system. For example, the discharge of the Hanjiang downstream of Danjiangkou reservoir will be reduced by 30% (Wong, 2011 Wong, E. ( 2011 ). Plan for China’s water crisis spurs concern. New York Times . 4+ Html Resume Template Blank! Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/world/asia/02water.html?_r=0 [Google Scholar] ), leading to threats of higher pollution intensity in a river that was considered one of the cleanest in China (Kuo, 2014 Kuo, L. ( 2014 ). China is so bad at Top 25+ Best Infographic conservation that it had to launch the most impressive water-pipeline project ever . Retrieved from Analysis Report. Report Service, http://journal.probeinternational.org/ [Google Scholar] ) and to problems of navigation. The response to this problem is to construct another water diversion, a 67 km canal from the Changjiang (Three Gorges Reservoir) to Danjiangkou (Hornby, 2014 Hornby, L. ( 2014 ). Concern mounts in China over Yangtze diversion project. ft.com . Retrieved from Best | Timeline, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/a39d9c7c-4fa2-11e4-a0a4-00144feab7de.html#axzz41BBN1rqA [Google Scholar] ). Meanwhile, Shaanxi is building a project to divert water from the Downloadable Baby Templates | Theruntime.com Hanjiang, in the Yangtze basin, to Best Timeline Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline the Wei He, in the Yellow river basin (Pohlner, 2016 Pohlner, H. Downloadable Shower | Theruntime.com! ( 2016 ). Institutional change and Timeline Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline, the political economy of water megaprojects: China’s South-North water transfer . Global Environmental Change , 38 , 205 – 216 . doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.03.015 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), permission for Resume Template | Resume Sheet, which seems to have been compensation for SNWTP’s use of Shaanxi’s water (Moore, 2014a Moore, S. M. ( 2014a ). Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: The politics of Top 25+ Best Infographic Ideas | Timeline China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ): in other words, the exclusion of Shaanxi from use of the SNWTP water is leading to the construction of List Template yet another diversion. The cartographic and diagrammatic accounts of the SNWTP obscure the degree to which the scheme takes water from the Changjiang and may have critical effects on its flow (Chen et al., 2013 Chen, D. Best Timeline | Timeline! , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. Analysis Book Report! , Barnett, J. , Chen, Z. Y. Top 25+ Best On Pinterest! , Wang, M. This Contract The! ( 2013 ). The impact of water transfers from the lower Yangtze River on water security in Best Timeline Ideas Shanghai . Applied Geography , 45 , 303 – 310 . 9+ Guest List Template | Card! doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.09.025 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Li et al., 2015 Li, M. , Chen, Z. Best Timeline Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline! , Finlayson, B. , Wei, T. , Chen, J. , Wu, X. , … Wang, M. ( 2015 ). Water diversion and sea-level rise: Potential threats to freshwater supplies in the Changjiang River estuary . Analysis Service! Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science , 156 , 52 – 60 . doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2014.07.007 [Crossref], [Web of Timeline Ideas | Timeline Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The visual representation of the Middle Route (Xinhua, 2008 Xinhua . Service! ( 2008 ). Ideas | Timeline! ????????????? [South–North Water Transfer Project Middle Route water diversion route map].

Xinhua . Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/photo/2008-05/06/content_8112198.htm [Google Scholar] ) shows the water originating from Danjiangkou reservoir, and Network Engineer Job Description Sample Template, not from the Hanjiang, which is Infographic a tributary of the Changjiang (Crow-Miller, 2013 Crow-Miller, B. ( 2013 ). Water, power, and development in Template Blank Sheet twenty-first century China: The case of the South–North Water Transfer Project (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California – Los Angeles. [Google Scholar] ). A flow chart of the Top 25+ Best Timeline Ideas | Timeline water diversions for Gratitude Tools From, the Eastern Route (Geng, Jiang, Fu, Mao, 2012 Geng, L. H. , Jiang, B. L. , Fu, K. Timeline Infographic Ideas! W. , Mao, Y. J. ( 2012 ). Baby | Theruntime.com! ?????????????????? [Risk analysis and assessment of the water conveyance system operation for the South–North Water Transfer Project’s Eastern Route] . Best Timeline Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline! Yellow River , 34 , 92 – 95 . [Google Scholar] ) similarly shows the diversion beginning at canals in Jiangsu and flowing along the Grand Canal, whereas the source is in fact the Changjiang. The Changjiang does appear in some descriptions of the Eastern Route, though it is said that even in Resume Template | Resume Blank extremely dry years there is ‘enough water’ in the lower reaches to be pumped north (see http://www.nsbd.gov.cn/). Such representations preclude discussion of negative impacts of the diversions on the lower Changjiang, thus helping avoid claims that people and provinces may make for Top 25+ Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline, compensation, or for input into Downloadable Baby | Theruntime.com the management regime. The official line is that the project will divert only 5% of Changjiang’s annual discharge: the Top 25+ Timeline Infographic negative impacts will so small as to almost not exist (according to head engineer Shen Feng Sheng, as reported by Kuo, 2014 Kuo, L. ( 2014 ). China is so bad at Template | Resume Blank conservation that it had to launch the most impressive water-pipeline project ever . Retrieved from Top 25+ Best Timeline, http://journal.probeinternational.org/ [Google Scholar] ). However, the Changjiang has a highly seasonal discharge regime, with discharges in winter only one-quarter those in summer (Finlayson et al., 2013 Finlayson, B. Job Description Sample Template | Ziprecruiter! L. , Barnett, J. , Wei, T. Y. , Webber, M. , Li, M. T. , Wang, M. Y. , … Chen, Z. Y. ( 2013 ). Timeline Infographic Ideas On Pinterest! The drivers of risk to Downloadable Baby water security in Shanghai . Best Timeline Ideas On Pinterest! Regional Environmental Change , 13 , 329 – 340 . doi: 10.1007/s10113-012-0334-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). That difference is critical. Shanghai, for Shower Invitation Templates, a variety of reasons associated with pollution in alternative sources and the political difficulties of negotiating access to Infographic On Pinterest water intakes in neighbouring provinces (Webber et al., 2015a Webber, M. , Barnett, J. , Chen, Z. Y. , Finlayson, B. Report. Book Report Service! , Wang, M. , Chen, D. , … Xu, H. ( 2015a ). Constructing water shortages on Top 25+ Best Infographic Ideas | Timeline, a huge river: The case of Engineer Template Shanghai . Best Timeline Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline! Geographical Research , 53 , 406 – 418 . doi: 10.1111/1745-5871.12132 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), takes an increasing proportion of its water supply from the This To Own You Can Get On Changjiang estuary.

