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Wartime public spending and wartime public debt finally did succeed in Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design recreating the A Cool Tattoo Design Style. | Tattoo robust financial preconditions for renewed economic expansion in the immediate postwar decades. But over time, once private debt had a chance to build up for a while, robust financial structures again evolved into fragile structures, and instability returned starting in about 1966. Unfortunately, the Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior return of instability coincided also with the ascendancy of a new interventionist orthodoxy in economic theory which, extrapolating from the entirely unusual circumstances of the Resumes #14398 immediate postwar, attributed business fluctuations not to changing financial structures but rather simply to fluctuations in Wwwibeie aggregate demand. According to Printable Food - 10+ Download, this new orthodoxy, incipient downturns could and should be countered by appropriate government fiscal and monetary policies. Government spending could maintain aggregate demand directly, and/or tax cuts and subsidies could stimulate private consumption and investment indirectly, so as to - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, maintain aggregate income near the Agreement Example. Example Severance Agreement Template level of full employment. In the short run, this policy orthodoxy achieved its stated goal, but in the longer run it acted to block the natural process of restoring robust finance, with the Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal consequence that an increasingly fragile financial structure served as an Printable Food - 10+ Download In Pdf, Psd, Word, increasing obstacle to capital investment and hence also to robust economic performance.

Because of government intervention there was no debt deflation and Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, no great depression, but rather stagnation and Best Resumes, inflation during the decade of the Design 1970s. Finally, the extraordinary tight monetary policy of 1979-1982 under Paul Volcker turned the Face Tattoo In Polynesian Style. tide and created the financial precondition for Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior, renewed expansion in the decade to follow (Minsky 1986). However, the subsequent expansion was different from the immediate postwar, because the financial preconditions were different. What followed after Volcker was a new kind of Printable, institutional arrangement that Minsky called “money manager capitalism”, driven by a new breed of institutional investors in pension funds, insurance companies, and mutual funds. Unlike the immediate postwar, long-term capital development of the Design nation was off the table, replaced instead by the pursuit of short-run financial portfolio returns.

In effect, tight monetary policy had succeeded in creating a parallel banking system, focused more on real estate and housing speculation than on increasing business productivity. Minsky viewed the financial crisis of Agreement Example Severance Agreement Template Sample, 1987 as a first crisis of this new system. Wwwibeie Design. He did not however live to see the global financial crisis of 2007-2009, which the press dubbed a “Minsky Moment”. Minsky got his start in economics at the University of 9+ Notice Letter | Invoice 2017, Chicago, where he enrolled in September 1937 in - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal the middle of the Great Depression. Resumes. There is no reason to doubt Minsky’s own assessment that two Chicago professors, Oscar Lange and Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior, Henry Simons, were the most significant early influences on his thought (Minsky 1985). The inspiration to study economics came from Lange, who was at that time working out a synthesis of Marx and neoclassical economics that he called market socialism. Henry Simons was the source of Minsky’s lifelong interest in finance, as well as the idea that the fundamental flaw of modern capitalism stemmed from its banking and financial structure. Minsky took the lesson that capitalism could be stable if, first, large-scale capital investment were owned and financed publically rather than privately and, second, smaller scale private business were financed with equity rather than debt. After a three-year interruption for war service (Papadimitriou 1992), Minsky continued his education at Harvard University where he fell in with the young Keynesians who gathered around Alvin Hansen. However it was Joseph Schumpeter, not Hansen, who was the more important influence.

A “conservative Marxist”, as Minsky would later characterize his mentor, Schumpeter’s earliest work on the Theory of Economic Development (1912) had emphasized the importance of money creation by the banking system as the crucial source of entrepreneurial finance. Banks can and do lend by creating deposits, which serve as purchasing power that entrepreneurs use to acquire the real resources they need in order to make their future plans into present realities. This mechanism, according to Resumes #14398, Schumpeter, is the source of the dynamism of capitalism, just as it is also, according to Simons, the source of Wwwibeie Proposal, capitalism’s instability. Minsky’s 1954 PhD thesis “Induced investment and business cycles” represents his attempt to insert his concerns about finance into the then-standard Hansen-Samuelson accelerator-multiplier model, which has no finance in Pumpkin Paper – Portrait it. Viewed in retrospect, the more fundamental contribution Minsky made in his thesis was to conceive of Proposal, ordinary business firms as akin to banks, insofar as they can be seen fundamentally as cash inflow-outflow operations that confront both solvency and liquidity “survival constraints” (1954, p. 157-162). From this point of view, the natural accounting structure for the economic system is not the National Income and Product Accounts, which served as the empirical basis for the Hansen-Samuelson model, but rather the newer Flow of Funds accounts developed by American institutionalist Morris Copeland (1952). In effect, Minsky’s mature Financial Instability Hypothesis would build on this alternative empirical basis, though Minsky goes beyond the Flow of Funds accounts to emphasize the time-dated pattern of Printable Food Menu Template In Pdf, Psd,, cash commitments embedded in the structure of outstanding debts of various kinds (Minsky 1964). A final, but crucial, early formative influence was Minsky’s experience as a participant observer at a major Wall Street brokerage house, where he learned about new developments in the Federal Funds market and the use of repurchase agreements (Minsky 1957). He concluded from that experience that the Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior goal of using monetary policy for aggregate stabilization was probably illusory on account of the 9+ Notice Letter | Invoice attendant financial innovation. - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design. The central bank could try to limit the supply of public bank reserves, as a way of holding back expansion, but the result would only be to Best, encourage banks to develop their own private mechanisms for economizing on scarce reserves.

The Fed Funds market and the repo market were already doing that as early as 1957. In later years, non-reservable bank certificates of deposit, and eventually a parallel system of non-bank finance, would go even further (Minsky 1966). With each additional step the link between policy tools and macroeconomic outcomes became further attenuated (Minsky 1969, 1980). The Financial Instability Hypothesis. At the very center of Minsky’s conception of what makes a financial structure robust or fragile is the relationship between the time pattern of cash commitments and the time pattern of expected cash flows. A firm with cash flows greater than cash commitments for every future period is said to be engaged in “hedge” finance, because the unit can meet its commitments from its own resources. So-called “speculative” financial structures expect cash flows greater than interest payments on outstanding debt, but also anticipate the need to Design, refinance the principle at maturity. That makes the firm vulnerable in the event that refinance turns out to be unexpectedly expensive or even unavailable. So-called “Ponzi” financial structures are even more vulnerable since they anticipate cash flows insufficient even to Severance Agreement Template, cover interest payments, so refinance depends on capital gains in the underlying investment as well as general financial conditions. The core idea of the Financial Instability Hypothesis is that there is a built-in tendency for the system to shift over time from robust “hedge” financial structures to fragile “speculative” and “Ponzi” financial structures. Proposal. A central driver of this tendency is the apparent cheapness of short term finance relative to long term finance, a consequence of liquidity preference which means that wealth holders are willing to accept a lower yield on assets that are more readily (or imminently) turned into current cash.

Thus it is always tempting to finance long-lived capital assets with short-term debt, planning to roll over the debt at Tattoo Design Style. maturity into Wwwibeie another short-term debt. That temptation pushes firms from Resumes, hedge to speculative finance. The temptation is always there, but in the immediate aftermath of Wwwibeie, a contraction that has visibly involved the collapse of fragile financial structures, both borrowers and lenders are able to resist the temptation. Liquidity risk is on their minds. Thus, it is only gradually over Resumes #14398 time that robust financial structures give way to fragile financial structures, as evidence accumulates that giving in to - /images/concept/proposals/interior, temptation is once again a profitable strategy, for both borrowers and lenders. Eventually it seems to be safe, and margins of Face Tattoo Design | Tattoo, safety begin to erode in the pursuit of higher expected gain. In Minsky’s mature work, a key mechanism leading to this erosion is the positive feedback between investment spending and business profits, which Minsky took from the Wwwibeie Design Proposal work of Kalecki (1971).

When investment spending is strong, aggregate demand and hence aggregate business profits are also strong so that business cash flows exceed expectations, proving more than sufficient to meet existing cash commitments. Thus the lesson is learned that previous caution was excessive, and thus the Agreement Example. Example road is opened for a shift to more fragile finance. And of course the same mechanism works the opposite way on the way down, as lower investment leads to lower profit than expected and hence greater than expected difficulty in meeting cash commitments. Minsky’s discovery of Kalecki, probably during his sabbatical year 1969-70 at St. Johns College in Cambridge, England, was crucial also for - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, shifting Minsky’s view of Keynes. Printable Food - 10+. Back at Harvard, the Keynes that Minsky had learned was supposed to be about Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal a liquidity preference theory of money demand, which interacted with an exogenously fixed money supply to set the Daily School rate of interest.

There was nothing much in that Keynes for Minsky, with his Simons-Schumpeter vision of Design, integral role of Visual For Autistic Children | Example School, elastic bank finance for business investment, a commercial loan model of the (endogenous) money supply rather than Keynes open market operations (exogenous) money model. By contrast, although Kalecki’s Marxism was not the conservative type favored by Schumpeter, it was a familiar frame and it was through that frame that Minsky found his way to Keynes. In his subsequent book John Maynard Keynes (1975), Minsky finally embraced Keynes in words that could apply equally to Proposal, himself: “The knowledgeable view of the operation of Visual For Autistic | Example Daily, finance that Keynes possessed was not readily available to academic economists, and - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, those knowledgeable about finance did not have the skeptical, aloof attitude toward capitalist enterprise necessary to Agreement Example. Severance Agreement, understand and appreciate the basically critical attitude that permeated Keynes’s work” (p. - /images/concept/proposals/interior. 130). 9+ Notice Of Resignation. In the end, Minsky came to think of Wwwibeie Design, his own financial instability hypothesis as a completion of Keynes’ work by filling in the details of the financial system, the “logical hole” (p. 63) that Keynes left out in his own academic formulations. Reading Keynes with his new understanding that Keynes, like himself, was always looking at the world through the lens of banking—the “Wall Street” or “City” view–led Minsky to formulate what he called his “two-price theory of investment”. Contra the quantity theory of money, monetary conditions do not drive the Example. Example Severance Agreement Template price of output; but they do drive the price of capital assets. The kind of Design Proposal, liquidity-stretching innovations that banks use to overcome central bank constraint (as Minsky 1957) not only Agreement Severance Agreement, enable them to provide the investment finance demanded by - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, their business clients, but also operate directly to stimulate that demand through their effect on the price of existing capital assets. Specifically, creation of private liquidity to satisfy demand for liquidity preference lowers the Example. Example Severance Template Sample premium required to hold illiquid capital assets, and - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, hence drives up their price.

Subsequently, a widening gap between the price of existing capital assets and the current output price of new capital assets provides incentive to add new capital assets to the old, which is investment. This “Keynesian” asset price mechanism offers yet another path leading from robust finance to fragile finance. Minsky’s Simons-Schumpeter-Kalecki-Keynes view of the world put him at odds with the Pumpkin Simple postwar monetary Walrasian orthodoxy of Patinkin-Tobin-Modigliani. Whereas orthodoxy emphasized the use of monetary policy to Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, “control” aggregate fluctuation, Minsky always emphasized instead the “support” function as lender of last resort in a crisis and market maker in normal times. Regular engagement with market participants through the discount window would, Minsky thought, allow the central bank to shift the Menu Download In Pdf, balance a bit toward hedge finance by Wwwibeie, favoring robust structures in its collateral policy. Toward that end, he urged widening access to the discount window in normal times to Menu Template In Pdf,, include a broader cross-section. This divergence from orthodoxy on - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, policy reflects a deeper methodological divergence.

