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Being an Free | Freebies | Graphic Junction, Efficient Homework Helper: Turning a Chore into a Challenge. Resume Format For Microsoft For Word 2010? By: Regina G. Richards. Template | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction? The secret of education lies in Of Make Flyer - Benefit Dinner Flyer respecting the Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Graphic Design Junction, pupil. Resume For Microsoft Word. Resume Template? #151; Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882, U.S. Free Brochure Template Design? poet, essayist and lecturer) Homework is Format For Microsoft Word. Template 2010, a constant for Free | Graphic Design Junction most children #151; it is always there. And for Resume Format For Microsoft Word. Template For Word 2010 many children, it is Free, often a chore. Just the concept of Free Marketing Plan Templates, homework can cause multiple anxieties and | Freebies | Graphic Junction negative feelings. To assist parents and Best Photos A Benefit Dinner students, this article presents some tools to Free Brochure | Freebies Junction, help turn this chore into an enjoyable challenge. Marketing? It focuses on some general preliminaries, basic strategies, and motivation.

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Pediatrician Mel Levine calls this demystification, which he describes as eliminating mystery by explaining the child's strengths and weaknesses and guiding him to Event Planning Proposal Example, develop more accurate personal insight. Students may struggle with and/or resist homework for a variety of reasons. These may include any of the Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template, following: Your child is Free Marketing Templates Download, experiencing some aspect of a learning disability or learning difference. Psd Bifold | Freebies | Graphic Junction? Your child is inefficient in Requirements Analysis Template Free Excel, a skill needed to establish a solid foundation related to the concept. Free Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic? Your child struggles to process one or more components of the Best, task. Your child lacks or is not using the Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic, appropriate strategies or tools. Your child is experiencing fatigue, either processing fatigue or general fatigue.

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Use different colored folders for Resume Format For Microsoft Word. Resume 2010 different subjects. Have a special place for papers that need to come home. Have a special place for papers that will be returned to the teacher. Develop a consistent routine for your child to replace homework in the appropriate spot in the book bag immediately upon completing it. Free | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction? Have a specific place for Custom Drug Store Brochure Display your child to place the Psd Bifold Template | Graphic, book bag when it is ready to return to school and encourage your child to use this location consistently. Praise your child for Trading Resume Sample following through with the Psd Bifold | Freebies, routine.

Review the basic assignment with your child to Proposal - Hlwhy, ensure that she understands what is required. Many children miss the Free Brochure Template | Freebies Design, overall message or global concept. Visual organizers, also called mind maps, are very efficient in Free Marketing Plan Templates Download presenting the Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies Design, global view in Dnr Cartoons And Comics - Funny From a concrete visual manner. Below is an example of Free Psd Bifold Design Junction, a visual organizer comparing frogs and toads. Tsd-A337 Custom Drug Acrylic Brochure? It identifies some characteristics of each, as well as characteristics similar to both. Figure 1: A comparison mind map provides a global view in a visual format. In previewing the assignment with your child, be alert to his understanding of vocabulary used. Psd Bifold Template | Freebies Junction? Misinterpreting vocabulary words is a frequent source of frustration for Flyer - Benefit Dinner students. Many books describe various forms and use of graphic organizers, including those listed in the References section, below. Students may often interpret feelings of fatigue as boredom or a desire to | Freebies | Graphic, escape the situation.

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One of the most valuable tools for parents is the tool of Trading Resume Example: Hedge Fund Manager Sample Resumes, encouragement . Encouragement can help provide demystification for your child and it can help reduce your child's frustration when the Free Template Junction, task becomes difficult or he becomes fatigued. Resume Template For Word 2010? An important component of encouragement is to support your child's efforts to work independently and Free Template | Graphic Junction build her confidence in doing homework successfully. Some suggestions follow. Emphasize that you have confidence in your child's ability to do the work. Example: I know this is Quantitative Resume Example: Hedge Resumes, hard, but I'm sure you can do it with just a little help. Free Template? Let's just start with one small part. Free Marketing Excel? Use chunking or staging: break down the assignment into Brochure | Freebies smaller parts and/or simple steps. Requirements Analysis - 6+ Excel, Pdf? Example: Let's start with this part.

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Tell him that every time he asks you for help, he will give you one piece of Planning Proposal Example - Hlwhy, candy. When the candy is gone, you will not help any more. Assure him that he will keep whatever pieces of Free Psd Bifold Brochure Design, candy remain in the bowl at Dnr Cartoons And Comics From Cartoonstock, the end of the homework time. When playing this game with your child, be sure that the Free Psd Bifold Template | Graphic Design Junction, task is within his ability to Analysis Word, Pdf, work on his own. You may vary the Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies Design Junction, number of pieces of candy, depending on the task. Planning Example? Another important component of encouragement is to provide statements of demystification. Free | Freebies Junction? These help remove the Trading Resumes, mystery of Free Psd Bifold Template Design Junction, why one task is difficult while another is Tsd-A337 Custom Drug Acrylic, easier while increasing your child's understanding of Free Psd Bifold Template | Graphic Junction, his processing strengths and Resume Template For Word weaknesses. Use concrete statements to emphasize strengths, such as: I saw that drawing you did; you are really great at Free Psd Bifold Template | Freebies | Graphic, that kind of artwork.

Very few kids your age can draw like this; you have great talent. Use concrete statements relevant to your child's struggles, such as: Many kids struggle because they do things to quickly without thinking enough. Template Free Word, Excel,? This may get them into Free Psd Bifold Design trouble or cause them to do schoolwork too fast and carelessly. Sometimes you are like these kids because you do things too quickly. Resume Example: Hedge Fund Manager? Use concrete statements relevant to your child's efforts to overcome their specific difficulties, such as: I like the way you have continued to work at Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies Design Junction, this when the Of Make A Benefit Flyer - Benefit Dinner Flyer, other kids have already learned it. It's particularly hard to Brochure Template | Graphic Design, do something when you're the Trading Example: Fund Sample, last to Free Brochure | Freebies Design, get it done, but you have persisted #151; and Of Make A Benefit Dinner you are almost there. Psd Bifold Brochure Template? I can see its hard to Example - Hlwhy, keep working on that letter, and you are continuing to Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies | Graphic, persist. Thank you. In the book, Eli, The Boy Who Hated to Write , Eli describes multiple benefits he experienced due to Format Word. Template For Word, the impact he felt from Brochure Template | Graphic, encouragement.

As parents and teachers, we need to listen to our children about Plan Templates, this very critical point. Some children need external motivators to help maintain focus on the task. Some useful suggestions include homework contracts, devices to help monitor time on task, or rewards. It is important that you are setting realistic goals for Free Brochure Template | Graphic your child and that they are not overly stressed in their area of Planning Proposal - Hlwhy, learning disability. Some children, for example, take longer to Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies, write by hand or to calculate sums so you need to A Benefit Flyer - Benefit, be realistic about time allowed. Homework contracts may take many forms. Write the Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies Design, contract with your child, making sure it is Assessment Form Samples Example, within your child's ability level.

Focus on one goal at a time. Examples follow. I, Johnny, will complete my homework without argument for five nights in Free Template | Freebies Junction a row. When I accomplish this, I can watch 30 extra minutes of TV. I, Susie, will mark off a square on my chart each night that I complete all my homework assignments.

When I have marked off five squares, I will select a reward from my list. The criteria in Hedge your contract should change as the Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies, child's skills change. Furthermore, it is important to be specific regarding your expectations regarding homework completion. Indicate definite starting and stopping points as well as minimum requirements. A timer is a useful device for Resume Template 2010 monitoring time on Psd Bifold Brochure Design task. Format Word. Template? It makes the passage of time more concrete for Free Brochure | Graphic Junction your child. Identify a reasonable time for Planning Example - Hlwhy your child to Brochure Template | Freebies Design, complete an assignment (or a given part) and set the timer to ring after that time. It is Dnr Cartoons And Comics Pictures From, useful for your child to be able to observe the Psd Bifold | Freebies | Graphic Design, passage of time, on either the timer or hourglass. Example statements follow: You have agreed to practice typing for Quantitative Resume Example: Resumes five minutes every night.

This means five minutes with good focus. I will set the timer and if you focus and practice appropriately the whole time, you will be done. Remember, I will have to restart the timer if you fool around in the middle. Template | Graphic Design? You have a half-hour to complete this part of the Event Planning Example, assignment. I'm setting this timer for 30 minutes. If you finish your homework correctly by Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Graphic, the time the Trading Fund Manager Sample, bell goes off, then you will get X reward (or sticker). If your child is earning points or stickers for Psd Bifold Brochure Template Junction appropriate follow through, you may want to allow him to Download, earn rewards for Psd Bifold Brochure Template a given number of Dnr Cartoons And Comics, stickers. To phase out his dependence on the stickers, require a larger number of stickers for a reward as he becomes more responsible. Young children respond well to Free Brochure | Freebies Junction, games as motivational aids.

You can develop a customized game spinner by using cardboard and Drug Acrylic Tabletop Brochure brads, or you may purchase blank spinners from an educational supply store. Brochure Template | Graphic Junction? Fill in each section of the Free Excel Templates, spinner with a reward. Use tape so that you can occasionally change the awards. Be sure to Psd Bifold Brochure Template Design Junction, vary the prizes on the spinner so that some are more desirable. You may want to have a space marked no-win. Analysis Word, Excel,? Establish criteria with your child, such as completing a homework assignment appropriately or finishing all of the Brochure | Freebies Design Junction, homework tasks for Dnr Cartoons And Comics From Cartoonstock the evening. When your child meets the criteria (i.e. Brochure Template | Freebies? completes the Sample Resumes, task), allow her to | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction, spin the spinner and earn the reward indicated. Be sure to Quantitative Trading Resume Example: Hedge Manager Sample Resumes, use an appropriate positive statement such as, Great job tonight! You've earned a spin on the spinner. To phase out dependence on Free Template | Freebies Junction the spinner, change the rewards to Best Photos Of Make Flyer Flyer, points.

These points will then accumulate towards a specific prize. Increase the number of Brochure | Graphic, points needed to Trading Example: Fund Sample Resumes, earn the prize as your child becomes more responsible. An example of Psd Bifold Template Design Junction, a spinner follows. Another critical tool for parents to have is the For Microsoft Word. Resume Template, tool of helping their children learn from Template | Graphic Design, their mistakes . And Comics Pictures From? This is Free Brochure Template | Graphic Junction, important because too many students are afraid to be wrong. We give our children a valuable gift by For Microsoft Word. Template For Word 2010, helping them understand that mistakes are valuable because they help us learn how to adjust and Free Psd Bifold | Freebies | Graphic Junction improve our approach as we move through a task. Robert Brooks and For Microsoft Template 2010 Sam Goldstein in their book, Raising Resilient Children: Fostering Strength Hope and Optimism in Your Child , devote a whole chapter to learning from mistakes.

They discuss various obstacles that interfere as well as some valuable guiding principles for parents to keep in mind. Following is a summary of Brooks' and Goldstein's Obstacles and Guiding Principles: Obstacles to Free Brochure Template | Freebies, a positive outlook about Best - Benefit Flyer, mistakes. Temperament and biological factors Negative comments of parents Parents setting the bar too high Dealing with the Psd Bifold Template | Freebies, fear of - Funny Pictures From, mistakes in ways that worsened the Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies Design, situation. Guiding principles to help children deal with mistakes. Trading Resume Example: Manager? Serve as a model for Psd Bifold Template | Freebies Junction dealing with mistakes and setbacks Set and Free Marketing Excel evaluate realistic expectations In different ways, emphasize that mistakes are not only accepted but also expected Loving our children should not be contingent on whether or not they make mistakes.

Developing the Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies, concept of Marketing Plan Templates, having a tool kit to use when working with our children can be a fun and rewarding process. Some key factors to keep in mind are: Have fun with your tools and strategies Encourage your child to have fun Expand upon the suggestions given, using them as guidelines Pay attention to Free Psd Bifold Template, your child's strengths and weaknesses Develop your own strategies Continue to expand your Parents' Tool Kit as your child matures. Click the References link above to hide these references. Quantitative Resume? Brooks, R. Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Design? Goldstein, S. (2002). - Free Sample, Format? Raising Resilient Children: Fostering Strength, Hope, and Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Design Optimism in Your Child . New York: McGraw-Hill. Quantitative Resume Hedge Fund Sample? Canter, L. Free Psd Bifold Template | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction? Hauser, L. Proposal Example - Hlwhy? (1988). Homework Without Tears: A Parent's Guide for Brochure | Graphic Motivating Children to do Homework and to Succeed in School . New York: HarperReference (Harper Collins). Requirements Excel, Pdf? Franklin Electronic Publishers, Inc., Speaking Language Master (model LM-6000B). Burlington, NJ: Author. Lavoie, R. How Difficult Can This Be? - FAT City. Steuben, ME: Eagle Hill Foundation.

Distributed by PBS VIDEO in association with WTA. Available in Free Template | Graphic Design Junction the LD OnLine Store. Photos - Benefit Flyer? Lavoie, R. Psd Bifold | Freebies Junction? (2007). Analysis Template - 6+ Word, Pdf? The Motivation Breakthrough . Psd Bifold | Freebies | Graphic Junction? New York: Touchstone (Simon Schuster). Available in the LD OnLine Store. Acrylic Tabletop Brochure Display? Levine, M.D. (2001). Educational Care: A System for Understanding Children with Learning Differences at Home and at School . Free Brochure? Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service, Inc.

Levine, M.D. Proposal Example - Hlwhy? (1992). All Kinds of Minds: A Young Student's Book About Learning Abilities and Free Brochure | Freebies | Graphic Design Learning Disorders . Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service Levine, M.D. Best Photos Of Make Flyer Dinner? (1990). Keeping a Head in School: A Student's Book About Learning Abilities and Free Template | Freebies | Graphic Learning Disorders . Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service Levine, M.D. Analysis Template Free Word, Excel, Pdf? (2003). The Myth of Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies Junction, Laziness . New York: Simon Schuster. Richards, R.G.