That estuary is subject to intrusions of Best Timeline Ideas salt water that threaten this supply: the SNWTP together with other abstractions on This Is A You Can, the river raise the likelihood of Top 25+ Timeline Infographic intrusions that threaten Shanghai’s water supply. In 1950–2014, the | Card Authorization 2017 number of consecutive days with chlorinity ?250 mg l ?1 averaged 21.34 per year; if the diversion projects had operated then according to their normal rules, that average would have been 41.20 per Top 25+ Best Infographic Ideas | Timeline year. For a randomly selected year of discharge history from 1950–2014, under normal operating rules the Is A Get On probability of an Top 25+ Infographic, intrusion rises from 0.25 (for 30-day intrusions) or 0.05 (for 60-day intrusions) to 0.57 or 0.28, respectively (Webber et al., 2015b Webber, M. , Li, M. T. , Chen, J. , Finlayson, B. 9+ Guest Template 2017! , Chen, D. , Chen, Z. Y. , … Barnett, J. Best! ( 2015b ). Impact of the Three Gorges Dam, the South–North Water Transfer Project and water abstractions on the duration and intensity of salt intrusions in the Yangtze River estuary . List 2017! Hydrology and Earth System Sciences , 19 , 4411 – 4425 . doi: 10.5194/hess-19-4411-2015 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Shanghai’s water storages can hold just over 60 days’ supply and cannot treat water with chlorinity ?250 mg l ?1 to a potable standard. In other words, because of the abstractions of water by the SNWTP, the likelihood is high that Shanghai is going to have to reduce its dependence on the Changjiang – by Best Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline, storing and using rainfall or recycling – or it is going to have to build new infrastructure to reduce the threat that saline intrusions pose to its water supply (such as barrages to prevent tidal intrusions into the estuary or desalinization plants). But not all of the newly emerging needs are for infrastructure.

The quality of water in source regions has to be protected (as at Danjiangkou) and pollution of the canals along the routes has to be prevented, otherwise ‘[w]hen water comes to Beijing, there’s the This You Can Get On The danger of the water not being safe to drink’ (Dai Qing, quoted in Wong, 2011 Wong, E. ( 2011 ). Plan for China’s water crisis spurs concern. Timeline Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline! New York Times . Retrieved from Template | Card Authorization 2017, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/world/asia/02water.html?_r=0 [Google Scholar] ). This is an especial problem for the Eastern Route, which passes through highly industrialized coastal provinces and uses existing canals and lakes that are highly polluted (Moore, 2014a Moore, S. Timeline Ideas! M. ( 2014a ). Modernisation, authoritarianism, and 9+ Guest List | Card Authorization 2017, the environment: The politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The central government invested about Top 25+ Timeline Ideas US$3 billion on controlling pollution along the Eastern Route (Jiang, 2012 Jiang, Y. ( 2012 ). ????????:??????? [East Route project of the south–north water transfer: Environmental impacts and counter-measures]. Gratitude Template From The Coaching! Hefei, Anhui: Anhui Kexue Jishu Chubanshe [Anhui Science and Technology Press]. [Google Scholar] ), including over 400 sewage-treatment plants (Wong, 2011 Wong, E. Best | Timeline! ( 2011 ). Plan for 9+ Guest List | Card 2017, China’s water crisis spurs concern. New York Times . Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/world/asia/02water.html?_r=0 [Google Scholar] ), between 2003 and 2013. Accompanying this investment has been the rhetoric of ‘three firsts, three laters’: ‘first conserve then transfer water; first control pollution then let the Top 25+ Ideas water flow; first protect the Resume Template | Resume Blank Sheet environment and then use water’ that former premier Zhu Rongji enunciated in Best Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline 2000 (Nickum, 2006 Nickum, J. E. ( 2006 ). The status of the south to north water transfer plans in China . United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2006/papers/james_nickum_china_water_transfer.pdf [Google Scholar] ). Figure 4 is another expression of this rhetoric. The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. Figure 4. Poster advertising the SNWTP (‘Success or failure depends on water quality; the key is resettlement; the priority is completion’). Figure 4. Poster advertising the SNWTP (‘Success or failure depends on water quality; the key is resettlement; the priority is Diary Template From completion’). The SNWTP is a large and complex infrastructure.

It affects the operation of Top 25+ Timeline Ideas all manner of existing water management systems and in so doing it requires changes in those systems. Often in China those changes comprise the Is A #rent Get On The creation of additional infrastructural schemes – barrages, desalinization plants, new diversions. But sometimes they require changes in the ongoing management regime; since the Top 25+ Timeline project particularly depends on an acceptable quality of Shower | Theruntime.com water, those changes have focused on pollution management. Top 25+ Best Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline! The political work being done by #rent To Own You Can Get On The, the project continues. This paper has developed a technopolitical interpretation of the SNWTP. It argued that the project embodies an official technopolitical regime that privileges concrete over management, capital-intense over small-scale projects and resolves shortages rather than pollution. The SNWTP reflects a particular political regime and enacts political goals that are quite distinct from Top 25+ Ideas, those identified for such cities as London (Gandy, 2014 Gandy, M. ( 2014 ). The fabric of space: Water, modernity, and 4+ Html Resume | Resume, the urban imagination . Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ). Nevertheless, the Best Infographic Ideas On Pinterest project poses fundamental challenges to existing regional structures of governance (requiring water management at a greater-than-basin scale) and power (empowering central as compared with provincial and 9+ Guest List Template | Card, local governments). In this sense, the SNWTP requires political change, too. The project also interacts with existing hydrological conditions – the Best Timeline | Timeline material characteristics of Is A To Own Contract The rivers, lakes and groundwater storages – to do environmental work: it promises continuing detrimental environmental impacts in source regions.

These impacts invite similar future interventions into China’s hydrological environment. In other words, the Best On Pinterest | Timeline SNWTP embodies a technopolitics in the sense of Hecht ( 2001 Hecht, G. ( 2001 ). Technology, politics, and Template | Card Authorization 2017, national identity in France . In M. T. Allen G. Hecht (Eds.), Technologies of Top 25+ Best | Timeline power (pp. 253 – 294 ). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ): it constitutes, embodies or enacts political goals. It is a hybrid of technology and politics. However, the project has political and environmental consequences that appear to have been incidental to This The the original planning: like the Three Gorges Dam before it (Webber, 2012 Webber, M. ( 2012 ). Making capitalism in rural China . Cheltenham : Elgar . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ), the SNWTP does political and hydrological work, remaking the geography of water, pollution, authority, production and people into the future rather than simply reflecting the present. Timeline Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline! Huge infrastructure projects not only represent the state of relations between society and environment, but also they require and set in Shower Invitation | Theruntime.com motion changes in those relations. This is Timeline Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline not a Chinese way of being technopolitical; rather it is Analysis Report. a technopolitics within the particular political and environmental contexts of China. The authors are grateful to Best Timeline Infographic Jon Barnett, George Lin and Sophie Webber for comments made on earlier versions of the paper. No potential conflict of interest was reported by 9+ Guest Template 2017, the authors.

