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A simple resume does not need to be a boring one. In fact, a simple resume format requires a lot of creativity because it should be both pleasing to the eye and tailored to Account & Savings Statement your experience and desired job. A simple resume can be more conservative or more trendy, depending on which template you use. All of our templates here have clean, simple layouts, but there is a lot of variety within the simple resume format, so you can choose one that suits your work history best. What Jobs Require a Simple Resume? If you’re applying to a conservative or old-fashioned place of employment, a simple resume is the way to Resume Information Technology go. The legal field is an And Hygienist Cover Examples example of a conservative workplace. So are most professions in Manager Objective Information Technology, finance and Savings Account Statement Photos & Savings Account many large corporate offices. If the job you want has a conservative dress code, you should probably use a simple resume format. This is Manager Examples. Information like a dress code for your resume.
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If you’re applying in Manager Resume Objective Examples., the medical field for example, it’s important to Savings Account Statement Stock have a section for certifications and credentials. If you’re applying for a retail job, however, this section is probably not necessary. Here are the sections that should always go on your resume: Here are some ideas for optional sections: Career Objective, Objective Statement, or Professional Summary Interests and Activities Relevant Skills Achievements and Awards References. Your resume should have the minimum number of sections necessary to showcase your abilities as a job candidate. Ruthlessly delete unnecessary information. Now that you’ve decided what sections to include, it’s time to format those sections into a beautiful, simple resume.
You don’t need to do this work on your own. We’ve compiled a list of simple resume templates you can use. However, you should know about good resume design so you’ll know how to Manager Objective Examples. best customize the template you choose. Savings Account Photos & Savings Statement. With all of our resume templates, you can change the bullet points, fonts, colors, and Manager Objective Examples. Technology arrangement as needed. Avoid large blocks of text in your resume. Having white space between sections adds balance. Veterinary Technician - Template. If a section on your resume involves a list (such as a “Skills” section), you will want to choose a template with bullet points. These make your resume look organized and Objective Examples. Information Manager easy to read. There’s nothing wrong with a classic font like Times New Roman, but a simple resume often looks best with a clean, modern, sans-serif font like Helvetica Neue.
If you choose to use font colors to Birthday dress up your resume, use them sparingly. Pick just one or two colors to Manager Technology Manager highlight aspects of your resume. For example, you might choose a conservative color, like gray or dark blue, for resume headers. Make sure any font color you choose is Dental Assistant And Hygienist Cover Letter Examples easy to read. Avoid pink, yellow, and Objective lighter shades, which look unprofessional and 3.0 - Free are hard to Objective Examples. Information notice.
Always be consistent. Have your “Objective” header in Technician Resume, the same color as your “Education” header. Manager Resume Objective Information Technology. Don’t write your “Skills” section in Savings Statement Photos & Savings Statement, Times New Roman and your “Work History” section in Helvetica. The following common resume mistakes make your resume look too complicated and poorly designed: Too many colors and fonts Hard-to-detect colors and Manager Objective Manager fonts Unconventional fonts like Comic Sans Elaborate borders Colored or needlessly fancy paper Too many sections Unnecessary images Inconsistent formatting. If your resume is Dental And Hygienist Rg. Dental overly designed or messy, employers will be distracted from the content and more likely to put your resume in the “No” pile. A really elaborate resume might even be automatically discarded before it gets read. Once you’ve chosen the right resume template for you, it’s time to write your unique resume content.
If you’ve never written a resume before, use one of our detailed resume guides, or a free resume builder to help you get started. A simple resume is Objective Examples. Manager about more than just layout. There should be simplicity in Veterinary Technician - Template, your phrasing too. This is the case for all resumes, but especially for one with a simple design. Don’t hide your impressive experience under flowery language or long sentences. State things simply so employers can easily learn about you. It may be tempting to Objective Examples. add detail with more words, but wordiness will only make your resume look messy. Keep in mind that many job applications will also require a cover letter, where you can add more detail about your experience. It doesn’t all need to go on your resume. Use active verb forms and Resume Resume For short sentences or bullet points when describing things like skills or achievements.
Find places to cut or reword. Manager Manager. It’s okay to Photos use sentence fragments in Manager Objective Examples. Information Technology, your bullet points. Not only do these points make your resume look good, they also make it more likely that a prospective employer will read all of it. We have a variety of free simple resume examples to suit your needs, including chronological, functional, and combination resumes. Using what you’ve just learned in this guide, look through these templates and choose one that suits your current job search best.
Then customize it to Template For Word 1 3 reflect what you have to offer as a unique job candidate. Good use of white space gives this professional resume template an open feel while subtle colours add design touch. Two main sections let you detail your experiences and education in a reverse chronological order. Size: 183 B Downloads: 103480 Filename: upfront.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 20:18:00 / 6327. Very compact and neat professional layout. Manager Resume Information Manager. Notice how the use of red text draws the For Word Resume For eye. Resume Objective Information Technology Manager. Just the right amount in the right places can be really helpful to the reader. Size: 183 B Downloads: 102710 Filename: neat.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:38:00 / 4968. Traditional format with light orange headers and subtle gray titles. Great sample resume for graphic designers, corporate writers, or administrative professionals.
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Size: 183 B Downloads: 5785 Filename: cosmopolitan.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:41:00 / 6032. A traditional format that portrays a simple elegance. An initialed ribbon provides a smart touch which can be personalized with you initials, your highest qualification or your most prestigious award. Bullet points help you to squeeze in a lot more information without making your resume too long. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5624 Filename: elegant-traditional.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:35:00 / 4958. Two-page, one-column layout with red and orange for Building Maintenance Technician Cover Letter headings and titles. Lots of Manager Examples. space for detailed, paragraph descriptions.
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Functional two-page sample with three-column core skills lists and Template For Word Page Resume For areas for professional experience, work history and more. Great resume style for those looking to switch industries. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6157 Filename: new-agenda.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 17:00:00 / 6098. Checkmarks for bullets with blue, green, and gray fonts catch the eye. Underlines connect job titles to dates. Analysts, developers, academia, or health care template. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4745 Filename: check.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:51:00 / 6044. Deep and Manager Objective Information light blue headers with bold font titles add pop for this traditional template. 3.0 - Free. Three-column key word section and two-column bulleted experience lists offer space for Resume Objective Information Manager everything. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4368 Filename: airy-traditional.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 11:43:00 / 5899. Want the Assistant And Hygienist Examples focus to be on your opening statement?
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college essay spoof Literary Terms and Definitions: P. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is meant to assist, not intimidate.
Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the Resume Examples. Information term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. P TEXT, THE (Also called the P Document ): In biblical scholarship, the common editorial abbreviation for the Priestly Text (see below, or click here for more detailed discussion.). PAEAN : Among the earliest Greeks, the word paean signifies a dance and hymn with a specific rhythm which is endued with an absolving and healing power (Burkett 44). In later usage, any song of praise to Maintenance Technician, a deity is called a paean. PALATAL : In linguistics, any sound involving the Information Technology Manager hard palate--especially the tongue touching or moving toward the hard palate. PALATAL DIPTHONGIZATION : A sound change in which either the ash or the /e/ sound in Old English words became a diphthong when preceded by palatal consonants. Cover Letter Examples! For instance, Modern English cheese comes from Old English ciese , which is Technology Manager, a cognate of Resume - Template, Latin caseus . Scholars can tell the word in Old English must have been adopted after the time of palatal diphthongization--otherwise it would have a simple /e/ sound rather than the diphthong /ie/ . Thus, palatal dipthongization is useful for philologists who wish to date a borrowed word in Old English. PALATALIZATION : In linguistics, the process of making a sound more palatal --i.e., moving the blade of the tongue closer to the hard palate. PALIMBACCHIU S: Also called an anti-bacchius , this is a three-syllable foot in which the Resume Objective Examples. Manager first two syllables are stressed and Building Maintenance, the third syllable unstressed. It is very rare in Manager Examples. Manager English prosody, though Gerard Manley Hopkins and Ezra Pound make occasional use of Dental Cover Letter Examples, it.
PALIMPSEST (Grk, rubbed away): A surface such as a piece of Manager Objective Information Technology Manager, parchment or vellum in which one text had been written, but then later became partially or completely erased when a subsequent scribe or bookmarker recycled the page and used a knife or edged tool to scrape away the original surface. This process would remove or fade the original writing sufficiently for the later scribe to write over the older material. It was a very common practice in Assistant And Hygienist Examples Rg. Dental medieval times since paper was so expensive. Often, modern codicologists can rediscover the original writing by using UV light filters or chemicals to make the erased text visible again. PALINDROME : A word, sentence, or verse that reads the same way backward or foreward. Manager Resume Objective Examples. Information! Certain words in English naturally function as palindromes: for instance, civic , rotor , race car, radar , level and so on. However, when individuals seek to combine several words at once, the result becomes a sort of perverse art. Cover! Here are some longer English examples culled from J. A. Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory : Madam, I'm Adam. Sir, I'm Iris. Able was I ere I saw Elba. (attributed apocryphally to Resume Objective Technology, Napoleon, who was exiled on Elba, though in historical fact he apparently spoke no English!) A man, a plan, a canal: Panama!
Sex at noon taxes. Lewd did I live evil I did dwel. (anonymous 18th-century gravestone) Straw? No, too stupid a fad; I put soot on warts! Deliver desserts, demanded Nemesis--emended, named, stressed, reviled. Building Maintenance Technician! T. Resume Objective Examples. Information Technology Manager! Eliot, top bard, notes putrid tang emanating, is sad. I'd assign it a name: Gnat dirt upset on drab pot toilet. (W. Dental Cover Examples Rg. Dental! H. Auden) Stop Syrian! I start at rats in airy spots! The tradition goes back a long ways. Cuddon notes several, including a Greek palindrome inscribed on a vial of holy water in Saint Sophia's church in Constantinople that translates as Wash not only my face, but also my sins . A Latin example is the Manager Objective Examples. Information Technology palindrome, In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni which means We [moths] fly in circles by night and we will be consumed in fire. Cover! Probably the most excessive use of palindromes is the Resume Technology 1802 collection by Ambrose Pamperis, in which Pamperis writes 416 palindromic verses celebrating Catherine the Technician Resume Great's military campaigns (See Cuddon 673-74).
PALINODE (Greek: singing again): A poem, song, or section of Manager Examples. Technology Manager, a poem or song in which the poet renounces or retracts his words in an earlier work. Usually this is meant to apologize or counterbalance earlier material. The first recorded use of the Sample palinode is a lyric written by the Greek author Stesichorus (7th century BCE), in which he retracts his earlier statement claiming that the Trojan War was entirely Helen's fault. Ovid wrote his Remedia Amoris as a palinode for his scandalous Ars Amatoria --a work that may have caused Caesar Augustus to banish him to the Black Sea. As a theme, the palinode is especially common in religious poetry and love poetry.
The use of the palinode became conventional in Resume Objective Examples. patristic and medieval writings--as evidenced in Augustine, Bede, Giraldus Cambrensis, Jean de Meun, Sir Lewis Clifford, and Account Photos Account, others. More recent examples of palinodes include Sir Philip Sidney's Leave me, O love which reachest but to dust. Here, his palinode renounces the poetry of Manager Objective Information Technology, sexual love for that of divine grace. Likewise, Chaucer's Legend of Good Women includes a palinode in which the author takes back what he said about unfaithful women like Criseyde in Letter Examples Troilus and Criseyde . Information! At the Technician Resume Examples - Template end of the Canterbury Tales , Chaucer goes so far as to write a retraction for all his secular literature. Objective Examples. Technology! See also retraction . PANDECT (Grk. pan everything + dektes reciever): A book that purports to contain all possible information on a subject. The term was first used as a title for Job Hunter Free Emperor Justinian's 50-volume encyclopedia of Roman law. Cf. summa . PANEGYRIC : A speech or poem designed to Manager Objective Information Manager, praise another person or group. In ancient Greek and Templates Online, Roman rhetoric, it was one branch of public speaking, with established rules and Manager Resume Examples. Information Technology, conventions found in the works of Assistant Cover Rg. Dental, Menander and Hermogenes.
Famous examples include Pliny's eulogy on Resume Examples. Technology Manager Emperor Trajan and Isocrates' oration on the Olympic games of Dental And Hygienist Letter Examples, 380. PANGLOSSIAN (Grk. pan everything + Lat. Resume Information Technology! glossare to Veterinary Technician Examples, explain or comment upon): The word is an eponym based on the fictional Dr. Pangloss from Voltaire's satire, Candide . Dr. Pangloss is a naively optimistic pedant who upholds the doctrine that all is for the best, and that we live in the best of all possible worlds, claiming that a benevolent deity creates all things for positive purposes, and Manager Resume Objective Examples. Technology Manager, if we could only decipher cause/effect accurately, we would see this. His arguments are a parody of Pages 1 3 For, Alexander Pope's claim that Whatever is, is RIGHT. Voltaire uses Pangloss as a straw-man in Manager Objective Examples. Information Candide , and Voltaire tries to show through the more inane Panglossian arguments that, in fact, the world is Veterinary Technician Resume Examples, a highly flawed place and it does not live up to its ideal possibilities.
PANTHEON (Greek, all the gods): (1) A pantheon is a collective term for all the gods believed to exist in a particular religious belief or mythos . Thus, we can talk of the Hittite pantheon, the Objective Technology Manager Greek pantheon, etc. Veterinary Technician Resume - Template! (2) The Pantheon is a great temple in Rome dedicated to Manager Examples. Technology Manager, all the Olympian gods, not to be confused with the Parthenon , the great temple dedicateSd to the virgin goddess Athena, which is Technician Resume Examples, situated on top of the Manager Acropolis in Athens. PANTUN : A verse form from Malaysia. The pantun is a poem of no specific length, composed of Birthday Templates, quatrains using internal assonance. The rhymes are interlinked much like terza rima in the sense that the second and fourth lines of each stanza become the first and third lines of the following stanza. In the last quatrain, the first line of the poem appears again as the last, and the third line as the second, forming a circle for closure. (Alternatively, the poet may end the work with a simple couplet). Ernest Fouinet introduced the genre to French literature in the 1800s. Victor Hugo, Baudelaire, and Leconte de Lisle later also experimented with it in French verse.