Richards, E.I. (2000). Eli, the Boy Who Hated to Write: Understanding Dysgraphia . Photos Flyer Dinner Flyer? Riverside, CA: RET Center Press. Richards, R.G. Free | Graphic Design Junction? (2001). LEARN: Playful Strategies for - 6+ Free Word, All Students . Riverside, CA: RET Center Press. Free Psd Bifold Template | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction? Richards, R.G. (1997). Memory Foundations for Reading: Visual Mnemonics for Sound/Symbol Relationships . 7+ Vendor Samples Sample, Example? Riverside, CA: RET Center Press. Richards, R.G. (1999).

The Source for Psd Bifold Brochure Template Dyslexia and Dysgraphia . East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems. Requirements Analysis Template - 6+ Word, Excel, Pdf? Richards, R.G. (2003). Brochure | Freebies? The Source for Learning and Memory Strategies . Tsd-A337 Store Acrylic Tabletop? East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems. | Graphic Design Junction? Quantitative Example: Hedge Fund Manager Sample? Richards, R.G. (2006). The Source for Reading Comprehension Strategies . Free Template Design? East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems. Kidspiration (visual organizers for Plan Excel Templates Download grades K-3) Inspiration (visual organizers for Psd Bifold Template grades 6 to adult). Available in Form - Free Sample, Format the LD OnLine Store. Brochure Template Design Junction? Richards, R.G. Assessment Form - Free Format? (January, 2008). Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template? Being an Efficient Homework Helper: Turning a Chore into Plan Excel Templates a Challenge. Written exclusively for LD OnLine. LD OnLine works in association with the National Joint Committee on Template | Freebies Junction Learning Disabilities (NJCLD).

Learn more. LD OnLine is an Custom Drug Tabletop Brochure Display, educational service of public television station WETA in Washington, D.C. Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Design? Visit WETA's educational web sites: LD OnLine® is Dnr Cartoons Pictures From Cartoonstock, a registered trademark of WETA. Stay informed!

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Jose Rizal: A Man for All Generations Essay Sample. “Why independence if today’s slaves will be tomorrow’s tyrants? And they will be, because without a doubt a person who submits to tyranny loves it.” –Jose Rizal, El Filibusterismo A s known to every Filipino as George Washington is to Americans, his name and face are everywhere: on one-peso coins, match books, sports arenas, universities, banks, insurance companies, even hospitais and funeral parlors and, especially, in every town plaza and city square throughout the Philippine archipelago, where a statue in his likeness, portrayed in the European-style morning coat he wore to bis execution, forms the backdrop to | Freebies | Graphic Design, street life. As Ambeth Ocampo, the preeminent Filipino authority onJose Rizal, points out, Rizal has become “a brand name that covers you from And Comics From cradle to grave. Imagine being born in Template | Freebies Design Junction, a hospital named in honor of Rizal and be[ing] handled in death by Funeraria Rizal.” In my education, however, he was a “nowhere man,” to quote the Beatles, absent from the curriculum at the private schools I attended.

I have no recollection of any course that examined his life and works. Format For Microsoft Word.! You would think that, at least on the university level–and I am a graduate of the Jesuit-run Ateneo de Manila University, whose most famous alumnus was this man–such a course would have been mandatory. Indeed, in theory it was, since 1956, when Republic Act 1425 mandated that schools had to have copies of Rizal’s works in their libraries and that these were to be “included in Free Psd Bifold Template Junction, the list of approved books for required reading in all public or private schools, colleges, and Tsd-A337 Custom Drug Store Acrylic Tabletop Display universities.” But my college transcript, there in black and white, says otherwise. Strange, to say the Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Graphic Junction least. At the time, knowing next to nothing about this late-nineteenth-century historical personage, primus inter pares in the pantheon of Filipino heroes, I never really questioned this lack, this absence that spoke eloquently about how our own history was being misrepresented–an official history partly determined by the fact that the schools we attended were conservative Roman Catholic and Pictures From this largely explained the Brochure | Graphic Design disconnect between Rizal and our lives. Ina region dominated by Islam and Buddhism, the 7+ Vendor Form Samples - Free Example Format Philippines is the only predominantly Roman Catholic nation, the most enduring legacy of 333 years of Spanish colonial rule (1565-1898). Its church hierarchy is one of the Free Brochure Template | Freebies Junction most conservative in the world and, to paraphrase Gerard Manley Hopkins, meekly recks the Vatican’s rod. Tsd-A337 Store Acrylic Tabletop Brochure! In his writings, Rizal was a fierce and brilliant critic of clerical authority, for which the unforgiving Spanish friars had him killed. His novels were proscribed by the Catholic hierarchy through to the first half of the twentieth century, the blink of an Brochure Template | Freebies Design Junction eye when considering that the Marketing Excel Download Vatican harbors resentments for ungodly periods of time–it took four centuries before Rome acknowledged its error in condemning Galileo. And its right-wing practitioners still mutter that it was his fellow Jews who killed Christ.

The dominant Catholic prelate in the country in the 1960s, when I was in college, was Rufino Cardinal Santos, the Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Archbishop of Manila and And Comics - Funny From an ultra-conservative–he forbade, for instance, the Brochure Design Junction mixing of the sexes at the then all-male Ateneo. He opposed implementation of the bill, as did the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines (CBCP), claiming that Rizal’s writings violated Canon Law 1339, which bans works that attack church dogma or defend errors condemned by the Holy See. A staunchly Catholic senator made the Assessment Form Samples - Free Sample, Format rather curious argument that Filipinos could venerate Rizal without having to read bis works. In the Free Brochure Template Design Junction CBCP’s current objections to government-sponsored family planning, finally made law in 2012 after previous attempts had failed, I see the same insidious refusal to acknowledge the separation of 7+ Vendor Assessment Samples - Free Example, church and state. Brochure Template | Freebies Design Junction! But before detailing the precise history of Tsd-A337 Custom Store Acrylic Brochure Display, Rizal’s nationalist anticlericalism and his impact on a country then still in the making, it is essential to examine his life in the context of Free Brochure | Freebies | Graphic Design, nineteenth-century fin de siecle Philippines.

In other words, who was Jose Rizal and why is he so enshrined? Born in 1861, the same year as Rabindranath Tagore, and the seventh of eleven children, Rizal came from, according to Benedict Anderson, “a cultivated Spanish-and-Tagalog-speaking family, of mixed ‘Malay,’ Spanish and Chinese descent.” His father, Francisco, was a prosperous gentleman farmer, an inquilino –someone who didn’t own but leased the land that his tenant farmers cultivated. The landowners in this case were the local Dominicans, whose hacienda of over 35,000 acres in And Comics, Calamba, Rizal’s hometown, was the Free Psd Bifold Template Junction largest in Custom Tabletop Brochure, the colony. His mother, Teodora Alonso, an upper-class woman who had gone to college–unusual for those times–and whose father had once served in Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Graphic Design, the Spanish Cortes or Parliament, exerted a powerful influence on his intellectual development. A precocious child, Rizal grew up to be a polymath: botanist, ophthalmologist, fencer, essayist, and novelist, among other things.

And a polyglot as well, conversant in Assessment Form Sample, Format, ten languages, correspondent in six. Though short in stature (only five feet, three inches), he commanded attention everywhere he went, due to his prodigious intellect, charisma, and a genuine and intense curiosity about how other people lived. Free Psd Bifold Template | Graphic Junction! Being from a prosperous family, Rizal and other young men like him were considered ilustrados , or enlightened ones, in the parlance of the And Comics - Funny From Cartoonstock day. Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Junction! By the time he first left his homeland in 1882, at Event - Hlwhy the age of Free | Graphic Design, twenty-one, the Spanish empire–at one point, the world’s largest-had long been in irreversible decline. The diminution of empire meant a tighter hold on its remnants–the Philippines, the Marianas (modern-day Guam), Puerto Rico, and Cuba. Spain had controlled the Southeast Asian islands since 1565, except in 1762, when the British seized Manila during the Seven Years War–a global conflict between England and France, with Spain an ally of the latter. Spain would exit these territories permanently when defeated by the United States in the 1898 Spanish-American War, enabling the latter to Event Proposal - Hlwhy, join in the grand game of colonialism. Educated at the Jesuit-run Ateneo de Manila, where he graduated in 1877 summa cum laude , and Psd Bifold Template | Freebies Design the Dominican University of Santo Tomas in And Comics Pictures Cartoonstock, Manila–established in 1611, it is the oldest in Free Psd Bifold Template Design, Asia, older than Harvard–where he studied land surveying and assessing, Rizal went on to obtain a medical degree in Spain, specializing in ophthalmology, with further studies in Paris and Heidelberg. Format Template 2010! The young man soaked in the ideas of the Enlightenment, finding in Europe a more secular spirit than would have existed in the Manila of his time–the ironic trajectory of the colonial moving to the metropolitan center and there finding the intellectual freedom to sharpen his anticolonial arsenal.

His experience, the resentments brought about by colonial rule, coupled with the systematic attempts of the state and the friars to keep the indigenous population ignorant, made Rizal take up the Free Brochure Template Design Junction pen. He wrote his first novel, Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not), published in 1887, five years after leaving Manila, followed by El Filibusterismo (The Subversive) in 1891. Brilliant, anticolonial critiques at Photos - Benefit Dinner Flyer the same time that they offered unforgettable portraits of nineteenth-century life, the books zeroed in on the moral rot infecting colonial society, exemplified by state-sponsored cruelty, friar abuse, greed, and betrayal of their sacred vows. Free Psd Bifold | Freebies | Graphic! In Noli the young protagonist, Crisostomo Ibarra, only son of a wealthy Spanish mestizo landowner, has just returned from seven years of study in Europe (paralleling the real-life situation of the author) full of evangelical zeal to better the lot of his countrymen through education. However, he learns to his shock that his father, Don Rafael, has died in jail and, worse, his corpse was thrown into a nearby lake. Subsequent events expose the Samples - Free corruption, venality, and vehement friar opposition to any progressive ideas that might lessen the Psd Bifold Template | Graphic colonial stranglehold. Set up by Padre Salvi, also a friar, he gets implicated as the Marketing Excel Download mastermind of a faux rebellion. The beautiful Maria Clara, his childhood sweetheart, betrays him in Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies Design, order to protect her parents’ honor. She winds up in a convent, he is imprisoned but manages to escape with the help of the enigmatic Elias.

Chased by 7+ Vendor Form Example, theGuardia Civil, Ibarra is presumed to have been shot dead. In the much darker Filibusterismo, the narrative picks up thirteen years later, when Ibarra’s naive optimism is replaced by cynicism and an implacable desire for vengeance–strikingly similar to that detailed in Alexandre Dumas’s The Count of Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction, Monte Cristo, whichRizal had read as a schoolboy. Long thought to be dead, Ibarra disguises himself as Simoun, a confidant of the governor general and a fabulously wealthy jeweler who never takes off the Marketing Excel Templates dark blue glasses he wears in public. Embittered by Free Psd Bifold Template, the events chronicled in Noli, he plots a coup d’etat, recruiting young men to his cause. The attempted coup fails, however, and Simoun kills himself. TheFili only intensified friar hatred directed at Rizal. His fate was sealed. Rizal’s novels, along with his other writings–examples of the empire writing back–had laid the groundwork of Free, nationalist consciousness. Manila was now much more cosmopolitan, an | Graphic Junction emerging regional hub for international trade–the opening of the Suez Canal in Best Of Make A Benefit - Benefit Dinner Flyer, 1869 had cut down travel time between Europe and the Philippines from Brochure Template | Graphic Design Junction three to four months to approximately six weeks–with the Resume Resume For Word 2010 British and Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies | Graphic Design the Americans, among other foreigners, opening up offices in Assessment Form Samples Sample, Format, Manila.

It is safe to assume that Rizalmet some of these English-speakers, with whom he could practice the language, one of the Psd Bifold Template | Freebies Design Junction many he had acquired some fluency in, and which would come in handy when travelling to the United States and London. Not long after Noli came out, Rizal returned to Manila in Dnr Cartoons And Comics - Funny Pictures Cartoonstock, the latter half of 1887. He had by then become something of a rock star, attracting crowds every time he ventured from home–incensing the friars. Fortunately for Rizal, Governor General Emilio Terrero resisted the friars’ demand that Rizal be dealt with harshly and even provided him with a bodyguard, a certain Lt. Jose Taviel de Andrade–though the officer was there as much to keep an eye on Rizal as to protect him. He and Andrade quickly became friends:Rizal had a knack of charming even those prepared to dislike him.

His family, however, worried that the friars, in their vindictiveness, would have him imprisoned or worse, convinced him to | Graphic, return to Best Of Make - Benefit Flyer, Europe after only six months. The friars were a far cry from Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction those pioneers who had come in the late sixteenth century, better-educated hardy souls who truly believed in Free Marketing Excel Templates, their evangelical mission and who sought to protect their converts from the abuses of the civil state, reflecting their contemporary Fray Bartolome de los Casas’s attempts to render colonial policy in Free | Graphic Design Junction, Latin America more humane. In contrast, these nineteenth-century friars may have taken vows of chastity and poverty and preached about the rewards of heaven for the virtuous, but they themselves were ardent devotees of earthly pleasures, and often took advantage of Resume Format For Microsoft Resume Template 2010, native women, which Rizal alludes to Psd Bifold Brochure | Graphic Design, in characters such as Padre Damaso in the Noli and Padre Camorra in El Fili. (There is, they say, a bit of friar blood in every Filipino.) Immensely rich, owning huge tracts of land and acting every bit as feudal landlords, by the time Spanish rule ended in 1898, friars controlled 400,000 acres, one-fifteenth of the country’s cultivated land. Around Manila alone, they owned more than 110,000 acres. These men of the cloth had a history of Proposal - Hlwhy, doing away with individuals whom they saw as major threats to their wealth and power. In 1719, angered at then Governor General Fernando Bustamante’s efforts to Psd Bifold | Graphic Design, cut them down to size, a mob of 7+ Vendor Assessment - Free Sample, Format, friars marched on Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Graphic Design Junction, his official residence, slew Bustamante’s guards, his son, and the governor himself.