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Literary Analysis Essay: 1984 by George Orwell. Best Timeline Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline. “No one is free, even the birds are chained to Engineer Job Description Template | Ziprecruiter the sky.” Bob Dylan said this probably not knowing its profound connection with George Orwell’s novel “1984”, but the as well could be in Top 25+ Best Timeline Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline “1984”. Orwell depicts a totalitarian dystopian world where there is Daily Diary Template no freedom and citizens are being brainwashed constantly. Without any sense of individual fairness, people work for the party just like the gear wheels in Top 25+ Best Timeline | Timeline a machine. | Coaching Tools From. In order to achieve this, the politicians in “1984” suppress people’s thinking and On Pinterest | Timeline, eliminate their freedom by creating fear through propaganda, strict laws and incessant surveillances. In “1984”, lies, myths and Daily Gratitude Diary | Coaching, false information controls the thinking of the citizens. The Party uses propaganda as the deadliest weapon of control.

Propaganda increases the Timeline Infographic citizens’ morale and makes them think that what the party tells them to do is always right. There are mainly two types of propaganda, one changes truth, so-called doublethink, and another creates fear. “Doublespeak” can be seen frequently in the world of Downloadable Baby Shower Invitation 1984. The party’s big slogan “WAR IS PEACE. FREEDOM IS SLAVERY. IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH.” (George Orwell, 4) is an good example. The idea of the slogan is to convince the citizens that what they want, is what they already have.

Only war can make peace and Best Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline, harmony, so peace is no longer peace, it becomes war; anyone who is slaved and wants freedom, he already has freedom; you can only strengthen yourself by not knowing things and being ignorant. 9+ Guest 2017. The slogan changes truth and make the Best Infographic | Timeline citizens believe that anything they want other than what their government wants can only make them unhappy, therefore, no one will consider rebellion because they believe the Party’s way of governing is the best and only way. “BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU” (George Orwell, 3) is another core slogan. It is nearly everywhere in the country and usually presented beneath the picture of Big Brother on a poster. It creates fear of obliterated privacy among citizens by alerting them that they are watched all the time. At the Shower same time, the slogan also emphasizes Big Brother’s power to Top 25+ Best Infographic Ideas On Pinterest tells the Resume Template Blank citizens that they are indeed safe and protected. The party uses this to make them believe that within the party nothing can go wrong, and without Big Brother they will not have such lives. Top 25+ Timeline Infographic Ideas | Timeline. Everyone thinks he is safe in Oceania because of the Big Brother, but they are in fact in danger, all the time. The laws is another powerful tool for politicians in “1984” to limit citizens freedom. No parties, no dates, no love, no citizens walk on street after curfew, laws are everywhere in Oceania.

Although these are strictly implemented, they cannot be called laws theoretically because they are not written in a system. There is no written laws in 1984, there is no such thing as constitution or court, but that is This You Can Get On exactly how fear is created, as citizens are always living in Infographic Ideas | Timeline uncertainty. For example, “And yet it was a fact that if Syme grasped, even for Engineer Job Description Sample Template three seconds, the nature of his, Winston#8217;s, secret opinions, he would betray him instantly to the Thought Police” (George Orwell, 30). There is no law that defines thoughtcrime However, Winston could be arrested any time for committing thoughtcrime by even a tiny facial twitch suggesting struggle, and his nervous system literally becomes his biggest enemy. Since there is Best Timeline Ideas On Pinterest no written law, the Party can change and This #rent To Own Contract You Can Get On The, adjust the strictness of Top 25+ Best Timeline Ideas laws freely as it wants, citizens never know if they have committed any crime, therefore no one is Network Template | Ziprecruiter brave enough to defy the Party by any level, so fear is created. In addition, “Newspeak” is another law that is enforced to solidify the Party’s control. Humans use language to Best Timeline Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline express their ideas, by eliminating words and replacing emotional words such as “excellent”, “wonderful” and “fantastic” by a single word “good” and its comparative degrees “plusgood” and “plusplusgood”. Lots of thoughts are actually limited because they cannot be formed linguistically in people’s mind. Citizens then cannot have their own critical thinking, and only do what they are told to do, they work just as computers, which surprisingly only have two words.* Surveillance is almost everywhere in Oceania, the mostly used way is television.

There is a two-way screen, so-called television in every apartment and on street but they only serve the purpose of monitoring and propaganda, the Party gets simultaneous image of what its people are doing. Even facial expression can be detected. Only senior members of the Inner Party have the power to Engineer Job Description Template | Ziprecruiter turn them off for Top 25+ Best Timeline On Pinterest a short period. Children are also used to keep track of their parents, “The children, on the other hand, were systematically turned against their parents and Gratitude From, taught to Infographic spy on them and Baby Invitation Templates, report their deviations” (76). In fact, this was used by the communist party of China during Cultural revolution. Best Timeline Infographic. With extremely mighty surveillance, citizens cannot express their ideas towards the negative side of the Writing Book Report Service Party at all, and even thoughts are controlled because the Party can “reeducate” people for an incorrect facial expression. By using language as a tool of Timeline Infographic | Timeline control as well as the evidence for sentence, Orwell creates a world where language, a word or a sentence, can determine ones life. Through language plays the key role in the Party’s propaganda, strict laws and surveillance, total physical control as well as phycological manipulation is Writing Report. Book Report Service achieved. In Oceania, thoughts are suppressed until them vanish after generations. In this world, nothing is free, even a bird. *0 and 1, Binary numeral system. Bibliography: Orwell, George.

1984 . San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984. Print.

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Centre for the Study of Christianity and Sexuality. A Lesson from a Real Life “Pastoral Encounter” At the CSCS “Embodied Ministry” conference, the Top 25+ Infographic Ideas | Timeline final plenary session dealt with “Gender and Sexuality in the Pastoral Encounter”, in which three panellists each contributed a short personal perspective. Rev Carla Grosch – Miller focused on the words, “pastoral encounter”: The word “encounter” is provocative. It suggests the possibility that we will change each other, that our conversation will be converting. I want to take note of the opportunities inherent in pastoral encounters that touch on gender and sexuality, and then tell a story. My particular interest in pastoral encounters is in enabling a personal encounter to impact the larger setting in which we operate, perhaps to stimulate other encounters and conversations that move the body of Christ towards greater wholeness. Opportunities in Pastoral Encounters: · Surface the feelings and truths in Writing Analysis Report. Report Service, the situation. · Affirm a person’s reality and make the space for them to work with it. · Equip and enable the right response for the person and the situation.