Whereas postwar economic orthodoxy characteristically operated within an intellectual frame of Agreement Example. Severance Agreement Template, market equilibrium, even intertemporal market equilibrium, with abstract individual agents making rational intertemporal allocation decisions, Minsky characteristically operated closer to the lived reality that actual agents confront, namely an open-ended future that is substantial uncertain (not just risky) and a present choice set that is substantially constrained by survival constraints of various kinds. Wwwibeie Proposal. Minsky’s agents are not irrational, but rather more like Schumpeter’s constructive entrepreneurs who imagine a possible future and 9+ Notice Of Resignation Letter 2017, then use their cash inflow-outflow interface with the economic system to acquire resources in an attempt to make that imagined future a present reality. In a world like this, it matters a lot which agents get the chance to make that attempt; it matters for the capital development of the Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal nation. Minsky’s financial instability hypothesis was designed to Printable Writing Paper With Simple Lines, explain the times he was living in, not so much the post-Volcker era of money manager capitalism. - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design. At the center of Minsky’s picture is business investment finance not household mortgage finance, bank lending not capital market finance, and his purview is characteristically domestic not global. But the analytical apparatus he developed is more general. The banking view that he took toward business investment is equally applicable to any other economic agent—we are all of us cash inflow-outflow entities, facing solvency and liquidity survival constraints. Similarly applicable is Minsky’s emphasis, at the level of the system as a whole, on 9+ Notice Of Resignation Letter, the shifting match between the time pattern of cash commitments that is Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, embedded in the existing structure of debt as compared to Tattoo Design In Polynesian Style., the time pattern of expected cash flow to fulfill those commitments.

Copeland, Morris A. 1952. A Study of - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, Money-flows in the United States. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research. Kalecki, M. 1971. Selected Essays on the Dynamics of the Capitalist Economy (1933-1970). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Minsky, Hyman P. 1954. “Induced investment and business cycles.” Unpublished PhD dissertation, Department of Economics, Harvard University. Minsky, Hyman P. 1957. “Central banking and money market changes.” Quarterly Journal of Food Template Word, Eps, Economics 71 (2): 171-187.

Reprinted as Ch. 7 in Minsky (1982). Minsky, Hyman P. 1964. “Financial Crisis, Financial Systems, and the Performance of the Economy”. Pages 173-380 in Private Capital Markets. Commission on Money and Proposal, Credit Research Study. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Minsky, Hyman P. 1969. “The New Uses of Monetary Powers.” Nebraska Journal of Economics and Pumpkin Paper – Portrait With Simple, Business 8. Wwwibeie. Reprinted as Ch. Best Resumes #14398. 8 in Minsky (1982). Minsky, Hyman P. 1972. “Financial Instability revisited: the economics of Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, disaster.” In Reappraisal of the Federal Reserve Discount Mechanism, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System.

Reprinted as Ch. 6 in Minsky (1982). Minsky, Hyman P. 1975. John Maynard Keynes. New York: Columbia University Press. Minsky, Hyman P. 1980. A Cool Face Tattoo Design In Polynesian Style. | Tattoo Designs. “Finance and Profits: the changing nature of American business cycles.” In The Business Cycle and Public Policy 1929-1980: A Compendium of Papers submitted to the Joint Economic Committee. Wwwibeie Design. Congress of the Best Resumes United States, 96th Congress, 2nd Session. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Reprinted as Ch.

2 in Minsky (1982). Minsky, Hyman P. - /images/concept/proposals/interior. 1980. Visual Schedule Children | Example Daily School. “The Federal Reserve: Between a Rock and a Hard Place.” Challenge 23 (May/June), 30-36. Reprinted as Ch. 9 in Minsky 1982. Minsky, Hyman P. 1982.

Can ‘It’ Happen Again? Essays on Instability and Finance. Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe. Minsky, Hyman P. 1985. “Beginnings.” Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review 154: 211-221. Minsky, Hyman P. 1986. Wwwibeie Design. Stabilizing an Letter Example 2017 Unstable Economy.

Twentieth Century Fund Report. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Papadimitriou, D. Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design. B. 1992. “Minsky on himself.” Pages 13-26 in Essays in Honor of Hyman P. Minsky, edited by S. Fazzari and D. B. Papadimitriou. Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe. 4 comments on “ Minsky’s Financial Instability Hypothesis and Modern Economics ” Good essay by Mehrling summing up Minsky’s work. For Minsky’s view of monetary policy to work properly (use the discount window, not the open-market desk), you have to have honest and competent discount window administration. I encountered that at the two Federal Reserve Banks at which I worked, at the times that I worked for them (1974-1994). I’ve been writing about it ever since. If you politicize the discount window, then how can Minsky’s corrective or stabilizing model work? Alas, today we might live in the worst of both worlds: Politicized open-market operations (see, e.g., above-market interest rates paid on reserves and Design In Polynesian | Tattoo, a subsidy rate paid on reverse repos) and a politicized discount window during the Proposal crisis (anything involving Section 13(3)).

And we haven’t even discussed foreign exchange swap lines. Perry, this is Severance Template, great; it widens my understanding and appreciation of Design Proposal, Minsky. Did you mention when in Utah that you are working on a book? Was it on Minsky? Re: Paul Volcker.

“So back to the 70?s, and continuous oil price hikes by A Cool Face Design, a foreign monopolist. All nations experienced pretty much the same inflation. Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior. And it all ended at Face Tattoo | Tattoo about the same time as well when the price of crude fell. The ‘heroes’ were coincidental. In fact, my take is Wwwibeie Design Proposal, they actually made it worse than it needed to be, but it did ‘get better’ and they of course were in the right place at the right time to get credit for Printable Menu Template - 10+ Word, Eps, that.” “Next, President Carter’s appointment of Paul Volcker to Chair the Design Fed was a disaster for Visual Children | Example Daily, people in - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal low wage jobs, since Volcker and his successors used wage rises as a criterion for evaluating whether inflation was accelerating. So, during and after Volcker’s tenure, the Federal Reserve systematically repressed wages by raising its overnight rate targets whenever private sector wages began to rise, and cooling the economy, a policy that may or may not still be somewhere in the background of the Fed’s toolkit under Janet Yellin. In short, summarizing all of the foregoing, President Carter did not advocate strongly for fiscal policies that would create jobs, and, in Best Resumes #14398 addition, he opposed the efforts of many in the Democratic Congress to legislate such programs. This attitude toward fiscal policy was also reflected in Congress, though to a lesser degree. Wwwibeie. So, overall it has to be concluded that during the Carter Administration, little was done by Agreement Example. Example Template Sample, the Government to achieve and maintain full employment at a living wage. Why was the Government so opposed to doing what was necessary to achieve living wages and full employment?

Again, it was because a majority of Government decision makers, including President Carter, believed in the gospel of fiscal responsibility and austerity. They were incapable of Design Proposal, recognizing that they could spend what was necessary to Template Download In Pdf, Word,, accomplish these goals, even though FDR had shown them what was possible during World War II and Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, part of the Great Depression, and even though they had even more policy space than FDR had to Agreement Example. Sample, deficit spend, due to the shift to a non-convertible fiat currency, with floating exchange rates, and no debts in foreign currencies, completed by President Nixon in 1971.”

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1989 Dbq Essays and Research Papers. ulcers, and later from 1989 , SmithKline Beecham markets it June 1983 Glaxo introduces Zantac 1985 SmithKline starts discussions with FDA on Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, . the OTC launch of Tagamet, named Tagamet HB November 1986 Merck introduces Pepcid, and later from 1989 , JJM markets it May 1988 Eli Lilly introduces Axid, and later from 9+ Notice Letter 2017, 1989 , Eli Lilly and American Home Products market it March 1989 JJM was formed with Merck as the RD part and JJ for - /images/concept/proposals/interior, the retail and distribution part. April 1989 SmithKline Beckman, Tagamet’s. 1989 , 1993 , Cimetidine 2096 Words | 7 Pages. Food Download In Pdf, Word,! | Caps | Goals | Club | | GK | Aditi Chauhan | 20 November 1992(age 20) | 3 | 0 | Delhi (State) | | GK | Sita Sharma | Unknown | 7 | 0 | Orissa . (State) | | | DF | Alochana Senapati | 13 June 1989 (age 23) | 8 | 1 | Orissa (State) | | | | DF | Romi Devi Ashem | 10 February 1989 (age 23) | 3 | 1 | Manipur (State) | | | | DF | Kangujam Rebika Devi | 2 January 1981 (age 32) | 4 | 0 | Manipur (State) | | | | DF | Loitongbam Ashalata Devi | 25 July 1984 (age 28) | 8 | 0 |. 1981 , 1989 , Asian Football Confederation 1409 Words | 7 Pages. O-Noapara-7460, P.S-Abhaynagor, Dist- Jessore, (ZIP-9000) Bangladesh. - /images/concept/proposals/interior! ? . Permanent Address : Buinkara, Nowapara, Abhaynagor, Jessore. ? Date of Birth : 28th December 1989 ? Religion : Islam (Sunni) ? Marital Status : Single ? Nationality : Bangladeshi (By Birth) 4120405739571 ? Sex : Male ? Physical Description : Skin-Light Hear- Black, Eye- Black, . 1989 , Bangladesh , Bengali language 334 Words | 3 Pages. Risk Factors on the Menendez Brothers Case. fear, which ultimately led them to commit the murders. I will try to analyze the genetic and biological factors and 9+ Notice 2017, the situational learning of the brothers . to determine any predisposition that led to their criminal behavior. On August 20th, 1989 , Jose and Design Proposal, Kitty Menendez were watching television in Writing Paper – Portrait Simple | A, their home. The parents were dozing off when the Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, brothers suddenly came into the home, shooting Jose, their father, first and then aiming at Kitty, their mother, when she tried to 9+ Notice Letter Example 2017, escape. - /images/concept/proposals/interior! The brothers. 1989 , Abuse , Antisocial personality disorder 1221 Words | 4 Pages. On Summer of Betrayal by Food Word, Hong Ying. inclined to be drawn by an unknown and mysterious world, and I’m not the exception.

I’ve long been curious about Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior what exactly happened in the bloody . 1989 , as up till now talking about or even mentioning this event remains something horrible and prohibited. Besides, Summer of Betrayal not only indicates the collapse of conviction after the A Cool Tattoo Design In Polynesian | Tattoo Designs, Riot on June 4th, 1989 , but also tells the betrayal of the Proposal, actress’ lover, which serves as the Design | Tattoo, vivid embodiment of a Chinese old saying “Misfortune never comes singly. Wwwibeie! 1903 , 1912 , 1989 1780 Words | 4 Pages. Tian'anmnen Movement of 1989: A Tragic End. The University of Hong Kong Department of Politics and Public Administration CCCH9009 Short Paper By Chan Shing Ho Johnny (UID:2010007173) . Question: In your view, why is the Tian'anmnen Movement of 1989 eventually ended in a tragic way? Use enough information to support your argument. Introduction 186, 207, 221? Power Struggle between the pro-democratic and pro-conservatism One of the reasons that led to such a tragic end for Tian'anmen Movement is the power struggle between the. Best Resumes! Communist Party of China , Cultural Revolution , Deng Xiaoping 1615 Words | 5 Pages. Proposal! Tiananmen Square Incident(1989) - compare to 1984.

The monstrous event that happened on June 4th, 1989 will be forever remembered as one of the most tragic days in human history. However, many . decades ago, this event was foreseen and was foretold in the book, 1984, by Printable Food Template - 10+ In Pdf, Psd, Word, George Orwell. Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal! Orwell saw the rise of totalitarianism, and he was deeply disturbed by Printable Paper With Lines what he saw. He believes totalitarianism will be the Proposal, method that communist party adopts to fight freedom. The book foreshadows many of the events that will happen in a communist society. In many ways. Chinese democracy movement , Communist Party of China , Cultural Revolution 1562 Words | 5 Pages. Tiananmen Square Massacre 1989 Significance. the system into, what is, today the biggest economic structure.

As Fenby states in reference to the aftermath, ‘subsequently; politically, socially, . culturally and economically, it turned out in China’s favour.’ Following the events of June 4th 1989 , China experienced an overwhelmingly derogative global reaction as a result of the media’s coverage; western perspective of China became malformed for many years. The administrations immoral clamp down of political dissidents, who were rallying for. Communist Party of China , Cultural Revolution , Deng Xiaoping 1519 Words | 5 Pages. Printable Writing Paper With! How Childrens Act 1989 Protects Children. - /images/concept/proposals/interior! In this essay going to explain how children act 1989 protects children and what circumstances are they used? I’m going to outline the – Portrait Simple Lines | A, section . Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior! 17 and 47 of children act and what they are and how they would be used to Best, protect children and in what circumstances are the act used. I will be outlining how they could benefit the child. Design Proposal! When would the family support be used the most and in what circumstances it should be used.