There is For Microsoft Word. Resume For Word 2010 no record of the killers ever being brought to account. In 1762, capitalizing on the British seizure of Free Template | Freebies | Graphic Junction, Manila, Diego Silang, a middle-class upstart Indio, and his followers succeeded in expelling the Spanish from Vigan, an important entrepot in the north, and confiscating the wealth of the church. Encouraged by From Cartoonstock, his success, Silang–who declared Christ to Free Brochure | Freebies | Graphic Design, be his Captain General, with him as second-in-command–wrote to the British to propose an alliance. The British, tongue firmly in cheek, responded by appointing him Sargente Mayor, Alcalde Mayor, and Templates Download Captain in the War for his British Majesty. Brochure Design! Alas, the alliance was not to be.

A mestizo hit man by the name of Miguel Vicos, blessed by the local bishop, assassinated Silang. The rebellion, now headed by his widow, Gabriela, continued for another four months but she and other leaders were caught in late 1763 and hanged. That friars wielded power beyond their parishes is evident in testimony given at hearings held by the Philippine Commission in 1900, when U.S. colonial occupation was a little more than a year old. Dnr Cartoons And Comics - Funny From! Under the Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Junction Spanish the friar was school inspector, president of the health board, the urban taxation board, and the board of statistics. He was the go-to person when questions of a person’s civil status arose. A layman testified that the local authorities “took no step, obeyed no superior orders and did not perform the duties of their office without previous advice, permission, or knowledge of the friar curate, since the protection of the latter sufficed at times to defy the Event Planning - Hlwhy anger of the governor of the province and paralyze or evade the action of justice.” The friar was, in short, in the historian Reynaldo Ileto’s estimation, some kind of a god-king in a state that was essentially theocratic. Rizal returned to Europe, via the Pacific, in early 1888. He chose the longer, roundabout route, rather than via the Indian Ocean and the Suez Canal, as he wished to visit Japan and the United States. He stayed six weeks in Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies | Graphic, Japan learning Nihongo in the company of Usui Seiko, whom he called O Sei San and Dnr Cartoons And Comics Pictures From Cartoonstock with whom he was having an Psd Bifold Brochure Junction affair. In his diary, he apostrophizes her: “Sayonara, sayonara!

You will never come to For Microsoft Word. Resume Template For Word, know that I have thought of you again, or that your image lives in my memory. … When will the sweet hours I spent with you return?” In San Francisco, he boarded the train to Psd Bifold Template | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction, New York City, staying for three days. He found the Hudson River and Best Of Make A Benefit Flyer its landscape “beautiful” and Free Template Junction comparable to “the best in Drug Acrylic Tabletop Brochure, Europe.” He was impressed by the energy and zeal of Americans but was quick to note the racism directed at “Orientals.” In an essay “Filipinas dentro Cien Anos” (“The Philippines a Hundred Years from Now”), he foresaw how, were the Philippines to throw off the Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template Junction Spanish yoke, other foreign powers such as Germany and Japan would be tempted to take over, though the most direct threat would come from the United States, with its keen interest in the Pacific. The most interesting minor character in El Fili, written after his trip to the U.S., is an American–there isn’t one in Noli –a Mr. Leeds, conjuror and ventriloquist dressed in black with a booth at Excel a city fair. He possesses a disembodied head that acts as an Free Brochure | Freebies | Graphic Junction oracle. Secretly arranged with Simoun, when Mr. Leeds gets an Templates Download audience that includes Padre Salvi, the friar who had set up Ibarra, the head “speaks” and Template | Graphic relates events in A Benefit - Benefit Dinner, ancient Egypt eerily similar to those that lead to Ibarra’s downfall. Salvi faints, stricken by guilt.

Simoun has, through Leeds, set the Brochure Junction play wherein be catches the conscience of the friar. After sailing to London, Rizal lodged in rooms within walking distance of the British Museum, where he painstakingly copied Antonio de Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (History of the Philippine Islands), written in 1609. Morga was then the Lieutenant Governor of the Philippines, and Best Of Make - Benefit Dinner Flyer his account of colonial life, the | Freebies | Graphic Design first by one who was non-religious, was quite comprehensive. Rizalannotated his copy, not only to modify Morga’s observations but, more importantly, to show that the Philippines had had a long history that predated the Spaniards. It was printed in Paris in Flyer - Benefit Dinner Flyer, 1890. He then set to completing El Filibusterismo, published in Ghent, in 1891.

From London on to Paris, where, with several other ilustrados, be attended a Buffalo Bill Wild West show at the Paris Exposition in 1889. Impressed by the dignity and athleticism of the Native Americans, the ilustrados started calling themselves Los Indios Bravos,or Brave Indians, turning a label meant to put them in their place into a badge they wore proudly. | Graphic Design! Once back in Planning Example, Spain, Rizal became a leading light of the Propaganda Movement–funded by the Manila-based Comite de Propaganda. Other leading lights were Marcelo H. Del Pilar and Graciano Lopez Jaena, both of whom had written and published satires on friar behavior in the Philippines and Brochure Template | Freebies found themselves the objects of Resume Format Word. Template For Word 2010, friar ire, prompting an intense and sudden curiosity on their part about life in Spain. Template | Graphic Design Junction! Del Pilar had penned a parody of the Ten Commandments–his First Commandment was “Worship the Event Proposal Example - Hlwhy Friar Above All Else”–while Lopez Jaena caricatured friar corpulence and avarice. The Propagandists published La Solidaridad (Solidarity), a fortnightly, from 1889 to Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic, 1895, which advocated various reforms such as the integration of the Philippines as a province of Spain, representation in the Cortes, the Filipinization of the clergy, and equality of Filipinos and Spaniards before the law. Deciding that the struggle for And Comics Pictures Cartoonstock reforms was best carried on in the islands, telling a friend that “the doctor must go to the patient,”Rizal set sail for home in October of 1891–by then, El Fili had come out and been distributed clandestinely in Manila–with a lay-over of several months in Hong Kong. There, among Filipino expatriates, he could better read the situation in Manila. His parents and some of his siblings came to Free Brochure Template | Freebies Junction, stay with him, Rizal supporting them through his practice as an Resume Format Resume For Word 2010 ophthalmologist. Probably at Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Graphic Design the urging of his family who wanted him to stay away from Manila–they were convinced, rightly so, that harm would come to him–he conceived the utopian idea of establishing a settlers’ colony in Event Proposal - Hlwhy, Sandakan, in what was once British North Borneo, the Malaysian state of Sabah today.

It would be a sanctuary for himself and his family, as well as the people of Free | Freebies | Graphic Design, Calamba, his hometown, who had in 1887 been dispossessed of their lands by the Dominicans, in Resume For Microsoft Template For Word 2010, retaliation for a suit that Rizal’s family, at his urging, had filed against them, questioning the Psd Bifold Template | Graphic increase in Best Photos Of Make A Benefit - Benefit Dinner Flyer, rents and the imposition of other fees. Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction! The state unsurprisingly ruled in favor of the friars–an experience Rizal would fictionalize in El Fili . Though the Assessment Samples - Free Sample, Format British offered Rizal 5,000 acres of Psd Bifold Brochure | Graphic Design, land, rent-free for Resume Word. For Word 2010 three years, the financial costs involved were huge. Besides, the proposed settlement would be just 250 miles from the Sultanate of Sulu in the southern Philippines, nominally under Spanish rule but whose mostly Muslim population viewed the Spanish as interlopers and infidels. To the Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Graphic Design Junction Spanish, therefore, the putative colony would have meant a base for Marketing Plan Templates Download rebellion, protected by the British lion. This doomed, as I once wrote, “Rizal’s endeavor to have the country come to him rather than he to the country.” He left Hong Kong and set foot in Manila on June 26, 1892, his family having preceded him. That same day, he met with Governor General Eulogio Despujol, who received him four more times over Free Brochure Template, eleven days–a fact unsettling to the friars. Despujol had his reasons. Primarily, he wished to stress his office’s independence from the clerics when it came to state matters. Form Samples - Free Format! Shortly after his arrival, Rizal formed La Liga Filipina, or the Philippine League, reiterating the Propaganda Movement’s peaceful advocacy of reformist goals. Brochure | Graphic Design! The League had grounds for hope: Puerto Rico already had some form of elections. As for Cuba, Anderson points out that similar reforms had already been instituted, where political parties “had been legalized (within definite limits) and … a various and Flyer Flyer lively press had developed.

If all this was possible in Cuba, why not also in Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template Junction, the Philippines?” There was nothing radical in 7+ Vendor Assessment Form - Free Sample,, La Liga’s aims, and yet the Free Psd Bifold Template | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction friars pounced, charging that the League really intended to provoke a public uprising. They also claimed that anti-clerical pamphlets had been found in Rizal’s baggage, two weeks after he had been cleared to land. (In fact, these were planted, having been churned out by Format Template, a press belonging to the Augustinians.) This time, Despujol had Rizal arrested and exiled to the coastal town and Jesuit mission of Dapitan, on the northwestern coast of Mindanao, the second-biggest island in the country. He would spend four years there that in retrospect were four quite peaceful, almost idyllic years. Leon Maria Guerrero, his Filipino biographer, notes that Rizal, in a letter to a friend, remarks with evident relief that there were no friars in Dapitan, just the Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies Jesuit parish priest. There, he founded a school for boys and an eye clinic, where he treated town residents for free. Aside from helping set up a water system, he constructed a still-extant earthen relief map of Mindanao in the courtyard of the town church.

It was in Dapitan where he met the young Josephine Bracken, an - Hlwhy Irish-Chinese mestiza who had accompanied her nearly blind stepfather from Hong Kong, so the latter could be operated on by Rizal, whose fame as an Free | Graphic Junction ophthalmologist had spread beyond national boundaries. Bracken would be his lover for the rest of his life. He refers to her, and his family and friends, in the concluding couplet of “Mi Ultimo Adios” (“My Last Farewell”), penned on the eve of Assessment Samples Sample, Example, his execution and Free | Freebies | Graphic Junction a masterpiece of nineteenth-century Spanish verse: “Adios, mi dulce extranjera, mi amiga, mi alegria / Adios, queridos seres, morir es descansar” (“Adieu, my sweet stranger, my friend, my happiness /Adieu, my darlings, to die is to rest” [my translation]). In the And Comics From Cartoonstock meantime, an ardent admirer of Rizal, Andres Bonifacio, a working-class firebrand and a member of La Liga, upon its effective dissolution, had formed a secret revolutionary society, the Kataastaasan Kagalagalangan Katipunan ng Mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK, or the Highest, Most Revered Society of the Nation’s Sons and Daughters), referred to simply as Katipunan. The Katipuneros were mostly from the proletariat, their aim independence from Spain by force of arms. Many, if not most, had been inspired by Noli and Free Template Junction El Fili. Bonifacio sent an emissary, a certain Dr. Pio Valenzuela, to Dapitan, to ask Rizal what he thought of an armed uprising, hoping, of course, that the Dnr Cartoons And Comics Pictures great man would approve. Anticipating Gandhi, Rizal strongly disapproved of violence, stating that he would disavow any revolution, as it would cause the deaths of thousands of innocent people.

In his unpublished “Manifesto to Free | Freebies Junction, Certain Filipinos,” he characterized such an uprising as “disastrous” and “worse than absurd.” Bonifacio was furious over Word. For Word 2010, this refusal but such was Rizal’s stature that nevertheless the Katipunan used his name as one of their passwords–which the authorities would later cite as proof of Rizal’s involvement in the revolution that began in late August of Brochure Design, 1896, the first in Asia against a Western colonial power. Prior to that August, in 1895, under the leadership of Samples - Free Sample, Example, Jose Marti, the Cubans had started their own revolution–the excuse for Free Psd Bifold Brochure Design the United States (remember the Maine? ) to leap into the fray, ostensibly to aid the Cubans but in Excel Templates Download, reality to jumpstart their beginnings as a colonial power by Psd Bifold Template | Graphic Design Junction, taking advantage of Spain’s doddering status as an empire. Rizal volunteered to serve as a doctor with the Spanish forces attempting to quell the Cuban revolution, to show his loyalty to Mother Spain, most likely on the advice of Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt, an Austrian and Filipinist whom he had befriended and grown close to while living in Europe. Besides, Rizal the altruist was also someone who needed a bigger stage.

His proposal was accepted the next year, 1896. He set sail for Barcelona on September 3rd, barely a week after the revolution had broken out, still viewed by the authorities as of Planning - Hlwhy, little consequence. Once it became clear that this was in Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies Design Junction, fact not just of Custom Drug Tabletop Display, great consequence, but also radically different from previous uprisings that were regional rather than national in scope, Rizal was ordered arrested once he landed in Barcelona. He was held at Montjuich Prison overnight, then sent back to Manila the next day. Imprisoned at Design Junction Fort Santiago in Dnr Cartoons, early November, he was subjected to Template | Freebies | Graphic Junction, a mock trial for his alleged role in the revolution. Even though he had a lawyer, Luis Taviel de Andrade, the brother of the military officer assigned to him in 1887, who managed to mount a credible defense–nothing linked Rizal directly to Tsd-A337 Custom Store Brochure Display, the revolution except the use of his name as a password–the verdict was, as we say in Manila, lutong Macao (literally, Macao cooking), i.e., the fix was in.

Judged guilty of treason, on December 30, 1896, his elbows bound behind his back, he was marched to | Graphic Design, the Luneta, a public park facing Manila Bay and just outside the Store Acrylic Display thick hoary walls of Intramuros, the fortified citadel the Spanish erected in 1572 and designated as the capital of Las Islas Filipinas. He was to be executed by a firing squad made up of his countrymen, Spanish riflemen at their backs, ready to shoot should the natives hesitate to pull their triggers. Just before the command to fire was given, Rizal uttered the words the crucified Christ did before he gave up the ghost:Consummatum est. (It is Free Brochure finished.) Struck by A Benefit - Benefit Dinner, the fusillade, Rizal somehow managed to twist his body around and fall facing the sky. The Spanish who had jeered him as he walked to his death now cheered at the sight of the fallen man. It is said, however, that the few Indios present broke through the Free Psd Bifold Design Junction cordon and rushed to dip their handkerchiefs in Rizal’s blood–as though this were the 7+ Vendor Samples - Free Sample, blood of a martyr. Learning of his death, the Spanish philosopher Miguel de Unamuno characterized Rizal as “the Tagalog Christ.” If the Psd Bifold | Freebies | Graphic Spanish thought that his death would bank the fires of the revolution, they were wrong. Rizal’s martyrdom only intensified the ultimately successful fight for independence from Spain, but one that was betrayed in 1899 by Photos A Benefit Dinner Flyer, a United States government intent on taking on, after the title of Rudyard Kipling’s fervent colonialist poem, “The White Man’s Burden” (the poem’s subtitle is “The United States and the Philippine Islands”). Psd Bifold Design! Kipling’s view of Filipinos as “new caught sullen peoples / half devil and half child” was in And Comics - Funny From Cartoonstock, keeping with the racist ideologies of the time.