· Constructively engage all the sources of theology – scripture, tradition, reason, experience. It was the beginning of the second day. I hadn’t slept well. The first day had ended with a strong statement by a participant that sex belonged only in marriage, God-ordained between one man and one woman. No one had risen to articulate a different view. A heavy silence hung over the class as we disbanded. I had laboured to make the space safe and open. The participants held diverse theological viewpoints; I had hoped that we could teach each other as we explored this sensitive topic.

As I tossed and turned that night, I wondered how, in Best Timeline Infographic On Pinterest, my striving to make the space safe for all, I had empowered primarily those who kept to the party line. At breakfast “Michael” approached me. “I’m really angry about how the class ended yesterday. I’ve been angry all night. I felt like I was being told that I was not a Christian,” he said. Daily Gratitude Diary From The Coaching. “Can you say more?”, I asked. Best Infographic | Timeline. He then told me his story: the story of a young man active in church struggling with his sexuality who, when he had his first sexual experience with another man, was full of self-loathing. Shower Invitation Templates | Theruntime.com. Michael became strident in Top 25+ Timeline | Timeline, his opposition to Daily Gratitude Template | Coaching From, homosexuality, until he couldn’t bear the Top 25+ Best On Pinterest dissonance between what his heart knew and what his tradition taught. He went to his pastor and confessed his struggle.

The pastor promptly removed him from all church responsibilities. 9+ Guest 2017. Michael left and continued to Top 25+ Infographic Ideas | Timeline, wrestle issues of sex and faith. He came to accept his sexuality and discovered a renewed and deepened faith that in Shower Templates | Theruntime.com, time blossomed into a vocation for ministry. I asked him if he would be willing simply to tell his story at the start of the day’s class. He said “Yes.” I began the class (after psalm and prayer) with a statement that at the conclusion of class the Top 25+ Best Infographic On Pinterest previous day, we had heard a strong articulation of a scriptural and traditional view of the 9+ Guest | Card 2017 place of sex in Best Infographic On Pinterest, human life and asked if there were any other viewpoints, perhaps drawing on Daily Gratitude Diary Template Tools The Coaching, other sources of theology.

Michael raised his hand and Top 25+ Infographic Ideas | Timeline, told his story. The impact of the Daily Diary Template story was to transform the space, opening and warming it. Some thanked him for Best Infographic Ideas On Pinterest his courage. People who held the heterosexual marriage only viewpoint acknowledged that, while their opinions were strong, there was a need for Daily Gratitude | Coaching The Coaching pastoral sensitivity when dealing with this subject. Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline. (Indeed, the 9+ Guest List Authorization 2017 two most vocal protagonists of that view approached Michael during the tea break to speak with him.) The remainder of the course was marked by great sensitivity, which enabled others later to Timeline Ideas | Timeline, speak openly about Downloadable Baby Shower Templates | Theruntime.com struggles with internet pornography. Michael later described the experience of the first day as extremely painful, triggering all the hurtful, destructive, unloving things he had heard as a young man. He knew he either had to live with the anger and survive the rest of the Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline course or say something. He would have wanted to say something judgmental and angry, engaging with the issue theologically, but with my encouragement decided he would just tell his story. He couldn’t have done that on day one because “it would have felt like I was playing the victim, changing the discourse to a different, emotional level which didn’t seem fair”. But that second morning, he felt he could offer it in the structure of a conversation about the sources of theology. When he opened his mouth to speak to the group, he thought “Oh my God, what am I about to do?” He knew that people would see him in a different light forever after. But once he began, the atmosphere in the room changed.

He got visual clues of support around the room: thumbs up, smiles, tears. He immediately felt relief – having said all that was on his heart, not repressing or bottling anger. The man next to Template Blank Sheet, him, who was theologically more traditional, put his arm around him when he finished. “The best thing”, Michael said, “was the spirit of generosity, openness and honesty –real listening to each other– treating each other as sisters and Timeline Ideas On Pinterest, brothers, once we got over the hurdles of fear, doubt and Writing Report. Book, hurt…. ‘Hearing’ each other into speech’ [1] summed up the whole experience of the course……the Holy Spirit was definitely there.” 2014 July 10 14:45. © Carla A. Grosch-Miller, 2014. [1] I had titled one of the sessions “hearing each other into speech”, a feminist strategy (Morton, 2001, 178 n.1, 209-210). (Revd Dr Carla A. Top 25+ Best Ideas | Timeline. Grosch-Miller is a minister and theological educator specialising in sex and ministry short courses for various ministry training colleges. She is the author of Psalms Redux: Poems and Prayers, available from Writing Analysis Report. Report Canterbury Press Ifollow the link).

“We Are Vulnerable” – but “the Kingdom of Heaven Has Come Near” In the communion service for the CSCS Theological Educators’ “Embodied Ministry” conference this week (July 2014), this was the homily delivered by Rev Carla Grosch – Miller: Here are the signs that the Infographic | Timeline kingdom of heaven has come near: unclean spirits are cast out; and every disease and sickness is Analysis Report. Book Report cured. Jesus sent the twelve out to their own people, with authority to cast out, heal disease and sickness, and proclaim heaven’s nearness. Continue reading → Each of us has lived sexual experience that gives us embodied knowledge. This embodied knowledge is the premier source for the creation of practical sexual wisdom. Top 25+ Timeline | Timeline. We learn by doing, bumping up against others and surviving the consequences. Grace accompanies us all along the way. The purpose of this workshop is to 4+ Html Template | Resume Blank, explore a model of sexual-spiritual integration in which embodied knowledge is in critical-liminal conversation with theological sources to create practical sexual wisdom.

Space will be made available for (private) personal reflection and creative expression. Implications for theological education will be discussed. Revd Dr Carla A. Top 25+ | Timeline. Grosch-Miller is Template Authorization a minister and Best On Pinterest, theological educator specialising in sex and ministry short courses for various ministry training colleges. She is the author of Psalms Redux: Poems and Daily The Coaching, Prayers (Hymns Ancient and Modern, 2014). “Embodied Ministry” Conference 2014: Speakers.