Although rare in English poetry, Austin Dobson used it in his work, In Town . PARABASIS (Greek, stepping forward or going aside): A moment at the end of a Greek tragedy in which the Manager Information Manager chorus would remove their masks and step forward to address the audience directly in Building Technician speech rather than song. The parabasis usually contained the final thoughts or opinions of the Resume Objective Information Manager playwright on some matter of government, theology, or philosophy. The concluding words of the chorus in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex serve as one example. PARABLE (Greek: throwing beside or placing beside): A story or short narrative designed to reveal allegorically some religious principle, moral lesson, psychological reality, or general truth. Rather than using abstract discussion, a parable always teaches by comparison with real or literal occurrences--especially homey everyday occurrences a wide number of people can relate to. Well-known examples of parables include those found in the synoptic Gospels, such as The Prodigal Son and Job Hunter 3.0 - Free, The Good Samaritan. In some Gospel versions, Christ announces his parables with a conventional phrase, The Kingdom of God is like . . . . Technically speaking, biblical parables were originally examples of a Hebrew genre called meshalim (singular mashal ), a word lacking a close counter-part in Greek, Latin or English. Meshalim in Manager Resume Examples. Technology Hebrew refer to mysterious speech, i.e., spiritual riddles or enigmas the And Hygienist Letter Examples speaker couches in story-form. Thus, in Matthew 13:11 and Mark 4:11-12, Christ states that he speaks in Manager Resume Examples. Information Manager parables so that outsiders will not be able to Teacher Resume 1 3 For, understand his teachings. It is only late in Manager Information Technology the Greek New Testament that these meshalim are conflated with parables or allegorical readings designed for ease of understanding.
Non-religious works can be parables as well. Resume For Word Pages Page Resume! For example, Melville's Billy Budd demonstrates that absolute good--such as the impressionable, naive young sailor--may not co-exist with absolute evil--the villain Claggart. Manager Resume Objective Information Technology Manager! Cf. fable , allegory , and Technician Resume Examples - Template, symbolism , or click here for a PDF handout discussing the differences between these terms. PARADIGMATIC CHANGE (also called associative change ): In linguistics, these are language changes brought about because a sound or a word was associated with a different sound or word. Algeo provides the following example: PARAGRAPH (Greek, side writing): (1) Originally, a short stroke below the start of a line running horizontally to separate that material from earlier commentary. Manager Resume Objective Examples. Information Technology! It was common in Greek manuscripts to show a break in the sense or a change of subject (Cuddon 679). (2) In modern English composition, it is a passage, section or subdivision of a longer essay, usually indicated by indenting the first line of the section. Conventionally, a paragraph deals with one particular idea or aspect of a larger subject-matter. Dental Assistant! For the sake of reader comprehension, the writer typically includes some sort of topic sentence to tie the paragraph together, and the writer might also include a transitional sentence before or after the paragraph to smooth the flow of ideas. PARALANGUAGE : The non-verbal features that accompany speech and help convey meaning. For example, facial expression, gesticulation, body stance, and tone can help convey additional meaning to the spoken word; these are all examples of communication through paralanguage.
PARALLELISM : When the writer establishes similar patterns of grammatical structure and length. For instance, King Alfred tried to make the law clear, precise, and equitable. The previous sentence has parallel structure in Manager Resume Information Technology Manager use of adjectives. Savings Account Photos Account! However, the Manager Manager following sentence does not use parallelism: King Alfred tried to make clear laws that had precision and were equitable. If the writer uses two parallel structures, the Resume Examples - Template result is isocolon parallelism : The bigger they are, the harder they fall. If there are three structures, it is tricolon parallelism : That government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth. Or, as one student wrote, Her purpose was to Manager Objective Examples., impress the ignorant, to Veterinary Examples - Template, perplex the dubious, and to startle the Resume Objective Examples. Information complacent. Technician Cover! Shakespeare used this device to Information Manager, good effect in Richard II when King Richard laments his unfortunate position: PARATAXIS : Rhetorically juxtaposing two or more clauses or prepositions together in strings or with few or no connecting conjunctions or without indicating their relationship to each other in terms of co-ordination or subordination; i.e. a loose association of clauses as opposed to hypotaxis . A common form of parataxis is asyndeton , in which expected conjunctions fail to appear for artistic reasons.
For example, Shipley points out Technician Examples - Template, how the Roman playwright Terence writes tacent; satis laudant (they are silent; that is praise enough). The normal structure with a conjunction would be tacent, et satis laudant (they are silent; and that is praise enough.) See Shipley 422-23 for Manager Information Manager this discussion and a comparison among Greek and Latin and English writers. Modern paratactic style is typically short and simple--like Hemingway's writing. PARATEXT (also French peritext ): In Gérard Genette's work, Paratext: Thresholds of Interpretation , Genette introduces the idea of paratext, i.e., anything external to the text itself that influences the way we read a text. These paratexts can be almost infinite in number, but they might include a list of other works the author has published on the front cover of a book, the gender of the author as indicated by his or her name, reviews written about the book, and editorial commentary about the work. For example, suppose the text we are reading is Free, a fictional story about a European woman who falls in love with a Persian graduate student. That Persian student is Resume Information Technology Manager, later viciously murdered by the European woman's xenophobic father. Cover! If we see the author's name is Manager Resume Objective Examples. Technology, Susan Jones we might interpret the text differently than if we saw the author's name was Achmed bin Jaffah, for instance. If the same author wrote a number of murder mysteries, we might be especially prone to read this new text as influenced by that early genre work, or even expect the current text to be (rightly or wrongly) yet another murder mystery. Job Hunter 3.0 - Free Sample! If we read a review calling attention to the theme of Resume Objective Examples., lust in a work, we might experience the book differently than if we had read a different review focusing on the theme of intolerance. All of Assistant And Hygienist Examples, these external cues, however, are not actually in Information Manager the narrative itself we are reading.
Thus, they are paratextual. A New Critic from the For Word Resume For 1930s would probably argue that all paratexts are irrelevant to determining the meaning of literary art, and the paratextual should be ignored accordingly. Genette might counter that such paratexts inescapably influence our interpretation, so it would be appropriate to identify and discuss them rather than try to sweep them away. PARCHMENT : Goatskin or sheepskin used as a writing surface--the medieval equivalent of paper. A technical distinction is usually made between parchment and vellum , which is made from the hide of young calves.
As Michelle P. Brown notes in Resume Objective Manager Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts , the process for creating vellum or parchment is quite complicated: To produce parchment or vellum, the animal skins were defleshed in a bath of lime, stretched on a frame, and scraped with a lunular knife while damp. they could then be treated with pumice, whitened with a substance such as chalk, and cut to size. Differences in preparation technique seem to have occasioned greater diversity in appearance than did the type of Building Maintenance Technician Cover, skin pused. Parchment supplanted papyrus as the most popular writing support material in the fourth century, although it was known earlier. Parchment was itself largely replaced by paper in the sixteenth century (with the rise of Manager Resume Examples. Manager, printing) but remained in Teacher Resume Pages 1 3 Page use for certain high-grade books. (95) PARDONER : An individual licensed by the medieval church to sell papal indulgences (i.e., pardons), official documents excusing the recipient from Manager Resume Technology Manager, certain acts of penitence and alleviating the Assistant Letter Examples Rg. Dental sinner's punishment while in Manager Objective Examples. Technology purgatory . The Catholic Encyclopedia defines an Technician, indulgence as the extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment due to a sinner. Protestant students might wish to peruse the Catholic Encyclopedia's discussion of indulgences to Objective Examples., avoid common misconceptions and Invitation Online, distortions.
The practice of selling these pardons as a means of fund-raising for Manager Examples. Technology the church or as a means of rewarding those who offered the church some service rose in prominence after the council of Clermont in 1095. There, Pope Urban II announced sweeping indulgences would be given to any individuals willing to go on Crusade. By the fourteenth century, the practice had developed extensively, and pardoners were lay officials authorized by the pope to sell indulgences in exchange for financial donations. Job Hunter 3.0 -! Ecclesiastical abuses become commonplace problems. These abuses included unauthorized sales, the sale of forged pardons, extortion, and Resume Objective Examples. Information Technology, deliberate misrepresentation of the scope of an indulgence (i.e., treating the indulgence as a get-out-of-hell-free card).
Chaucer's Pardoner in Job Hunter 3.0 - Sample The Canterbury Tales represents the worst excesses of pardoners during this period. PARDONS : Another term for papal indulgences. See discussion under pardoner . PARNASSIAN POETS : An aestheticist, mid-19th-century, Russian and French school of poets that advocated art for its own sake and emphasized sensual and vivid imagery divorced from emotional content (Harkins 275). The term Parnassian refers to Mount Parnassus in Resume Objective Examples. Information Greece. Birthday Party Invitation! The toponymic name alludes to the way they often adopted themes from classical Greek mythology and philosophy (275). PARODOS : In Greek tragedy, the ceremonial entrance of the chorus. Examples. Manager! Usually the chorus at this time chants a lyric relating to the main theme of the play. PARODY (Greek: beside, subsidiary, or mock song): A parody imitates the serious manner and Statement, characteristic features of a particular literary work in order to make fun of those same features. The humorist achieves parody by Objective Examples. Information Technology Manager, exaggerating certain traits common to the work, much as a caricaturist creates a humorous depiction of a person by magnifying and calling attention to the person's most noticeable features. The term parody is often used synonymously with the more general term spoof , which makes fun of the general traits of Job Hunter 3.0 - Sample, a genre rather than one particular work or author.
Often the subject-matter of a parody is comically inappropriate, such as using the elaborate, formal diction of an epic to describe something trivial like washing socks or cleaning a dusty attic. Aristotle attributes the first Greek parody to Examples. Information Manager, Hegemon of Thasos in The Poetics , though other writings credit the Job Hunter playwright Hipponax with the Resume Objective Information first creation of theatrical parody. Aristophanes makes use of parody in The Frogs (in which he mocks the style of Euripides and Aeschylus). Plato also caricatures the style of various writers in the Symposium . In the Middle Ages, the first well-known English parody is Chaucer's Sir Thopas, and Chaucer is himself the basis of parodies written by Alexander Pope and W. Savings Account Stock Photos & Savings Statement! W. Objective Manager! Skeat. Cervantes creates a parody of medieval romance in Don Quixote . Rabelais creates parodies of similar material in Gargantua and Technician Resume Examples, Pantagruel. Erasmus parodies medieval scholastic writings in Moriae Encomium . In Shamela (1741), Henry Fielding makes a parody of Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela by turning the virtuous serving girl into a spirited and sexually ambitious character who merely uses coyness and false chasteness as a tool for snagging a husband. In Joseph Andrews (1742), Henry Fielding again parodies Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela , this time by replacing Richardson's sexually beleaguered heroine, Pamela, with a hearty male hero who must defend his virtue from the sexually voracious Lady Booby. In the Romantic period, Southey, Wordsworth, Browning, and Swinburne were the victims of Manager Technology, far too many parodies in far too many works to list here.
See also mock epic , satire , and spoof . PAROLE (French, speech): In Ferdinand de Saussure's theory of semiology, parole is the use of language--i.e., manifestations of Teacher Resume Page For, actual speech and writing. Parole contrasts with langue , the invisible underlying system of language that makes parole possible. PARONOMASIA : The technical Greek term for what English-speakers commonly refer to as a pun. See extended discussion under pun , below. PART (Latin partum , a piece): An actor's role in a play, the Resume Manager character the actor portrays or pretends to be. The term comes from Maintenance Technician, Renaissance drama. Since it was too expensive in Shakespeare's day to print playbooks for every single actor involved in Resume Examples. a play, penny-pinching acting companies would only give each actor a roll of paper called a part; the part would list the dialogue for one character and all the cues belonging to that character (Greenblatt 1140).
The term role , synonymous with part, is Maintenance Letter, similarly derived from such rolls of paper ( ibidem ). PARTIYNOST (Russian, Party-Spirit): In Communist Russian, the requirement that literature must identify and be compatible with the methods and goals of the dominent political party, as Lenin advocated (Harkins 275). Manager Objective Information! Any other literature, according to the Communist Russian censors, was merely bourgeois decadence in art (275). PARTITIVE : One of several possible numbering systems in a language's grammar. For a discussion of partitives, see multiplicatives . PARTS OF SPEECH : The traditional eight divisions or categories for Resume For Word words as described by the Latin grammarian Aelius Donatus around 350 CE, which he is turn borrowed from earlier Greek categories.
In English, these are slightly modified: English Parts of Speech: Interjections are usually treated as a separate category from the other parts of speech. Donatus' Latin Parts of Speech : PARTIBLE SUCCESSION : The opposite Resume Objective Examples. Information Technology of primogeniture , partible succession is the practice in which all the children share equally in an inheritance. Under this legal system, if a property-owner or king dies, the deceased's lands, money, or kingdom would be split into Veterinary Resume - Template, equal shares for Information Manager each surviving child. While this policy is in And Hygienist Examples some ways more fair than primogeniture, in which eldest child takes all, it does result in the fragmentation of estates or sometimes entire kingdoms. In the late medieval period, primogeniture was the common practice in much of Europe and Britain, but in the early dark ages, partible succession was notoriously common among some Celtic tribes in England and the Merovingian and Examples. Technology Manager, Frankish tribes of France and Germany.
This practice is behind King Lear's sycophantic games in the first act of King Lear , as the play is set in Assistant Letter Rg. Dental ancient Celtic times, though the Manager Resume Objective Examples. Manager subplot about Edgar involves the much later later practice of Birthday Invitation Templates Online Free, primogeniture. PASSUS (Latin, step): William Langland uses the Resume Objective term passus to refer to each numbered subdivision of his poem, The Vision of - Template, Piers Plowman . The idea is each section is a step toward salvation or spiritual truth. Manager Resume Objective Information! Cf. Job Hunter Free! canto and fit . PASTORAL (Latin pastor , shepherd): An artistic composition dealing with the life of shepherds or with a simple, rural existence. It usually idealized shepherds' lives in Resume Objective Examples. Information Technology Manager order to create an image of peaceful and uncorrupted existence. More generally, pastoral describes the simplicity, charm, and serenity attributed to country life, or any literary convention that places kindly, rural people in Birthday Party Templates Free nature-centered activities. The Greek Theocritus (316-260 BCE) first used the convention in his Idylls , though pastoral compositions also appear in Roman literature, in Shakespeare's plays, and in the writings of the Romantic poets. Typically, pastoral liturgy depicts beautiful scenery, carefree shepherds, seductive nymphs, and rural songs and dances. Objective Information Manager! Conventional names for the shepherds and nymphs come from bastardized Latin nicknames such as Mopsy, Flopsy, and Dorcas (from Mopsius , Doricas , etc.). See also pastoral elegy under elegy . PATHETIC FALLACY : A type of often accidental or awkward personification in Birthday Party Templates Online Free which a writer ascribes the human feelings of his or her characters to inanimate objects or non-human phenomena surrounding them in Manager Technology the natural world.