Less poetic was President William McKinley’s justification for annexing the Free Brochure Design Philippines: “… there was nothing left for Dnr Cartoons And Comics - Funny Pictures Cartoonstock us to Free Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic, do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and Free Plan Excel Templates uplift and Free Psd Bifold civilize and Christianize them,” forgetting conveniently that the islands had been a bastion of 7+ Vendor Form Sample,, Roman Catholicism for more than three hundred years. Thus began the policy of Benevolent Assimilation, by which Little Brown Brother could become a symbol of Via Americana’s transformative powers. The 1899 Philippine-American War was longer and more brutal than the brief Spanish-American War, the Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template Design hostilities lasting for at least a decade, with more than 4,000 American lives lost and anywhere from a quarter million to a million Filipino, mostly civilian, casualties. The war set a familiar pattern for U.S. intervention and Resume For Microsoft Word. 2010 later conflicts, in Vietnam, Afghanistan, and Iraq. There was widespread opposition to the war of annexation in the United States, with the Boston-based Anti-Imperialist League in the forefront. William James and the philanthropist Andrew Carnegie were among its well-known stalwarts, but its most celebrated member was Mark Twain. Twain initially supported U.S. intervention but once it became clear that his government had imperialist designs on the islands, he became one of its most outspoken critics. In his classic essay “To the Person Sitting in Darkness,” he wrote, “The Person Sitting in Darkness is almost sure to say: ‘There is something curious about this–curious and unaccountable.

There must be two Americas: one that sets the captive free, and one that takes a once-captive’s new freedom away from him, and picks a quarrel with him with nothing to found it on; then kills him to get his land.'” Twain also deplored the Template | Graphic Junction use of the Tsd-A337 Store water cure (the precursor of waterboarding), where a prisoner was force-fed water until he was bloated, then pummeled and jumped on, forcing the water to be expelled through his orifices, sometimes causing death. Because of Psd Bifold Brochure Junction, his role in shaping his country’s destiny, Jose Rizal is often described as the “First Filipino” and/or “The Great Malayan.” Rizal has since served as an Event Example - Hlwhy inspiration to countless nationalists, intellectuals, and Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Graphic Design Junction artists, not just in the Philippines but in 7+ Vendor Assessment Sample, Example, countries such as Indonesia where, for Template Design Junction instance, the Of Make - Benefit Flyer characters in the great Indonesian novelist Pramoedya Ananta Toer’sBuru Quartet are aware of Rizal and the 1896 Revolution. Many, however, qualify their admiration for Psd Bifold Template | Freebies | Graphic him by Marketing Plan Templates Download, citing the belief that Rizal’s iconic stature was partly due to the need of the U.S. colonizers, who had just defeated a fledgling Philippine government, for a hero in whom nationalist aspirations could lodge, without any cry to Free Brochure | Freebies Design, arms. They point to Andres Bonifacio, who did ignite the 1896 Revolution and whom the Americans ignored. It is true that Rizal’s pacifist stance suited American purposes, but General Emilio Aguinaldo, president of the revolutionary government prior to the U.S. takeover, had, already in Marketing Plan, 1898, proclaimed a day of commemoration for Rizal. And, Guerrero points out, “Filipinos had chosen Rizal even before he died, and his final martyrdom was only the Free Brochure Template | Freebies confirmation of a spiritual dominion that even theKatipunan acknowledged by rising in his name.” In short, Yankee endorsement simply publicized his acceptance by the Filipino public. It was never the cause. Rizal’s popularity grew to be such that Artemio Ricarte, a general in the Philippine revolutionary army, once proposed renaming the country after him, so that Filipinos would henceforth be known as Rizalinos. Ricarte was living in exile in Japan, a devoted anti-colonialist who refused to pledge allegiance to the United States that had emerged triumphant after the 1899 Philippine-American War. According to Excel Templates Download, Nick Joaquin’s excellent A Question of Heroes, Ricarte proposed the establishment of the Free Rizaline Republic, which, “when established, would ‘recompense’ all those who had joined the ‘Liberating Army’ to ‘overthrow quickly and by whatever means the present foreign government.’ Cried Ricarte to his people: ‘I shall not consent that you remain under a foreign government and, fully decided, I shall cross the seas to Event Planning Proposal - Hlwhy, seek you.'” The proposed change, had it taken place, would have made it even more difficult to learn about the Psd Bifold Junction man behind the legend.

As it is, the distance between the Custom Drug outsized stature (and statues) of the man and the man himself is Free Psd Bifold Template | Graphic formidable. Of Make Flyer! As the Free Psd Bifold historian Ambeth Ocampo states, we need to see him “without his overcoat” so he can regain his humanity, warts and all. There are many, however, who refuse to do so. A two-hour drive south of Manila lies Banahaw, a mountain considered sacred by a great number of people. At 7,000 feet, the rugged mountain attracts New Agers, who swear to UFO sightings there and Free Plan Excel Templates claim to commune with diwatas, or magical spirits; the Maoist New People’s Army guerrillas; and homegrown religious sects, for Free | Freebies | Graphic Junction whom Rizal is a revered figure, a saint, even a demigod. Sects such as Tres Personas, Solo Dios (Three Persons, One God) and Ciudad Mistica del Dios (the Mystical City of God) regard the mountain as their New Jerusalem, far from Sodom-and-Gomorrah Manila. To them, Rizal symbolizes an Free Download indigenous identity grounded in a nationalism inseparable from genuine spirituality. Having spent time with these sects, what I find particularly striking about them is the fact that they are female-headed, linking them to a precolonial matriarchy and specifically to the babaylan(loosely translated as shaman), the traditional spiritual center cum healer, usually a woman, though there was the occasional cross-dressing male babaylan.

Banahaw has long had a history as a refuge, a hideout, from colonial restrictions. It was where, chafing under Spanish repression and getting back on their horses, remontados (a Spanish word meaning those who remount) moved to. There the church and civil state had little claim. They would no longer be “abajo de las campanas” (“under the bells,” referring to the policy of resettling Indios in Spanish-designated towns). In 1839 the mountain served as a base for an Indio, Apolinario de la Cruz (Apolinario of the Cross), who believed he had a calling to Free Psd Bifold Template | Freebies | Graphic Junction, serve God, but being an Format For Microsoft Resume 2010 Indio, had been rejected by the friar orders. Not to be denied, Apolinario set up his own religious group, the Cofradia de San Jose, or Confraternity of Psd Bifold Junction, St. Joseph, which attracted quite a following, worrying both the religious and secular authorities who suspected that the fraternity was a cover-up for malcontents.

De la Cruz was hailed as the “King of the Tagalogs,” echoing the reference to Jesus as the King of the Jews. He refused membership to anyone but full-blooded natives–a clear dig at the Spanish and the creoles. The authorities sent troops to suppress what was now viewed as an insurgent movement. For Microsoft Word. Resume! Though initially successful in repelling the attacks, De la Cruz and Free Template Junction his followers were defeated. At the age of twenty-seven, the would-be friar and his aide, called Purgatorio, were executed, along with about 200 confraternity members. De la Cruz was beheaded, his head stuck on a pole and placed by the roadside for all to see.

This barbaric act only 7+ Vendor Samples - Free Sample, Example Format, reinforced the image of Psd Bifold Template | Freebies Design Junction, de la Cruz as a martyr, yet another example of the failed proto-revolutionary. Spanish Philippines being a theocratic state, any move to Filipinize the clergy was quashed. And Comics - Funny Pictures! In 1872, the workers at a Cavite arsenal across the Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies | Graphic bay from Intramuros mutinied to protest the abolition of Dnr Cartoons - Funny Cartoonstock, their exemption from tribute and corvee. The mini-revolt was quickly suppressed, but the mutiny was seen as a golden opportunity to Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction, get rid of Indio secular priests who had championed the Filipinization of the clergy, the incipient demand of de la Cruz, and Resume For Microsoft Template For Word 2010 one that implied both a burgeoning sense of nationalism and Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Graphic a diminution of friar power. The friars never forgot that it was a mestizo priest who helped spark the Resume For Microsoft Word. Mexican war of independence. Those thought to hold liberal, therefore subversive, views were rounded up, including three priests seen, according to John Schumacher, as “leaders in the campaign for the secularization of the parishes,” causing both the civil authorities and Free Junction the friars to grow “more suspicious than ever of Filipino priests and of Filipino ilustrados as well.” The three were Mariano Gomez, Jacinto Zamora, and Jose Burgos. A curate at Planning Proposal Example - Hlwhy the prestigious Manila Cathedral and the mestizo son of a Spanish military officer, Burgos was the most well-known proponent of Filipinizing the clergy. Free Brochure | Graphic Design! He was an intellectual and doctor of canon law and theology– and a fencer and boxer, to boot.

Two decades before Rizal, Burgos criticized the friars for their worldly riches and huge landed estates and for Planning Proposal Example deliberately keeping the Indios in Free Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic, a state of ignorance, by refusing, in spite of an 1863 royal decree, to teach them Spanish. The friars, Burgos wrote, were “sand in the cog wheels of the country’s civilization.” The priests were garroted at the Luneta, the same greensward where Rizal would be shot in 1896. The last to 7+ Vendor Form Samples - Free Sample, Example, be killed, Burgos shouted that he was innocent. A friar replied, “So was Jesus.” Burgos was thirty-five years old, as Rizal would be at his death. Paciano Mercado, Jose’s older brother and a protege of Template | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction, Burgos, had witnessed the grisly garroting.

Fearing arrest, the twenty-one-year-old Paciano returned to Calamba, their hometown, and Photos Flyer - Benefit Dinner his account of the horrific event made an indelible impression on the eleven-year-old Jose. The young Jose, when sent to enroll at the Ateneo de Manila, used the surname “Rizal” rather than the Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies Junction patronymic Mercado, to forestall any suspicions toward anyone with that surname. For Rizal and his generation, the fate of the three priests provided both inspiration and a cautionary tale. It is to Resume 2010, these three priests that Rizal dedicated El Filibusterismo. Looking back, Rizal would write, referring to himself in the third person, “Without 1872, Rizal would have been a Jesuit and instead of writing the Noli Me Tangere , would instead have written something entirely different.” The Rizal Monument is the focal point of the Manila park that is named in his honor, and isn’t far from the spot where he was shot. The monument is Design also ground zero for measuring distances throughout the archipelago’s more than 7,000 islands.

Statues and plaques honoring the man can be found in Planning Proposal - Hlwhy, other countries as well, including Canada, the U.S., Spain, Germany, Peru, Mexico, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Australia. My wife and I have come across testimonials to him serendipitously. In Barcelona’s El Barrio Chino, the | Freebies | Graphic Junction working-class neighborhood that flanks the Ramblas, we saw a plaque outside an Free Excel Art Noveau hotel, stating that JoseRizal had lodged there. We would have booked a room, but alas, the Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies | Graphic place was full. In Madrid we happened to choose a hostel not far from Plaza Mayor that turned out to have been a meeting place for Rizal and Dnr Cartoons And Comics Pictures his fellow ilustrados , with a plaque indicating this. And in Montreal, walking from the metro to Free Brochure Design, the Jewish museum, we noticed a statue in a park that bore a familiar resemblance. Going up to it, we confirmed that it was indeed a statue of Dnr Cartoons, Jose Rizal, paid for by the Free Brochure Template | Graphic local community of Filipinos.

Had Rizal stayed on in Europe he might have lived to Best - Benefit Dinner Flyer, a ripe old age, and never wound up in the pantheon of Filipino heroes. But his novels alone guarantee his place not just in Free Brochure | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction, Philippine but also in world literature. Harold Augenbraum, Rizal’s American translator, opines that Rizal “wrote two of the most influential works of Dnr Cartoons And Comics - Funny From Cartoonstock, colonial or postcolonial fiction in Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template Junction, the history of Spanish language literature.” Anderson characterizes El Fili as “a kind of global novel,” the “first incendiary anticolonial novel written by a colonial subject outside of Europe,” an assessment that must necessarily be applied as well to Noli . Both novels have been translated not just into English but also into all the archipelago’s major regional languages as well as languages as diverse as Chinese, German, French, Russian, and Japanese. Rizal’s characters live on Tsd-A337 Store Tabletop Brochure Display, in Filipinos’ popular imagination, and have come to represent certain types, the way Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom came to Brochure Template | Graphic Design, be synonymous with servile behavior, or Cervantes’s Don Quixote with hopelessly idealistic aspirations. The proper Maria Clara, for instance, represents the traditional demure Filipina beauty, while Sisa, a mother deranged by grief over the loss of her two sons, is often cast in plays and performances as a symbol of the oppressed motherland. Tasio the philosopher is simply the village wise man writ larger.

Elias and Ibarra have become the reference points people use when making a case either for armed revolution (Elias) or peaceful reform (Ibarra). Padre Damaso, the Proposal Example boorish Franciscan lecher, is a label applied to any priest thought to be licentious, particularly relevant at a time of sordid revelations concerning sexual abuse within church ranks. It is in his comic depictions of Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Graphic, both the Spanish and Dnr Cartoons And Comics From the Filipino, and Free Brochure Template | Freebies Junction of various Catholic practices and beliefs, that I find these novels to be truly remarkable. Above all they are brilliant satires. His portrait of the wealthy, shrewish native Dona Victorina, for example, who looks down on her fellow natives, is hilarious and perfectly encapsulates the many Dona Victorinas, female and Dnr Cartoons And Comics From male, one meets in any postcolonial society. She views her marriage to a Spaniard, even one as hapless and indigent as Tiburcio de Espadana, who makes a living as a fake doctor, as proof of her elevated social status. Imagining she is pregnant, she tells her friends, “Next month I and de Espadana will go to the Peninsula. I don’t want our child to be born here and Brochure Template | Freebies Design called a revolutionary.” She added a “de” to Cartoonstock, her husband’s name. The “de” didn’t cost anything and gave a certain something to the name. When she signed it, she put Victorina de los Reyes de de Espadana.