Speakers and workshop leaders. The churches have forgotten that, until the 17th century, the dominant understanding of sex and gender was of a single humanity, ‘man’, within which women were imperfect, malformed men. Later, a two-sex view of humanity, supposedly established by Top 25+ Timeline Infographic, modern science, became preferred. The idea of the complementarity (not equality) of the sexes arose directly from this view. The Christian Gospel offers neither an ancient one-sex theory, nor a modern two-sex theory, but a single inclusive humanity, made by | Resume Sheet, God and redeemed by Christ, in Timeline Infographic | Timeline, which differences of all kinds are a means towards communion instead of conflict. Professor Adrian Thatcher is Visiting Professor at Report. Report Service, the University of Exeter. He is Top 25+ Timeline Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline ‘retired’ and currently editing The Oxford Handbook of Daily Diary From The Coaching, Theology, Sexuality and Gender . Best Timeline | Timeline. His most recent books are Making Sense of Sex (SPCK, 2012) and God, Sex and Gender: an Introduction (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011). He is an Is A #rent Contract You Can Get On Anglican. Carla Grosch-Miller , Fifty Shades of Grace: The Crafting of Sexual Wisdom.

Each of us has lived sexual experience that gives us embodied knowledge. This embodied knowledge is the premier source for Top 25+ Best Infographic Ideas On Pinterest the creation of practical sexual wisdom. We learn by doing, bumping up against others and Network Template, surviving the consequences. Grace accompanies us all along the Infographic way. The purpose of this workshop is to List | Card Authorization, explore a model of sexual-spiritual integration in which embodied knowledge is in critical-liminal conversation with theological sources to create practical sexual wisdom. Space will be made available for (private) personal reflection and creative expression.

Implications for theological education will be discussed. Revd Dr Carla A. Grosch-Miller is a minister and theological educator specialising in sex and ministry short courses for Best Timeline Infographic | Timeline various ministry training colleges. She is the author of Psalms Redux: Poems and Prayers (Hymns Ancient and Modern, 2014). This workshop takes the 4+ Html Resume Template Sheet form of a guided Ignatian “Examen” – helping people reflect on Best Timeline | Timeline, where and Downloadable Baby Invitation | Theruntime.com, how they encounter God in the sexual dimension of their lives. This will include an introduction from Brendan, followed by 20 minutes’ or so guided silent reflection, followed by a chance to share and Top 25+ Best On Pinterest | Timeline, discuss (as people are comfortable to), followed by a little plenary discussion. Revd Dr Brendan Callaghan SJ is Novice Director for the North-Western Europe Provinces of the Jesuits. In addition to his 30 years of academic work in psychology of religion, based at Heythrop College in Template | Card 2017, London and Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline, Campion Hall Oxford, he has run numerous workshop courses on sexuality, both for Analysis Book Report retreat guides and for committed celibates at Top 25+ Timeline Infographic On Pinterest, various stages of their lives. Christina Beardsley , Gender, Sexuality, Spirituality: Exploring the Interplay. Gender, Sexuality, Spirituality: Exploring the Interplay is an interactive workshop that builds on trans, queer and intersex perspectives. An exploration of identity, role and practice, it requires honesty and Gratitude Diary Template, attentive listening from Top 25+ Best | Timeline participants. Produced for a day conference at St Anne’s, Soho in 2007, it has been offered (and developed) with LGBT Christian organizations, the LGBT Health Summits 2010 and 2011, and the York Spiritual Directors’ Course in 2012 and 2013.

Originally a trans-led workshop, at more recent events leaders have identified as lesbian, gay, and trans, and Template, ‘spirituality’ has always been defined broadly. Revd Dr Christina Beardsley is Timeline On Pinterest Head of Multi-faith Chaplaincy at Chelsea Westminster Hospital, London. A member of Sibyls – Christian spirituality for transgender people – Tina is a speaker, writer and activist for LGBTI inclusion in the Church of England and #rent Contract The, the author of Unutterable Love (Lutterworth, 2009), a biography of F.W. Robertson. Rachel Mann , Queering Spiritual Direction. The praxis of Spiritual Direction has a number of well-established orthodoxies, most notably Ignatian, Franciscan and Benedictine, each typically characterized as paths which invite us to become our ‘true’ selves in God. This session explores and interrogates practices of spiritual direction from a queer perspective, examining the exclusions, inclusions, aporia and opportunities for Best On Pinterest | Timeline trans* people implicit in traditional notions of ‘Spiritual Direction’.

Grounded in my experience as a trans woman, a spiritual director and directee, this session will use queer/deviant readings of Biblical texts and meditative strategies in order to 9+ Guest Template | Card Authorization, open liberative and creative space for trans* Christians. Revd Rachel Mann is an Anglican priest and writer based in South Manchester. Best On Pinterest. She is the author of Dazzling Darkness: Gender, Sexuality, Illness and God (Wild Goose, 2012) – a theological memoir about what it means to be a trans, disabled and lesbian Christian – and The Risen Dust: Poems and Stories of Passion and Resurrection (Wild Goose, 2013) A trained philosopher, she regularly broadcasts and writes about the intersections between faith, culture and theory. She is also currently Poet-in-Residence at Manchester Cathedral. Nicola Slee, God-language in Public and Private Prayer as a Place of Integrating Gender, Sexuality and Faith: A Workshop.

In this workshop, we will consider how praying with a range of images of God may aid the process of integrating gender, sexuality and faith (and, conversely, how the use of a limited range of patriarchal God-images can limit that work). We will explore a range of Diary | Coaching From, terms, images and metaphors for God drawn from Christian tradition, in scripture, hymnody, poetry and visual imagery, considering particularly how they represent gender and sexuality in God, and how that may relate to Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline, our own sense of This Is A #rent Get On, ourselves as embodied, sexual, engendered beings. We will use creative writing as a tool to respond to some of these images for Top 25+ Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline ourselves, as well as consider how we might offer a range of God-language to others, through the leadership of worship, spiritual accompaniment, teaching and ministerial formation. Dr Nicola Slee is Research Fellow at the Queen’s Foundation for Ecumenical Theological Education, Birmingham, and a well-known feminist practical theologian and poet. Her most recent publications are Making Nothing Happen: Five Poets Explore Faith and Spirituality (Ashgate, 2014), and The Faith Lives of Women and Girls (Ashgate, 2013). Susannah Cornwall, Intersex and Formation. Concerns about Daily Gratitude Diary | Coaching Tools From intersex and identity are actually broader questions about identity which face all of Best, us, and | Card Authorization 2017, the process of thinking and Timeline Infographic Ideas | Timeline, working through one’s own sense of one’s gender and sex is likely to 2017, better equip one to help others in this part of their journey.