J. A. Cuddon (692) notes the phrase first appears in John Ruskin's Modern Painters , Volume 3, Part IV, an Job Hunter Free Sample, 1856 publication. For Ruskin, the term is derogatory. An example might be Coleridge's Christabel , in which we read of a dancing autumn leaf: The one red leaf, the last of its clan. That dances as often as dance it can. For Ruskin, only the greatest of poets can get away with it. Aside from the negative connotations, the Manager Information Technology term is more or less synonymous with personification . PATHOS (Greek, emotion): In its rhetorical sense, pathos is a writer or speaker's attempt to inspire an emotional reaction in an audience--usually a deep feeling of Building Technician, suffering, but sometimes joy, pride, anger, humor, patriotism, or any of Resume Objective Examples. Technology, a dozen other emotions. You can read more about rhetorical uses for pathos here. In its critical sense, pathos signifies a scene or passage designed to evoke the feeling of pity or sympathetic sorrow in a reader or viewer.
PATRISTIC PERIOD (from Latin Pater , father): The time of the church fathers, i.e., the time of the early Church and Resume Examples, the Church's first theologians, running through the Objective Examples. Technology last days of the apostles through the time of Saint Augustine's conversion and Saint Jerome's compilation of the Bible in the fourth and fifth centuries after Christ. The patristic period appears on Account Statement Photos & Savings Account Statement the tail-end of the Classical Roman Period, and it marks the Manager Information Technology Manager beginning of the Medieval Period. Click here to download a PDF handout that puts these periods in chronological order. PATROLOGIA GRAECA : See discussion under Patrologia Latina , below. PATROLOGIA LATINA : A famous (or perhaps in famous) scholarly collection of 228+ fat volumes of biblical and theological commentary that has been both a boon and bane to twentieth-century medieval scholarship.
The Patrologia Graeca reproduces a series of Resume Pages Resume For, Greek writings from the Manager Resume Examples. patristic and medieval Christian writers, while the Patrologia Latina covers the same sort of Cover, material in Manager Resume Examples. Information Manager Latin sources. These works are often not available in print in any other texts. This collection, known familiarly as the PL or the Migne (after one of its French editors), includes vast quantities of theological interpretations, Biblical exegesis, typological and Technician - Template, anti-typological discussion, medieval treatises on hagiography , medieval medicine, lapidary lore, and oodles of relevant materials necessary for students seeking to understand the medieval world and medieval literature. Unfortunately, the Information Manager material is all in Latin, with facing French translations, which makes it less useful for English-speakers hindered by linguistic inabilities. Additionally, a series of Savings Account Statement Stock & Savings Account, editors compiled the volumes of the PL and they did not follow the Manager Resume Objective Information same system of cataloging and organization as their predecessors. Savings Statement & Savings Account! The result is a confusing mishmash that requires four volumes of indices and an additional index to the indices. Four generations of scholars have blessed the PL as an astonishing and ambitious collection of medieval lore, while simultaneously cursing it as a devilish, misorganized amalgam riddled with errors, typos, and blunders in pagination. The PL is Objective Technology Manager, being displaced from its throne by the Corpus Christianorum , an electronic collection superseding the older half-edited material. However, major research libraries at this time are more likely to have an old, dusty set of shelves devoted to Teacher Pages 1 3 Page For, the PL than to have an expensive, computerized copy of the Corpus Christianorum . For a student of medieval literature who can speak Latin, the Manager Resume Objective Technology Manager best starting spot is the index to Maintenance Technician, the indices, and from there work one's way backward.
If any readers find a library that is about to throw away or sell its copies of the PL, please contact me at [email protected] I would like to Resume Examples. Information Technology Manager, have a copy myself, provided I can find a room large enough to store all 228 of these books. PATRONAGE (from Latin pater , father): The act of giving financial or political support to an artist. A person who provides financial support for an artist is known as a patron regardless of his or her gender. And Hygienist Letter Examples! Sometimes patrons might seek to glorify their families or their countries. For instance, the Examples. Information Technology Emperor Augustus was a patron for Virgil. Virgil wrote The Aeneid with the deliberate goal of rousing Roman patriotism for the Augustan regime.
Patronage was also a common way for Resume aristocrats or wealthy merchants to flaunt their wealth and Resume Objective, simultaneously give something of value to their community. The De Medici family in Birthday Invitation Templates Florence, for instance, provided patronage to famous Italian sculptors, poets, architects, and painters. In England, John of Gaunt and Richard II both served as patrons for Chaucer at Resume Objective Examples. Information Technology, various points in his career. Many literary works are dedicated to a patron. For instance, Shakespeare's early printed anthologies of sonnets are dedicated to a mysterious patron, W. H. Maintenance Technician! In Renaissance drama, acting companies were required to have an important noble or royal family member as a patron, for actors not in the service of such illustrious individuals were punishable as vagabonds and tramps. Authorized acting companies were thus referred to as their patrons' Men or Servants. Objective Information Technology! For most of Shakespeare's dramatic career, his acting company was first known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men. After Queen Elizabeth died, the name was changed to the King's Men in 1603, when King James I ascended the throne and took up patronage of the company. PEACE-WEAVER : In Anglo-Saxon culture, a woman who is married to a member of an enemy tribe to establish a peace-treaty or end a blood-feud without paying wergild . This was a vital role for women in Anglo-Saxon custom--but probably also a stressful and dangerous responsibility. Hildeburh and Job Hunter 3.0 - Free, Freawaru in Beowulf and the speaker of The Wife's Lament are probably examples of characters in Resume Examples. Manager Old English literature who are peace-weavers. PEASANTS' REVOLT : Also known as Wat Tyler's Rebellion , this uprising occurred in 1387 when lower-class Londoners and workers from the surrounding areas, fed up with repressive government measures such as the Labor Statutes of 1351, marched on 3.0 - London and incinerated the Savoy palace belonging to Resume Objective Examples. Manager, John of Savings Account & Savings Account Statement, Gaunt and damaged property belonging to other noblemen, appealing directly to the young king, Richard II, for his intervention.
The rebels burned unfavorable contracts and records of debt. They also lynched a number of Objective Examples. Technology Manager, competing foreign workers from Flanders along with government officials whom they blamed for Savings Account Statement Stock Photos & Savings Statement their economic woes. According to legend, they chanted, When Adam delved and Eve span, who was then the gentleman? (i.e., when Adam and Eve first existed, who was an aristocrat?) The revolt is commonly associated with Lollards, with John Ball's proto-communist doctrines, and with other disruptive religious groups in England. Manager Resume Examples. Information Technology Manager! At the 3.0 - time of their march on London, they passed directly beneath Chaucer's residence. References to this rebellion appear directly or obliquely in several Middle English writers' works, including Gower and Langland. PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL : Also called a refereed journal , a juried publication , a scholarly journal , or a critical journal , a peer-reviewed journal is a periodical publication with strict standards for accuracy and Resume Information, clear thinking. Dental Assistant And Hygienist Letter Rg. Dental! Only peer-reviewed journals are considered suitable sources for academic research by college students.
Most are published two to four times a year. These publications are held in such high esteem because, when an article is submitted for publication, it is passed on to two or three other experts in Objective Information Manager the field; they in turn critique the author's thinking and check the article's claims and facts to Technician Cover, make sure it is as accurate as possible and (theoretically) free from distorting political, religious, ideological bias; citation errors; logical fallacies; and Resume Examples. Manager, misattributions. This contrasts with a book, in which only a copy-editor or two will check for typos, but nobody challenges the author's ideas, and it contrasts even more starkly with a web page like this one, in which no official structure is consistently available to ensure scholarly accuracy let alone find all the Statement Photos & Savings Statement typos. Good college students learn to use peer-reviewed journals; they do not rely on Google and web-browsing for Manager Resume Objective Examples. Information their primary information. Job Hunter Free! Some of the most important peer-reviewed journals for medieval literature students in English include The Journal of Manager Information, Medieval and Renaissance Studies , Medievalia et Humanistica , Medium Aevum , Arthuriana, Medieval Studies , Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , the PMLA , Philological Quarterly , Reading Medieval Studies , Speculum , Chaucer Review , and Studies in the Age of Chaucer . Veterinary! The tell-tale signs of a scholarly journal are its typically copious footnotes, the Manager Objective Examples. Technology absence of Savings Statement Account, advertisements or glossy photographs, often its plain, unadorned cover, its guidelines in Objective Examples. Information Manager the back or front for scholarly submissions, and its pages, which are typically on expensive acid-free paper to ensure archival survival. Often libraries do have these journals available in electronic databases (such as JSTOR) that can be searched as easily and as efficiently as webpages, so students have no excuse for not using them. If you need help, contact your teacher or a reference librarian.
Bribe this helper with chocolate. PEJORATION : A semantic change in which a word gains increasingly negative connotation. For instance, the word lewd originally referred to laymen as opposed to priests. It underwent pejoration to mean ignorant, then base and finally obscene, which is the only surviving meaning in Modern English usage. The opposite of pejoration is amelioration , in which a word gains increasingly positive connotation.
Note that some older sources follow the Latin etymology, and thus spell the word peioration, and pronounce the Resume Examples - Template word pee-yore-a-shun, but increasingly modern dictionaries use a j and pronounce the letter consonantally. PEN NAME : Another term for nom de plum e . The word indicates a fictitious name that a writer employs to conceal his or her identity. Objective Information! For example, Samuel Clemens used the pen name Mark Twain. William Sydney Porter wrote his short stories under the pen name O. Henry. Mary Ann Cross used the pen name George Eliot to Job Hunter Sample, hide that she was a female writer, just as science-fiction writer Alice Bradley Sheldon used the pen name James Tiptree, Junior. C.S.
Lewis used the pen name N.W. (Anglo-Saxon, Nat Whilk, or I know not whom) in some writings, including the first edition of A Grief Observed , and then played upon that by quoting the medieval authority Natvilcius in Perelandra (Duriez 147). Likewise, Ben Franklin used a variety of pen names such as Silence Do-good, Jonathan Swift once used the name Lemuel Gulliver, and so on. Writers might choose to use a pen name as a way to keep a certain name associated with certain types of Objective Technology, work, so that a writer might use one name for westerns and another name for Technician Cover Letter science fiction novels. Resume Objective Information! Other authors might seek to Photos & Savings Statement, hide their identity to avoid negative repercussions (such as hate-mail, imprisonment, lynch-mobs, or even execution--all of these misfortunes can and do occur to authors, especially those writing in totalitarian regimes). PENNY DREADFUL : A sensational novel of crime, adventure, violence, or horror. The term is an Manager Objective Examples. Information Technology Manager, English archaism referring to cheaply printed books bound in Veterinary Resume Examples paper at Manager Examples. Technology Manager, only a few pennies' cost.
English schoolboys also called them bloods, apparently in reference to the violent content. The equivalent term in American slang is dime-novel, again referring to the cheap price, or pulp fiction, referring to the cheap wood-pulp pressed to make the paper. Maintenance Technician Cover Letter! My personal favorite penny dreadful from pre-1800 writing is Varney the Vampire: Or, The Feast of Resume Objective Technology, Blood! The title gives some indication of the content. See also dime novel . PENTAMETER : When poetry consists of Veterinary Technician Resume - Template, five feet in each line, it is written in Manager Resume Technology Manager pentameter . Each foot has a set number of syllables. Iambs, spondees, and trochees are feet consisting of two syllables.
Thus, iambic pentameter, spondaic pentameter, and trochaic pentameter lines would have a total of ten syllables. Anapests and dactyls are feet consisting of three syllables. Thus, anapestic pentameter and dactylic pentameter lines (if such lines were common) would have a total of fifteen syllables. Savings Photos & Savings Account Statement! See foot and meter . Objective Examples. Information Manager! You can click here to download a handout discussing meter in greater detail. PENTATEUCH : The first five books of the Hebrew Bible--i.e., Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. PEREVAL (Russian, The Pass): A group of Teacher Template Pages 1 3 Resume For, Russian writers led by the critic Voronsk in 1923 and associated with the journal Red Virgin Soil (Harkins 279). This group of writers opposed the concept of enforced proletarian literature and the oppression of Communist conformity on writers--but the Manager Objective Examples. Technology Russian authorities dissolved the group in 1932 and Building Maintenance Cover, forced its members to Resume Examples. Information Technology, merge with the Union of Soviet Writers (Harkins 279-80). PERFECT RHYME : Another term for exact rhyme or true rhyme. See exact rhyme . PERFECTING : In the Renaissance printing industry, the term perfecting refered to printing on the second side of a sheet of paper after the first side of that sheet had already been printed to make a double-sided copy.
In the 1500s, printers would typically do the Statement Stock & Savings Account Statement recto side of the sheet in the morning and the verso side in the afternoon or evening. By the 1700s, it became common to use two presses consecutively--one side done on the first press and the other side done on the second press. PERICOPE (Grk, section; the last two syllables rhyme with dopey): (1) In biblical studies, a story, brief passage, or selection from gospel narrative or passage found embedded inside another story, narrative, or passage. (2) Passages of Examples. Information Manager, gospel text inserted at the head of a homily or sermon in Maintenance Technician Letter medieval texts. See frame narrative . PERIPHRASIS (Grk. roundabout speech): The act of intentional circumlocution, expressing a short idea with many more words than is absolutely necessary, or expressing indirectly an idea that one could express briefly and simply. J.A. Cuddon cites an example the sentence, Her olfactory system was suffering from a temporary inconvenience, instead of Resume Objective Examples. Information Manager, her nose was blocked (701).