Children Act 1989 was a framework provided for the care and protection of children. Children Act 1989 , International Federation of Social Workers , Local government 2423 Words | 6 Pages. 9-591-133 REV: MAY 9, 2002 ROWLAND T. MORIARTY Barco Projection Systems (A): Worldwide Niche Marketing On Saturday morning, September 23, . 1989 , Erik Dejonghe, Frans Claerbout, and Writing – Portrait Simple | A, Bernard Dursin were drafting a crucial presentation that Dejonghe was scheduled to make to the Barco N.V. board of - /images/concept/proposals/interior directors on Monday. As senior vice president and chief operating officer (COO) of Barco N.V., with responsibility for Barco’s Projection Systems Division (BPS), Dejonghe had to respond to In Polynesian Designs, a competitor’s. - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal! 1989 , Marketing , Price 7814 Words | 41 Pages. should not be too far back in the past. Style.! INTERPRETING PRICE RELATIVES To reinforce our understanding of price relatives (the simplest type of index . number) let us work on the following hypothetical data: Price Relatives of Selected Commodities, 1989 1988=100 Price . Wwwibeie! 1989 , Consumer price index , Index numbers 3651 Words | 22 Pages. Gujarat and Sanfrancisco Earthquake. Earthquakes Enquiry The aim of the enquiry is to find out what the | Invoice Example 2017, factors were, which led to more people dying in the Gujarat earthquake in 2001, then the . San Francisco earthquake in 1989 . Proposal! The Gujarat earthquake started at 8:46 am on Friday 26th January 2001. The earthquake struck the heavily populated (LEDC) state of Gujarat in western India. The earthquake measured 7.9 on the Richter scale and sent tremors thousands of kilometres across the continent.

It was so large that it was felt as far. 1906 San Francisco earthquake , 1989 , Causality 535 Words | 2 Pages. an increasing number of Canadians were concerned about environmental issues and some express willingness to pay a little more for environmentally safe . products. This provided Loblaws with supportive data, in Example, late January 1989 , Loblaws management decided to launch, by July 1989 , a line of 100 products that were either environmentally friendly or healthy for the body. These products would be added to the family of the corporate line and called G.R.E.E.N (Jain, Haley, 2009). Although the task was considered. 1912 , 1989 , Environment 494 Words | 2 Pages. The Sharmin murder case is one of the most notorious criminal cases in - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, the history of Bangladesh. Munir Hussain, a wealthy industrialist, killed his wife . Sharmin Rima on April 9, 1989 as the culmination of a long-running affair with his mistress Bogra, Nov 30 (bdnews24.com)—Police have detained six people on suspicion of involvement in the killing of ruling Awami League's Bogra town unit leader Sujanur Rahman Sujon. | . 1989 , Bangladesh , Border Security Force 301 Words | 2 Pages. was to begin in July 1989 , and their installation was to begin in September 1989 . Six months after contracting with DOT, in . October 1988, Hardaway asked DOT to Word,, verify the workability of the Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, erector system designed by Parsons. A Cool Tattoo Design In Polynesian Style. Designs! In November 1988, apparently after consulting with Parsons, DOT affirmed the integrity of the Wwwibeie Design, designed erector system. The record indicates that no additional representations about the Paper | A, erector system's workability were made to Wwwibeie Proposal, Hardaway until June 1989 . The record shows that.

1989 , Civil procedure , Common law 2785 Words | 8 Pages. In the massacre of 1989 Tian An men Square. 50000 students took it to the streets on 9+ Notice Of Resignation 2017, april 29th of Beijing and Wwwibeie Design Proposal, protested peacefully. On May 4, . approximately 100,000 students and workers marched in Beijing making demands for free media reform and a formal dialogue between the authorities and Printable Writing With, student-elected representatives. Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior! The government rejected the proposed dialogue, only agreeing to talk to members of appointed student organizations. On May 13, large groups of students occupied Tiananmen Square. Beijing , Communist Party of China , Cultural Revolution 721 Words | 2 Pages. Printable Pumpkin Writing – Portrait With Lines | A! Lead Up to and Night of the Tiananmen Square Massacre.

Was the Chinese government justified in the Tiananmen Square Massacre? On the - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, fourth of June 1989 , thousands of students died in a massacre . that has come to Visual | Example School, be known as the June Fourth Incident in China. It was a horrifying occurrence built up after five weeks of protesting, demonstrating and speaking out against the Chinese government and its regime, carried out mainly by university students, but also ordinary workers and older intellectuals. Proposal! The core of the protesting was done in Tiananmen Square. Communist Party of China , Cultural Revolution , Deng Xiaoping 2453 Words | 7 Pages. Identify current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding the welfare of Printable Food Menu In Pdf, children and young people including e-safety. information on all children in England; (now defunct after the - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, coalition government of 2010 turned it off), and the creation of the Pumpkin – Portrait | A, Office of the Children's . Commissioner chaired by Wwwibeie Design Proposal the Children’s Commissioner for England Children’s Act 1989 The Children Act 1989 aimed to ensure that the welfare of the Printable Template In Pdf, Word, Eps, child was paramount, working in partnership with parents to protect the child from harm. The Act was intended to - /images/concept/proposals/interior, strengthen the child’s legal position; to give him/her equal rights, feelings and wishes;. Abuse , Bullying , Childhood 875 Words | 3 Pages. Visual Schedule For Autistic Children | Example School! 11 Safeguarding Legislation And Government Guidance.

Children’s act 1989 2004 Education act 2002 E-safety 2008 Safeguarding Human rights . act The United Nations convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 - which ensure that children are safe and looked after. Children have the right to be protected from all forms of Design Proposal physical or mental violence, injury or abuse , neglect, negligent treatment, maltreatment or explanation including sexual abuse by those who looking after them. Children Act 1989 : Parents. Abuse , Bullying , Children Act 1989 606 Words | 2 Pages. Outline Current Legislation Affecting the Safeguarding of Children and Young People. in 1973 and, more recently, Victoria Climbie in 2000. Children Daily School! These cases shocked the nation and showed weaknesses in procedures. These policies are constantly . Wwwibeie Design Proposal! reviewed and amended so it is important to keep up to date with these changes.

The Children Act 1989 This Act identifies the responsibilities of parents and professionals who must work to ensure the safety of the child. This Act includes two important sections which focus specifically on Pumpkin Paper Lines | A, child protection. Section 47 states that the Local Authority. Design Proposal! Abuse , Children Act 1989 , Children's rights in the United Kingdom 815 Words | 3 Pages. A Cool Tattoo Design In Polynesian | Tattoo Designs! Outline Current Legislation and Polices Relating to Children. welfare of children and young people are - The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Design, Child 1989 , which ensure that children are . safe and looked after, children have the right to be protected from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect, negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation including sexual abuse by those looking after them. Children Act 1989 - Parents and professionals must work to ensure the safety of the child. Local Authority has ‘a duty to. Abuse , Bullying , Child abuse 657 Words | 3 Pages.

How does the poet use techniques to engage the reader? ‘War Without End’ and ‘Description of an Idea’ In the ‘War Without End’ the war is metaphorical and Food Template - 10+ Word, Eps, represented as the never ending car crashes and accidents on our roads every year whereas in . ‘Description of an Idea’ the Wwwibeie Proposal, war is A Cool Face Tattoo represented as a historical past event that was associated with the 1989 massacre in Tiananmen Square. Each poem illustrates the Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, similarities between a metaphorical and literal war via the use of repetition, historical references and ambiguity. The use of repetitive phrases in the poem ‘War Without End’ is Menu - 10+ Word, Eps used to emphase. Design Proposal! Murder , Poetry , Reader 892 Words | 3 Pages. There are legislation and Agreement Example. Example Severance Agreement Template, policies in place to Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior, follow and help to ensure that every child is safe and they are listed below: • THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION . Of Resignation! ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD( 1989 ) This appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other. Abuse , Bullying , Childhood 817 Words | 3 Pages.

Current Legislation for Home Based Childcare. ensure all provisions needed for Best Resumes #14398, Disabled children in the setting are fully discussed and approved by parents, and that these provisions will enable the . child to be treated equally and be part of all activities in the setting. | The Children Act 1989 | * A primary aim should be to promote access for all children to the same range of services * Disabled children are children first | Little Birdies aim is to enable children to learn, play and develop first and Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, foremost. Any child will be treated. Childcare , Children Act 1989 , Children's rights in the United Kingdom 963 Words | 3 Pages. along with my own professional experience, I will outline relevant legislation whilst demonstrating the significance it has on the assessment and any . subsequent intervention that may be required in the given situation Section 1 of the Children Act 1989 clearly states; ‘When a court determines any question with respect to – (a) the upbringing or a child; or (b) the administration of a child’s property or the Schedule | Example Daily, application of any income arising from it, the child’s welfare shall be the court’s paramount. Children Act 1989 , Children's rights in the United Kingdom , Contact 2151 Words | 7 Pages. the President of People Republic of China. Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior! DENG’S BLUNDER: TIANANMEN SQUARE MASSACRE Throughout Deng’s career as President of People Republic of Tattoo Design | Tattoo Designs . China, he fulfilled his post perfectly except for one major mistake he made in the spring of the 1989 . That year, Premiere of China and Vice President of China, Hu Yaobang died. Hundreds of thousands of students rushed into every area of the country to mourn for - /images/concept/proposals/interior, Hu. However, as Hu Yangbang was a leader who was strongly against corruption, during his.

Communist Party of A Cool Face Design Designs China , Cultural Revolution , Deng Xiaoping 2266 Words | 7 Pages. ?Unit 333.1.1 Produce a table outlining the - /images/concept/proposals/interior, current legislation and guidelines relating to safeguarding. The 1989 Children Act This is the . most important piece of legislation with regards to childcare. It simplified the laws that protect children and young people and made clear the duty of care for all those who work with children or young people. Working together to Example 2017, safeguard children 2010 This document was produced to safeguard and protect children. To create and maintain a safe learning environment. Childhood , Children Act 1989 , Data Protection Act 1998 1674 Words | 5 Pages. K218, Tma03 Imporance of Knowlege of the Law. rights and protection. Aspects of the law, which are passed by Parliament as legislations then have to be interpreted by the Local Authorities so they can . formulate policies for those who work with children young people and families. The Children Act 1989 and Every Child Matters are two of - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design many policies which have been introduced.

It will also look into how such regulations relate to working with children, young people and families. As well as looking at the development of government initiatives, it. Childhood , Children Act 1989 , Children's rights 1902 Words | 6 Pages. to that are put in place to ensure your child gets the upmost care whilst in my care. There are many legislations, these are the ones I feel are most . relevant: Children Act (2004 and 1989 ) The Children Act 2004 amended the Children Act 1989 mainly in response to the Victoria Climbe inquiry. The Children Act 1989 was the first acknowledgment in Tattoo In Polynesian | Tattoo Designs, UK Law of children’s rights encapsulated by Design Proposal the phrase ‘the needs of the child are paramount’.

A set of aim led to the creation of the Children Act 2004. Childhood , Children Act 1989 , Children's rights in the United Kingdom 1124 Words | 4 Pages. Visual | Example Daily School! Current NI legislation, guidance for safeguarding children (CYP3.3 AC1.1) 1995 changed the philosophy and practice of the law in relation to children as it reformed, and Wwwibeie, brought together, most of the public and 9+ Notice | Invoice 2017, private law . relating to children in a single coherent statutory framework along the lines of the Children Act 1989 in England and Wales[1]. The order is regarded as the most important source of child law and - /images/concept/proposals/interior, had a huge impact upon the public, professionals and Agreement Example Agreement Template, most of all children. When it became law in Wwwibeie Design Proposal, November 1996 it was seen as a radical piece of legislation. Children Act 1989 , Contact , Human rights 1140 Words | 4 Pages. Supporting Children with Additonal Needs. of organisations to promote good relationships between people from different races Human rights Act 1998 - Sets out rights of Example Severance Agreement Template Sample all individuals and allows . Wwwibeie Design Proposal! them to take action against authorities when their right have been affected . Children Act 1989 - Sets out the Printable Menu Template Download Word, Eps, duty of local authorities (Including schools ) To provide services according to the needs of children and to ensure their safety and welfare D9 ) Found this information out of my folder and then researched what they are and Proposal, do .D2) Inclusion.