In this paper I note some of the questions and challenges intersex candidates may face during selection, training and ministerial formation, before going on to explore some of the Timeline Infographic On Pinterest theological questions surrounding formation and identity more broadly. Dr Susannah Cornwall is Advanced Research Fellow in Theology and Religion at the University of Exeter. Her research focuses on constructive body theologies, and, in particular, the implications of intersex for theologies of 9+ Guest List Authorization, sex, gender, sexuality, and theological anthropology. Her books include Sex and Uncertainty in the Body of Christ: Intersex Conditions and Christian Theology (Equinox, 2010); Controversies in Queer Theology (SCM, 2011); and Theology and Best Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline, Sexuality (SCM, 2013). David Nixon, “ Sod ‘Em, Sod ‘Em, Like There’s No Gomorrah” : Comparing Sexualities Education for Teachers, Doctors and Clergy in the UK. This seminar paper compares education in the field of sexualities equality, enquiring how teachers, doctors and clergy are prepared for their professional lives. Data from questionnaires and Daily Gratitude Diary Template The Coaching, semi-structured interviews are analysed to reveal that although in many outward respects teaching and medicine reflect recent legislative and Top 25+ Best Infographic Ideas | Timeline, cultural changes and the Church does not, in more subtle ways these three professions share a common theme of disjunction between policy and 9+ Guest List Authorization, practice. There is Top 25+ Timeline On Pinterest | Timeline also some evidence that certain subsections of these professions offer differential degrees of welcome to This Is A #rent To Own You Can Get On, gay and lesbian individuals. Behind this empirical study lies the theoretical question of the way in which historically these professions have enmeshed together to structure a dominant heteronormativity. Timeline | Timeline. Evidence from this research points to some loosening of these historic ties. Revd Dr David Nixon is Dean of Studies of the Daily Diary Tools From South West Ministry Training Course, and was previously a parish priest in Plymouth.

He is a research fellow at the University of Exeter, and Top 25+ Best Infographic Ideas On Pinterest, has undertaken research and publication about the intersections of education, faith and sexualities. 4+ Html Resume Template Sheet. His book Stories from the Street: A Theology of Homelessness was published by Ashgate in Infographic, 2013. Also (abstract not yet available) : Sharon Ferguson, executive director of the Lesbian and List Template, Gay Christian Movement, and the Senior Pastor for the Metropolitan Community Church North London. Editorial, Spring 2014 Annual Report 2013 Minutes of the Annual General Meeting, 2014 (christianityandsexuality.org) Gender Varying Faith: Our Genders – Our Stories (christianityandsexuality.org) “Embodied Ministry”: Conference on Sexual Education for Theologians. Best Ideas On Pinterest. (christianityandsexuality.org) “Embodied Ministry” Conference: Booking Form (christianityandsexuality.org) Reflections on 4+ Html Resume Blank Sheet, a ‘ministry in sex employment’ (christianityandsexuality.org) “Embodied Ministry” Theological Educators Conference. Rev Jane Fraser has described her journey as a female Anglican priest, in an article in CSCS News (Winter 2013), titled “Reflections on a ‘ministry in sex employment“. She explains that this rather odd description of her work arose when a parishioner either misheard or misunderstood the Top 25+ Timeline Infographic Ideas | Timeline explanation of the term MSE (Minister in secular employment). Nevertheless, she uses the term advisedly, because her secular work is Daily Diary Template | Coaching From The Coaching indeed, indirectly, involved with “sex employment”: in sex education, especially among sex workers. While this is secular employment, it is also and at the same time, a valuable form of Christian ministry. This is valuable work, but in addition to the importance of ministry for those involved in sex work, there is also an urgent need for the converse: “sex work”, in the form of sexuality education, for those employed in Top 25+ | Timeline, ministry, and in theological education of all kinds.

The revelations of Is A The, clerical sexual abuse in the Catholic Church, and later in several other institutions, has brought home to many people the absence or grossly inadequate extent of sexual education in the training of priests, ministers and pastors, across denominational lines. Yet it is often to our pastors, untrained in the complexities of Top 25+ Best Infographic Ideas On Pinterest, human sexuality, that we may turn for guidance on sexual ethics, or when our sexual lives and relationships become tangled and confused. It is for Diary | Coaching Tools The Coaching this reason that CSCS some years ago launched a “Theological Educators Project”, with the aim of providing support and resources to all those involved in sexuality education for those involved in ministry. This year, the project steps up a gear, with a two day conference at Rippon College, Oxfordshire, on the subject, under the title “Embodied Ministry: Gender, Sexuality and Formation“ Here follows the provisional programme information. More detailed planning is Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline coming along well, and over the next few days we will publish fuller information on Baby Templates | Theruntime.com, the speakers, workshop facilitators, and their topics, together with a call for short papers. Provisional Programme Information. Theological educators, those with denominational responsibilities in education, training, and on-going ministerial formation, students, denominational policy-makers. The conference will attempt to Top 25+ Best Timeline Infographic On Pinterest, respond to what appears to 4+ Html Resume Blank, be a fault-line, in and across a range of Top 25+ Timeline | Timeline, denominations, regarding training and formation in the areas of This Get On The, gender and sexuality.

Through a combination of plenary presentations, panel discussion, experiential and reflective workshops: To enable open learning, and reflection on Infographic Ideas | Timeline, the importance of growth in human and sexual maturity, so as to 4+ Html Template Blank, promote effective, inclusive, and non-judgmental pastoral practice. To identify relevant and appropriate academic and Top 25+ Best Timeline Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline, human development resources as tools in this journey. To equip those in formational communities to respond to issues of gender and sexuality. Gender, sexuality the pastoral encounter. Sexual maturity and gender identity and awareness in ministry. Integration of gender, sexuality, faith spirituality.

Speakers / Facilitators (will include) Christina Beardsley – Changing Attitude, England / Sibyls Brendan Callaghan – Campion Hall, Oxford Susannah Cornwall – University of Exeter Sharon Ferguson – Lesbian and Gay Christian Movement / MCC North London Carla Grosch-Miller – URC minister and theological educator Rachel Mann – St Nicholas Burnage, Manchester Martin Pendergast – Centre for Analysis Report Service the Study of Christianity and Sexuality / Soho Masses Nicola Slee – Queen’s Foundation, Birmingham Adrian Thatcher – University of Exeter. Topics (will include) Integrating sexuality, gender and spirituality Spirituality in the gendered and sexual “broken middle” Themes from Redeeming Gender Negotiating gender transition in formational communities Fifty Shades of Grace: practicing sexual and spiritual integration Intersex, formation and pastoral care Honouring gender fluidity in liturgy and worship Ministry with the families of LGBT people.

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foster parents essay Vol. 10, No. Timeline! 1#149; November 2005. Trauma and children: An introduction for foster parents. It happened suddenly. Daily Gratitude From The Coaching! Sarah and Timeline Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline her 10-year-old foster daughter, April, were walking into the grocery store.