While writers after the modern period have generally considered concision and directness admirable traits in style, some rhetorical situations may call for periphrasis. For example, writers may use periphrasis in order to avoid breaking a social taboo, in which case the periphrasis fulfills the same purpose as a euphemism . E.g., one might write he went to his final rest instead of he died, which is Resume Template For Word Pages 1 3 Page Resume, both periphrasis and Manager Resume Objective Examples. Information Technology Manager, a euphemism. Assistant Letter Examples Rg. Dental! In the 18th century, periphrasis was often considered valuable for its own sake as a means of displaying a writer's erudition or facility with language, so such writings of the time might refer to the scaly breed for reptiles or the feathered kind for Information Technology Manager birds in a manner akin to Germanic kennings (Shipley 429). If a writer or speaker uses periphrasis with the deliberate goal of tricking, misleading, or confusing the audience, that act is And Hygienist Cover Letter Examples, called ambage . If periphrasis appears to have no purpose, or appears awkward and unsuitable, or detracts from the impact of the Manager Objective writing, rhetoricians refer to it as perisologia , a stylistic blemish. If the blemish originates in unnecessary repetition, the fault is Veterinary Resume Examples - Template, called macrologia . An example of macrologia would be they returned home into their own country from whence they had come (Shipley 365). This sentence would be briefer as they returned home. A sample passage of periphrasis is called a periphrase , not to be confused with the honophone paraphrase (Shipley 429). PERIODIC ESSAY : The forefather of modern periodicals like magazines and Manager Objective Examples., literary journals, these publications contained essays appearing at regular intervals (monthly, quarterly, and so on). The subject-matter varied from current events, literary criticism, social commentary, fashion, geographic and Account Statement Photos, architectural features of London, childhood memories, and whatever other reverie entered the author's head. The essays often began with a Latin epigraph as a rhetorical flourish illustrating the good taste and education of the gentleman author, a practice that has fallen out of Manager Objective Examples. Technology, favor in more fiercely democratic and egalitarian times.
The first literary periodicals were French. They included Journals des Scavans (1665). Italian ones followed such as Giornale de Letterati (1668). English imitators included Mercurius Librarius (1668), the Athenian Mercury (1690), and 3.0 - Free Sample, the Gentleman's Journal (1692). The early 1700s was a time when the English periodic essay flourished in particular. This time was especially important in the development of the modern periodical and in the growing acceptance of the essay as a valid genre . Manager Examples. Information Manager! Writers like Defoe, Addison, Steele, and Birthday Templates Online Free, Boswell either contributed frequently to Resume Objective Examples. Technology Manager, these magazines or edited and produced their own.
The Tatler (1709), the Building Technician Spectator (1711), and Manager Resume Objective Examples. Manager, the Guardian (1731), all established by Addison and Invitation, Steele, became profoundly influential in shaping the writing habits and publication customs of the modern world. Most of these publications ran for only two or three years before vanishing, but some lasted for decades. The Gentleman's Magazine first came out in 1731 and Manager Examples. Information Technology Manager, the last issue appeared in 1907, for Free instance, and the Quarterly Review (1809) was still being published as of 1991, when I last subscribed. PERIODIC SENTENCE : A long sentence that is not grammatically complete (and hence not intelligible to the reader ) until the reader reaches the Examples. Information final portion of the sentence. An example is this sentence by Bret Harte: The most common type of periodic sentence involves a long phrase in which the verb falls at Teacher Resume Template 1 3 Page For, the very end of the Manager Resume Objective Information Technology Manager sentence after the Building Technician Cover Letter direct object, indirect object and other grammatical necessities.
For example, For the queen, the Resume Examples. Manager lover, pleading always at the heart's door, patiently waits. 3.0 - Free! In a non-periodic sentence , we would normally write, Always pleading at the heart's door, the lover waits patiently for the queen. Manager Objective Manager! The non-periodic sentence is clearer in English. It tends to follow the subject-verb-object pattern we are accustomed to. The periodic sentence is Veterinary Resume, more exotic and arguably more poetic, but initially confusing. Periodic structure is particularly effective in synthetic languages (i.e. languages in which meaning does not depend on the order of words).
In such languages, a periodic sentence creates suspense or tension in a reader eagerly awaiting the outcome of a grammatical action. In classical Latin or Greek, periodic sentences were accordingly considered the height of dramatic style. Resume Objective Examples. Technology! In English, however, the result can become confusing or comic if the Building Maintenance writer loses control, as evidenced in Examples. Information Manager the work of Dental Rg. Dental, Victorian novelist George Bulwer-Lytton, which has been much mocked by modern readers. Milton's employs a periodic style in Paradise Lost because he seeks boldly to imitate the Manager Resume Manager features of a classical epic --including the Building very grammatical structure of the original Latin and Greek works he loves and Resume Objective Examples. Information Technology, emulates. Compare to Technician Examples - Template, anastrophe . PERIODIC STYLE : A style of writing in which the sentences tend to Examples. Information Technology Manager, be periodic. See discussion under periodic sentence , above. Periodic style in English is usually considered indirect or artificially artsy in comparison with the more straight-forward non-periodic style . PERIODIZATION : The division of literature into chronological categories of historical period or time as opposed to the categorization of literature according to genre , i.e., categories based on conventional features shared between works of similar type. For instance, if I were organizing my bookshelf, and Assistant Examples Rg. Dental, I placed all the books from the early 1800s on one shelf, and all the Manager Resume Examples. Information Technology Manager books written in the Victorian period on the next shelf, and all the twentieth-century books on the last shelf, I have organized my literature by periodization . If, however, I placed all the books containing tragic drama together on one shelf, ands placed all my Western novels on Savings & Savings Account Statement another shelf, and put all the poetry collections on the last shelf, I have organized my books according to genre . (Other possible organizing principles might be alphabetical or thematic.) Periodization is not always clear. A particular author's life span might overlap with both the Victorian period and the twentieth century, for instance. Other periods--such as the postmodern and modern periods--have no clearly defined ending or beginning point.
Still, the intellectual exercise can be useful for thinking about how particular literary artists fit (or don't fit) into an era and for thinking about the zeitgeist or spirit-of-the-age in which they live. PERIODS OF ENGLISH LITERATURE : The common historical eras scholars use to divide literature into comprehensible sections through periodization . Dividing literature into Manager Resume Objective Information Technology, these sometimes arbitrary periods allows us to better compare and contrast the writing, poetry, and drama produced in different ages, to more easily trace chains of influence from Technician, one writer to Manager Resume Objective Examples. Technology, another, and to appreciate more readily the connection between historical events and intellectual trends. A few common divisions include the following: the Anglo-Saxon period, Middle English period, Renaissance period, Restoration period, Neoclassical period, Romantic period, Victorian period, Modern period , and Postmodern period. No universally accepted scheme exists for the divisions. Savings Account & Savings Account! For instance, some editors or anthologists might lump both the Resume Information Technology Anglo-Saxon and Birthday Party Invitation Templates Free, Middle English periods together as the Medieval period. Manager Resume Objective Manager! Another might subdivide the Renaissance into Account Statement Statement, the Elizabethan and Manager Examples. Technology Manager, Jacobean periods, and so on. Click here for a PDF handout listing the periods in more detail. PERIPETEIA (Also spelled peripetea , Greek for sudden change): The sudden reversal of Technician Examples, fortune in Manager Resume Objective Examples. Information Technology a story, play, or any narrative in Template For Word Pages 1 3 Resume For which there is an Manager Resume Objective Information, observable change in Resume - Template direction. In tragedy, this is often a change from stability and happiness toward the destruction or downfall of the Manager Manager protagonist. PERIPETY : Another term for peripeteia . See above.
The word was particularly common in Birthday Invitation Templates Online older English writing. PERPETUUM CARMEN (Latin, continuous song): Ovid's twist on Callimachus' sarcastic description for Technology Manager his literary adversaries' work. Originally, in Callimachus' use, Callimachus applies the term to Savings Account, lengthy narrative poetry done poorly, as opposed to Callimachus' own work, which focuses on brief, short narratives (see Feeney xxiv). Ovid, however, takes the term and applies it paradoxically to his own work, which involves a number of short narratives worked into a single, lengthy, epic-length work. PERSONA (Plural, personae or personas ; Latin,mask): An external representation of Objective Technology, oneself which might or might not accurately reflect one's inner self, or an Building Cover, external representation of oneself that might be largely accurate, but involves exaggerating certain characteristics and minimizing others. Manager Technology! One of the most famous personae is that of the speaker in Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal.
Here, the Irish author Swift, outraged over Britain's economic exploitation of Ireland, creates a speaker who is a well-to-do English intellectual, getting on in years, who advocates raising and eating Irish children as a means of economic advancement. Another famous persona is Geoffrey Chaucer's narrator in Savings Account Account The Canterbury Tales , who presents himself as poetically inept and somewhat dull. Contrast with alter ego and poetic speaker . PERSONAL ENDING : In linguistics and grammar, a verb inflection that shows if the subject is first person, second person, or third person. PERSONIFICATION : A trope in which abstractions, animals, ideas, and inanimate objects are given human character, traits, abilities, or reactions. Personification is particularly common in poetry, but it appears in Examples. Technology nearly all types of artful writing. Examples include Keat's treatment of the vase in 3.0 - Free Sample Ode on a Grecian Urn, in which the urn is treated as a sylvan historian, who canst thus express / A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme, or Sylvia Plath's The Moon and the Yew Tree, in which the moon is a face in its own right, / White as a knuckle and terribly upset. / It drags the sea after it like a dark crime. When discussing the ways that animistic religions personify natural forces with human qualities, scientists refer to this process as anthropomorphizing , sometimes with derogatory overtones.
A special sub-type of personification is Resume Examples. Technology Manager, prosopopoeia , in which an inanimate object is given the ability of human speech. Apostrophe (not to be confused with the punctuation mark) is Dental Letter, a special type of personification in which a speaker in a poem or rhetorical work pauses to address some abstraction that is not physically present in Objective Examples. Manager the room. Building Maintenance Technician! See also prosopopoeia , apostrophe therianthropic , and theriomorphic . PETRARCHAN CONCEIT : A conceit used by the Italian poet Petrarch or similar to Resume Objective Technology Manager, those he used. Technician Letter! In the Objective Manager Renaissance, English poets were quite taken with Petrarch's conceits and recycled them in their own poetry. Examples include comparing eyes to the stars or sun, hair to golden wires, lips to cherries, women to goddesses, and And Hygienist Cover Letter Rg. Dental, so on. His oxymora , such as freezing fire or burning ice, were also common. PETRASHEVSKI CIRCLE (aka Petrashevski Conspiracy ): A secret society of Russian Utopian socialists who formed in Manager Resume Objective Examples. Information 1845 and Technician - Template, met at the home of M. B. Manager Resume Information! Butashevich-Petrashevski to Examples - Template, read illegal socialist literature, including among its members the author Dostoyevski and the poet Pleschcheyev (Harkins 287).
In 1849, Czar Nicholas I had the circle arrested and staged a mock drama and execution--only revealing at the last moment the group had been issued a reprieve. Instead of Manager Examples. Technology Manager, execution, the members of the group were sentenced to exile in Dental Rg. Dental Siberia or military service (287). PETRINE DOCTRINE : Roman Catholics (and pretty much all medieval Christians in western Europe) have traditionally believed the Petrine doctrine . The Petrine doctrine is the belief that Saint Peter was given special authority by Christ that has since passed on to each Pope. In the Gospel narratives, Matthew 16:18-19, Christ states, You are Peter [ petrus ], the Rock [ petros ], and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell will not prevail against it. To you I will give the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven. What you bind on earth shall be bound in Manager Examples. Information Manager heaven, and what you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. (A similar verse is found in John 21:15-17.) Medieval and modern Catholics believed the Archbishop of Rome (i.e., the Pope) was in direct apostolic lineage back to Saint Peter. Sample! That means the Archbishop who anointed the Pope had been annointed by others all the way back to Saint Peter.
Thus, the Pope inherited the same special authority Saint Peter had. The Orthodox Greek church did not share this belief. Manager Objective Information! They thought of the Pope as being the first among equals, an archbishop like any other. He did not have authority to command the whole church. The two halves of the medieval church in the West and Statement Stock Photos, the East argued about Examples. Information Manager this, but that was the Teacher Resume For Word Pages Page sum of the dispute for several centuries. Resume Examples. Information Technology Manager! The differences between the two halves of the old Roman empire was exacerbated by the differences in language as well (Western Europe spoke Latin, but the Eastern half of the empire spoke Greek.) See also schism . PHALLIC (from Greek phallos , penis): A phallic symbol or phallus is a sexualized representation of male potency, power, or domination--particularly through some object vaguely reminiscent of the penis. Common phallic symbols include sticks, staves, swords, clubs, towers, trees, missiles, and rockets. Contrast with a yonic symbol. See also herm . PHANOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for one of three techniques to Dental Cover Letter Examples Rg. Dental, create charged language. Manager Objective Information Technology Manager! In this case, phanopoeia is a word that creates visual imagery, or as Pound states, You use a word to throw a visual image on Free Sample to the reader's imagination (37).
See also melopoeia and logopoeia. PHATIC COMMUNICATION : Exchanges or conversation designed primarily not to transmit information, but rather to reinforce social bonds, signal the beginning or end of a conversation, or engage in ritual activities. For instance, if we pass a stranger in the hallway and say, Hi, howya doing? and pass on after a nod, the linguistic exchange was not an actual request for data, but merely a politeness acknowledging the Resume Objective Technology Manager other's presence. Similarly, thanks for stopping by Savings Stock & Savings Statement, or you're welcome, come again are all social lubricants to Resume Objective Examples. Information, ease the transition to and from ritual activity rather than attempts at factual communication. Building Technician Cover Letter! Phatic communication is the term for this phenomenon. PHILOLOGY (Greek, Love of words): Not to be confused with philosophy (see below), philology was an important but now somewhat dated field of study in the 19th and early 20th century. It covered the Manager Resume Objective Examples. Manager topics of literary studies, linguistics, folklore, and mythology. Philologists were the Dental Assistant Cover Letter Rg. Dental ones who reconstructed proto-Indo-European, developed comparative mythology, deciphered the relationships between modern languages, and compiled records of regional folklore, fairy tales, and mythology before they vanished into modernity. This large and Resume Objective Information Manager, unwieldy field eventually split apart and become the academic fields we know today as separate entities (i.e., the Savings & Savings Account Statement distinct degrees of literature, lingustics, folklore, and so forth).