Childhood , Children Act 1989 , Disability 1388 Words | 4 Pages. current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures within own UK Home Nation affecting the safeguarding of children and young people- Children’s Act . 1989 and 2004- If there are children that are being accommodated by the Local Authority, then this all comes under the Children Act 1989 . There are six beliefs within the Children Act 1989 : * The best place for children to Design In Polynesian Style., be looked after is within their own homes. * The welfare of the child is the - /images/concept/proposals/interior, paramount consideration. * Parents. Childhood , Children Act 1989 , Contact 1876 Words | 6 Pages. Unit 3 - Supporting Children. E1.. The five pieces of legislation I have chosen are:- * The United Nations on the Rights of the Child * Human Rights . Act 1998 * Children Act 1989 * Data Protection Act 1998 * Framework for Best #14398, Assessment of Children in Need and their Families 2000 E2.. The United Nations on Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, the rights of the child will influence working practices in the setting by ensuring that all children have a safe, happy childhood despite of Face Tattoo Design Style. | Tattoo their sex, religion, social origin. Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal! Children Act 1989 , Contact , Economic, social and For Autistic Children School, cultural rights 859 Words | 3 Pages. ?Safeguarding the wellbeing of Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal children and young people. Children | Example Daily! 1 Policies and procedures for safeguarding and child protection in England and Wales are the . Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal! result of the Children Act 1989 . Best! The Children Act 2004 introduced further changes to the way the child protection system is structured and organised.

The Children Act 1989 makes it clear to anyone who works with children or young people what their duties and responsibilities are in a childcare setting and how they must work together with other practitioners. Abuse , Anxiety , Bullying 1953 Words | 4 Pages. ?CYP Core 3.3 (1.1) Outline current legislation, guidelines, policies and Wwwibeie Proposal, procedures within own UK Home Nation affecting the safeguarding of children and . young people Current legislation is the Schedule School, result of The Children Act 1989 in England and Wales and in Wwwibeie Design, Northern Ireland the children (Northern Ireland) order 1995 which was brought in to ensure that all people who work with children worked together and that they were clear about their responsibilities and knew how to act if allegations of Agreement Example Severance Agreement Template child abuse. Child abuse , Childhood , Children Act 1989 1582 Words | 5 Pages. Children Act 1989 - Parents and professionals must work to Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, ensure the safety of the child. Best Resumes! Local Authority has ‘a duty to investigate when . there is - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal a reasonable cause to suspect that a child suspect that a child is suffering or likely to suffer significant harm. Severance Agreement Template Sample! Children Act 2004 - This provides the Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior, legal framework for Every Child Matters. It includes the requirement for: Services to work more closely, forming an integrated service.

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 - which. Abuse , Childhood , Children Act 1989 1672 Words | 5 Pages. Criminal Records Bureau and Local Safeguarding Children. people including e-safety 1. Identify the current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding the welfare of children and young . people including e-safety Legislation and – Portrait With Lines, guidelines: • In England and Wales, The Children Act 1989 • In Northern Ireland, Children Order 1995 These two Acts were brought in with the aim of simplifying the laws that protect children and - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, young people. They tell people what their duties are and how they should work together when child abuse is. Child , Childhood , Children Act 1989 741 Words | 3 Pages. Act 1933 – This is an older piece of legislation of which some parts are still in forced today. It includes a list of offences against children, these are . referred to as Schedule One offences. The Children Act 1989 –The current child protection system is A Cool Design Style. Designs based on the Children Act 1989 . The introduction of this act was intended to be the most compressive and far reaching reform in child law in parliamentary history. The main aim of this law is to ensure that the welfare of a child is always considered. Childhood , Children Act 1989 , Children's rights in Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior, the United Kingdom 1094 Words | 3 Pages. Outline the current legislation covering home based childcare, and the role of regulatory bodies. Tattoo Design Style. | Tattoo! service Assessment 1.1 Outline the current legislation covering home based childcare, and the role of Wwwibeie Design regulatory bodies.

Below are the Visual Children | Example Daily School, current . legislations covering home based childcare: 1. - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal! United Nations Convention on the Rights of the A Cool Tattoo Design | Tattoo Designs, Child ( 1989 ) The United Nations convention on Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, the rights of the child is to promote all aspects for the care, development and education of children, non discrimination on the grounds of gender, religion, disability, language, ethnic/social origin, civil and political. Best Resumes! Children Act 1989 , Data Protection Act 1998 , Human rights 1767 Words | 7 Pages. Proposal! Safeguarding Children and Best, Young People. The children’s act 1989 . This act contains many principles and defines child abuse as a person’s actions that cause a child to Wwwibeie Design Proposal, suffer . significant harm to their health, development and Visual Schedule For Autistic, wellbeing. A child’s welfare is paramount and introduced a concept of parental responsibility, rights, power and duties. It also contains details of what local authorities and courts should do to protect Children’s welfare. The children’s act 2004.

This didn’t replace the children’s act 1989 but set a program of. Abuse , Childhood , Children Act 1989 727 Words | 3 Pages. Caring for Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, Children Young People P2,M1,D1. I’m going to explain 6 relevant legislations and Of Resignation Letter | Invoice 2017, give examples of each related to children and young adults. Proposal! The first legislation I am going to look at is; . The United Nations Convention on Example. Example Severance Agreement Template Sample, the Rights of the Wwwibeie, Child 1989 . The United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child 1989 This piece of legislation has been put into place to ensure children’s rights are also taken into consideration amp; for the safety amp; wellbeing of the child throughout their childhood. It also includes; children. Resumes! Child , Childhood , Children Act 1989 1141 Words | 3 Pages.

Cyp Core 3.3 –1.1 Outline Current Legislation, Guidelines, Policies and Procedures Within Own Uk Home Nation Affecting the Safeguarding of Children and Young People. procedures within own UK Home Nation affecting the safeguarding of children and Design, young people. Child Act 1989 - There has been certain . legislation in the United Kingdom along with home policies and procedures that affect the safeguarding of children and young people. Policies and procedures for safeguarding and child protection in England and Wales are the result of the Children Act 1989 and the Children Act 2004 carried more changes that affected the Printable Menu - 10+ Psd,, way the child protection system is Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design structured. Child protection , Children Act 1989 , Contact 883 Words | 4 Pages. Children and Young Peoples Workforce.

Task A Policies and procedures for child protection and safeguarding are the result of the children’s act 1989 . Which then lead to . the children’s act 2004 which then introduced further changes to the way the child protection system is For Autistic Children Daily School structured and organised. The main current legislation, guidelines policies and procedures for safeguarding are The Children Act 1989 . This was designed to Wwwibeie Design Proposal, help keep children safe and well and, if necessary, help a child to Printable Food Menu Word, Eps, live with their family by providing. Child protection , Children Act 1989 , Children Act 2004 2346 Words | 7 Pages. own UK Home Nation affecting safeguarding of Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design children and | Invoice Example 2017, young people. . There are many policies and procedures within the UK that outline the current . legislation and guidelines to Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, help with safeguarding children and Visual Schedule Children | Example School, young people. The Children Act 1989 The important part of - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal this act is to Food Menu Word, Eps, maintain the child is at the forefront of decisions; the best option in relation to the child’s welfare will be taken into account when deciding the - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, best course of action for the child/young person’s upbringing. Childhood , Children Act 1989 , Children's rights in A Cool Face Tattoo Design | Tattoo Designs, the United Kingdom 2208 Words | 8 Pages. and social progress that is thanks to the efforts from the government and the people. - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal! Other ways to help solve the problem of Human Rights . | Invoice Example 2017! violations is with help from people like you.

The group Human Rights in China since March of 1989 has been trying to promote legal reform in - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, China, the largest country in Letter | Invoice, the world. Wwwibeie! You can help join them in working for an open China that respects human rights at home and in other countries. You can actually make a contribution. Best #14398! Beijing , China , Human rights 2308 Words | 6 Pages. Unit 3 [E1] United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child ( 1989 ) UNCRC This is an Wwwibeie Design international agreement which enforces the #14398, rights . of all children and young people under the Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, age of 18. This act generally covers three main areas, participation, provision and protection. Food Menu - 10+ In Pdf, Psd, Eps! The Children Act 1989 This act represents what local authorities and the courts should do to protect the welfare of Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal children in Best Resumes #14398, unfortunate circumstances, to Wwwibeie Proposal, offer support and protection for children whom may be suffering. Abuse , Children Act 1989 , Contact 818 Words | 3 Pages. and its associated regulations. Legislation Underpinning all regulation and standards set is Style. Designs Legislation – laws, rules and regulations passed by Acts of . Parliament. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) was drawn up in - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, 1989 . It is not actually legislation, but its guiding beliefs underpin lots of recent pieces of legislation.

There are 54 articles in Schedule Children Daily, the UNCRC, which say in a nutshell, all children must be shown respect and their interests are paramount. Wwwibeie Design! Welsh Government. Administrative law , Childcare , Children Act 1989 589 Words | 2 Pages. Where Capitalism Won, But Not Democracy interview of Robyn Meredyth about the Tiananmen Square Massacre. These sources will be identified for their origins, . Best Resumes #14398! values, limitations, and credibility. B. Wwwibeie! Summary of Evidence On a night in Agreement Example. Example Template Sample, June of 1989 , the unthinkable happened. Otherwise known as the June Fourth Incident, the Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, Tiananmen Square Massacre was the bloody result of seven weeks of continuous rebellion of Best Communist Party of China’s policies. “Perhaps thousands of - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design people were killed in. Communist Party of China , Cultural Revolution , Deng Xiaoping 2014 Words | 7 Pages. know how to A Cool | Tattoo, approach adults if they are in difficulties believing they will be effectively listened to reporting any child protection issues. The Children . Act 1989 - it recognises that children themselves have rights and that they should be treated with respect, be protected from harm The United Nations Convention on Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, the Rights of the Child 1989 – parents and guardians have a right to Best Resumes, support in carrying out their parental responsibilities The Human Rights Act 1998 - grantees rights and freedoms for. Childhood , Children Act 1989 , Human rights 2540 Words | 5 Pages. person has in relation to harm or abuse, it is very straight forward.

Each child has a right to be listened to and any allegation taken seriously and . procedures followed by involving the police and social workers. ‘Under section 47 of the Children Act 1989 , local authorities are charged with the “duty to investigate … if they have reasonable cause to suspect that a child who lives, or is found, in their area is Design Proposal suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm’ This ensures that a child will be taken. Childhood , Children Act 1989 , Contact 2169 Words | 4 Pages. Schedule Children Daily! Legislations that affect school work. - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal! make sure that pupil information is #14398 confidential and if it needs to be shared with adults working with a particular pupil (like a speech therapist), we have . the parental consent to do it. 2. - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal! The UN Convention on Rights of Child 1989 : The UN Convention on Rights of Child 1989 was ratified in the UK in A Cool Face In Polynesian Style. | Tattoo, 1991 and adopted by the Welsh Government in 2004. It is Wwwibeie Proposal made up of 54 articles covering rights to survival, protection, and development of children. It can be summarized by saying it protects children. Children Act 1989 , Data Protection Act 1998 , Disability Discrimination Act 1995 1110 Words | 3 Pages. whether the child’s best interest lies on being with their genetic parent or not. The children act 1989 has been put in place for Resumes #14398, the . Proposal! protection and welfare of the Pumpkin Writing Lines, child(s). When considering the child(s) welfare, section 1 of the - /images/concept/proposals/interior, act states that the children(s) welfare is the courts paramount consideration.

The court also uses the Best Resumes #14398, welfare checklist, which comes under s.1 (3) of the children act 1989 , in order to determine that the child(s) best interests are being kept priority. The courts have to. Children Act 1989 , Contact , Divorce 2578 Words | 6 Pages. Was There a Massacre in Tiananmen Square? Was there a massacre in Tiananmen Square? On June 4, 1989 , a large group of students gathered in Tiananmen Square to Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, protest for their right . to freedom of Printable – Portrait Lines | A speech and democracy. In retaliation, the Chinese government sent martial law to control them.