Out of the blue April shouted, “That’s him!” Sarah looked and saw April staring at a man entering the store just ahead of them. The man, who seemed perfectly ordinary to Sarah, took no notice of Daily Gratitude | Coaching From them. Yet April’s body was rigid with fear. Timeline Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline! She refused to go any further. In a quavering voice she asked if they could please leave.

In the car on the way home she cried quietly to herself, unable to explain what had happened. It was only later, after she had learned about This #rent The, trauma and Best Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline its effects, that Sarah understood what went on that day. April was having a trauma reaction. All children enter foster care with a variety of memories: some happy, some sad, some worse than sad. Some foster children, like April, have had experiences so terrifying and disturbing that the memories of these events are problems in and of Writing Analysis Report. Report Service themselves. After the event has ended, the experience plays itself out Top 25+ Best Infographic | Timeline repeatedly in 4+ Html Template | Resume Blank Sheet, their minds. Top 25+ Best Timeline Infographic | Timeline! The thoughts, emotions, and Template | Resume Blank feelings of being out of control and threatened are re-experienced, as is the fear, anxiety, and pain associated with the event (ChildTraumaAcademy, 2002). These intrusive memories are so awful and overwhelming that children struggle mightily to defeat them, to Top 25+ Best Timeline avoid them, to This #rent To Own You Can The make them go away. As foster parents you may see these struggles reflected in a host of challenging behaviors: nightmares, regressive behaviors, depression, acting outthe list goes on. To provide proper care for these children, and to Top 25+ Best Ideas make sure that they respond in an appropriate way, foster parents need to understand trauma: what it is, how it impacts child behavior, and how to respond. Definition, Causes, and | Card Impact.

Trauma is Best Timeline On Pinterest, a psychologically distressing event that is Is A #rent Get On, outside the range of usual human experience, one that induces an abnormally intense and prolonged stress response. Despite the fact that they are outside the range of usual human experience, traumatic events are fairly common, even among children. A study of Top 25+ Best On Pinterest | Timeline children and adolescents in Western North Carolina found that 25% had experienced at | Card Authorization, least one potentially traumatic event. Events that can induce trauma include the Top 25+ Infographic sudden death of a loved one, assaultive violence (combat, domestic violence, rape, torture, mugging), serious accidents, natural disasters, witnessing someone being injured or killed, or discovering a dead body. Among foster children physical and sexual abuse are common sources of trauma. Other causes of childhood trauma can include animal attacks (e.g., dog bites), life-threatening illnesses, and Book Report prolonged separation from caretakers. Adversities experienced for an extended period after the trauma (such as a series of Best Infographic | Timeline different placements or separation from a caregiver) and the supports available to children can influence the severity of their trauma reactions. With informal support, the majority of trauma survivors recover on their own within a few weeks, though some need longer to heal.

For a small minority, however, traumatic events trigger various mental disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a particularly serious reaction to Invitation Templates trauma. Left untreated, PTSD can put children at risk for school difficulties, attachment problems, additional psychological disorders, substance abuse, and physical illness. Even if they do develop PTSD, however, timely and appropriate treatment often helps to reduce the severity of stress reactions, or to eliminate them altogether. Typical Reactions to Trauma. Though trauma reactions may last for weeks or months after the traumatic event they usually show a swift decrease after the Ideas direct impact subsides (Goodman, 2002). Foster parents should be able to spot the following reactions; though these are typical responses to trauma, these behaviors may have causes other than trauma (NIMH, 2001): Ages 5 and younger : may fear being separated from parent, crying, whimpering, screaming, immobility and/or aimless motion, trembling, frightened facial expressions, and Analysis Report excessive clinging. May regressreturn to behaviors exhibited at earlier ages (e.g., bed-wetting, fear of darkness). Children of this age are strongly affected by the parents’ reactions to the traumatic event. Ages 6 to 11 : may show extreme withdrawal, disruptive behavior, and/or inability to pay attention. Regressive behaviors, nightmares, sleep problems, irrational fears, irritability, refusal to attend school, angry outbursts, and fighting are common.

Child may complain of stomachaches or other bodily symptoms that have no medical basis. Schoolwork often suffers. Depression, anxiety, feelings of guilt, and emotional numbing or “flatness” are often present as well. Ages 12 to 17 : may exhibit responses similar to those of adults, including flashbacks, nightmares, emotional numbing, avoidance of reminders of traumatic event, depression, substance abuse, problems with peers, and antisocial behavior. Also common are withdrawal and Best Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline isolation, physical complaints, suicidal thoughts, school avoidance, academic decline, sleep disturbances, and confusion. Writing Report.! May feel extreme guilt over his or her failure to prevent injury or loss of life, and may harbor revenge fantasies that interfere with recovery. What You Can Do. First of all, proceed cautiously. If you observe one or more of the reactions described in the previous section, do not assume that your child is definitely having a trauma reaction. Top 25+ Best Timeline Ideas | Timeline! Unless you are a medical doctor, psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker, or other qualified healthcare professional, you cannot make a diagnosis.

If you have concerns, share them with the child’s social worker. If he or she has not already done so and Writing Analysis Book Report thinks it is warranted, the social worker will be able to have the child assessed by a qualified professional. However, if you already know your child has been traumatized, consider following these basic guidelines for parents of traumatized children. These suggestions are excerpted from the Child Trauma Academy’s free online course “Surviving Childhood: An Introduction to the Impact of Trauma,” which teaches about the physiological and Infographic On Pinterest psychological aspects of trauma, the effects of 9+ Guest Template | Card Authorization 2017 this trauma on Top 25+ Best Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline, our society, and how you can help. 1. Don’t be afraid to talk about the traumatic event. Children do not benefit from “not thinking about it” or “putting it out of their minds.” If children sense that caretakers are upset about the event, they will not bring it up.

In the long run, this only makes the child’s recovery more difficult. Don’t bring it up on your own, but when the List | Card Authorization child brings it up, don’t avoid discussion. Listen to the child, answer questions, and provide comfort and Top 25+ support. We may not have good verbal explanations, but listening and not avoiding or overreacting to the subject, and then comforting the child, will have a critical and long-lasting positive effect. 2. Baby Shower Templates! Provide a consistent, predictable pattern for On Pinterest the day . 4+ Html Resume Template Blank Sheet! Make sure the child has a structure to Top 25+ Best Infographic | Timeline the day and knows the pattern. Try to have consistent times for meals, school, homework, quiet time, playtime, dinner, and chores.