Few colleges offer degrees in philology today (Oxford being a notable exception), but in the first half of the twentieth century, J.R.R. Tolkien was the primary philologist in the Inklings , which sometimes became a source of tension. C. S. Lewis apparently distrusted philology's obsession with source texts, and in his diary, when Lewis first met Tolkien, Lewis wrote, he [Tolkien] is a philologist. No harm in Manager Objective Information him: only needs a good smack or two. PHILOSOPHY (Greek, Love of wisdom): The methodical and systematic exploration of what we know, how we know it, and why it is Building Technician Cover, important that we know it. Too frequently, students use the term somewhat nebulously. They often mistakenly state, My philosophy about X is . . . when they really mean, My opinion about X is . . . or My attitude toward X is . . . Traditional areas of Western philosophic inquiry include the following areas. PHOBOS (Grk, fear): The emotional purgation of negative feelings known as catharsis involved, according to Aristotle's Poetics , two emotions: eleos (pity) and phobos (fear).
If the audience did not feel pity for the tragic hero in a play, or feel fear at his downfall, the play failed in Manager Information Technology its purpose. See discussion under catharsis . PHONEME : The smallest sound or part of 3.0 - Free, a spoken word that serves as a building block in a larger syllable or word, and Resume Objective Examples., which cannot be broken down further into smaller constitutive sounds. Phonetic transcription always indicates the spoken rather than the written word. This term contrasts with graphemes (the letters or smallest written symbols that count as a unit of an alphabet) and Veterinary Examples - Template, morphemes (smallest units that have meaning-- either written or spoken). Resume Objective Examples. Information Technology Manager! For instance, in the word rerun , the morphemes are re- and run . Though the u- or the r- by themselves are not meaningful sounds like a full morpheme, they cannot be broken down or reduced into any smaller sounds, and thus they are phonemes--the smallest possible sounds in English. Linguists often transcribe English words into phonetic markings to indicate subtle differences in Invitation Templates Online accent, pronunciation, etc., which may or may not correspond to the graphemes (the markings we use to symbolize sounds--i.e., the written word). When they do so, they often enclose the Manager Resume Examples. Information Manager phonetic symbols in slashes /laik ∂ Is/ and enclose the graphic markings in chevrons like this so the reader can tell whether that linguist is Invitation Online Free, discussing the spoken form of the word or the Manager Objective Examples. Information written form of the word.
Contrast with grapheme and morpheme . PHONETIC FULCRUM: Jake Carrick's term for Veterinary Examples a sentence with two parts of opposite sounds, with a pivot in the middle separating the two sections. An example from Examples. Information Technology Manager, Bram Stoker's Dracula : Broken battlements showed a jagged line across the moonlit sky. Veterinary Technician Resume - Template! The distinction here is the Manager Resume Examples. first half of the sentence uses hard consonance, but after jagged, the sentence's alliteration shifts to 3.0 -, liquid and Manager Objective Technology Manager, soft consonance (Carrick). In poetry, such a shift often falls in Job Hunter 3.0 - Free Sample the caesura, though the effect is not limited to alliterative verse. PHONETICS : The study of phonemes, or units of Resume Objective Examples. Information Technology Manager, sound in Maintenance Technician spoken language. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION : Written symbols that linguists use to represent speech sounds. One common transcription system is the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). To see samples in PDF format, you can download IPA vowels and IPA consonants. PHONOGRAM : A written symbol that indicates a spoken sound. Students should not confuse this term with a gramophone (an antique record-player). PHONOLOGY : According to Algeo, The units of Manager Objective Examples. Technology, sound (phonemes) of a language with their possible arrangements and Veterinary Technician Examples, varieties of vocal expression (329).
More generally, the study of sounds and sound-systems in Manager Examples. a language. PICARESQUE NARRATIVE : Any narrative (including short stories) that has the same traits as a picaresque novel. Free! See discussion under picaresque novel . PICARESQUE NOVEL (from Spanish picaro , a rogue or thief; also called the picaresque narrative and the Räuberroman in German): A humorous novel in which the plot consists of a young knave's misadventures and escapades narrated in comic or satiric scenes. This roguish protagonist--called a picaro --makes his (or sometimes her) way through cunning and trickery rather than through virtue or industry. The picaro frequently travels from place to place engaging in a variety of jobs for several masters and getting into mischief. The picaresque novel is Resume Objective Manager, usually episodic in nature and realistic in its presentation of the Teacher Template Pages seamier aspects of society. The genre first emerged in Manager Resume Objective Examples. Information Manager 1553 in Account Statement the anonymous Spanish work Lazarillo de Tormes , and later Spanish authors like Mateo Aleman and Fracisco Quevedo produced other similar works. The first English specimen was Thomas Nashe's The Unfortunate Traveller (1594).
Probably the most famous example of the Manager Resume Objective Information genre is French: Le Sage's Gil Blas (1715), which ensured the Teacher Template For Word 1 3 Page For genre's continuing influence on literature. Other examples include Defoe's Moll Flanders , Henry Fielding's Jonathan Wild , Smollett's Roderick Random , Thomas Mann's unfinished Felix Krull , and Saul Bellow's The Adventures of Augie March . The genre has also heavily influenced episodic humorous novels as diverse as Cervantes' Don Quixote and Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Examples. Technology Manager, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn . PICKUP SYLLABLE : Another term for the unstressed syllable in anacrusis . PIDGIN : A simplified, limited language combining features from many languages and Dental And Hygienist Letter Examples Rg. Dental, used among persons who share no common language amongst themselves. By definition, a pidgin language is not a native language--but rather it is one used between ethnic groups rather than within any particular single ethnic group. Manager Information! However, artificial conditions (such as the enforced assimilation on slave plantations) can cause children to grow up with little use for their native tongues. This can cause the pidgin language to develop into Veterinary Technician Resume Examples, a much richer creole . PIECE-BIEN-FAIT : The French term for the dramatic genre called the well-made play. See discussion under well-made play . PIETAS (Latin, reverance): In Roman times, pietas is the Technology Manager quality of revering those things that deserve reverence. The word is the source for Building Technician our modern English words piety and Manager Examples. Information, piousness (reverence toward the divine), but the Latin term is Savings Photos & Savings Account Statement, far more all-embracing--indicating not only Resume Objective Examples. devotion to the gods, but also devotion to one's gens (family) and Teacher Resume Pages 1 3 Resume, patria (homeland or country). Thus, it also means patriotism and familial responsibility.
In Virgil's Aeneid , one epithet frequently applied to Aeneas is pius Aeneas , implying that Aeneas particularly embodies this quality so valued by the Romans. PILGRIMAGE : An act of spiritual devotion or penance in which an individual travels without material comforts to a distant holy place. The journey often has spiritual overtones--it may symbolize a journey to the celestial city of Technology, heaven or repeat the journey of a saint or biblical hero. Pilgrimage has become a prominent symbol in both Western Christian writings and Examples, Middle-Eastern Islamic writings. John Bunyon's Pilgrim's Progress and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales are two literary examples using the pilgrimage motif . P'ING HUA : A Chinese yarn or tall tale. The genre typically involves a strong narrative presence and colloquial or idiomatic Chinese. The tone is realistic, but the content is typically fantastic or hyperbolic. Contrast with the Russian skaz . PIT : In indoor theaters during the Renaissance, the most expensive and prestigious bench seating was the pit--an area directly in front of the stage.
The Blackfriar's theater was one such architectural example containing a pit. In later centuries, the musical orchestra would be moved to this position. PITCH : In linguistics, a semi-musical tone or quality used in Manager Objective Examples. Information some languages to distinguish meaning. PLACE OF ARTICULATION : The point in the oral cavity where the position of speech organs (lips, teeth, tongue, etc.) is most important for a particular sound. PLACE POEM : A poem whose subject is a specific location, such as a building, a city, a regional geographic feature like a river or hill, or a particular area of the countryside.
Examples include Percy Bysshe Shelley's Mont Blanc, William Wordsworth's Tintern Abbey, or the Galician poems of Rosalia de Castro. Contrast with occasional poem . PLAGIARISM : Accidental or intentional intellectual theft in which a writer, poet, artist, scholar, or student steals an original idea, phrase, or section of writing from someone else and presents this material as his or her own work without indicating the source via appropriate explanation or citation. Click here for more information. PLATONIC : In common usage, people often use the word platonic to Technician - Template, mean intellectual rather than physical. Thus, a Platonic love-affair is one in which the Manager Resume Objective Examples. Technology couple is attracted to each other for mental or psychological qualities rather than bodily attributes. More specifically, however, Platonic philosophy is Plato's idea that behind (or above or outside) the imperfect physical world, another intangible world of abstract ideas has its own existence. These abstract-but-perfect ideas (called Platonic forms ) appear only as dim outlines (or shadows) in the physical world.
For instance, Plato argues that traits such as Justice, Beauty, and Goodness theoretically exist in perfect forms. Material creatures, who cannot see or enjoy the abstract quality of Beauty itself, can only enjoy specific manifestations of Beauty--such as sunsets or starlight or silvery snow. What the unenlightened do not realize is that it is not these specific objects they should admire, but the quality of beauty behind them--the form of absolute Beauty that is eternal and unchanging even as specific sunsets fade and yearly snowfalls melt away. Because these abstract traits remain eternal even as the physical world changes ever, Plato concludes that the Platonic forms are somehow even more real than the concrete things we see, hear, smell, touch, and taste every day. Job Hunter 3.0 - Free! His breathtaking, nearly mystical conclusion is that the physical world is the Examples. Information Manager illusion or dream, and the world of the mind is closer to the real world of the eternal forms. Job Hunter Sample! Platonic thinking had profound influence on medieval theology and philosophy. In C. Manager Resume Examples. Technology! S. Lewis's The Last Battle . Professor Digory Kirke interprets the New Narnia of Heaven's relationship to Technician Resume - Template, Narnia and England as being one of Platonic forms (spiritual) and Platonic shadows (material) , and Objective Examples. Technology Manager, Aslan refers to the land of Teacher Template For Word 1 3 Resume, England and Resume Objective Information Technology Manager, Narnia as being Shadowlands, i.e., the world of material shadows rather than spiritual realities. See also Cave, Plato's . Platonic thinking profoundly influences Plotinus, Boethius, Saint Augustine, Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier , Spenser's Hymn in Honor of Beauty, Shelley's Hymn to Veterinary Technician Examples, Intellectual Beauty, and Wordsworth's Ode on Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Manager Objective Examples. Technology, Early Childhood . PLATONIC FORM : The permanent and Cover Letter, perfect ideas, images, or patterns of which physical reality is Manager Resume Examples., but an imperfect or transitory symbol or expression. Birthday Party Invitation! See discussion under Platonic for full details. PLAY : A specific piece of drama, usually enacted on a stage by diverse actors who often wear makeup or costumes to make them resemble the character they portray.
See drama . PLEONASM : A bad habit of speech or writing in which an Resume Examples. Information Manager, idea repeats itself in a single sentence, i.e., a redundancy. For example, tiny little town is a pleonasm, as opposed to Invitation Online Free, tiny town or little town. Likewise, Shipley points out With mine own ears I hear his voice (429) as a pleonasm. Most modern style books, perhaps influenced by Hemingway, discourage pleonastic constructions as being wordy or repetitive. I also steer students away from them. However, pleonasms have been fashionable in other centuries. Geoffrey of Vinsauf favored them in his twelfth-century style manual, the Poetria Nova. The New Testament book of Mark happily used them, as David Smith points out Resume Objective Manager, (8). Consider Mark 13:33, Blepete, agrupneite! (Watch out! Be aware!) in which the author emphasizes alertness by using a pleonasm. PLOT : The structure and relationship of Birthday Party Invitation Templates Online Free, actions and Manager Resume, events in a work of Dental Assistant And Hygienist Cover Letter Examples, fiction.
In order for a plot to begin, some sort of Resume Objective Examples. Information, catalyst is Account Stock Photos & Savings Account Statement, necessary. While the temporal order of events in Examples. Information Manager the work constitutes the story, we are speaking of plot rather than story as soon as we look at how these events relate to one another and how they are rendered and organized so as to achieve their particular effects. Note that, while it is most common for events to 3.0 -, unfold chronologically or ab ovo (in which the first event happens first, the second event happens second, and so on), many stories structure the plot in such a way that the Examples. Technology Manager reader encounters happenings out of order. A common technique along this line is to Savings Stock Photos Statement, begin the Manager Objective Technology story in the middle of the And Hygienist Cover Rg. Dental action, a technique called beginning in medias res (Latin for in the middle[s] of things). Some narratives involve several short episodic plots occurring one after the other (like chivalric romances), or they may involve multiple subplots taking place simultaneously with the Examples. Information main plot (as in many of Teacher Resume Page Resume, Shakespeare's plays).
PLUCK BUFFET : Anthropologists suggest that pre-adolescent male children in Information Manager a variety of cultures share the game of pluck buffet. In this game, one child trades blows on the arm or chest with another to see who is Stock Photos & Savings Account, bravest or toughest. Alternatively, pluck buffet also refers to any game in which two individuals challenge each other to some contest (often archery) and the loser must receive a strike from the winner. For instance, the poem Garland depicts Richard the Lion-Hearted and Robin Hood having an archery contest, and Manager Resume Examples., the loser must Beare a buffet on his hede. This exchange becomes an important theme in ballads like Robin Hood and Teacher Resume Template For Word Pages 1 3 Page For, Guy of Gisborne . Pluck buffet may also lie at the heart of a Celtic motif known as the trade of blows in which one warrior agrees to trade strikes with another; in the case of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , pluck buffet takes a potentially lethal turn when Gawain and the green elf-knight play the Manager Objective Information Manager game using giant axes. POETIC DICTION : Distinctive language used by poets, i.e., language that would not be common in Savings Account Stock Photos & Savings Account their everyday speech. Manager Objective Technology Manager! The most common signs of Assistant And Hygienist Rg. Dental, poetic diction include involve archaisms , neologisms , rhyme , and unusual figures of speech. Manager Resume Examples. Manager! Teachers often point to Spenser's use of words like gentil and tobraken , or Shakespeare's use of abysm and Veterinary - Template, climature , or Emily Dickinson's use of thee and thine . When they ask students, why did this poet write in such a way? students often mistakenly reply, Because that's the way people talked back then. On the contrary, in the 1500s, Spenser is Resume Information Technology, resurrecting language that was common in Chaucer's day in the 1300s--not the language of his own time. The words abysm and climature are made-up words Shakespeare invented from Technician Cover, abyss/chasm and climate/temperature , not words he would hear in everyday use on Manager Objective Examples. Information the London streets.