A riot between the troops and Proposal, the protestors was broadcast across the A Cool Face Design In Polynesian | Tattoo, world and - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, called the ‘Tiananmen Square Massacre’. Agreement Example. Severance Agreement! The Chinese government denies this to be true and - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, calls the event the ‘Tiananmen Square Incident’. BBC footage, witness accounts. Chang'an Avenue , Cultural Revolution , Jiang Zemin 986 Words | 4 Pages. life, helping to eliminate discrimination. The special educational needs and disability act 2001 made it un lawful for educational providers to discriminate . against individuals that have special educational needs or disabilities. #14398! The Children Act 1989 Sets out the Proposal, duty of local authorities including schools, to provide services according to the needs of the individual child and ensure ,heir safety and #14398, welfare. As part of the childrens act 2004 it sets out a duty for us to provide effective accessible. Affirmative action , Children Act 1989 , Disability 1261 Words | 4 Pages.

Develop and implement policies and procedures to support the safeguarding of Design Proposal children and young people. of children and young people. Agreement Template Sample! 1.1 Outline the current legislation that underpins the safeguarding of children and young people within own UK home nation. - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design! . The current legislations for Food Menu - 10+ In Pdf, Word,, safeguarding children where defined in the children act of 1989 . Including children’s rights to protection them from Wwwibeie Design Proposal, abuse, the right to express their views and be listened to. Although different British governments have said that it regards itself bound by the Convention and A Cool Tattoo Design In Polynesian | Tattoo, refers to it in child protection guidance. Childhood , Children Act 1989 , Children Youth and - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, Environments Journal 1593 Words | 5 Pages. to report my findings and/or beliefs. The legislation is incorporated and implemented into many work environments making sure that the Menu Template - 10+, well-being and . safeguard of Proposal all children and young people are paramount. Children Act 1989 This legislation was introduced in 1989 ; it enforced a change in the way parent’s roles are regarded.

The emphasis is now on parents having a responsibility to their children rather than rights over them, also making clear that it is the Printable Writing With, welfare of the children that is. Child , Childhood , Children Act 1989 2050 Words | 6 Pages. ?E1 Health and safety at work act 1974 Child care act 2006 Data protection act 1998 Reporting of injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences . Design! regulations 1995 (RIDDOR) Children act 1989 E2 It is important to make sure when dealing with any accidents and Schedule Children | Example Daily School, injuries you follow the settings correct policies and procedures, this ensures that every staff member is aware of how to deal with incidences as well as ensuring that the health and safety of each child is maintained. Wwwibeie Proposal! Dealing with a. Asthma , Child , Childhood 2478 Words | 7 Pages. Health Act 1983 allows individuals who have committed a crime or mentally ill to be held custody in Food In Pdf, Psd, Word, Eps, the appropriate settings, a prison and mental hospital. . The children Act 1989 and The Convention on Wwwibeie Proposal, the Rights of the child 1989 are both legislations that were put in place to respect the rights of children. The children Act 1989 : * Provides the children with the right to Template - 10+ Download In Pdf, Word, Eps, be protected from harm, whether it is from parents, carers, or anyone else. * Gives the right to children who have been cared.

Children Act 1989 , Human rights , Individual rights 1873 Words | 6 Pages. Design! understanding safeguarding of children. young people Below there are some legislations applying for safeguarding of Visual Schedule | Example Daily Children and Young Adults. Unfortunately there were put into practice following . deaths of children ( Victoria Climie and Jessica Chapman) Children Act 1989 Safety of child has been protected since 1989 when the Children act came into the practice. Children Act allocates responsibilities to parents, local authorities (in my case it will be Northamptonshire County Council), courts and other agencies in UK to ensure that child. Wwwibeie Proposal! Children Act 1989 , Civil liberties , European Convention on A Cool Tattoo Style. Designs, Human Rights 1289 Words | 4 Pages. Tda 2.2 Safeguarding the Welfare of Proposal Children and Young People. the welfare of children and young people 1.1 United Nations convention protection of children’s act- when was the 1st legislation impacted. It was drawn . up in 1989 , but the United Kingdom decided on 16th December 1991 formally agreed to make sure that every child has the same rights listed in the convention. Signed 20th November 1989 Location New York Effective 2nd September 1990 Condition 20 ratifications Signatories 140 Parties 194 Depositary UN secretary general Languages Arabic, Chinese.

Abuse , Bullying , Childhood 2035 Words | 7 Pages.

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esl cheater essay frequency, methods, and causes. Mikaela Bj?rklund and Claes-G?ran Wenestam. ?bo Akademi University. Department of Teacher Education, email: [email protected] or [email protected] Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Lahti, Finland 22-25 September 1999. During the past decades cheating among undergraduate students has been a well-known problem difficult to gain knowledge of. European research in Wwwibeie Proposal this field of A Cool Design Designs, research is scarce. The aim of this paper is to present a study, investigating the frequency of Proposal, cheating, the cheating methods used and the students#146; motives for cheating or not cheating in a Swedish-Finnish university context. Comparisons with other higher education contexts were possible since an anonymous questionnaire, worked out and used by Best #14398 Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes and Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and used in the study. The participants were three groups of university students (n=160) from different academic disciplines. The findings implicate that cheating among undergraduates is common and mainly is a problem of ethic character.

The paper also discusses consequences of student cheating for the university staff, legislators, and society. Suggestions on what measures should be applied are presented along with suggestions for further research in this area. During the past decade, problems concerning cheating among undergraduate students have become increasingly apparent in academic institutions in the Nordic countries. Cheating or academic misconduct is, however, not a new phenomenon, but a well-known problem in many European countries, as well as in Wwwibeie Design the United States of America. Because of the ethical and moral character of the problem it is not easy to do research in this field. Obvious problems are i.e. student integrity. Thus, academic dishonest behaviour and Face Designs, cheating is a familiar problem for any university, but it is Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior often not very well known and sometimes the Food Template - 10+ In Pdf, Psd, Word, Eps, university authorities do not even want to know of it. Keith-Spiegel (in Murray, 1996) shows that among a sample of almost 500 university professors 20 percent reported they had ignored to - /images/concept/proposals/interior take further measures in evident cases of cheating. Many university teachers obviously hesitate to Best Resumes #14398 take action against cheating behaviour because of the stress and discomfort that follows (Murray, 1996).

Also Maramark and Maline (1993) suggest that faculty often choose not to involve university or departmental authorities but handle observed cheating on an individual level, making it invisible in university documents and, thus, unknown to the university authorities. Also other findings support the reluctance to bring dishonest academic behaviour like cheating before the university administration. Jendreck (1992), as an example, concludes that students preferred to handle the problem informally rather than by using formal university policy. Probably at least partly because of the reasons mentioned above European research in this field is still scarce (cf. Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes Armstead, 1995 and Ashworth et al., 1997). Nevertheless, we feel that it is of the utmost importance that this area of research is further developed in the near future, not the least since students tend to see cheating as a more or less normal part of their studies, which is illustrated in the quote below: Students beliefs that everyone cheats (Houston, 1976, p. 301) or that cheating is Wwwibeie Design Proposal a normal part of life (Baird, 1980) encourage cheating.

The adage cheaters never win may not apply in the case of academic dishonesty. With cheating rates as high as 75% to 9+ Notice Letter | Invoice 87% (e.g., Baird, 1980; Jendreck, 1989) and detection rates as low as 1.30% (Haines et al., 1986), academic dishonesty is reinforced, not punished. (Davis, Grover, Becker McGregor, 1992, p. 17) With detection rates as low as 1,3 % it is hardly surprising that students to a great extent perceive academic misconduct as worth while and even approved of. As an illustration of the low detection rates; during a five year period (1991-1995) only 24 students were brought to the disciplinary board for cheating at one Swedish university (Grahnstr?m, 1996). It is, hence, of Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, importance to university staff and Tattoo Style. | Tattoo Designs, administrators, as well as to legislators and society as a whole to gain insight in this matter, in order to be able to do something about it. The aim of the study. The main aim of the study presented in this paper is to provide a first step in Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal a survey over university students#146; cheating, i.e. to investigate the overall frequency, different methods and main reasons for cheating and not cheating among students in a Finnish context. The study is intended as a starting point for further in-depth research in this area.

In order to get a better understanding of the problem, the aim is also to relate the Printable Pumpkin Writing Paper – Portrait With | A, outcome to subjects#146; backgrounds in terms of sex, age, academic experience (number of study years), faculty belongings, level of difficulty, level of Wwwibeie Proposal, study success and Children | Example Daily, main reason for study at the university, in order to get a deeper understanding of Design, student cheating behaviour. To make comparisons with other contexts possible an anonymous questionnaire, worked out and used by Agreement Example Sample the British researchers Newstead , Franklyn-Stoked and Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and used in the study, which was carried out on Wwwibeie Design 160 university students during the Resumes, spring of 1996. I this presentation we focus attention on: a) the Wwwibeie Proposal, frequency of admitted cheating, b) what kinds of cheating is most frequent in relation to the British results, b) the relationship between frequency of admitted cheating/not admitted cheating and sex, c) the reasons selected for Tattoo Design In Polynesian Style. | Tattoo Designs or against cheating in relation to the British results, and. d) the relationship between the reasons selected and sex. It is Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior very human to try to find ways to solve problems as easy as possible or to avoid unnecessary difficulties. Sometimes a creative mood is not only wanted but also morally supported, but in other situations it is considered as dishonest and shameful. Schedule For Autistic Daily! In higher education this kind of creativity may be in conflict with study performance and Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, productivity and Best, may turn out to be viewed upon with disapproval or contempt. How define cheating?

Plagiarism related to the exam situation is what is usually referred to when generally talking about cheating. It is also this kind of behaviour that has received most attention in research on cheating. Defining cheating is, however, much more complicated than that, since cheating seems to involve both a moral and an achievement dimension, which is Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior graphically illustrated in Figure 1 below. Figure 1. Graphic presentation of the problematic grey-zone between moral and immoral behaviour. The levels in the achievement dimension are not absolute, but dependent on the perspective of the Example. Example Severance Template, viewer. The area between the dashed lines symbolises the grey-zone that exists concerning the classification of potential cheating behaviours. Definitions of - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, cheating also vary as a result of variation in moral development, experiences of studies, influence of significant others, studying strategy (cf. Miller Parlett, 1973) and probably also other factors. The result is 9+ Notice | Invoice a wide spectrum of definitions ranging from Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior, liberal to Agreement Example. Agreement Template Sample conservative. Hence, the need for normative documents is apparent.

Evenso they do not seem to exist, at least not in Finland. Nowhere in - /images/concept/proposals/interior the legislation concerning exams and cheating is it mentioned what kind of Printable Menu Template In Pdf, Eps, behaviours constitutes cheating. The examples above illustrate what a complex problem cheating is. In the study presented in this paper all not strictly correct behaviours were classified as cheating for clarity#146;s sake. To what extent does cheating occur? Most of the research done concerning the amount of cheating occurring, has, as mentioned earlier, been carried out in the USA. The quotation below provides examples of the cheating-rates measured in different studies in a North American context. The reader ought to observe that these studies were different in design; concentrated on different behaviours and therefore some of the variation in the percentages might be accounted for in that way, and thus can not only Proposal, be taken to convey a steadily increasing rate of cheating. Drake (1941) reported a cheating rate of Printable Pumpkin Paper With Simple, 23%, whereas Goldsen, Rosenberg, William, and Suchman (1960) reported rates of 38% and 49% for Design 1952 and 1960, respectively. Printable Food Menu In Pdf, Word,! Hetherington and Feldman (1964) and Baird (1980) reported cheating rates of - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, 64% and 76%, respectively. Jendreck (1989) placed the typical rate between 40% and 60% but noted other rates as high as 82% (Stern Havlicek, 1986) and 88% (Sierles, Hendrickx, Circle, 1980). (Davis et al., 1992,s.16)

Davis et al. (1992), pointing at 9+ Notice Letter | Invoice the results presented above, regard cheating as epidemic. There are indications that give some, but not very much, support to the epidemic theory. McCabe and Trevino (1996) found that the tendency to cheat had increased only little, from 63 percent in 1963 to 70 percent in 1990-91 but that the cheating methods had been more developed and Design Proposal, the repertoire wider. Their findings may also be interpreted to mean that students who cheat are doing it more often than previous generations of 9+ Notice, students. Three studies cited by Maramark and Maline (1993) suggest that cheating is a constant study technique among large groups of students (60-75 percent). Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal! Also Davis and Ludvigson (1995) found in a more recent study that the individuals who cheat during their university-level studies are the ones that also have cheated earlier in their studies.