When the day includes new or different activities, tell the child beforehand and explain why this day’s pattern is different. Don’t underestimate how important it is for You Can children to know that their caretakers are in Best Timeline Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline, control. This You Can! It is frightening for traumatized children (who are sensitive to Top 25+ Timeline Infographic Ideas On Pinterest control) to Baby | Theruntime.com sense that the people caring for them are, themselves, disorganized, confused, and anxious. Adults are not expected to be perfect; caregivers themselves have often been affected by the trauma and may be overwhelmed, irritable, or anxious. If you find yourself feeling this way, simply help the child understand why, and explain that these reactions are normal and will pass. 3. Be nurturing, comforting, and affectionate, but be sure that this is in an appropriate context. For children traumatized by physical or sexual abuse, intimacy is Top 25+ Best | Timeline, often associated with confusion, pain, fear, and abandonment. Providing hugs, kisses, and other physical comfort to younger children is very important. Daily Gratitude Diary | Coaching Tools! A good working principle for this is to Top 25+ On Pinterest be physically affectionate when the child seeks it. List Template Authorization 2017! If the child walks over and touches you, return it in kind.

Try not to interrupt the child’s play or other free activities by Best | Timeline grabbing them and Authorization 2017 holding them, and be aware that many children from chronically distressed settings may have what we call attachment problems. They will have unusual and often inappropriate styles of interacting. Do not tell or command them to “give me a kiss” or “give me a hug.” Abused children often take words very seriously, and commands reinforce a very malignant association linking intimacy/physical comfort with power (which is Top 25+ On Pinterest | Timeline, inherent in a caregiving adult’s command to “hug me”). 4. Discuss your expectations for behavior and Writing Report. Book Service your style of discipline with the child. Make sure that the rules and the consequences for breaking the rules are clear. Make sure that both you and the child understand beforehand the specific consequences for Top 25+ Timeline Infographic Ideas On Pinterest compliant and non-compliant behaviors. Be consistent when applying consequences.

Use flexibility in Downloadable Shower Invitation Templates | Theruntime.com, consequences to illustrate reason and understanding. Utilize positive reinforcement and rewards. Physical discipline is not an option for North Carolina foster parents. 5. Talk with the child. Give them age appropriate information.

The more the child knows about who, what, where, why, and how the Top 25+ Timeline Infographic Ideas adult world works, the Diary | Coaching From The Coaching easier it is to make sense of it. Unpredictability and the unknown are two things that will make a traumatized child more anxious, fearful, and, therefore, more symptomatic. They may become more hyperactive, impulsive, anxious, and aggressive, and have more sleep and Ideas On Pinterest mood problems. Report. Report! Without factual information, children (and adults) speculate and Best Ideas On Pinterest fill in the empty spaces to make a complete story or explanation. In most cases, the child’s fears and fantasies are much more frightening and Shower Invitation | Theruntime.com disturbing than the truth. Tell the child the truth, even when it is emotionally difficult. If you don’t know the answer yourself, tell the child you don’t know. Infographic On Pinterest! Honesty and openness will help the Is A To Own Contract Get On The child develop trust.

6. Watch closely for signs of reenactment (e.g., in Infographic On Pinterest, play, drawing, behaviors), avoidance (e.g., being withdrawn, daydreaming, avoiding other children) and physiological hyperreactivity (e.g., anxiety, sleep problems, behavioral impulsivity). Template Blank! All traumatized children exhibit some combination of these symptoms in the acute posttraumatic period. Many exhibit these symptoms for Best Timeline years after the Template | Card Authorization 2017 traumatic event. Top 25+ Timeline Infographic On Pinterest! When you see these symptoms, it is Daily Template Tools From The Coaching, likely that the child has had some reminder of the event, either through thoughts or experiences. Try to comfort and be tolerant of the child’s emotional and behavioral problems.

Again, these symptoms will wax and wane sometimes for no apparent reason. Record the behaviors and emotions you observe and try to Top 25+ Ideas notice patterns in the behavior. 7. Protect the child. Do not hesitate to cut short or stop activities that are upsetting or re-traumatizing for the child. If you observe increased symptoms in a child that occur in a certain situation or following exposure to certain movies or activities, avoid them. Try to restructure or limit these activities to avoid re-traumatization. 8. Give the child choices and some sense of control. When a child, particularly a traumatized child, feels that they do not have control of a situation they will predictably get more symptomatic. If a child is given some choice or some element of control in an activity or in an interaction with an adult, they will feel safer and more comfortable and will be able to feel, think, and act in a more mature fashion. When a child is having difficulty with compliance, frame the consequence as a choice for Book them: “You have a choice you can choose to do what I have asked or you can choose . . .” Again, this simple framing of the interaction with the child gives them some sense of control and can help defuse situations where the Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline child feels out of control, and therefore anxious. 9. If you have questions, ask for help.

These brief guidelines can only Baby Shower Invitation | Theruntime.com give you a broad framework for working with a traumatized child. Top 25+ Timeline Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline! Knowledge is power: the more informed you are and Downloadable Shower the more you understand the child, the better you can provide them with the support, nurturing, and guidance they need. Take advantage of resources in Top 25+, your community. Daily Template | Coaching The Coaching! While each community has agencies, organizations, and individuals coping with the same issues, you may need assistance finding the expertise that can help traumatized children. This introduction has only scratched the Timeline Infographic On Pinterest | Timeline surface of what we know about child trauma. We encourage you to learn more about Resume Template Sheet, this complex and important topic.

A good place to start is the Top 25+ Infographic Ideas On Pinterest | Timeline Child Trauma Academy’s free online course, which can be found at www.ChildTraumaAcademy.com. Adapted from Goodman, 2002. Parental support influences how well children cope after a traumatic event. Birth, foster, and adoptive parents, kin caregivers, and professionals can help children by: Providing a strong supportive presence Modeling and managing their own expression of Downloadable Baby feelings and coping Establishing routines with flexibility Accepting children’s regressed behaviors while encouraging and supporting a return to Infographic On Pinterest age-appropriate activity Helping children use familiar coping strategies Helping children share in maintaining their safety Allowing children to tell their story in words, play, or pictures to acknowledge and normalize their experience Discussing what to do or what has been done to prevent the event from recurring Maintaining a stable, familiar environment. Another valuable resource for foster and adoptive parents on this topic is the article Adopting and Parenting a Child with a History of Trauma by Joycee Kennedy and Frank Bennett, which first appeared in Children and Trauma in America: A Progress Report of the National Child Traumatic Stress Network.

To access this full report, go to 4+ Html Resume | Resume Blank Sheet www.nctsn.org. References for Top 25+ Best Timeline Ideas this article are available by Writing Analysis Book Report Service clicking here .