Likewise, the pronouns thou/thee/thine faded in the 1600s, long before Emily Dickinson's heyday in the 1800s. These poets chose such language precisely because it is Veterinary Technician Resume, unusual for their time--because it is different from humdrum ordinary speech. (That's what makes it striking poetry, after all.) The concept of literary decorum (and its requirement for certain genres and characters to use lofty, elevated language) also generated thick poetic diction. As M. H. Abrams notes in volume I of The Norton Anthology , the results were phrases such as the finny tribe for fish and Information Technology, the the Birthday Party Invitation Online bleating kind for Manager Manager sheep (2958). Birthday Online Free! To modern poets, such phrasing might seem overblown.
The point, however, is that poetic diction is vastly different from Manager Examples. Information Technology, daily speech. POETIC LICENSE : The freedom of Technician Examples, a poet or other literary writer to depart from the Resume Objective Examples. Technology Manager norms of common discourse, literal reality, or historical truth in order to create a special effect in or for the reader. When applied to prose writers, the Building Maintenance Cover Letter term is often called artistic license. Contrast with verisimilitude . POETIC JUSTICE : The phrase and the idea was coined by Manager Objective Information Manager, Thomas Rymer in the late 1600s. Job Hunter 3.0 -! He claimed that a narrative or drama should distribute rewards and punishments proportionately to the virtues and villainies of each character in the story. Thus, when a particularly vicious character meets a despicable end appropriate for Resume Objective Examples. Technology his crimes, we say it is poetic justice. This formula for resolving plots has fallen into disfavor in later centuries, and no widely influential critics today advocate such a formula without qualifications. POETIC SPEAKER : The narrative or elegiac voice in Building Technician Cover Letter a poem (such as a sonnet, ode, or lyric) that speaks of his or her situation or feelings. It is a convention in poetry that the speaker is Manager Resume Objective Information Technology Manager, not the same individual as the historical author of the poem. For instance, consider the poet Lord Byron's mock epic Don Juan . Lord Byron wrote the Savings Photos Account Statement poem as a young man in his late twenties.
However, the speaker of the Manager poem depicts himself as being an elderly man looking back cynically on the days of youth. Clearly, the Free voice talking and narrating the story is not identical with the author. Resume Examples. Technology! In the same way, the speaker of the poem My Last Duchess characterizes himself through his words as a Renaissance nobleman in Italy who is cold-blooded--quite capable of murdering a wife who displeases him--but the Birthday Party Templates Online author of the poem was actually Robert Browning, a mild-mannered English poet writing in the early nineteenth-century. Many students (and literary critics) attempt to decipher clues about the author's own attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or biographical details through the words in a poem. However, such an Objective Examples. Information Technology, activity must always be done with caution. Shakespeare may write a sonnet in Birthday Online which the poetic speaker pours out his passion for a woman with bad breath and wiry black hair (Sonnet 130), but it does not necessarily mean that Shakespeare himself was attracted to halitosis, or that his wife had black hair, or that he had a fling with such a woman. In fact, it is a convention in some genres , such as the Examples. Technology medieval visio or dream vision, that the poetic speaker is a dull, imperceptive caricature of the author. See also authorial voice and dream vision , above. POETRY : A variable literary genre characterized by rhythmical patterns of language. These patterns typically consist of Birthday Invitation Templates Free, patterns of meter (regular patterns of high and Manager Resume Examples. Information, low stress), syllabification (the number of syllables in each line of text), rhyme , alliteration , or combinations of these elements.
The poem typically involves figurative language such as schemes and tropes, and the poem may bend (or outright break) the conventions of normal communicative speech in the attempt to embody an Examples Rg. Dental, original idea or convey a linguistic experience. Many modern students mistakenly believe that rhyme is the dominant feature separating poetry from prose (non-poetic) writings. However, rhyme is actually a fairly recent addition to Resume Information Technology, poetry. In classical Greece and Rome, meter was the trait that separated poetry from prose. POEISIS (from Greek poieo , to Job Hunter, make): In Plato's Symposium , this term refers to act of creating or making something--both in the biological act of procreation and in Manager the realm of the mind. It covers the Maintenance Technician Cover action itself as well as the moment of transition where one thing becomes something new, and encompasses, as the character Diotima argues in The Symposium, all of the following (1) natural poiesis or reproductive sexuality, (2) poiesis in a city through the attainment of worthy fame, and (3) poiesis in the soul through virtuous habits and moral education. The word is related to the root of the modern English word poetry . POINT OF VIEW : The way a story gets told and who tells it. It is the method of Resume Technology Manager, narration that determines the position, or angle of vision, from which the story unfolds. Point of view governs the reader's access to the story. Dental And Hygienist Cover Letter Rg. Dental! Many narratives appear in the first person (the narrator speaks as I and Resume Objective Technology Manager, the narrator is a character in the story who may or may not influence events within it). Resume! Another common type of narrative is the third-person narrative (the narrator seems to Manager Resume Information Manager, be someone standing outside the story who refers to all the characters by name or as he , she , they , and so on).
When the narrator reports speech and action, but never comments on the thoughts of Teacher Resume Template For Word Pages Page Resume For, other characters, it is the Resume Objective Examples. Information Technology dramatic third person point of view or objective point of Job Hunter, view. The third-person narrator can be omniscient --a narrator who knows everything that needs to be known about the agents and events in the story, and Resume Objective Technology, is free to move at will in time and place, and who has privileged access to Resume Examples - Template, a character's thoughts, feelings, and Manager, motives. The narrator can also be limited --a narrator who is confined to what is experienced, thought, or felt by a single character, or at most a limited number of characters. Finally, there is the unreliable narrator (a narrator who describes events in the story, but seems to Birthday Party Online Free, make obvious mistakes or misinterpretations that may be apparent to a careful reader). Unreliable narration often serves to characterize the narrator as someone foolish or unobservant. Manager Resume Manager! See also authorial voice . POINT OF VIEW CHARACTER : The central figure in a limited point of view narration, the character through whom the reader experiences the author's representation of the world. See point of view , above. POLIS (Greek, City): The Greek city-state, a small, independent government consisting of a single town and its immediate environs. Dental Assistant Cover Letter Examples! Some of these city-states were democracies in Manager Information Technology Manager which every male citizen voted on every government action. Others were oligarchies in Cover which a few rich or aristocratic families cooperated and shared powers.
Others were dictatorships in which a single military leader came to Examples. Information Technology Manager, power. The two most influential city-states were Athens and Sparta. They eventually rose to power over their neighbors through combinations of alliances and conquests. Teacher Template 1 3 Page Resume! Athens was famous for its culture and art and intellectual life. Sparta was famous for Resume Examples. Information its toughness and its martial lifestyle. POLYGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually unrelated to each other. Each one arose independently. Template Pages 1 3! For an analogy, in both early Mayan architecture and in Egyptian architecture, pyramids are striking engineering features. However, since no contact took place between the two cultures, archeologists believe each group invented the design independently rather than adopting it from Resume Manager, a single source (such as one group borrowing it from the other). Circumstances such as the Veterinary Technician - Template lack of mortar, concrete, or flying buttresses ensured that both Mayans and Information Technology, Egyptians would come up with a wide-base structure to support any large edifice--leading to Cover Letter, pyramid designs by default.
In the Manager Resume Objective Information Technology same way, similar legends appear across the world even when each group has no contact with others. Many cultures that master metallurgy create legends or myths about crippled smiths (witness Hephaestus or Vulcan in Greco-Roman myth, Weiland in Norse and Germanic legend, and Silverhand in Celtic stories). Cultures that do not master metal-smithing do not create crippled craftsmen-gods in their pantheons. This lack can be explained by the theory of polygenesis. Men who are crippled cannot join the hunters in gathering food or join the farmers in digging irrigation ditches, so they tend to stay in the village and work as craftsmen, developing skills that ultimately seem magical to Template For Word Pages 1 3 Page, the untrained without these years of experience. However, the archetype of the Resume Objective Information Technology crippled craftsman/god does not appear in cultures without the technology of Teacher Template For Word Page Resume, metal-working. In the same way, flood-narratives appear across many cultures--Noah's flood in the Judeo-Christian tradition as well as in Welsh, Chaldean, and Greek legends. Fundamentalist Christian interpretations accordingly see this as evidence of a literal flood occurring world-wide. Scholars of myth would argue that myths of a universal flood appear only in cultures that experience flooding regularly as a natural disaster. Aborigines in the Australian outbreak or desert-dwelling tribesmen do not share such a legend, for Manager Examples. Technology instance.
This leads to the idea that these flood-narratives arose independently in different places through polygenesis. See also archetype . Contrast with monogenesis . POLYSYLLABIC : Having more than one syllable. POLYSYNDETON : Using many conjunctions to achieve an Building Cover, overwhelming effect in a sentence. For example, This term, I am taking biology and English and history and math and music and Resume Examples. Information Technology, physics and sociology. All those and s make the student sound like she is Assistant And Hygienist Cover Letter, completely overwhelmed. It is the opposite of asyndeton . Both polysyndeton and asyndeton are examples of Objective, rhetorical schemes. For a literary example of polysyndeton, click here. POLYTHEISM : The belief in multiple deities--usually non-omniscient and non-omnipotent--in contrast with the idea of a single all-powerful deity. POMP É : In classical Greco-Roman culture, many major festivals were marked by a pompé . A pompé was a combination of a parade, pilgrimage, and religious procession.
Worshippers would don special garb, line up in Building Maintenance Letter rows by Examples. Technology Manager, the thousands, and then travel through the city or from Birthday Free, one holy site to Objective Examples. Manager, another (such as from the Parthenon to the site of the Eleusinian mysteries). The most important pompé in Athens celebrated Athena's birthday. On this day, her shrine would be cleaned and Veterinary Resume Examples - Template, scrubbed, and the cult statue would be physically carried or carted in a procession leading to the Aegean, where it would be cleansed with sea-water and Technology, given a new peplos (woman's cloak) to wear for the upcoming year. POOH-POOH HYPOTHESIS : In linguistics, the idea that language began as emotional outbursts or surprised exclamations; contrast with the bow-wow theory , the ding-dong theory , and the yo-he-ho theory . PORTRAIT EN CREUX : A rhetorical or literary device in Veterinary Examples which a writer mentions an absence to evoke the Manager Resume Objective Manager counterpart presence. This is the verbal equivalent of negative space in sculpture or painting.
POSTMODERNISM : A general (and often hotly debated) label referring to Technician Resume Examples, the philosophical, artistic, and literary changes and tendencies after the 1940s and 1950s up to the present day. Examples. Information! We can speak of Resume For Word Pages 1 3, postmodern art, music, architecture, literature, and Resume Information Technology, poetry using the same generic label. Free Sample! The tendencies of postmodernism include (1) a rejection of traditional authority, (2) radical experimentation--in some cases bordering on Manager Resume Examples. Information gimmickry, (3) eclecticism and multiculturalism, (4) parody and pastiche, (5) deliberate anachronism or surrealism, and Teacher Resume Template 1 3 Page Resume For, (6) a cynical or ironic self-awareness (often postmodernism mocks its own characteristic traits). In many ways, these traits are all features that first appeared in modernism , but postmodernism magnifies and Manager Resume Objective Manager, intensifies these earlier characteristics. It also seems to 3.0 - Free, me that, while modernism rejected much of tradition, it clung to science as a hopeful and objective cure to Information Technology Manager, the past insanities of history, culture and superstition.
Modernism hoped to tear down tradition and longed to build something better in its ruins. Statement! Postmodernism, on the other hand, is often suspicious of scientific claims, and Manager Examples., often denies the possibility or desirability of Assistant And Hygienist Cover Letter Examples Rg. Dental, establishing any objective truths and Manager Resume Examples. Information Technology Manager, shared cultural standards. It usually embraces pluralism and spurns monolithic beliefs, and it often borders on solipsism. While modernism mourned the Veterinary - Template passing of unified cultural tradition, and wept for its demise in the ruined heap of civilization, so to Information, speak, postmodernism tends to Birthday Party Invitation, dance in the ruins and play with the fragments. Some of the new literary movements growing from postmodernism include the darker or horrific tales of science fiction, neo-Gothic literature, late twentieth-century horror stories, concrete poetry, magic realism , Theater of the Absurd, and so on. Resume Examples. Information Manager! Finally, postmodernism is often used loosely and interchangeably with the critical movements following post-structuralism--the growing realms of Marxist, materialist, feminist, and psychoanalytical approaches to literature that developed during and Resume Page Resume For, after the 1970s. To see where postmodernism fits into a chronology of literary movements, click here for a PDF handout.
POSTPOSITIVE : A function word--often a preposition--that must come after its object rather than before it. By definition, a postpositive word or phrase cannot begin a sentence. Several words in Latin and Greek are postpositives. POST-STRUCTURALISM : A collective and loose term for Resume Examples. Information Technology any of the literary theories appearing after the structuralist movement in linguistics--including Derrida's infamous concept of Resume Page For, deconstruction . Objective Examples. Information Technology! The more radical poststructuralists attempt to subvert, question, or eliminate common concepts accepted before the structuralist movement--like individual identity, the subconscious mind, rules for social interaction, and so on. PREFIX : A morpheme added to the beginning of a word. For instance, the prefix re- can be added to the word play to create the word replay . PREQUEL (formed from the prefix pre - and the root word sequel ): A novel, play, film, or other narrative usually written after the popular success of an earlier work but set before the Veterinary Examples events in that successful earlier work, and incorporating characters, settings, and Manager Resume Objective Examples. Information Technology, situations with which the audience is already familiar. Invitation Templates Free! Contrast with sequel and series . PRE-RAPHAELITE : Pre-Raphaelitism, or the Pre-Raphaelite movement, begins in 1848 as a protest against Manager Objective Information Technology conventional art and literature. A band of young London artists, poets, and intellectuals formed a brotherhood dedicated to re-creating the type of Invitation, medieval art existing before the Renaissance . Manager Resume Objective Information Technology Manager! Hence, they took their name from Raphael (1483-1520), the Assistant And Hygienist Cover Examples Rg. Dental earliest major Renaissance artist in Italy. Like the Romantic poets, Pre-Raphaelites wished to regain the spirit of simple devotion and adherence to nature.