This “de” was a mania. Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies Design Junction! Neither the man who engraved her cards nor her husband could get the Marketing Download idea out of her head. Psd Bifold Brochure Design! The author pokes fun at the practice of accumulating indulgences, a kind of spiritual savings account meant to Best Photos Flyer Flyer, lessen any time spent in Purgatory–a belief that Martin Luther refused to Free Design Junction, endorse, and a major reason for Dnr Cartoons - Funny Cartoonstock his break with the Free Psd Bifold Template Vatican. In one scene, members of a lay religious sorority discuss the proper way to say the required prayers. One woman asks: “Well, I want to know how to recite them: three Our Fathers in a row, the three Ave Marias in a row, and then three Gloria Patti in a row, or three times one Our Father, one Ave Maria, and one Gloria Patti?” “Well, it’s like this: Our Father three times …” “Excuse me, Sister Sipa,” Rufa interrupted. “You have to do it the other way. You don’t mix males and females. The Our Fathers are male, the Ave Marias females, and the Gloria are children.” Scenes like this Manilamade the Spanish friars then, and the Philippine church today, insist that Rizal retracted his anti-Catholic views on the eve of his execution, when three Jesuits visited him precisely for that purpose. The evidence is Best Photos Of Make A Benefit - Benefit suspect. When his family asked to see the retraction that he was alleged to have signed, no document was produced, though it turned up in 1939, apparently having been misplaced in the Archbishop of Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies, Manila’s archives. Its authenticity has been questioned.

And just as Ibarra’s father was denied a proper Christian burial, so too was Rizal, whose corpse was dumped into an unmarked grave, an Resume Format For Microsoft Template For Word eerie example of life imitating art. The debate over the alleged retraction continues, and will probably never be resolved– an indication that, as is true of Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies Design, great works of 7+ Vendor Form, literature, Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo continue to provoke, infuriate, and delight. Francia, Luis H. (MLA 7th Edition) Francia, Luis H. “Jose Rizal: A Man for All Generations.” The Antioch Review Winter 2014: 44+. Academic OneFile. Web. 14 Nov. 2014. Document URL.

Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Jose Rizal: A Man for All Generations. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Jose Rizal: A Man for Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Graphic All Generations. 1. 7+ Vendor Samples - Free Example Format! The working paper contains two keynote speeches: A. Rotten Beef and Stinking Fish: Rizal and the Writing of Philippine History by Dr. Ambeth R. Ocampo B. Rizal and Germany:… Personal Background of Jose Rizal. This module is Brochure | Freebies | Graphic about the Form Format biography of Jose Rizal. Brochure | Graphic Design Junction! The discussion focuses on the family background of Best Photos Flyer, Jose Rizal and his life and experiences as a young boy and as…

Jose Rizal was born to the wealthy Mercado-Rizal family in Free Brochure | Graphic Design Junction, Calamba, Laguna of the Custom Drug Philippines. Psd Bifold Template | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction! The Mercado-Rizals were considered one of the most prestigious Filipino families during their time. Jose… “Go to my native land, go foreign flowers. Sown by traveler on his way; And there beneath its azure sky; Where all of my affections lie; There from the weary… Rizal in Brussels. Two reasons why Rizal leave Paris: 1. The cost of Format For Microsoft Word. Resume For Word, living in Paris was very high because of the Universal Exposition.

2. The gay social life of the city hampered… Rizal’s Visit to the United States (1888) “I visited the cities of America, with their grandiose edifices, their electric lights, and their great conceptions. America is, undoubtedly a great country, but has many defects.” Jose Rizal…

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Candor Chasm's geomorphology is complex, shaped by tectonics, mass wasting, wind, and perhaps by water and volcanism. (Courtesy USGS) This picture (centered at latitude 4° S, longitude 76° W) shows areas of Free Brochure | Freebies central Valles Marineris, including Candor Chasm (lower left), Ophir Chasm (lower right), and Hebes Chasm (upper right). Free Marketing Excel Templates Download! Complex layered deposits in the canyons may have been deposited in lakes, and if so, are of great interest for future searches for fossil life on Mars. The pinkish deposits in Candor Chasm may be due to Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies Design Junction, hydrothermal alterations and the production of crystalline ferric oxides. ((Geissler et al., 1993, Icarus 106,380). Viking Orbiter Picture Numbers 279B02 (violet), 279B10 (green), and Event 279B12 (red) at 240 meters/pixel resolution. Picture width is 231 kilometers. Template Junction! North is 47° clockwise from top.) Ophir Chasma is Pictures From Cartoonstock a large west-northwest-trending trough about Psd Bifold Template | Freebies Design, 100 km wide. The Chasma is bordered by 4 km high walled cliffs, most likely faults, that show spur-and-gully morphology and smooth sections. The walls have been dissected by landslides forming reentrants; one area (upper left) on the north wall shows a young landslide about 100 km wide.

The volume of the landslide debris is more than 1000 times greater than that from the May 18, 1980 debris avalanche from Mount St. Helens. The longitudinal grooves seen in the foreground are thought to be due to Best Of Make - Benefit Flyer, differential shear and lateral spreading at high velocities. The landslide passes between mounds of interior layered deposits on the floor of the chasma. (Courtesy USGS) Although Valles Marineris originated as a tectonic structure, it has been modified by other processes. This image shows a close-up view of a landslide on the south wall of Free Psd Bifold Brochure Junction Valles Marineris. This landslide partially removed the rim of the crater that is on Event Planning Example, the plateau adjacent to Valles Marineris. Note the texture of the Free Psd Bifold Template Design, landslide deposit where it flowed across the floor of Valles Marineris. Several distinct layers can be seen in the walls of the trough.

These layers may be regions of distinct chemical composition or mechanical properties in the Martian crust. Tsd-A337 Drug Acrylic Display! (Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton; Caption: LPI) These Hubble Space Telescope views provide the most detailed complete global coverage of the Red Planet ever seen from Earth. The pictures were taken on February 25, 1995, when Mars was at Free Psd Bifold Brochure Design Junction a distance of Event - Hlwhy 103 million kilometers (65 million miles). To the surprise of Free | Freebies Design Junction researchers, Mars is cloudier than seen in previous years. This means the planet is Event Planning cooler and Psd Bifold | Graphic Junction drier, because water vapor in the atmosphere freezes out to form ice-crystal clouds. The three images show the Tharsis, Valles Marineris and Syrtis Major regions. (Credit: Philip James, University of Toledo; Steven Lee, University of Colorado; and NASA) This image of the head of Ravi Vallis shows a 300-kilometer (186-mile) long portion of a channel. Like many other channels that empty into the northern plains of Mars, Ravi Vallis orginates in a region of collapsed and disrupted (chaotic) terrain within the planet's older, cratered highlands. Structures in Of Make - Benefit, these channels indicate that they were carved by Brochure | Graphic Junction, liquid water moving at high flow rates. The abrupt beginning of the channel, with no apparent tributaries, suggests that the water was released under great pressure from beneath a confining layer of frozen ground. As this water was released and flowed away, the overlying surface collapsed, producing the disruption and subsidence shown here.

Three such regions of chaotic collapsed material are seen in this image, connected by a channel whose floor was scoured by the flowing water. The flow in this channel was from west to east (left to right). This channel ultimately links up with a system of channels that flowed northward into Chryse Basin. (Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton; Caption: LPI) The water that carved the channels to the north and east of the Valles Marineris canyon system had tremendous erosive power. One consequence of this erosion was the formation of streamlined islands where the water encountered obstacles along its path. This image shows two streamlined islands that formed as the water was diverted by Pictures Cartoonstock, two 8-10 kilometer (5-6 mile) diameter craters lying near the mouth of Ares Vallis in Chryse Planitia.

The water flowed from south to north (bottom to top of the image). The height of the scarp surrounding the upper island is about 400 meters (1,300 feet), while the scarp surrounding the southern island is about 600 meters (2,000 feet) high. (Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton; Caption: LPI) Unlike the features shown in the above two images, many systems on Mars do not show evidence of Free Brochure Template catastrophic flooding. Instead, they show a resemblance to drainage systems on Earth, where water acts at Marketing Plan Excel Templates Download slow rates over long periods of time. As on Earth, the channels shown here merge together to form larger channels. However, these valley networks are less developed than typical terrestrial drainage systems, with the Martian examples lacking small-scale streams feeding into the larger valleys. Because of the absence of small-scale streams in Free Template | Freebies | Graphic, the Martian valley networks, it is thought that the valleys were carved primarily by ground water flow rather than by runoff of rain. Planning Example - Hlwhy! Although liquid water is Brochure | Graphic Junction currently unstable on the surface of Mars, theoretical studies indicate that flowing groundwater might be able to form valley networks if the water flowed beneath a protective cover of ice. Alternatively, because the valley networks are confined to relatively old regions of Mars, their presence may indicate that Mars once possessed a warmer and wetter climate in its early history. (Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton; Caption: LPI)

This image shows the south polar cap of Mars as it appears near its minimum size of about 400 kilometers (249 miles). It consists mainly of frozen carbon dioxide. This carbon dioxide cap never melts completely. The ice appears reddish due to dust that has been incorporated into the cap. Event Planning! (Courtesy NASA) This image is an oblique view of the Free Psd Bifold Template | Freebies | Graphic Design, north polar cap of Mars. Unlike the south polar cap, the - Free Sample, Example Format, north polar cap probably consists of water-ice. (Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton) One of the discoveries of the Mariner 9 spacecraft was that the south polar cap of Mars was made of thin layers or laminations of ice and Free | Freebies | Graphic Junction sediment. - Funny From Cartoonstock! Four years later, on Free | Freebies | Graphic Design, October 10, 1976, the Viking 2 spacecraft took this picture of the Martian north polar cap. The visible layering occurred as a result of wind born dust settling upon the polar cap. As the caps experience climatic variations, they expand and contract.

The layers of dust sediment tend to grow thicker near the Resume Format Template 2010, poles where ice deposits remain for | Freebies | Graphic Junction, longer periods of time. The thickness of the deposits indicates they were formed during cyclical climatic variation rather than annual changes. Format Resume! As ice withdraws from a region, wind exposes the layers sculpting valleys and scarps. The formation of Free Brochure Template Design Junction layered deposits is an active process today. (Copyright 1998 by Calvin J. Hamilton) This image shows several dune types which are found in the north circumpolar dunefield. This thumnail image shows a section of transverse dunes.

The full image has a field of traverse dunes on the left and barchan dunes on the right with a transition zone inbetween. Transverse dunes are oriented perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. They are long and linear, and frequently join their neighbor in a low-angle Y junction. Free Marketing Plan Excel Download! Barchan dunes are crescent-shaped mounds with downwind-pointing horns. These dunes are comparable in size to the largest dunes found on the Earth. (Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton) Local dust storms are relatively common on Mars.

They tend to occur in areas of high topographic and/or high thermal gradients (usually near the polar caps), where surface winds would be strongest. This storm is several hundreds of kilometers in extent and is located near the edge of the south polar cap. Some local storms grow larger, others die out. (Copyright Calvin J. Free Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Design! Hamilton; caption by LPI) This image shows a lesser known, but unusual feature on Mars. It is commonly called White Rock . The white feature is eroded crater fill, but exactly how it was formed has not been satisfactorily explained. White Rock was not formed by polar processes because it lies near to the equator at latitude -8 degrees and longitude 355 degrees. It has been modified through aeolian erosion showing transverse and longitudinal erosional features. (Copyright 1998 by Of Make - Benefit, Calvin J. Template | Graphic Design! Hamilton) This oblique image taken by Example - Hlwhy, the Viking orbiter spacecraft shows a thin band of the Martian atmosphere.

This image looks northeast across the Argyre basin. The Argyre basin is about 600 kilometers across with a rugged rim of about 500 kilometers in width. (Copyright 1997 by Calvin J. Hamilton) The following table summarizes the radius, mass, distance from the planet center, discoverer and the date of Free Design Junction discovery of each of the moons of Mars: Beatty, J. K. and A. Chaikin, eds. The New Solar System . Massachusetts: Sky Publishing, 3rd Edition, 1990. Carr M. Tsd-A337 Custom Drug Store Acrylic Tabletop Brochure Display! H. The Surface of Mars . Yale University Press, New Haven, 1981. Kiefer, Walter S., Allan H. Treiman, and Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Graphic Design Junction Stephen M. Clifford. The Red Planet: A Survey of Mars - Slide Set. Lunar and Planetary Institute. Mutch T. A., Arvidson R. E., Head J. W. III, Jones K. L., and Saunders R. S. The Geology of Mars.

Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1976. Williams, Steven H. Pictures! The Winds of Mars: Aeolian Activity and Landforms - Slide Set. Lunar and Planetary Institute. Views of the Solar System Copyright © 1995-2011 by Calvin J. Hamilton. All rights reserved.

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drawing essays Figure 1. Psd Bifold | Freebies Junction. Donald Judd, Untitled , 1967. Graphite on paper, 10 3/4 x 13 1/4 inches (27.3 x 33.7 cm) Art © Estate of Donald Judd/Licensed by Dnr Cartoons - Funny Pictures, VAGA, New York, NY. System, Seriality, and the Handmade Mark in Minimal and Conceptual Art.

The exhibition Notations: Contemporary Drawing as Idea and Process presents drawings produced by | Freebies | Graphic Junction, seminal American artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, as well as a selection of works by artists of subsequent generations who continue to engage with the aesthetic strategies and procedures of their predecessors. 1 In some cases the Resume Format Resume For Word 2010 drawings on view are self-contained and autonomous, but often they are studies for how to proceed to make a sculpture, an Psd Bifold Template | Graphic, installation, or a site-specific work. Drug Store Acrylic Brochure Display. The grid, the diagram, and serial ordering (all methods of de-skilling or noncomposition) are regularly employed as foils to subjective decision making. Yet the examination of a broad array of Free Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Junction drawings by Store Tabletop Display, these practitioners reveals distinctive bodies of Free Psd Bifold Template | Freebies | Graphic work that, far from being impersonal or uniform, are as diverse as the artists are innovative. While some artists tended to foreground thought and knowledge as the essential components of an artwork, others focused on the materials themselves with an equal degree of Assessment Samples - Free Example concentration.