In a study by Baldwin, et al (1996), where 2459 medical students participated as subjects, 39 percent said they had witnessed cheating, 66,5 percent had heard about cheating, and 5 percent had cheated during their medical studies. Graham et al (1994) found that among 480 college students 89 percent admitted cheating and in Writing Paper – Portrait Simple | A a study by Lord and Chiodo (1995) 83 percent of the undergraduates investigated (n=300) admitted to - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design cheating on significant tests and major projects. In a European context Newstead et al. (1995) also present high rates of cheating. In their study only Printable Writing Paper With, 12% of the Wwwibeie Design, respondents claimed that they had not cheated. Agreement Agreement Sample! All the above mentioned figures are concerned with the number of cheaters, i.e. the number of students who have at Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design least on one occasion been involved in academic misconduct, they do not tell us anything about to what extent these people do cheat. It is, however, likely that the more cheating is done, the more probable it is that the numbers of behaviours used vary. Agreement Example. Severance Sample! It is therefore of importance to Design find out what kind of behaviours students utilise. What methods are used?

There are four major kinds of groups to be distinguished when classifying cheating behaviours, namely: Individual opportunistic, individual planned, active social and passive social (Hetherington Feldman, 1964). Visual | Example School! Baird (1980) on the other hand distinguishes only Design, between individual and Printable Food Menu Download Psd, Eps, co-operative behaviours. The findings of Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995) point to extensive cheating in some areas like copying each others work, changing or inventing research data, while some other cheating behaviour like lying or changing persons at examination (impersonation) was fairly scarce (see Table 5). Hence, there seems to be a correlation between level of perceived seriousness of the - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, behaviour and its frequency of occurrence #150; the more serious the behaviour, the less frequent it is. Students tend to classify exam-related cheating as more serious than course-related cheating.

These classifications were also confirmed by Newstead et al#146;s results, where all exam-related items were among the least frequent and course-related items among the most frequent. McCabe and Trevino summarise their findings in a table showing what kind of Agreement Example Severance Agreement, cheating and the frequency students admit they are engaged in. The modified table (below) shows the level of admitted cheating in 1963 and 1993. The two tests make a comparison possible. Table. 2. Kind of admitted student cheating in 1963 and 1993 (%) (McCabe and Trevino, 1996). Copied material without footnoting. Table 2 shows that some kinds of cheating are more frequent than other kinds. It is also interesting to find that in most of the Design Proposal, cases the tendency is an increase of the cheating between 1963 and 1993. This does not necessarily mean, however, that the students were cheating more in 1993 than they did in 1963.

Another reasonable explanation is that the students were more prone to admit cheating in 1993 than the students were in Example Template 1963. These results are similar to Design Proposal findings in other studies but there are also findings suggesting cultural differences. Kuehn, Stanwyck, and Holland , for instance, asked students from Mexican, Arabic and US cultural backgrounds about cheating. The main focus was on three typical cheating behaviours: using crib notes, copying another student#146;s test, and allowing another student to copy course work. The findings suggest that there were differences between the culturally different groups of students in how they looked upon Printable Food Menu Psd, and rated cheating. Also new technique, like the Wwwibeie Design, World Wide Web, is used by students in Printable Pumpkin Writing – Portrait Simple Lines order to download papers, essays, etc produced by other students but presented to the examiner as own work. One illustration of Wwwibeie Proposal, this is a report from Best, a Swedish university, where several students were found out Wwwibeie Proposal, using not accepted means for getting course credits among which the downloading of ready-made course works from the web was mentioned (Lunds Universitet Meddelar, 1998). Considering the variety of methods used in cheating, as described above, it is probable that also the reasons given for cheating are many.

Reasons for cheating and Menu In Pdf, Word, Eps, not doing it. The reasons or motives for Wwwibeie cheating are not very well known but must be assumed to be complex. In a North American study of school students cheating by Food Menu Anderman, Griesinger, and Westerfield (1998) it is claimed that the schools#146; obsession with performance measures spurs cheating. It is suggested that classrooms that emphasise high grades and test scores may drive the students to cheat . Similar conclusions are reported from several investigations, where the students#146; workload is Design Proposal found to be an important explaining factor (Lipson MacGavern, 1993). Example Severance Sample! Davis et al (1992) point out that pressures for good grades in higher education, student stress, ineffective deterrents, teacher attitudes, and an increasing lack of academic integrity are important determinants of cheating.

Baird (1980) previously reported similar findings. In that study 35 percent of the students stated that they had too little time for studying for the exam and 26 percent of the Wwwibeie Proposal, students said their working load made it necessary to cheat. In a study by Singhal (1982) as much as 68 percent of the students regarded the wish to 9+ Notice Of Resignation Letter | Invoice Example 2017 get good results as the Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, reason for cheating. Example. Severance Sample! Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes, and - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, Armstead (1995) found that 21 percent of the cheaters say it was lack of time to study that made them cheat and 20 percent explicitly stated that their cheating was a consequence of their wish to get better grades. A third frequently occurring reason for cheating was everybody else does it (16%), which effectively reflects students#146; attitudes towards cheating. Example Agreement! This reason was followed by the wish to help a friend (14%) and laziness (10%), which also says quite a lot about the risks of getting caught. It is obviously easier to help a friend cheat than to e.g. help the friend learn to an exam. Also Maramark and Maline (1993), when looking for causes for - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design cheating, found that stress, competition for 9+ Notice Of Resignation Letter | Invoice jobs, scholarships and - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, admission to post-graduate programs were important determinants. On a general level the causes or explanations identified can be organised in two classes of factors, external, and individual/personal.

In Table 1 below the two super-ordinate factors and some elements/reasons mentioned in research done by Baird (1980), Davis et al (1992) and Pumpkin Paper – Portrait With Lines, Hetherington Feldman (1964) are presented. Table 1. Presentation of factors that might lead to Wwwibeie cheating mentioned by Baird (1980), Davis et al. (1992) and Hetherington Feldman (1964). Importance of the test. Level of test-difficulty. Awareness of the.

performance of – Portrait With Lines | A, fellow. A certain expectation of. Overcrowded, great classes. Wish to help a friend. Aversion to teacher. At a closer examination of the reasons mentioned by these researchers it seems obvious that the strongest reasons are to be found among the personal factors and Wwwibeie Design Proposal, that the external factors merely help to ease the Pumpkin Paper Simple, cheating. The external factors are furthermore a welcome excuse for - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal the students, since they appear to Printable Food - 10+ In Pdf, Word, Eps prefer blaming external factors for - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design their behaviour (Baird, 1980). Anderman et al (1998) identified two general types of 9+ Notice Letter | Invoice, study approaches, which on a general level seem to be similar to the deep and surface approaches to studying and - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, learning.

The cheaters tend to believe that the purpose of school is to compete and 9+ Notice Of Resignation Letter | Invoice Example, show how smart you are. Also, to them, what is most important, is doing better than others and getting the right answer. They also worried about school and made use of self-handicapping behaviours, blaming others and making excuses for not performing well at school, more often than their counterparts. Many of them believed cheating would result in less homework and fewer academic demands. The non-cheating group of Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, students, in comparison, expressed interest in A Cool Face Style. | Tattoo their learning of science concepts and tried various problem-solving methods and sought to connect ideas. In several previous studies it is - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal suggested that the effect of an explicit and unanimously accepted honour code will lower the frequency of cheating behaviour (McCabe Bowers, 1994). But honour code may have an effect in two opposite directions. A very common reason for some types of cheating is the wish to help a friend (Franklyn-Stokes and Newstead, 1995; McCabe Trevino, 1996). Food Menu - 10+ In Pdf, Word,! To many students some behaviours are not viewed as cheating although forbidden by the university or staff. For instance, letting a fellow student borrow or copy an individual course work or a written assignment or even have a look at Wwwibeie Design Proposal the answer in a test may be regarded as honest and A Cool Face Design In Polynesian Style. | Tattoo Designs, correct behaviour. Thus, some cheating behaviours may be explained by - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal the honour code prevalent among the students.

The most frequent reasons for Writing Paper Lines not cheating were, in the study made by Franklyn-Stokes and Wwwibeie Design, Newstead (1995) that it is immoral/dishonest and that it is useless/unimportant. In their study these were the most frequent reasons for not indulging in academic misconduct regardless of sex and age. Best Resumes #14398! In later studies (Newstead et al, 1995) there were, however, significant differences between the age groups: the older students gave the reason immoral more often than their younger peers did. The 160 subjects participating in the study were recruited from three different groups of students. In Table 3 below, the Design, samples and some characteristics are presented. Table 3. Participants in the study.

The collection of data was carried out at the university during ordinary lecture time. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of Face Design Designs, questions about cheating behaviours. The questionnaire was originally developed by Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Franklyn -Stokes and Newstead in the U.K. but adapted to meet the needs of the Swedish-speaking environment in Finland. In their questionnaire a set of probable cheating behaviours (A-U) were presented to Printable Writing With | A the student, who was asked to tell (Yes or No) if he/she had carried out that behaviour at least once. Two additional items were included in the questionnaire totalling the - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, number of Schedule | Example Daily School, cheating behaviours presented to 23. Accompanying each question about cheating was a list of arguments (reasons) motivating or explaining the behaviour and a list of Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, arguments giving reasons for not cheating. The subjects were asked to Example select one reason for each Yes/No response. There was also a few additional questions asking about their reason to study at the university, their judgement of their study successfulness and about their belief about fellow students cheating.

The questionnaire was distributed to the students during ordinary lecture time at the university. Proposal! The respondents completed it immediately and anonymously. It took about 15 minutes to Printable Food Template - 10+ In Pdf, Psd, Word, Eps complete. Proposal! The data was analysed by quantitative methods. 4. Agreement Example. Severance Template! The result of the data analysis. The overall frequency of cheating. 75 % of the respondents in this study had engaged in at Design least one of the behaviours listed in the questionnaire. However, only 63,5 % of them admit to cheating in the overall question at the end of the questionnaire, even though no less than 91,9% report that they believe their fellow students cheat. The over Letter Example 2017 all tendency to cheat only correlated with year of study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,160, P=.046), reason to Design study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,213, p=.012) and the respondents#146; estimation of how much other students cheat (Spearman#146;s rho= ,159, p=.046). This seems to imply that the over all amount of Severance Sample, cheating is relatively stable, but that the methods used vary depending on discipline of study, gender, age and success in - /images/concept/proposals/interior studies, since there are some significant correlations for the individual items on the basis of these background variables.

This study was not designed to study the moral development of the respondents, but the results do, however, point in one certain direction as far as moral is concerned. Resumes #14398! In Table 4 below, the reported tendency to cheat is cross-tabulated with respondents#146; own evaluation of their inclination to cheat. Table 4. Cross-tabulation of the - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, variables reported tendency to cheat and Printable Writing Paper With Lines, own evaluation of cheating inclination. Of the ones who have reported that they never cheat 53,4 % have admitted to exercising at least one of the behaviours mentioned in the questionnaire, whereas 12,9 % of the ones of the opinion that they cheat rarely have not reported cheating on any of the Design, behaviours. A considerable amount of the students do seem to Printable Food Template Download In Pdf, Word, cheat, even though they do not always consider what they do as wrong, which makes it interesting to study how they do it and which behaviours are the - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, most commonly used ones. Cheating methods used. In this section the occurrence of the different methods listed in the questionnaire are presented. Observe that the behaviours listed in the questionnaire are various behaviours that can be regarded as cheating and dishonest behaviour, but do not necessarily need to be considered as such (cf. the definition of cheating used in this paper).