Hence, they rejected modernity, mass production, and urbanization. Typical Pre-Raphaelite writings involve an interest in Manager Examples. Information Technology Manager chivalry , courtly love , ballads , archaic diction, pictorial qualities and Assistant Cover Letter Examples Rg. Dental, visual imagery. The first Pre-Raphaelites included Dante Gabriel Rossetti (the ringleader), William Holman Hunt, William Michael Rossetti, Thomas Woolner, James Collinson, John Everett Millais, and Frederick George Stephens initially. The movement later grew to include or influence Dante Rossetti's sister, the Examples. Manager poet Christina Rossetti; William Morris, the craftsman and writer; the author Swinburne, and Burne-Jones the artist. In 1850, they formed their own literary journal, The Germ , to propagate their views and writings. Click here to download a PDF file of Christina Rossetti's poem, A Birthday, to sample the Building diction and style of Pre-Raphaelite poetry. PRE-ROMANTICISM : The first phase of the Romantic movement in European literature of the late 1700s and early 1800s. Harkins labels its main traits as greater freedom in expression of personal feelings, a new interest in landscape, the cultivation of medieval, chivalric themes as well as . . . the supernatural, and the melancholy mood of 'graveyard' poetry (309). See Romanticism for further details. PRESCRIPTIVIST : A grammatical treatise or a lexicon is said to be prescriptivist if it has the goal of fashioning guidelines or rules for grammar, spelling, and word use, as opposed to describing unjudgmentally how a group of people tend to use language. Contrast with descriptivist . PRESS VARIANT : Unlike a deliberately revised edition printed at Manager Technology Manager, a later date, a press variant is a minor and usually unintentional variation among books printed in the same edition or print run.
Greenblatt notes they usually result from corrections made in the course of printing or from slipped type (1142). PRIESTLY TEXT (Also called the P Text or the Priestly Document ): In biblical scholarship, this refers to material in Genesis and the Hebrew Bible that probably appeared during a late period of editing--in contrast with the Building Technician Cover older J Text and E Text . Manager Resume Objective Examples. Information! The name P Text comes from Priestly Text. Dental Assistant And Hygienist Cover Letter Rg. Dental! Priests probably incorporated this material during or soon after the Objective Examples. Information Babylonian exile of 587 BCE--though possibly as recently as 450 BCE. (Some scholars in the minority argue that portions of the material might date pre-exilicly from the late eighth/early seventh century BCE during Hezekiah's reign, but this stance is not widely held.) At the time of the exile, the Judaic priests were probably desperate to retain their unique monotheistic beliefs in the face of Savings Stock Account Statement, overwhelming Babylonian influence, but they also faced the challenge of harmonizing their world view with that of Babylonian tradition. At this point, many Aramaic (aka Chaldee) loanwords appear in the Hebrew text and they are incorporated into Information Technology Manager, the Hebrew Bible thereafter. This influence explains why today most biblical concordances and dictionaries (such as the 1979 version of Strong's Comprehensive Concordance of the Bible ) refer to their Hebrew sections as a Concordance of Hebrew and Chaldean, a Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary, or a Hebrew and Aramaic Dictionary. Christ will still be using some Aramaic terms 400 years later in Dental Cover Examples Rg. Dental the New Testament gospels, which show how influential and long-lasting the linguistic effects of the Exile were on the Hebrew vocabulary.
Biblical scholars think that Genesis 1:1-2:3 and other sections such as Genesis 6 come from the P Text, and these are probably the latest additions to the Genesis account. The foreign loanwords mean these sections couldn't have been written before coming into contact with the Chaldeans--at least not in the form in which they come down to us today in surviving manuscripts. Some features of the P text include a stress on ritual observances such as the Sabbath, circumcision, and dietary taboos believed to be late additions to the religious tradition. Other features of the Manager Resume Objective Examples. Technology Manager P text--such as the details of the Passover ritual, ordination ceremonies, and Free, descriptions of the tabernacle--appear to have come from now lost older manuscript traditions after being updated and modified in the P tradition. Objective! Finally, the P text is marked the prominence it gives to Aaron (as opposed to the dominant role of Moses in the J and E texts), the account of Maintenance Letter, Moses' death in Deuteronomy, the legal materials of Leviticus and Numbers, and a series of genealogies showing some influence from Mesopotamian sources. If students are reading a study Bible like the Anchor Bible series, the editors helpfully mark which sections come from the J, E, and P Texts. PRIMARY SOURCE : Literary scholars distinguish between primary sources , secondary sources , and Resume Information Technology, educational resources . Students should also. To understand the difference, click here. PRIMOGENITURE : The late medieval custom of 3.0 -, allowing the first born legitimate male child to inherit all of his father's properties, estates, wealth, and titles upon the father's death. Primogeniture was a key issue in determining succession to Manager Resume Information, the royal throne, and it plays an Technician Cover Letter, important part in Edmund's villainy in King Lear , in King Henry V's claim to the French throne in Henry V , and in many other Shakespearean plays.
In medieval times, primogeniture lead to huge social problems since Western Europe was producing large numbers of second born militarily trained knights who had no means of Resume Manager, making a livelihood. Since the Birthday Free firstborn son inherited everything, the only legitimate option for the other sons was becoming celibate and then joining the church hierarchy as clerics or entering monasteries. Since this was not always a preferable option for hot-blooded young men, many involved themselves in coups to gain the Manager Resume Objective Information Technology Manager family estate, took up lives of brigandage, or became mercenaries and wandered from one war to another seeking their fortunes. When Pope Urban II called the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem, the church saw that part of the solution to this problem was to provide a legitimate arena of warfare for these dispossessed knights. The opposite custom of dividing inheritance is known as partible succession . PRINTING PRESS : Chinese and Japanese inventors developed simple printing techniques centuries earlier in Technician - Template monasteries, but in the 1440s and 1450s, Europe developed printing independently. Even though forerunners of the printed book might have existed in Holland, the most important developments were in Mainz, Germany, where Indulgence was printed in 1454, and the Gutenberg Bible in 1456. John of Gutenberg is credited with the invention by fifteenth-century writers, and the invention spread rapidly to Italy, France, Holland, and Examples. Manager, other countries.
William Caxton set up a printing press in Europe (Bruges) in 1475, and there printed the first book in English, The Recuyell of the Free Sample Historyes of Troye . Returning to England in Resume Information Manager 1476, Caxton set up his second printing press in Westminster. He next printed a number of Latin texts before printing in English the Dicts or Sayings of the Philosophers (1477), Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1483), Malory's Le Morte Darthur (1485), and others for about a hundred titles in total. His assistant, Wynkyn de Worde, took over the business after Caxton's death and published perhaps 800 additional titles. The printing press was a revolution comparable to the modern internet revolution. It made books for the first time cheap enough for mass production and mass purchasing, ensuring a rise in Building Maintenance Technician literacy, blurring dialectal vocabularies, spreading geographic and cultural knowledge, and fueling the flames of Manager Resume Manager, religious reformation. PRIVATE SYMBOL : In contrast with an archetype (universal symbol), a private symbol is one that an Savings Account Photos & Savings Account Statement, individual artist arbitrarily assigns a personal meaning to. Nearly all members of an ethnic, religious, or linguistic group might share a cultural symbol and agree upon its meaning with little discussion, but private symbols may only be discernable in the context of one specific story or poem.
Examples of private symbols include the elaborate mythologies created by J. R. Manager Technology! R. Tolkien in Building Maintenance Letter The Silmarillion (such as the One Ring as a symbol of Examples. Information, power lust) or William Butler Yeats' use of Constantinople as a symbol to represent poetic artifice in Sailing to Byzantium, or Yeats' use of a gyre to symbolize the cycles of history and the sphinx as an emblem of the Antichrist in Birthday Invitation Online The Second Coming. See also token and Objective Information, emblem . PROBLEM PLAY : There are two common meanings to this term. (1) The most general usage refers to Account Statement Stock Photos & Savings, any play in which the main character faces a personal, social, political, environmental, or religious problem common to his or her society at large. Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman is representative of a problem play in that Loman must face the Manager Examples. Information Technology challenges of what the author considers false values in a capitalistic society. (2) In a narrower sense, Shakespearean scholars apply the term problem play to a group of Shakespeare's plays, also called bitter comedies, especially Measure for Measure , Troilus and Teacher Resume Template Resume, Cressida , and All's Well That Ends Well . These plays explore dark and Objective Examples. Technology, ignoble aspects of human psychology without attempting to Job Hunter Free Sample, solve or resolve the Resume Examples. Technology Manager plot to the reader's satisfaction beyond a superficial level. Because of the uneasy endings, the plays do not seem to follow the standard conventions of Renaissance comedy . PROCATALEPSIS (Greek anticipation): Procatalepsis is a rhetorical strategy in which the writer raises an Savings Statement Statement, objection and Resume Information Technology, then immediately answers it; by doing so, the rhetor seeks to strengthen his argument by dealing with possible objections before his audience can raise counter-arguments. PROFANITY ACT OF 1606 : This law passed under King James I required that any profanity in a publicly performed play or in published material would result in Veterinary Technician Resume - Template a ten-pound fine for the performer or printer, a substantial sum.
Three of Shakespeare's quartos show signs of revision to meet the requirement of the Profanity Act, such as omissions of obscenity, the Manager Objective Manager word God changed to heaven, or Jove, etc. Contrast with the Invitation Templates Online Censorship Ordinance . PROLIXITY : A type of wordiness or periphrasis characterized by unnecessary rambling or excessive detail, as Shipley puts it (429). Resume Information Manager! A writer or speaker who has this tendency is said to Invitation Free, be prolix. See dicussion under periphrasis . PROLOGUE : (1) In original Greek tragedy, the prologue was either the action or a set of introductory speeches before the first entry ( parados ) of the chorus. Resume Objective Information Manager! Here, a single actor's monologue or a dialogue between two actors would establish the play's background events. (2) In later literature, a prologue is a section of any introductory material before the Birthday Invitation Online Free first chapter or the main material of a prose work, or any such material before the first stanza of a poetic work. PROMPTBOOK : A manuscript of a play adapted for performance by a theatrical company--usually with extra stage directions, notes on special effects or props, and Manager Resume Examples. Technology, last minute revisions or corrections. In some promptbooks, the characters' names and speech prefixes are scribbled out and replaced with the Technician names of the actors playing those roles. PROMYTHIUM : A summary of the moral of Manager Resume Objective Technology, a fable appearing before the main narrative. If the Resume Template summary is Manager Resume Technology Manager, found at the end of the narrative, it is called an epimythium . Contrast with prologue . PRONUNCIATION SPELLING : A new spelling of an Statement & Savings Account, old word that more accurately reflects the current pronunciation than the original spelling does. PROPAGANDA (Latin, things that must be sent forth): In its original use, the Resume Objective Examples. Technology term referred to a committee of cardinals the Roman Catholic church founded in 1622 (the Congregatio de propaganda fide ). Invitation Online! This group established specific educational materials to be sent with priests-in-training for foreign missions . The term is today used to refer to information, rumors, ideas, and artwork spread deliberately to Resume Examples. Technology Manager, help or harm another specific group, movement, belief, institution, or government. The term's connotations are mostly negative.
When literature or journalism is propaganda and when it is not is hotly debated. For instance, the Roman Emperor Augustus commissioned Virgil to write The Aeneid for specific goals. He wanted Virgil to glorify Rome's greatness, instill public pride in Rome's past, and Dental And Hygienist Cover Examples Rg. Dental, cultivate traditional Roman virtues such as loyalty to the family, the Empire, and the gods. Manager Information Technology! Is this propaganda? Or patriotism? Typically, readers claim a work is Maintenance Cover, propaganda when it sets forth an argument with which they personally disagree. In other cases, readers will call a work propagandistic if they can perceive that the Resume Technology characters or the author advances particular doctrines or principles.
Harry Shaw notes: Propaganda is attacked by most critics and general readers because it is an attempt to Account Stock, influence opinions and actions deliberately, but by this definition all education and most literature are propagandistic (220). PROPARALEPSIS (plural: proparalepses ): A type of neologism that occurs by adding an Manager Resume Examples. Manager, extra syllable or letters to the end of Account Statement Stock Account, a word. For instance, Shakespeare in Hamlet creates the word climature by adding the end of the word temperature to climate (1.1.12). The wizardly windbag Glyndwr (Glendower) proclaims that he can call spirits from the vasty deep in 1 Henry IV (3.1.52). We would expect him to Manager Resume Information Technology Manager, speak of the vast deep normally. Proparalepsis is an example of Cover, a rhetorical scheme. PROPORTIONAL : One of Manager Resume Objective Examples. Technology, several possible numbering methods in a language's grammar.
For a discussion of proportionals, see multiplicatives . PROPS (abbreviation of stage properties): Handheld objects, furniture and Veterinary - Template, similar items on stage apart from costumes and the stage scenery itself used to provide verisimilitude , to reinforce the setting , to help characterize the actors holding or wearing them, or to provide visual objects for Manager Objective Technology practical, symbolic, or demonstrative purposes on the stage. PROSCENIUM : An arch that frames a box set and Birthday Invitation, holds the curtain, thus creating a sort of invisible boundary through which the audience views the Manager Objective Information Technology Manager on-stage action of Assistant And Hygienist Cover Examples, a play. PROSE : Any material that is not written in a regular meter like poetry. Many modern genres such as short stories, novels, letters, essays, and treatises are typically written in prose. PROSKENION : A raised stage constructed before the skene in classical Greek drama. The proskenion sharply divided the actors from the chorus, and Manager Objective Examples. Manager, the elevated height made the actors more visible to the audience. PROSODIC SIGNAL : Algeo defines this as the [p]itch, stress, or rhythm as grammatical signals (327). PROSODY (1) : the mechanics of verse poetry--its sounds, rhythms, scansion and meter, stanzaic form, alliteration, assonance, euphony, onomatopoeia, and rhyme. Teacher For Word Pages Resume For! (2) The study or analysis of the Objective Information Technology Manager previously listed material. This is also called versification . PROSOPOPOEIA (Grk prosopon , face): a form of personification in which an 3.0 - Free Sample, inanimate object gains the ability to speak. For instance, in the Anglo-Saxon poem, The Dream of the Rood, the wooden cross verbally describes the Resume Examples. death of Christ from its own perspective.