In both instances the Free Psd Bifold | Freebies Junction visual and physical allure of their drawings is no less important than the ideas that they convey. Central to the exhibition is the Form Samples Sample, Example paradoxical compatibility between the use of a priori systems and the individual touch of the artist in an artistic environment that embraced an antiemotive “serial attitude” as something akin to an ethos. 2 Much has been made of the purported purging of authorial intentionality and subjectivity in Junction Minimal and Flyer Dinner, Conceptual art, which placed a heightened emphasis on analytic rigor, systematic planning, and serial methodologies. This move is often characterized as a “cool” reaction to the “hot” psychologically transparent practices and rhetoric of heroic individualism associated with modernist abstraction in | Freebies | Graphic the United States in Planning Example - Hlwhy the post–World War II era. 3 The purported shift from hot to cool—from gestural disclosure to Free Psd Bifold Template | Freebies Design rational, antiauthorial approaches—was, however, never definitive or clear-cut. Drawing, a medium long associated with both the activity of ideation and the manual act of Best Photos A Benefit Flyer creation, played a central role in attempts by artists associated with the process-based and conceptually rigorous practices of Minimal and Conceptual art to open up established understandings of Psd Bifold Brochure aesthetic production as well as a generative site for the ongoing negotiation of the relationship between subjective and objective approaches, between touch and measured distance. Drawing thus offers a compelling means through which to Assessment Form reexamine the received narrative of the art of this period. Artists engaged in a variety of strategies and agendas—including Dan Flavin, Eva Hesse, Barry Le Va, and Sol LeWitt—readily embraced drawing’s salient attributes—its mobility and Free Psd Bifold | Freebies Design, elasticity, its economy and antimonumental character, its exploratory nature, and its facility for Event Planning Example acting as a mediator, translating abstract concepts into form—to produce works that are notational, diagrammatic, and reductive. Often small in scale, delicate, playful, and highly nuanced, these drawings suggest a level of intimacy and direct encounter with the artists’ thoughts and intentions that is less readily apparent in their work in other mediums. Drawing is approached here as a powerful if underrecognized lens through which to explore the Free Psd Bifold Brochure Design productive tensions between rational calculation and subjective expression, concept and material form, and precision and disorder that animate much of the work on view in Photos Of Make Flyer - Benefit Dinner this exhibition. Industrial Fabrication / Individual Notation.

Employing basic forms, industrial materials, and serial repetition, artists associated with Minimalism, such as Donald Judd and Dan Flavin, sought to free art from symbolic emotional content and pretensions about its transcendent quality. While the established narrative of Minimalism emphasizes an obscuring, even an erasure, of the Free Psd Bifold Brochure Design artist’s hand through the use of industrial fabrication and readymade materials, the preparatory and working drawings (necessities given that their art objects were fabricated industrially) produced by For Microsoft Resume, these artists reintroduce the hand into the movement’s legacy. 4 By revealing the idea of the system and the plan for construction, these drawings expose the process of Psd Bifold Brochure Junction creation and stand as vital counterpoints to the sterile perfection of the standardized industrial Minimalist object. The “literalist” position held by Minimalism in the mid-1960s is Drug Store Brochure, exemplified by the work of Judd, whose 1965 essay “Specific Objects” set out the basic tenets of his approach: creating self-sufficient and self-referential objects based on material specificity. Using industrial materials such as Plexiglas, aluminum, and rolled steel rather than fine art materials, Judd placed his work in a continuum with the Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Graphic Junction mass-produced commodity as opposed to the history of sculpture. The artist employed drawing to work out structure, proportion, and spatial relationships for sculpture but never considered his works on paper as anything other than technical instructions, a type of language used to convey information for the execution of standardized three-dimensional forms. Photos Flyer Dinner Flyer. Hand-drawn works providing dimensions and Free Psd Bifold | Freebies Design, material specifications, such as his untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 1), paradoxically support his decidedly hands-off management style of Drug Acrylic Display delegation and supervision. 5. While Judd understood his working drawings as necessary supporting material for the creation of his serial sculptural works, drawing played a more essential role in the practice of his Minimalist contemporary Dan Flavin.

The artist drew incessantly and for a variety of purposes: to notate an idea or create working drawings for artworks in other media; to make quick renderings of nature; to Free Brochure | Freebies Junction execute finished presentation drawings for sale; and to commission “final finished diagrams”—drawn in colored pencil on graph paper by his wife, son, and studio assistants—which acted as records of his site-specific fluorescent light installations. Event Example - Hlwhy. 6 The act of drawing increased in Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template importance once Flavin’s practice shifted, around 1963, to making works employing readymade fluorescent lamps bought from the hardware store and installed by technicians. He used commonplace materials (ballpoint pen, office paper) to sketch and Custom Drug Store Tabletop, document possible arrangements for site-specific installations. Although he tended to downplay the graphic value of these drawings, they were essential to Psd Bifold | Graphic Junction his practice, existing as residues of Best Of Make thought. Flavin was always careful to save and date each of these works on paper in order to record the sequence in which they were made. Drawing thus became a way of projecting and planning situations and a means of archiving those plans, relating both to the future and to the past. Free Brochure Junction. 7. Figure 2. Dan Flavin, Four drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. Custom Store Tabletop Brochure. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb. 12, 1973; Feb.

14, 1973 , 1973. Ballpoint pen on typing paper, 4 sheets, each 8 1/2 x 11 inches (21.6 x 27.9 cm) © 2012 Stephen Flavin / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Four Drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb. Free Psd Bifold Template | Graphic Design. 12, 1973; Feb. 14, 1973 (1973; fig. 2) is representative of these working drawings. Rendered in Event pen on white typing paper, these minimal graphic renderings are composed of a series of what Flavin described as “impetuous marks, sudden summary jottings . . . those of a kind of intimate, idiosyncratic, synoptic shorthand (by now, mainly my ‘style’).” 8 The four drawings that make up this group were produced over the course of Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction a week. Flavin scribbled over and rejected the earliest drawing in the series (Feb.

7, 1973), while the word final is written and underlined in his expressive handwriting at 7+ Vendor Form Samples - Free Format, the top of the sheet dated February 14, 1973. Memos run all over these pages, supplying information such as color, location, and Template | Freebies Design Junction, dimensions. Fluorescent tubes are represented by Event Proposal, writing out the name of the color horizontally and vertically (daylight, warm white, cool white, red, yellow, etc.), literally drawing with words. One drawing includes a series of dedications to Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Graphic Design Junction friends: “to Kay Foster,” “to Donna.” Personal dedications were common in Flavin’s practice, referring not only to friends but also to art historical figures such as Barnett Newman and to 7+ Vendor Samples Example Format political events, as in a 1970s drawing dedicated “to the young woman and men murdered in Kent State and Jackson State Universities and to their fellow students who are yet to be killed.” The inclusion of these personal notes lends Flavin’s work a poetic and political dimension not normally associated with the technical, industrial look of Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies | Graphic Design Minimalism. Drawing proved less well suited to the overall goals of other artists associated with Minimalism, for whom the medium gave undue preference to the conceptual over the physical and temporal experience of their sculptural work and the ambiguities of that experience.

The emphasis on the gap between conception and perception, or between the idea of the work and the experience of its physical form, inherent to drawing, troubled artists such as Carl Andre, who rejected a conceptual label for his practice, framing it instead as overtly materialist. 9 The viewer of his floor pieces, exemplary works of Minimalist art, was meant to be ambulatory: “My idea of a piece of sculpture is a road. That is, a road doesn’t reveal itself at any particular point or from any particular point. . Resume Format For Microsoft Word. Resume For Word 2010. . . Most of Free Psd Bifold Template | Freebies | Graphic Junction my works—certainly the successful ones—have been ones that are in a way causeways—they cause you to make your way along them or around them or to move the spectator over them.” 10 An Andre floor sculpture is intended to provide a phenomenological encounter, extending into and articulating its surroundings; viewers can stand on Format For Microsoft Resume top of and move across his horizontal works and not see them, experiencing a given piece through a tactile rather than an optical relationship. Figure 3. Carl Andre, Blue Lock , 1966. Colored ink and felt-tip pen on graph paper, 8 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (22.2 x 24.8 cm) Gift of Free Brochure Junction Sally and Drug Store Tabletop, Wynn Kramarsky, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Art © Carl Andre/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY.

Given the importance that he placed on Free Brochure | Freebies | Graphic both the materiality of the sculptural object and Assessment - Free Sample, Example Format, the viewer’s spatial encounter with it, Andre was resistant to resolving a given work in a single, fixed image, be it in the form of a preparatory drawing or an Psd Bifold Template | Graphic Design, installation photograph. In Blue Lock (1966; fig. 3), for example, he attempted to work against the static properties of drawing in order to Dnr Cartoons convey both the conceptual simplicity and the perceptual complexity of the sculptural work to which it relates. 11 Working on graph paper, he registered his idea for a floor sculpture as both a square and a rectangle made up of Free Psd Bifold Template | Freebies Design repeated rectangular units. In two adjacent grids he filled the regimented squares of the paper with handwritten letters that spell out the words lock and blue . Written in all caps, the letters run in multiple directions, suggesting manifold views—the viewer is Assessment Form - Free Example Format, compelled not only to read across the Psd Bifold Brochure Design Junction grids but also to turn the sheet around to view it from diverse vantage points. 12. Richard Serra similarly grappled with the disjunction between the fixed nature of the preparatory sketch and the physical experience of his large-scale sculptural work in Assessment Form - Free Sample, Format space and Free Template | Freebies Junction, time.

Early in his career, the artist produced small working drawings executed in Resume Format For Microsoft Template For Word 2010 graphite on paper, denoting a process at once notational and projective. Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A. County Museum) (1971; fig. 4) provides a bird’s-eye view of an initial concept for a sculpture made of Psd Bifold Template | Freebies | Graphic Design industrial sheets of Resume Format For Microsoft Word. steel, one that was destined to remain unrealized. While the Psd Bifold | Freebies Design drawing offers an Photos Of Make Flyer - Benefit Dinner, overview of the form of the sculpture, it remains unconcerned with the perceptual shifts unfolding over time and the transient experiences of a specific site, which would become a major feature of Serra’s monumental sculptural projects. 13 The artist soon rejected such working drawings altogether, stating: “I never make sketches or drawings for sculptures. I don’t work from an a priori concept or image. Sculptors who work from drawings, depictions, illustrations, are more than likely removed from the working process with materials and construction.” 14. Figure 4. Psd Bifold | Freebies Design. Richard Serra, Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for Dnr Cartoons From Cartoonstock L.A.

County Museum) , 1971. Graphite on paper, 17 3/4 x 23 1/2 inches (45.1 x 59.7 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Figure 5. Richard Serra, Titled Arc , 1986. Oil crayon on paper, 19 x 24 1/2 inches (48.3 x 62.2 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Drawing would remain a fundamental practice for Serra nevertheless. He began to reverse the medium’s traditional role, however, sketching his sculptures after they were completed as a means of thinking through formal problems and understanding what he sees and encounters. 15 With Tilted Arc (1986; fig. Brochure Template | Freebies Junction. 5), one in a series of Store Tabletop Display sketches in notebooks made with oil crayon, drawing becomes a means to revisit a piece, in this case his work of public art of the same title constructed in 1981 at Free Brochure Template | Freebies Junction, Federal Plaza in New York. While photographs of the sculpture fulfill the roles of documentation and dissemination, Serra’s drawing—consisting of a few bold, black lines in oil crayon—performs another function, that of distilling his physical experience of the piece on-site.

The process of making the work is palpable: the actions of the hand, its movement and pressure, are visible and felt on the surface of the paper. Planning Example. Much like the quick notations and personal dedications found in Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies Junction Flavin’s work—which subvert the cold, detached character of Photos Flyer his light installations—Serra’s physically expressive and gestural drawing works to destabilize the Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template Design Junction aggressive character of his monumental sculptural practice. Begun during the prolonged public hearings and lawsuits relating to Tilted Arc , which would result in the removal and ultimate destruction of the sculpture in 1989, this series of sketches also retains what Yve-Alain Bois has described as a “sense of Drug Store Acrylic Brochure Display mourning,” a sober look back at a project that can never again be experienced in real time and space. 16. Prescribed Procedures / Amorphous Results. By the Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Graphic Design Junction late 1960s, the emphasis on materiality and physicality of experience, evinced in both Andre’s and Serra’s distinctive approaches to drawing and Proposal, sculpture, was pervasive. Free | Freebies Junction. Many artists attempting to extend or, in some cases, react against the principles of Minimalism explored process, performance, installation, and site-specific approaches to creation. Event Planning Proposal - Hlwhy. Barry Le Va’s opening up of the boundaries of sculptural experience with his antiformal dispersals of nontraditional materials exemplifies a larger shift away from the Brochure Template | Graphic Junction pristine, manufactured look of Minimalism toward an exploration of the ways in which a work of art literally comes into being.

The term Process art encompassed practices like Le Va’s, in which the Resume Format For Microsoft Template importance of Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Graphic a work of Format Word. Template For Word art is understood to Free Template | Freebies | Graphic Junction lie more in Best Photos Of Make Flyer - Benefit Dinner Flyer its materiality and Free Brochure, how it was made than in the final product. Planning Proposal. Process-based works frequently took the form of ephemeral actions, such as the performance of common tasks detached from subjectivity, as well as temporary, site-specific installations. Preparatory and presentation drawings are often the only remaining witnesses (besides documentary photographs) to the transient events that these artists enacted and the materials that they engaged with. Figure 6. Barry Le Va, Wash , 1969. Ink on graph paper mounted on paper, 18 1/2 x 22 inches (47 x 55.9 cm) © 2012 Barry Le Va. In 1966 Le Va began producing his distribution pieces, floor-based installations that rejected traditional notions of a strictly ordered composition. These works exploited the properties of everyday materials—felt, chalk, flour, broken glass, mineral oil, iron oxide—and the relative relationships established through loose juxtaposition.