Below, in Table 5 the students#146; responses to | Invoice the behaviours described in the questionnaire are presented in order of frequency. The table also includes a classification of the behaviours as social/individual, and course-/exam-/research related, as well as the British results (Frankyn-Stokes Newstead, 1995). Table 5. The cheating behaviours listed in order of Wwwibeie Design, frequency. Agreement Example. Example Severance! The percentage of yes-answers to each cheating behaviour listed in order of frequency, starting with the most frequently used. The figure to the right is the Wwwibeie, percentage of positive answers received for the same item in Agreement Example Severance Template the study made by Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995).The letters to the left represent the - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, classification of the Example. Severance Agreement Template, behaviour. The letters stand for research (R), coursework (C), exam (E), and individual (I), social (S) and altruistic (A). In Table 5 one can see that some cheating behaviours are more frequent than others are. The most frequent ones among the Finnish respondents are Copying material for course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the source, Paraphrasing material from another source without acknowledging the original author, Allowing own course-work to Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal be copied by another student, and Visual Schedule | Example School, Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge.

These behaviours are admitted by more than 20 percent of the Wwwibeie Proposal, participating students. As mentioned earlier, these behaviours may be considered as academic misconduct. All of them may, however, be viewed as acceptable and even morally correct among the students, since they do not have negative consequences for the fellow student but may be regarded as help and support in difficult situations. In that sense it can be assumed that there exists a conflict between staff#146;s and students#146; social and ethical value systems, creating a moral borderline area where what is right and wrong are not easily delimited. From the bottom of the Agreement Example. Example Severance Agreement Template Sample, list we can observe that the least admitted behaviours are Inventing data (i.e. entering non-existent results into the database)and Kept silent about - /images/concept/proposals/interior, a teacher's misbehaviour or misuse of his/her position in order to Visual Schedule For Autistic Children Daily get approval on a test or a higher mark. These behaviours were reported only by one respondent/ behaviour. The general nature of these behaviours seems to be different from the most frequent ones in that they are more directed to personal gratification. The behaviours also represent more active deception of teachers and fellow students in order to - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal gain personal reward. It can be assumed that these behaviours are viewed as more morally disapprovable and of low peer esteem.

As also can be seen above, three of the behaviours do not occur at all in this study. This is probably due to the limited sample and perhaps also (judging from cryptic comments of the respondents) to Visual | Example fear of punishment. The students#146; responses to Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior the items in the questionnaire depicting various cheating behaviours were in most cases similar for the both sexes; that is, there are almost no differences between female and male student#146;s responses in this respect. To two items, however, there were different reactions that are related to differences in Food Menu - 10+ Download In Pdf, Psd, sex. One of these items was Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal! #146;cribs#146;). The outcome is presented in Table 6 below. Table 6 Relationship between students#146; responses to item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. Best Resumes #14398! #146;cribs#146;) and students#146; sex. The result in the table indicates that there are clear differences between female and male students#146; ways of responding to - /images/concept/proposals/interior the item suggesting cheating in Printable Paper With Lines | A the form of taking unauthorised material in the testing situation. Among the female students only 2.6 percent admitted to Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior the behaviour while 13.6 percent of the male students said #146;Yes#146; to having carried out the Agreement Example. Severance Agreement Sample, cheating. The differences are statistically significant (Fisher#146;s Exact Test, D.F.=1, p=.015).

The second item where there were observed statistically significant ( c 2 =5.82, D.F.=1, p=.016) response differences related to sex was the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design asked for. This item was added to the original questionnaire. The outcome is presented in Table 7 below. Table 7. Relationship between students#146; responses to the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for and students#146; sex. As can be seen in the table more than 20 percent of the female students admitted that they had signed on a fellow student at a lecture although he/she was absent.

This can be compared with 4.5 percent of the male students admitting the same behaviour. Compared to the outcome in the previous table, there is a clear female dominance for this behaviour, while males more often than females answered Yes to the previous one. Another difference is #14398 that the total proportion of Yes-responses are much larger for the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course, where obligatory attendance is asked for when compared with students#146; Yes-responses to the item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. Wwwibeie Design Proposal! #146;cribs#146;) (se Table 6 above), showing the 9+ Notice Example 2017, response variation between the items regarding the tendency among the students to accept or not accept a specific cheating behaviour. The social #150;individual relation. In the following, the Design Proposal, frequency of certain cheating behaviours are discussed in Visual Children | Example Daily relation to the nature (see classification in Table 5 above) of the - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, behaviour. 14 of the behaviours in this study were clearly classified as individual and 5 as social. The mean for yes-responses was 14,4 % for the social behaviours and Resumes, 10,5 % for the individual ones. As for situation relatedness, the five most frequently used behaviours were clearly course related. The study only contained one item concerning research related cheating (R), and - /images/concept/proposals/interior, this was the ninth in Resumes order of frequency (10,8 %) and had mostly been used by male respondents at the age of 21-23 successfully (16-24.99 credits/term) studying education . Exam related cheating was not among the most commonly used cheating methods, but 13,8 % of the respondents still admit using the most frequent of these behaviours.

The clearly altruistic behaviours A and S were used to a greater extent by female respondents (A: 27,4 % and S: 8,8 %) than by men (A: 16,7 % and S: 2,3 %, even though the reasons given for Wwwibeie exercising this behaviour are not clearly altruistic. Reasons for cheating. Another area of interest to us concerns the reasons and the arguments selected as explanations and sometimes also as excuses for the behaviour. In Table 8 below all the reasons used to motivate cheating are listed in A Cool Face Design In Polynesian Style. | Tattoo order of frequency. It should be remembered that the reasons available to be selected were generated by the researchers, but that the Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, respondents also were given the possibility to express other reasons/motives.

These less frequent reasons are also listed in Table 8. Regarding reasons given for not cheating the most frequent one (27.5 %) is the choice stating that cheating is immoral or dishonest. The reasons following in frequency of appearance represent on a general level a completely different class of attitudes, since it may mean that the subject do not distance him/herself from cheating, only that it was not considered or regarded as useful (I never thought of Of Resignation, it, 21.3 % and Situation did not arise, 19.5 %). In the lower frequency range two reasons mirroring fear of detection and getting caught are found; Shame/embarrassment at being caught (1.3 %) and Fear of detection/punishment (1.4 %). In a way these reasons like the two previous ones are focusing the - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, social condemnation for cheating and dishonest behaviour and are not clearly a statement against Best, cheating. When looking at students#146; ways of Wwwibeie, choosing reasons for cheating or for not cheating there seems to Example. Example Agreement exist a strong connection with the Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, cheating behaviour that is in focus. This means that the choice of reason is to a large extent dependent on the particular behaviour that have been admitted to Printable Template - 10+ Download Word, or not admitted to. This topic will be discussed no further in this paper. In most cases, however, there are no obvious differences between female and male students#146; ways of Wwwibeie Design, selecting their reasons for their responses. Depending on what cheating behaviour is to be decided on, female and male students mostly make similar choices of arguments for their behaviour. In two cases, however, there exist statistical significant differences between the two sexes in ways of explaining the behaviour.

The reasons chosen as an Visual For Autistic | Example School explanation or an argument for or against - /images/concept/proposals/interior, the behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') are different between female and male students. In the table below the outcome is presented. Table 10. Reasons for or against the cheating behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs')among female and male students. The outcome points to statistical significant differences (Phi and Cram?r#146;s V =.404, p=.048) between the female and male ways of selecting the #14398, reason for their behaviour regarding Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. - /images/concept/proposals/interior! 'cribs'). First of all 7.1 percent of the boys have selected Fear of failure as a reason for this cheating behaviour while no girl have selected that reason. Design In Polynesian Style. Designs! Also It would be unfair to other students were chosen by 4.8 male students but not one female student.

Among the female students reasons like To increase the mark, Laziness, I would not know how to go about it and Situation did not arise/not applicable to Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior my course were chosen by Pumpkin Writing Paper – Portrait Simple Lines a few female students but no male student. A relatively large difference between female and male ways of choosing among the reasons for explaining the Yes/No-answer can be found for reason I never thought about it, where 20.5 percent of the female students selected that reason while it attracted only 14.3 percent of the Wwwibeie Proposal, male students. Also It would devalue my achievement was chosen by a larger proportion female students (8.0 %) than male students (2.4 %). The second statistical significant difference (Phi and Cram?r#146;s V=.348, p=.028) concerns the reasons chosen for item Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. 9+ Notice Of Resignation 2017! The outcome is presented in Table 11 below.

Table 11. Reasons for Design Proposal or against the cheating behaviour Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. among female and male students. In one case the male students have chosen a reason (Shame/embarrassment at being caught) that is not chosen by any female student. Tattoo Style. | Tattoo Designs! Large difference on the basis of sex are found for the reason Situation did not arise/not applicable to my course, where more than 16 percent more boys have chosen that reasons for their behaviour. Two female students selected one reason that the male students did not choose, namely Fear of detection/punishment. Largest difference (18.7 percent) to the male students are found for reason I never thought of it, which was chosen by 33.0 percent of the female students but only 14.3 percent of the male students. Various methodological problems that have been discussed elsewhere (see Bj?rklund, 1997), are not mentioned here, since they do not seem to affect the reliability and validity of the results discussed. Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior! There is, however, one point of Visual Children, importance as far as methodological bias is concerned and that is the fact that the instrument in this study was translated from English and a British context, which in some cases have called for adjustment and in one case yielded an erroneous translation (item L). The frequency of individual cheating behaviours in Design Proposal comparison to the British results. The over all frequency of cheating reported in this study does not differ significantly from the Food Menu Template Download Psd, Eps, ones reported by previous researchers, and can, hence, be taken as a further proof of the fact that the over all cheating rates seem to Wwwibeie Proposal be fairly constant in the western word. What is more interesting is the variation in frequency on individual behaviours.

The most outstanding feature when comparing the frequencies reported by the Finnish respondents with the ones reported by the British, is that in most cases the British respondents have reported remarkably higher degree of cheating. The greatest variation is to be found in items I (peer assessment), L (inventing data) , R (altering data) and A (allow copying of coursework). The great difference concerning peer assessment is probably due to Visual Children | Example School differences in the academic traditions: Peer assessment is not very common in the Swedish #150;speaking university level studies in Wwwibeie Design Finland. Menu In Pdf, Word, Eps! Item L does not represent a real difference, since the item was erroneously translated into Design Swedish and , thus, measures something else. Research related cheating seem to Resumes #14398 be much more common in Britain, but the result might in this case be biased for faculty, since the Design, studies were not conducted at the same kinds of Resumes #14398, institutions. Item A, concerning course work, is the top one of many items concerning coursework that exhibit considerable higher frequencies for Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal the British respondents, which is Face Tattoo probably due to the same kind/s of cultural differences as mentioned regarding item I. Only on item K (advance information about exam) was the result of the Finnish respondents higher than the Wwwibeie Design, result of the British. The items concerning examrelated behaviours generally exhibit the smallest differences between the groups, which seems to Agreement Severance Agreement Sample indicate that exam conditions are more or less alike between the two countries. It is also possible to claim that the results indicate that Finnish students seem to find examrelated cheating less serious than British, who , in turn, do not seem to regard research related cheating as particularly serious. In the Finnish results the social behaviours seem to be slightly more common, whereas the individual behaviours get a higher mean score in the British results (social 24 %, individual 20,8 %).

This can be seen claimed to indicate that the British academic environment is more competitive than the Finnish, but it ought to be remembered that the Wwwibeie Design, mean score used here is Pumpkin Paper – Portrait Lines a very crude measure. Reasons for cheating in comparison to the British results. The most frequent reasons for cheating mentioned by the Finnish students were time pressure, laziness and the wish to help a friend. Wwwibeie! The wish to help a friend and time pressure are also two of the three most frequent reasons mentioned by the British students, but they have mentioned the A Cool Tattoo Design Style. | Tattoo, wish to increase the mark as the most frequent reason for cheating. Concerning this reason the Wwwibeie, difference between the two samples is remarkable (Finnish students 9,3 % and British students 33,3 %). Finns on the other hand contribute their cheating to laziness and extenuating circumstances considerably more often than their British peers, who, in turn, seem to fear failure more and also tend to justify their behaviour with the reason everybody does it. Out of these differences it is easy to create caricature image of the cheating British student as an ambitious person , who wishes to perform well and A Cool Face Style. | Tattoo Designs, of the Finnish student who mainly cheats because it seems to be the easiest way to go about the studies. Considering the reasons for Design not cheating the British students seem to Face Tattoo Design Style. have two main reasons, which are used considerably more often than the other ones available; That it would have been pointless/unnecessary and that it would have been immoral/dishonest. The immorality aspect is mentioned as the most frequently used among the Wwwibeie Design, Finnish students, but the second most frequently used is that the student never thought of it, closely followed by the reason that the situation didn#146;t arise or wasn#146;t applicable. Again, then , the British students seem to be more focused on the outcome/the result of the cheating behaviour than the Finnish ones.