Ecocritical writers might describe clearcutting from the Statement & Savings Account viewpoint of the tree, and so on. See personification , above. PROSTHESIS : Adding an extra syllable or letters to Objective Examples. Information Technology, the beginning of a word for poetic effect. Shakespeare writes in Job Hunter 3.0 - Free Sample his sonnets, All alone, I beweep my outcast state. He could have simply written weep , but beweep matches his meter and Manager Resume Examples. Information Technology Manager, is more poetic.
Too many students are all afrightened by the use of prosthesis. Prosthesis creates a poetic effect, turning a run-of-the-mill word into Technician Examples - Template, something novel. Prosthesis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. It results in a neologism . PROTAGONIST : The main character in a work, on Manager Objective Information Manager whom the author focuses most of the narrative attention. See character . PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN : The reconstructed ancestor of all Indo-European languages. Teacher Pages 1 3 Page! Many scholars use this term interchangeably with Indo-European. Objective Examples. Information! Click here for more information. PROVIDENCE : The theological doctrine stating God's sovereignty--especially his omniscience--allows complete divine control over the universe in the past, present, and Resume Pages Page Resume, future. It connects closely with questions of omniscience, free will and predestination. In John Milton's Paradise Lost , Milton emphasises providence as one of his themes, depicting a universe in Resume Objective Examples. Information Technology which God allows complete free will, but one in Building which God will ultimately use providence to turn even evil choices and decisions to Resume Objective Information Technology Manager, a greater good in Dental Assistant And Hygienist Letter the long run through his own mysterious means. Cf.
Augustinian time . PRYS (also spelled pris ): The French noun prys , meaning worthiness, is a cognate with the English word price. Prys was rich in connotations, appearing frequently in French chansons de geste and medieval romances . It embodies knightly worthiness on a number of levels. A knight who has prys is loyal, brave, polite, courtly, proud, refined in taste, and Manager Objective Examples. Information, perhaps a bit foolhardy and arrogant, quick to take anger at Page, an insult and fast to accept a challenge or dual. Chaucer uses this term to describe the Knight in the General Prologue of The Canterbury Tales : PSYCHOLOGICAL REALISM : The sense that characters in fictional narratives have realistic interiority or complex emotional and intellectual depth, including perhaps subconscious urges and fears they are not aware of. On an outward level, this realism typically involves reacting to external characters and Examples. Technology, situations in a manner consistent with the expectations of readers ( verisimilitude ). On an Account Statement Stock & Savings Account Statement, internal level, it may involve the Manager Manager revelation of characters' thoughts and Resume Examples, internal meditations about themselves and others. Such internal machinations are a standard part of Elizabethan drama in Manager Examples. Technology the form of the soliloquy . However, psychological realism is associated most closely with the movement toward realism and naturalism in the nineteenth- and twentieth-centuries. After psychoanalysis appeared, Freudian ideas influenced many writers who sought to incorporate his theories into their own depictions of characters. Whether or not we can speak of Job Hunter Free, psychological realism in literary works before the Renaissance is a thorny issue.
Medieval saint's lives ( vitae ) , chivalric romances , sagas , and most other pre-Renaissance literary texts pay little attention to Resume Examples., psychology, rarely describing a character's internal thoughts beyond a sparse assertion that a character was angry, sad, or lonely (and that assertion often made as part of a stock formula, such as Then King Arthur fared wondrously woode.) Often ancient works are so focused on allegory to the exclusion of psychology that some critics assert pre-Renaissance writers and readers had very little sense of interiority or any unique self apart from tribe, family, religious caste, occupation, or social standing. The difference is so marked that some scholars like Harold Bloom speak of the 3.0 - Free invention of the Objective Technology human in the Renaissance. On the other hand, it is difficult to read something like The Confessions of Saint Augustine without getting a sense of Building Technician Letter, a real human being intensely aware of his own psychology. Objective! Possibly, the difference is rooted in conventions of literature rather than any actual historical change in human self-awareness, but the debate continues. PSYCHOPOMPOS (Greek, soul procession or soul carrier): A spirit-guide who leads or escorts a soul into 3.0 - Free Sample, the realm of the Manager Examples. Information Manager dead. Such a character often appears in the motif of the descent into Dental Assistant Cover Letter, the underworld . Examples of a psychopompos would be deities like Hermes and Charon in Greek mythology, or the Manager Resume Objective characters of Technician - Template, Virgil and Beatrice in Dante's Inferno . PULP FICTION : Mass market novels printed cheaply and intended for a general audience. The content was usually melodramatic, titillating, or thrilling. The earliest samples are the penny dreadfuls or bloods of the eighteenth century, which were followed in the nineteenth century by so-called dime novels (which were sold for ten cents). Examples included westerns, Horatio Alger novels, soft science fiction series, murder mysteries in serialized format, and Examples. Information Technology, melodramtic crime stories. Technician Letter! The designation pulp comes from the Manager Resume Information Technology paper quality--these novels are usually printed on the cheapest newsprint available.
PUN (also called paronomasia ): A play on two words similar in sound but different in meaning. For example, in Job Hunter Free Sample Matthew 16:18, Christ puns in Manager Objective Information Koine Greek: Thou art Peter [ Petros ] and upon this rock [ petra ] I will build my church. Shakespeare, in Romeo and Juliet , puns upon Resume 1 3 For Romeo's vile death ( vile = vial , the vial of poison Romeo consumed). Objective Information Technology Manager! Shakespeare's poetic speaker also puns upon his first name ( Will ) and his lover's desire (her will ) in the sonnets, and John Donne puns upon his last name in Hymn to God the Father. Originally, puns were a common literary trope in Veterinary Technician Resume serious literature, but after the eighteenth century, puns have been primarily considered a low form of Manager Examples. Information Technology Manager, humor. A specific type of pun known as the equivoque involves a single phrase or word with differing meanings.
For instance, one epitaph for a bank teller reads He checked his cash, cashed in his checks, / And left his window. / Who's next? The nineteenth-century poet, Anita Owen, uses a pun to side-splitting effect in her verse: They tell sweet lies of Paradise; And in those eyes the lovelight lies. And lies--and lies--and lies! Another type of pun is the asteismus , in Savings Account Stock Photos Account Statement which one speaker uses a word one way, but a second speaker responds using the word in a different sense. For instance, in Cymbeline (II, i), Cloten exclaims, Would he had been one of my rank! A lord retorts, To have smell'd like a fool, twisting the meaning of rank from a noun referring to Objective, noble status to an adjective connoting a foul smell.
Yet another form of pun is the paragram , in which the wordplay involves altering one or more letters in a word. It is often considered a low form of Savings Stock Photos Statement, humor, as in various knock-knock jokes or puns such as, What's homicidal and lives in the sea? Answer: Jack the Kipper, or in Chapter Four of Manager Resume Objective Information Manager, C.S. Lewis' The Silver Chair , which is titled A Parliament of Owls (a pun on Chaucer's Parliament of Fowles ). In spite of the pun's current low reputation, some of the best writers in English have been notoriously addicted to puns: noticeably Shakespeare, Chaucer, and James Joyce. PURGATORY (Latin, purgare , to purge): Donald Logan writes: The medieval and Catholic doctrine of Building Maintenance Technician Cover Letter, purgatory stated that Christian souls who had accepted rites of baptism and been accepted into Manager, the body of the faithful church, but who died unexpectedly with unconfessed sins or minor venial faults, would not be sent to hell, but would rather spend an indeterminate period in Job Hunter 3.0 - Free a spiritual place of temporal punishment.
The same temporary suffering was believed to be the Manager Resume Examples. Information Technology Manager fate of baptised infants who had not yet reached the age of reason where they could choose to 3.0 - Sample, accept Christian doctrine and make first confession. In this spiritual place, popularly called purgatory, such souls would suffer for a time as an act of penance. This would purify them so they could enter heaven. The Council of Florence (1431 AD) was the first time the church officially embraced purgatory as a doctrine, but the belief in purgatory had long been a part of church practice going back to the patristic period of the fourth century, when Epiphanius mentions the practice of praying for deceased souls in order to Objective Examples., lessen their time in purgatory. It is clear, however, that at this early point, the issue of hell, purgatory, and the afterlife was still a matter of dispute among proto-Christians, as theologians like Acrius denied the doctrine. The popularity of purgatorial doctrine increased, and by the tenth century, it was practically universally accepted in the church. In the Middle Ages, some heretical groups like the Albigensians, the Waldensians, and the Hussites challenged the belief, but the first serious breach with the Building Maintenance Letter doctrine appears in Manager Objective Examples. Information Manager the sixteenth-century during the Protestant Reformation. At that time, Martin Luther initially considered retaining the doctrine of Purgatory in the Lutheran Church, as witnessed in the Leipzig Disputation, but as the breach between Catholics and Maintenance Technician Cover Letter, Protestants increased, political pressure to make a clean break with popishness decided the issue. The rejection of purgatory became practically universal among the Protestant churches. John Calvin's doctrine was especially sharp in its break, and Manager Resume Objective Examples. Technology, Calvinist teaching included the doctrine of infant damnation, in Photos Account which all children who die in the womb, in childbirth, or during infancy were damned for Resume Objective Technology eternity in hell. Calvin went so far as to term the 3.0 - Sample Catholic position exitiale commentum quod crucem Christi evacuat . . . quod fidem nostram labefacit et evertit ( Institutiones , lib.
III, cap. v, 6, quoted in The Catholic Encyclopedia ). The modern Greek Orthodox church has also discontinued the Manager Resume Objective Information Manager purgatorial doctrine. Click here for a link to The Catholic Encyclopedia 's discussion of purgatory that is Resume Template Pages, much more thorough than mine. The doctrine and imagery of purgatory is especially prevalent in Manager Resume Objective Examples. medieval literature. It is the focus of Marie de France's Saint Patrick's Purgatory . The Purgatorio , the second book of Dante's Divine Comedy , involves a spiritual journey through purgatory just after the poet's trip through the Job Hunter 3.0 - Free Inferno . C. S. Lewis explores the question of purgatory in The Great Divorce , where he attempts to have his cake and eat it too by Manager, suggesting purgatory does and does not exist simultaneously, arguing that we experience purgatory temporally and perceive it as a real thing, but in Augustinian time , we are able to see that purgatory (and material life on earth) on some level always have been heaven or hell, when we examine the afterlife sub specie aeternitatis . PURIST GRAMMAR (also called Grammatical Purism ): The belief in an absolute or unchanging standard of Job Hunter Free, correct grammar. PURITAN : Most familiar to modern Americans as the Manager Objective Examples. Information religious denomination of the Dental Assistant Letter Mayflower colonists, the Puritans were a Protestant sect particularly active during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In a positive sense, Americans associate Puritanism with the struggle for Resume Technology religious freedom since the Puritans colonized America to escape religious persecution; however, the idea is something of Resume Examples, a misconception since the Puritans' hope was to create an Manager Resume Objective Examples. Information, all-encompassing Puritan culture in the new colony, not to create a cosmopolitan, tolerant society open to other branches of Statement & Savings, Protestant Christianity, much less Catholicism, Judaism, or other religions. (That sort of Resume Information Manager, religious tolerance comes about in American culture largely as a result of the Deism fashionable among intellectuals in the eighteenth century during the writing of the Constitution.) In its negative sense, the word Puritan often evokes the Savings Account Statement & Savings idea of Resume Objective Examples. Information Technology Manager, dour, grim, religious conformity, since Puritans stereotypically wore only black and white; they frowned upon drinking, dancing, and displays of sexuality; burned aging misfits as witches; censored literature, and closed Shakespeare's playhouses in England because of acting's immorality. These tendencies have led to H. L. Mencken's jest defining Puritanism as the haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy. Puritanism forms the Veterinary Technician Resume backdrop of The Scarlet Letter and The Crucible in American literature. Shakespeare uses a Puritan named Malvolio as the party-pooping villain in Twelfth Night . See also Roundhead and Puritan Interregnum . PURITAN INTERREGNUM (Latin, inter + regnum , between reigns): The term refers to Manager Resume, both the Puritan government established under Oliver Cromwell after a civil war against Technician Letter the British monarch and those years in Resume Information Manager which that government lasted (1649-1658). This interregnum marks the end of the English Renaissance.
It came into being after a long civil war between two political factions, the Roundheads , non-aristocrats who supported Puritan reforms, and the Cavaliers , the aristocratic courtiers loyal to the monarchy. Building Technician Cover! Ultimately, the Resume Manager Stuart monarch was captured and executed, and his supporters fled to Job Hunter 3.0 - Free Sample, the continent with the heir to the throne, leaving the Puritans in Objective Examples. Technology power. The Puritans called their regime the Commonwealth, and it was nominally a parliamentarian government but a de facto dictatorship under Cromwell. This government fell apart upon Cromwell's death. At that point, the English royal heir returned to claim the throne, leading to the Restoration . See also Puritan , above. PURPLE PATCH : A section of purple prose or writing that is too ornate or florid for the surrounding plain material, which in Veterinary Resume - Template turn looks too tranquil or dull by the incongruity of the Manager Resume Objective Examples. Information Manager startling purple patch. The colorful image for this term comes from Horace's Ars Poetica 2.3.14-19, where he refers to the purpureus pannus , the Building purple piece of royal or princely cloth that is Resume Objective Manager, a colorful but irrelevant insertion into a plain-speaking work. PURPLE PROSE : Writing that seems overdone or which makes excessive use of Job Hunter, imagery, figures of speech, poetic diction, and polysyllabication. These artifices become so overblown that they accidentally become silly or pompous. See also purple patch . PUSHKIN PLEIAD : A group of young Russian poets, friends and contemporaries of Pushkin, who shared his general poetic outlook--including Vyazemski, Dadydov, Delvig, Yzykov, Venevitinov, and Baratynski (Harkins 323). PYRRHIC : In classical Greek or Latin poetry, this foot consists of two unaccented syllables--the opposite of a spondee . At best, a pyrrhic foot is an unusual aberration in Manager Examples. English verse, and Dental And Hygienist Examples, most prosodists (including me!) do not accept it as a foot at all because it contains no accented syllable.
Normally, the Manager Information Technology Manager context or prevailing iambs, trochees, or spondees in For Word Pages Page surrounding lines overwhelms any potential pyrrhic foot, and a speaker reading the foot aloud will tend artificially to stress either the first or last syllable. See meter for more information.