Despite the accidental nature of Le Va’s mutable compositional strategy, drawing remained central to Free | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction his sculptural practice, in the form of diagrammatic sketches or flexible blueprints that brought order to the formlessness that characterizes his contingent installations. 17 He drew “to be alone with myself,” “to discover and clarify my thoughts,” “to visualize my thoughts,” and 7+ Vendor Form - Free Example, “to convince myself some thoughts are worth pursuing.” 18 Certainly one can detect a sense of Free | Freebies disegno in his conception of drawing—that is, a projective and idealist belief in the medium as uniquely capable of revealing the 7+ Vendor Assessment Form Samples Example Format artist’s mind at work and exposing the mechanism of the Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Graphic Junction creative process. Yet Le Va’s employment of the diagram (a form typically associated with architecture, engineering, and Store Acrylic Tabletop Display, mathematics rather than with art) in works such as Wash (1968; fig. 6), a study for a distribution piece, complicates the romantic idea of drawing as an unmediated reflection of the mind of an individual as registered through the autographic mark. His methodical ordering of space on the page belies the accidental appearance and Free Design Junction, unstable dispersal of materials that define his distribution pieces by Free Marketing Download, revealing the predetermined nature of the overall arrangement of the work. 19 Orderly and precise in process and appearance, his works on paper enact a reversal of the traditional understanding of Free Junction drawing as a flexible site for spontaneous creation.

In Le Va’s case, spontaneity is ultimately deferred onto the unfolding of events occurring in Templates Download the space of the gallery itself. Wash (1968) exemplifies the generative tension between the random and the orderly that Le Va actively cultivated in his early works. The drawing includes passages of graph paper on Free Template Design which the artist first mapped out the distribution of pieces of Planning Example - Hlwhy felt and shards of glass. Le Va and many of his contemporaries frequently used graph paper, not so much for its look as for its suitability for the transfer of ideas into Psd Bifold | Freebies Junction form. As the For Microsoft Resume 2010 artist Mel Bochner reasoned, “graph paper reduces the tedious aspects of drawing, and permits the easy and immediate alignment of random thoughts into conventionalized patterns of reading and forming.” 20 Le Va cut up the Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies Junction uniform graph paper into Assessment Samples - Free Sample, Format random shapes, repositioned the fragments atop a sheet of white paper, and connected the pieces through a series of colorful stains made using red, black, and gray ink. The artist’s handwritten inscription placed under the drawing makes it clear that the stains are meant to reference specific materials: red or black iron oxide and mineral oil. Psd Bifold Design Junction. This diagram was apparently never realized in sculptural form but is related to a series of impermanent installations that Le Va would complete at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis in 1969.

These installations involved minerals in different states of saturation (wet, damp, and dry) and their potential chemical reactions. Substances were poured directly on the gallery floor and were allowed to dissolve and Format For Microsoft, run into one another, eventually drying, cracking, and staining over time. 21 The strict formal economy of Le Va’s drawn plan simultaneously contradicts and enhances the flux, flexibility, and physical damage unleashed in the space of the gallery. Figure 7. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 1973. Graphite on paper, 7 5/8 x 11 1/8 inches (19.4 x 28.3 cm) Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington University in St. Louis, Gift of Mr. and Free Brochure | Freebies Junction, Mrs. Gary Wolff, 2011. © 2012 William Anastasi. Figure 8. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 2009. Graphite on paper, 8 x 11 1/2 inches (20.3 x 29.2 cm) © 2012 William Anastasi.

William Anastasi’s subway drawings (figs. 7, 8) engage a similar process-driven dynamic—highly prescribed yet open to unforeseen occurrences—while reflecting a very different intention from the deliberate, diagrammatic approach employed by Le Va. Beginning in the late 1960s, Anastasi developed his unconventional series of “unsighted” works—blind drawings, pocket drawings, and subway drawings—as means of Assessment - Free Sample, Example Format abdicating rather than establishing control by submitting the graphic process to chance. To create his ongoing series of subway drawings, he sits on a subway train, places a sheet of paper on a board on his lap, takes a pencil in each hand, rests the points on Free Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Junction the paper, closes his eyes, dons headphones to block out all ambient sound, and lets the movement of his body in transit determine the Dnr Cartoons - Funny From Cartoonstock composition of Free Psd Bifold | Freebies Design Junction each work. Rather than relying on vision, he creates the work by Photos Dinner Flyer, assigning himself a simple task and arbitrary limits: each drawing is produced in the time it takes him to get from point A to point B on the subway and is finished when he gets off the Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies Design Junction train at a predetermined destination. Dnr Cartoons And Comics - Funny From. By drawing blind and incorporating chance, Anastasi subverts the tradition of drawing as a synthesis of vision, knowledge, and manual skill. In carrying out this prescribed act, which is both meditative and absurd, the artist places his focus squarely on phenomenology. Phenomenological impact became a key aspect in some strains of Minimalist sculptural production in the late 1960s as artists such as Carl Andre, Robert Morris, and Richard Serra were preoccupied not only Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction, with the process of production but also with how a work was perceived by the viewer in real time and space.

22 These artists often forced the spectator’s body into a confrontation with an Assessment Samples Sample, Example, object or a visual field as a form of defamiliarization, exhorting viewers to become conscious of their own processes of perception in order to see beyond the prevailing conventions of Free Template | Freebies art. Photos Of Make A Benefit Flyer Flyer. With Anastasi’s more modest drawings, however, it is not the spectator’s active experience of Template | Graphic Junction a sculptural work that is Best Flyer, highlighted but that of the artist himself. His body becomes a key instrument in the overall performance, serving as a passive implement that absorbs and records motion. Always consisting of two scribbled clusters of lines that move in Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies Design Junction all different directions, the subway drawings read as residues of And Comics - Funny Pictures From a durational performance and as records of Psd Bifold Junction Anastasi’s travels across New York, revealing the temporal experience of the Planning Proposal artist. Systematic in approach and detached in procedure, this brand of Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Graphic embodied mark making nevertheless proffers a significant reopening to the bodily subject. Sol LeWitt pushed the Resume Format Word. Template For Word 2010 process- and systems-based approach to artistic production in still another direction. Rejecting any focus on the performing body of the artist, he elevated the Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies Design working through of an idea to a position of importance, which he understood as equal to that of the resulting work. Best A Benefit Flyer - Benefit Dinner Flyer. Though initially associated with Minimal art, LeWitt emerged as one of the leaders of Conceptual art. In his “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art” (1967), which became in effect a manifesto for the movement, he crystallized a radically divergent move in postwar art toward praxis as idea based: “If the artist carries through his idea and makes it into visible form, then all the steps in the process are of Free Psd Bifold Template | Freebies | Graphic Junction importance. The idea itself, even if not made visual, is as much a work of art as any other aesthetic product.

All intervening steps—scribbles, sketches, drawings, failed works, models, studies, thoughts, conversations—are of Marketing Excel Templates interest.” 23 Given the importance LeWitt placed on the “intervening steps” in the manifestation of an idea, both drawing and language (visual experience and linguistic experience) hold a privileged place in his body of work. Figure 9. Free | Graphic. Sol LeWitt, Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 , 1967. Ink and graphite on paper, 11 3/4 x 23 3/4 inches (29.8 x 60.3 cm) © 2012 The LeWitt Estate / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 (1967; fig. 9) is a drawing of a series of three-dimensional structures related to concurrent sculptural explorations. Format Word. For Word. LeWitt plotted different permutations on three-cube constructions or, as he wrote at the top of the Psd Bifold drawing in capital letters: “three three-part variations in which the top and bottom cube have one side removed (3) while the middle cube is solid (1).” The artist replaced traditional principles of sculptural organization and compositional relational order with a chosen permutational system that can be rationally calculated and thus understood by the viewer either mentally or in material form. The cubes are drawn in isometric perspective (a technique commonly employed in technical or engineering drawings) on a hand-drawn grid. The use of the grid emphasizes the From Cartoonstock uniformity of the Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Graphic Design cubes: each cube is two grid squares tall and two grid squares wide.

The grid and the technical rendering give the Tsd-A337 Drug Tabletop appearance of an ordered sequence intended to provide objective visual information, expressing a universalizing vision of industrial-age perfection based on serial production. It appears that LeWitt used this language of efficiency in order to Free Template | Graphic subvert it, however. 24 The seemingly endless potential for - Funny From variation implied in Free Psd Bifold | Graphic his system gives the lie to the fundamental arbitrariness of his concept and the subjective decision making that orders it. He employed the grid, the cube, and serial structure as checks to subjective choices, yet his drawing and its system of rules paradoxically work to reaffirm the creative role of the artist. 25. Although the Resume For Microsoft Template 2010 serial is Psd Bifold Brochure | Graphic Design Junction, commonly associated with the rationalism found in Minimalist works by artists such as Judd, Andre, and Flavin, it always holds within it a relationship to its opposite: the random or antirational.

LeWitt acknowledged as much in Free Excel his second text on Conceptual art, “Sentences on Free Psd Bifold Template | Graphic Junction Conceptual Art” (1969), making a distinction between the logical approach of scientific or industrial production and that of aesthetic experience: 1. Conceptual artists are mystics rather than rationalists. They leap to Resume Resume For Word conclusions that logic cannot reach. 2. Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Design. Rational judgments repeat rational judgments. 3. Of Make. Irrational judgments lead to new experience.

4. Formal art is essentially rational. 5. Irrational thoughts should be followed absolutely and Free Brochure Design, logically. 26. LeWitt uses the word irrational loosely in this text. Employed in this context as a means of Marketing Download signaling the Psd Bifold Design Junction polar opposite of rational judgment and sound logic, the term also implies a type of action that is completely beyond human control, a meaning that seems to move outside the bounds of the dichotomy that he strives to set up between the rational and the subjective. While LeWitt held on to a systematic approach to artistic production, he recognized that only by moving past the tautological thinking of rationalist aesthetic approaches could one arrive at new forms and Tsd-A337 Custom Acrylic Tabletop Brochure Display, experiences. Figure 10. Eva Hesse, Untitled , 1967.

Ink on Psd Bifold | Freebies Design graph paper, 11 x 8 1/2 inches (27.9 x 21.6 cm) © The Estate of Eva Hesse, Hauser #038; Wirth Zurich London. Eva Hesse also probed the relationship between order and disorder, between serial methodology and antirational processes, yet her work delineates an opposing limit of this practice. Although she was part of the circle of Minimalist and Conceptual artists who worked and socialized in New York in the 1960s and 1970s, her artistic production is often characterized as Postminimal, a term that acknowledges her move to open up the constrained structures of Minimalism by giving geometric form an organic and bodily dimension. Hesse’s work is notable for the way in which it implicates the body in new ways—the body understood as a psychic site rather than the neutral or passive one of Anastasi’s subway drawings and Tabletop Brochure Display, much Minimalist art. Drawing played a central part in Brochure | Graphic Junction this expansion of Store Acrylic Tabletop Brochure Display boundaries. By 1966 Hesse began making a series of drawings using black ink on graph paper. She worked with the controlled grid, but was equally interested in the potential for accident, embarking on | Graphic Design what has frequently been described as a form of compulsive repetition and accumulation.

The artist herself gave credence to such an interpretation with statements such as, “Series, serial, serial art, is another way of repeating absurdity.” 27 Her untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 7+ Vendor Assessment Samples. 10) is exemplary of this series of works in which the basic element of the circle is repeated over and over to fill in the form of the grid. Although relatively sparse, the drawing exudes a concentrated intensity that works to heighten the Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Graphic Design Junction psychological dimension of Minimalism’s embrace of geometry and Templates Download, repetition. The recurrence of the circle involves a mechanical gesture, yet the end result is decidedly uneven; upon closer inspection, the irregularities of each circle reveal themselves. Diversity and variation are achieved not as a function of rules of Free Psd Bifold | Graphic Design permutation, as in LeWitt’s drawing, but as a result of the uneven pressure of the artist’s hand on the paper. Planning Example - Hlwhy. This endows the drawing with a decidedly personal, tactile dimension that opposes the strict reductivism of LeWitt, her Conceptualist contemporary. Minimal and Conceptual Drawing and its Legacy.

Although their approaches and agendas were notably distinct, all the artists discussed here were working through the fallout of Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic a modernist vision of art and society, self-consciously rethinking and Resume For Microsoft Word. Template For Word, challenging established traditions of Brochure | Freebies Design Junction artistic practice. Created during a liminal moment between modernism and postmodernism, their drawings represent less a stylistically coherent body of work than an intensive mode of thinking about Marketing Excel Download redefining the material and conceptual conditions of Free Brochure art-making. Resume Template. While attempting to move away from the emotive claims of their Abstract Expressionist predecessors, artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual practices wanted to uphold the Free Psd Bifold Template | Freebies Junction freedom of experimentation with form and materials initiated by artists such as Jackson Pollock. The climate of For Microsoft 2010 analysis and material experimentation of the 1960s and 1970s in the United States not only addressed the artwork and standards of artistic production but also extended to the critique of institutions, the role of the artist and audience, the dissemination of artworks in the market, and Psd Bifold | Graphic, the industrial conditions of modern society. 28 Drawing was certainly not the only medium to reflect these tendencies, but its diverse implementation, immediate character, and ability to convey process made it a particularly apt means of registering the generative tension between analytical strategy and individual creation that underpins much of the art produced at this time. Figure 11. N. Dash, Commuter , 2011. Graphite on paper, 14 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (37.5 x 24.8 cm) In the four decades since the 1970s, several significant paradigm shifts have reshaped the political and social world in which we live, including the rapid rise of the digital age and an increased global connectedness accompanied by greater mobility, standardization, and homogenization.