Even though morality is one of the most frequently used reasons for not cheating in both of the groups, the potential cheater-reasons, i.e. the ones giving I never thought of it, the situation didn#146;t arise and/or it was unnecessary/pointless, amount to about 50 % in both of the groups. In connection to the fact that the reasons shame /embarrassment at being caught (1,3 % of Finnish answers, 0 % of British ones) and 9+ Notice Letter Example, fear of detection/punishment (1,9 % of Finnish answers and Wwwibeie, 5,8 % of British ones) were used quite infrequently, this implicates that it is Best of the utmost importance to reduce the opportunities of successful cheating, e.g. by creating individual exams and other assessment tasks that demand creativity and Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, originality, not just reproduction. The fact that embarrassment is such an infrequent reason also implicates that nether British or Finnish students feel responsible for the code of honour of their academic institutions. Hence, by establishing a functioning code of Best #14398, honour one could most likely reduce the Design, instances of cheating remarkably, since the socio-moral climate is known to affect the behaviour of students more effectively than their own level of moral development (MacCabe Trevino, 1996). The reduction of opportunities for successful cheating is, of course, the most immediate way of reducing cheating, but in the long run that measure will not suffice.

According to the findings in this study and other ones (cf. Davis et al, 1992) , there is a gap between the notions of morality and Of Resignation | Invoice, correctness as withheld by society and university staff and the notions of - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, these phenomena withheld by the students. It is therefore necessary to spell out which the common rules are and also control that they are followed. To go even further it is Schedule For Autistic Children School also important to stress the - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, importance of moral education for moral development in Example. Example Severance Agreement order to Design secure a functioning society, presuming that that is what is what is Printable Menu - 10+ Psd, Word, wanted. Variations in Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal cheating behaviour on 9+ Notice Of Resignation Letter the basis of the back ground variables. Contrary to previous research very few of the background variables seem to affect the tendency to cheat to Design a significant extent. This was, however, also the case for Haines et al (1986, in Davis et al, 1992). They came to the conclusion that it was because of the unproportionality concerning sex and year of 2017, study in the sample, which also seems to be the case in this study. Except the Wwwibeie Design Proposal, gender differences on some items, mentioned in the results, there were, however, also weak, but statistically significant positive correlations between the overall tendency to cheat and year of study, the perception of how much other students cheat and reason for studying. This result implies that academic misconduct, at least to some extent, may be epidemic and Of Resignation | Invoice, that students#146; reasons for not cheating are gradually worn down when they see fellow students cheat, without being caught.

The reason for studying is also of - /images/concept/proposals/interior, considerable importance, when discussing cheating rates. An obvious way of reducing cheating in our faculties would be to ensure that only A Cool Face Tattoo In Polynesian Style. | Tattoo Designs, intrinsically motivated students are accepted. The question is then: How do we control for Wwwibeie Design that, and do we really want to; It is all linked to the kind of professionals we want to educate. Summary of implications. Academic staff can no longer presuppose that students know and behave according to Printable Pumpkin Writing Paper – Portrait With Simple Lines unwritten moral rules or an inner code of honour. One, obvious way of reducing cheating in universities is then to Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior spell out what rules and codes the Example. Severance, students are subjected to. Such a document ought, however, to be carefully thought out and produced in co-operation with the students, in order to establish it as a code of honor2, otherwise it will only fill the - /images/concept/proposals/interior, purpose of a list of potentially successful cheating behaviours.

According to previous research, students#146; moral behaviour and ethical reasoning seems to develop under continuous education. I am convinced that this influence can be made stronger through focused attention to Resumes #14398 the area and an open ethical dialogue, not in any specific course, but as every teacher#146;s concern. This would create a good socio-moral environment for moral development, which is - /images/concept/proposals/interior what universities ought to foster in their students, since that is something they will need in their everyday life as well as in their professional activities, and of which society will benefit or suffer in the long run. Even though the Food Menu Template - 10+ Download Word,, personal factors causing or preventing cheating are probably the primary ones, it is also a good idea to try to reduce or eliminate the external factors that seem to cause cheating. One of the major external reasons for cheating was time pressure. That ought to be quite easily remedied through courses/ supervision in studying technique and discipline, as well as a better co-ordination of - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, courses and exams between university staff. It is also up to the staff to really check that the rules they give are followed. Such a behaviour signals that the rules are judged as important and might awaken conscience in the students, or at least make the cheating alternative less attractive and 9+ Notice Of Resignation | Invoice 2017, easy to carry out.

In this case it is, in fact, most important to catch the Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, small fish. Davis and Ludvigson in turn present a twofold way of reducing cheating in the long run, namely by a) using positive reinforcement and b) by Printable Pumpkin Writing Paper – Portrait Simple | A encouraging and - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, fostering the students to acquire an outlook on life that will prevent them from cheating. The results of this study are particularly serious from a societal point of view, since it involved future teachers, theologian and economists. Resumes #14398! What kind of teachers does the Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior, society of today want? Is it possible for Agreement Example. Example Severance Agreement Sample a teacher who does not regard cheating as wrong to teach pupils high ethical and moral standards? Or should the comprehensive school only strive to teach knowledge and skills? The compulsory schoolteachers are of strategic importance, since they are the - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, ones who ought to start the process of moral development, if academic freedom is to be a reality in the future. Lax morality among economists and teologians is, however, no less serious than among teachers. If those particular groups in society are not to be trusted, then who? In the long run that will produce an Printable Writing Paper – Portrait With Simple | A even greater disbelief in authorities, eventually resulting in community breakdown. In order to be able to deal with the problem in an efficient manner it is necessary to reach the causative factors, which probably are best reached with a flexible and qualitative approach.

To understand delicate and inaccessible phenomena like the - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal, one at Agreement Severance Template Sample hand it is important to benefit from as many sources of knowledge as possible; an interdisciplinary approach would probably be most adequate. It is Wwwibeie Design also important to realise the problem with truthfulness. In this study it was generally found that the students tended to answer the questionnaire with less anxiety, when it was stressed that the researcher was a fellow student and not a member of the university staff. Anderman, E, Griesinger, T, Westinger, G. (1998). Motivation and cheating during early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 , 1, 84-93. Ashworth, P. Bannister, P. (1997).

Guilty in Example Severance whose eyes? University students#146; perceptions of cheating and plagiarism in academic work and assessment. Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal! Studies in Higher Education, 22 , 2, 187-204. Baird, J.S. Visual For Autistic School! Jr. (1980). Current trends in college cheating. Psychology in the Schools , 17 , s. 515-522. Baldwin., DeWitt C., et al. (1996).

Cheating in Medical School: A Survey of Second-Year Students at 31 Schools. Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal! Academic Medicine; 71 , 3, p267-73. Bj?rklund, M. (1997). Schedule For Autistic Children | Example Daily School! Akademiskt fusk #150; F?rekomst, metoder och orsaker. En enk?tunders?kning bland studerande vid Svenska handelsh?gskolan i Vasa, samt pedagogiska och teologiska fakulteterna vid ?bo Akademi. Unpublished master#146;s thesis. ?bo Akademi University, Vasa. Davis, S.F., Grover, C.A., Becker, A.H. McGregor, L.N. (1992). Academic dishonesty: prevalence, determinants, techniques, and Design Proposal, punishments. Teaching of Psychology , 19 , 1, s. 16-20. Davis, S.F.

Ludvigson, H.W. (1995). Additional data on academic dishonesty and a proposal for remediation. Teaching of Psychology, 22 , 2, s. 119-121. Franklyn-Stokes, A. Newstead, S.E. (1995). Undergraduate cheating: who does what and why?. Studies in Higher Education, 20 , 2, s. 159-172. Graham, Melody A., et al. (1994). Cheating at small colleges: An examination of student development. Journal of Agreement Example. Severance Agreement Template, College Student Developments, 35 , 4, 255-260.

Grahnstr?m, T. (1996). - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal! Sv?rt f? uppr?ttelse f?r fuskanklagad. Vertex, 5 . Hetherington, E.M. Feldman, S.E. (1964). College cheating as a function of subject and situational variables. Visual Schedule | Example Daily School! Journal of Educational Psychology , 55 , 4, s. 212-218. Jendreck, Margareta, Platt. - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design Proposal! (1992). Students#146; reactions to academic dishonesty. Journal of College Student Development, 33 , 3, 260-273. Kuehn, P., Stanwyck, D. J., Holland, C. Daily! L. Wwwibeie! (1990). Attitudes toward cheating behaviours in the ESL classroom.

TESOL (Teacher of English to Speakers of Best, Other Languages) Quarterly, 24 (2), 313-317. Lipson, Alberta and McGavern, Norma. (1993). Undergraduate academic dishonesty at MIT. Results from a study of attitudes and behaviour of undergraduates, faculty, and graduate teaching assistants. Lord, T., Chiodo, ?D. (1995). A Look at Student Cheating in College Science Classes.

Journal of Science Education and - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, Technology; 4 , 4, 317-24. Lunds Universitet Meddelar, ?rg 31, nr 7, 1998. Lunds universitet. Maramark, Sheila Maline, Mindi, barth. (1993) Academic dishonesty among college students. A Cool Style.! Issues in - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design education. Office of Educational research and Imporvemnet (ED), Washington, DC.

McCabe, Donald, L. (1993). Faculty resposnes to academic dishonesty: The influence of Food Template In Pdf, Psd, Eps, student honour codes . Research in Higher Education, 34 , 5, 647-658. McCabe, Donald, L., Bowers, William, J. (1994). Academic dishonesty among males in college: A thirty year perspective . Journal of College Student Development, 35 , 1, 5-10. McCabe, D.L. Trevino Klebe, L. (1996).

What we know about cheating in Design Proposal college. Change, 28 , 1, s. 28-33. Miller, C.M. Parlett, M. (1974). Up to #14398 the Mark, a study of the - /images/concept/proposals/interior Proposal, examination game. Society for Visual For Autistic Children Daily Research into Higher Education. Murray, B. (1996). Are professors turning a blind eye to cheating? Schools facing a plague of Design Proposal, cheating. Beware the #145;A#146; student: Overachievers can be cheaters. The APA MONITOR , 27 , 1, s. 1, 42.

Newstead, S.E., Franklyn-Stokes, A. Example! Armstead, P. (1995, in press) Individual differences in Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design student cheating. Journal of Educational Psychology . Singhal, A.C. Visual | Example! (1982). Factors in students#146; dishonesty . Psychological Reports, 51 , s. 775-780. A) Allowing own course-work to be copied by another student. B) Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') B)Fabricating references or a bibliography. D) Lying about medical or other circumstances to get special consideration by - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design examiner. E) Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge. F) Lying about medical or other circumstances to Schedule Daily School get an extended deadline or exemption from a piece of work. G) Submitting course-work from an outside source.

H) Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. I)In a situation where students mark each other's work, coming to an agreement with another student or students to mark each other's work more generously than it merits J) Copying another student's course-work without their knowledge. K) Illicitly gaining advance information about the contents of an examination paper. L) Inventing data (i.e. entering nonexistent results into the database) M) Ensuring the Wwwibeie - /images/concept/proposals/interior Design, availability of books or journal articles in the library by deliberately mis-shelving them so that other students cannot find them, or by cutting out the relevant article or chapter. N) Paraphrasing material from another source without acknowledging the original author.

O) Copying material for course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the source. P) Premeditated collusion between 2 or more students to Schedule Children communicate answers to each other during an examination. Q) Copying from a neighbor during an exami-nation without them realizing. R) Altering data (e.g. adjusting data to obtain a significant result) S) Doing another student's course-work for Wwwibeie Design Proposal them.

T) Submitting a piece of course-work as an individual piece of work when it has actually been written jointly with another student. U) Attempting to obtain special consideration by offering or receiving favors, for example, bribery, seduction, corruption. V) Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is Pumpkin Writing Paper With Lines | A asked for. W) Kept silent about a teacher's misbehavior or misuse of his/her position in order to get approval on a test or a higher mark. This document was added to the Education-line database on 21 March 2000.

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