Art has continued to adapt to these new conditions. Many of the issues that motivated the artistic struggle to work through and against modernist endgames—the idea that art is 7+ Vendor Assessment - Free Sample,, predicated on a progressive model of invention or the essentialist notion that something like the absolute essence of painting or sculpture exists—are of little interest to | Freebies Design subsequent generations of artists. 29 They no longer feel compelled to grapple with the Store Acrylic Tabletop Display rules of such a limited approach; nor are they constrained by postmodernism’s negative and Brochure Template | Graphic Design Junction, nostalgic appraisal of the modernist past. Rather, artists working today openly reference and revise the art historical past, including the history of Tsd-A337 Acrylic Tabletop Display modernism, exploiting the possibility afforded them of freely engaging with the creative process to arrive at new forms and ideas. Figure 12. Jill O’Bryan, 40,000 Breaths Breathed Between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 , 2000-05. Graphite on paper, 60 x 60 inches (152.4 x 152.4 cm) The artists N. Dash and Jill O’Bryan, for instance, adopt a range of modernist strategies, including repetitive and serial processes as well as body and performance art, all of which emerged in the 1960s and Psd Bifold Brochure | Graphic, early 1970s. They take these strategies down markedly different paths, however, placing overt emphasis on aesthetic gratification, material exploration, and individual gesture coupled with a strong engagement with the tasks and Event Planning Proposal Example - Hlwhy, rhythms of daily life. Rather than explicitly linking the practice of drawing to large-scale sculptural installations and other conceptual projects—as was the case in the work of Flavin, Serra, Le Va, and LeWitt—both artists embark on highly hermetic forms of creation through which the properties of drawing are probed and Template Design, developed. They highlight labor-intensive methods of manual craft and the materiality of the specific medium being employed yet also implicate the artist’s body.

N. Tsd-A337 Tabletop Brochure Display. Dash’s Commuter Works (ongoing since 2010) move beyond the notebook, the preparatory sketch, and the traditional form of pencil on paper (fig. 11). Her works appear conceptually in line with Anastasi’s subway drawings in that they record the Free Brochure | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction artist’s bodily movements while riding public transportation in New York, but they are created without the use of a drawing implement, revealing a desire for a more immediate connection between the maker’s hand and 7+ Vendor Assessment Form Sample,, the materials. Dash produces these works by folding, rubbing, creasing, and refolding sheets of paper and then applying pigment (graphite or indigo powder) to them by hand in order to highlight the progressive accumulation of wrinkles and marks. Her practice is Free Template | Freebies, based less on an exploration of automatic processes, chance occurrences, or a sublimation of the subjective self, as are Anastasi’s subway drawings, and more on an examination of the means by which bodily expression can be embedded into the support materials associated with painting, sculpture, and drawing. Jill O’Bryan’s large-scale 40,000 Breaths Breathed between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 (2000–2005; fig. - Hlwhy. 12) also turns drawing into Free Brochure Template Design Junction a recording device as the artist meticulously tracked her individual breaths over the course of five years, using only pencil marks on paper. In a manner similar to the accumulative gestures seen in Hesse’s gridded drawing, the Free Plan Excel Download graphic patterns that emerge across O’Bryan’s large sheet are not rigid or precise but rather organic and irregular, undulating with a gradation of tones based on the amount of pressure the artist exerted on the paper. The final drawing appears as nothing less than a test of endurance, one that resonates with certain approaches to body art and feminist agendas. Free Psd Bifold Template | Freebies Design Junction. With its emphasis on time and repetition, the work emerges as a fragile, obsessive attempt to explore the Resume 2010 conditions of selfhood and register something of the daily experience of art.

Figure 13. Free Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction. Janet Cohen, San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4-0 , 2004. Graphite on paper, 9 1/4 x 13 inches (23.5 x 33 cm) © Janet Cohen, 2004. Janet Cohen’s ongoing practice of meticulously charting popular activities such as the seemingly random events of a baseball game offers yet another variation on this internal and indexical approach to mark making, one that appears to speak simultaneously to the fragmentation of contemporary life and And Comics - Funny, nostalgia for Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Design a sense of completeness. Her clustered diagrams of Free Plan Excel Download overlapping numbers and letters in Free Psd Bifold | Freebies | Graphic Junction black and white pencil are the result of her own idiosyncratic system for Planning Example estimating locations where pitches cross the Free Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction strike zone and the results of the actual pitches during a given baseball game. Event Proposal Example - Hlwhy. Works such as San Francisco at Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template Design Junction, New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4–0 (2004; fig. 13) exist as both abstract representations of these events and as highly individual catalogs of time and thought whose underlying system is And Comics - Funny Pictures Cartoonstock, understood by the artist alone. What exactly is at stake today in this intertwined desire for an immediacy of Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Design touch within prescribed limits? Marking up a blank piece of Tsd-A337 Drug Store Tabletop Brochure paper—experiencing a concrete and immediate way of making art within an evolving digital landscape that often removes us from experiencing “the real” and ourselves—appears to offer itself as an inherently human activity. The use of predetermined parameters complements such individual efforts, providing a means of organizing thought, tracking time, and perhaps bringing a sense of order and consistency to the disorder of daily events. Drawing has always served as a vital means of making sense of the world around us and the forces that animate it, mediating rather than mirroring our lived condition.

In the 1960s and 1970s artists grappled with industrial conditions then shaping their everyday lives by | Freebies Design, engaging systematic and programmatic procedures to guide their work. Samples. In many instances, the pronounced engagement with seriality and repetitive marking, charting, and diagramming offered a means not of Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Design adopting the rational logic of industry but of highlighting art’s potential escape from it. It seems apt in today’s contemporary climate of ongoing upheaval and perpetual advancement of digital technologies that the desire to draw, to 7+ Vendor Assessment Form - Free Example Format mark, to track is Psd Bifold Brochure | Freebies | Graphic Junction, embraced by artists who, much like their historical predecessors, seek to expand the capacities for invention while working to regain a sense of human experience. 1. All the works in the exhibition are drawn from the collection of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, New York; several of Format Resume Template them have been donated by Psd Bifold | Graphic Junction, the couple to The Museum of Free Marketing Plan Excel Templates Modern Art, New York. Over the Free Template | Freebies | Graphic Junction past few decades, the Kramarskys have amassed a collection that provides an impressive overview of canonical Minimal, Postminimal, and Form - Free Sample,, Conceptual art, while continuing to collect works by emerging artists whose work is in Free Psd Bifold Template | Graphic Junction line with this core aesthetic. 2. The term comes from Mel Bochner, “The Serial Attitude,” Artforum 16 (December 1967): 28–33. 3. Samples Format. See Irving Sandler, “The New Cool-Art,” Art in America 53 (February 1965): 96-101, and Psd Bifold Template | Freebies Design, Pepe Karmel, “An In-Between Era,” in New York Cool: Painting and Sculpture from the NYU Art Collection (New York: Grey Art Gallery, New York University, 2008), 21–35. Free Excel Templates. In recent years, several scholars have begun to Free Psd Bifold | Graphic rewrite the received history of postwar American art. See, for example, Catherine Craft, An Audience of Format Resume Template 2010 Artists: Dada, Neo-Dada, and Free Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Design, the Emergence of Abstract Expressionism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012). 4. The language of late capitalist efficiency and organization informed many of these projects as artists mimicked the division of labor into mental and manual realms by commissioning others to realize their ideas or, in some cases, sidestepping actual material production altogether.

For an in-depth analysis of the Dnr Cartoons And Comics Cartoonstock relationship between artistic production, labor, and the shifting socioeconomic context in 1960s America, see Helen Molesworth, Work Ethic (Baltimore: Baltimore Museum of Free Brochure Template | Freebies Design Junction Art, 2003), and Julia Bryan-Wilson, Art Workers: Radical Practice in the Vietnam War Era (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009). 5. Judd’s drawings, and the significant revision of the role of the artist that they suggest, would meet with controversy later in his career, when the Italian collector Giuseppe Panza authorized the fabrication of sculptures from the artist’s working drawings without Judd’s permission. Judd declared these works forgeries, insisting that his oversight was required in the fabrication of his work. See Susan Hapgood, “Remaking Art History,” Art in America 78 (July 1990): 114–17. See also Molesworth, Work Ethic , 163. 6. Numerous publications since the 1970s have explored the role that drawing played in Flavin’s artistic practice.

See Emily S. Rauh, Dan Flavin: Drawings and Diagrams, 1963–1972 (Saint Louis: Saint Louis Art Museum, 1973); Dan Flavin: Drawings, Diagrams, and Prints, 1972–1975 (Fort Worth, TX: Fort Worth Art Museum, 1977); and Dan Flavin Drawing (New York: Morgan Library, 2012). 7. Briony Fer, “Nocturama: Flavin’s Light Diagrams,” in Marketing Plan Dan Flavin: New Light , ed. Jeffrey Weiss (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 2006), 46. 8. Dan Flavin, statement on view at the Kunstmuseum Basel in the exhibition Zeichnungen, Diagramme, Duckgraphik, 1972 bis 1975, und Zwei Installationen in fluoreszierendem Licht von Dan Flavin (1975), reprinted in Dan Flavin (1976), 6. 9. In a 1970 interview with Phyllis Tuchman, Andre states, “I am certainly no kind of Free Brochure Template | Freebies conceptual artist because the Marketing Plan physical existence of my work cannot be separated from the idea of it….My art springs from Psd Bifold | Graphic Design, my desire to Dnr Cartoons Cartoonstock have things in the world which would otherwise never be there.” See Phyllis Tuchman, “An Interview with Carl Andre,” Artforum 8 (June 1970): 60. 10. Andre, ibid., 57. 11. The drawing relates to Andre’s planar floor sculptures Blue Lock Trial (1966), Blue Lock (1967), and Black Lock (1967).

The latter two works have since been destroyed. 12. Christine Mehring provides a compelling reading of this drawing. See Mehring, “Carl Andre: Blue Lock, 1966,” in Drawing Is Another Kind of Free Psd Bifold Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Language: Recent American Drawings from a New York Private Collection , by Pamela M. Lee and Christine Mehring (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums, 1997), 28–29. 13. Yve-Alain Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes: On Richard Serra’s Drawings,” in Richard Serra: Drawings, Zeichnungen, 1969–1990 (Bern, Switzerland: Bentelli, 1990), 17. 14. Richard Serra, “Interview: Richard Serra and Bernard Lamarche-Vadel,” New York, May 1980, first published in Artistes (November 1980), reprinted in Best - Benefit Flyer Richard Serra: Interviews, Etc., 1970–1980 (Yonkers, NY: Hudson River Museum, 1980), 146. 15. For an in-depth analysis of Serra’s approach to drawing across his career, see Bernice Rose, Michelle White, and Gary Garrels, eds., Richard Serra Drawing: A Retrospective (Houston: Menil Collection, 2011). 16.

Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Brochure Template | Graphic Design Junction, Echoes,” 28. 17. Klaus Kertess has aptly described Le Va’s drawings as having “the clarity and conviction of Custom Store Acrylic a topographic map or a computerized analysis of atmospheric turbulence.” See Klaus Kertess, “Between the Lines: The Drawings of Barry Le Va,” in Barry Le Va, 1966–1988 (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon Art Gallery, 1988), 27. 18. Barry Le Va, “Notes” (undated), reprinted in Free Psd Bifold Brochure | Graphic Design Junction Accumulated Vision: Barry Le Va (Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, 2005), 89. 19. Ingrid Schaffner has perceptively noted that while Le Va’s installation photographs might tell us “how Le Va sees his installations,” it is his drawings that “tell us how to read them.” See Ingrid Schaffner, “Accumulated Vision and Violence, Barry Le Va,” in Accumulated Vision , 61. 20. For Microsoft Resume Template 2010. Mel Bochner, “Anyone Can Learn to Draw,” press release for Drawings , Galerie Heiner Friedrich, Munich, 1969, reprinted in Bochner, Solar System #038; Rest Rooms: Writings and Interviews, 1965–2007 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 61. 21.

Marcia Tucker describes the 1969 installations in Tucker, “Barry Le Va: Work from Template | Freebies | Graphic Design Junction, 1966–1978,” in Barry Le Va: Four Consecutive Installations and Drawings, 1967–1978 (New York: New Museum, 1978), 12. For photographs of the installation, see ibid., 24, 25. 22. See particularly Robert Morris’s series of essays, “Notes on Sculpture” (February 1966) and “Notes on Sculpture, Part II” (October 1966), reprinted in Continuous Project Altered Daily: The Writings of Robert Morris (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993). 23. Free Marketing Excel. Sol LeWitt, “Paragraphs on Free Brochure Template | Freebies Design Junction Conceptual Art,” in Open Systems: Rethinking Art, c. 1970 , ed. Donna DeSalvo (London: Tate Modern, 2005), 180; originally published in Artforum 5 (Summer 1967). 24.

James Meyer, Minimalism: Art and Polemics in 7+ Vendor Form Sample, Format the Sixties (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), 187. 25. In the 1960s LeWitt was attracted to Brochure | Freebies | Graphic Junction the cube and the square as “grammatical devices from which the work may proceed.” He went on to elaborate: “They are standard and 7+ Vendor Assessment Samples - Free Format, universally recognized, no initiation being required of the Free Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Design viewer. . Format For Microsoft Word. For Word. . . The use of a square or cube obviates the necessity of inventing other forms and reserves their use for invention.” See Sol LeWitt, untitled statement in Lucy Lippard et al., “Homage to the Square,” Art in America 55 (July–August 1967): 54. 26. Free Brochure Template | Freebies | Graphic Junction. LeWitt, “Sentences on Conceptual Art,” in Sol LeWitt: Critical Texts , ed. Adachiara Zevi (Rome: I Libri di AEIOU, 1994), 88, originally published in 0–9 (New York, 1969). 27. Eva Hesse, quoted in Dnr Cartoons And Comics - Funny From Lucy Lippard, Eva Hesse (New York: De Capo, 1976), 96. 28. Psd Bifold Template | Freebies | Graphic. Josef Helfenstein, “Concept, Process, Dematerialization: Reflections on the Role of Drawings in Recent Art,” in Drawings of Resume Template For Word 2010 Choice from a New York Collection , ed.

Josef Helfenstein and Jonathan Fineberg (Champaign, IL: Krannert Art Museum, 2002), 13. 29. Yve-Alain Bois examines the end of Free Junction modernist painting in terms of play and gaming, suggesting that painting is never an endgame but a game comprising different matches. See Yve-Alain Bois, Painting as Model (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990), 241–42. Jordan Kantor also takes up Bois’s analogy in her essay “Drawing from the Modern: After the Endgames,” in Drawing from the Modern, 1975–2005 (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2005), 53–54. Error: Twitter did not respond. Tsd-A337 Custom Drug Store. Please wait a few minutes and refresh this page.

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