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Best Resume Formats 47+ Free Samples, Examples, Format Download! A Resume Template is an Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint extremely important document which is Packing Archives - Stuffed used in Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation the case when a person or an Calendar applicant is applying for a job, a volunteership, an internship, an educational course or any other thing. Analysis? The resume lists down the various details about the candidate such as his/her name, address, phone number, email address, academic details, work experience, skills and Archives - Stuffed Suitcase, qualities etc. Unlock A Great Career Ahead With A Perfect Resume. Your resume is Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation your primary representative in the career world.

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Resume or Curriculum Vitae Writing Proforma Format. Packing Archives - Stuffed? Example of Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation, Student Resume Format Download. A resume format is usually chronological but over time functional and combination resume formats have emerged as well. New Teacher? Here is a brief on all the Competitive Template Presentation, 3 formats. 9+ Food? It’s the traditional resume format where employment history is listed in Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation the reverse order- commencing with the current one to the oldest or first job. The tried tested format is a favorite of the Complaint Templates Sample, Example, HR professionals hiring managers all around. Competitive Template Presentation? The chronological format will allow the Packing List Archives - Stuffed, candidate to showcase his upward mobility in the career. Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation? It would be useful for specialist mid-level applicants. 9+ Food? You must follow the chronological resume when. You have to Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint portray a vertical progression in Residential your career You more or less had a consistent career with no such big work-experience gaps in between You are planning a change of Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation, company but in Residential Electrician Resume Business Template similar trade. Competitive? The functional resume format focuses mostly on April Calendar the skills of the Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation, applicant rather than his work experiences.

Unlike the conventional chronological format, this one ignores when where the 11+ Thank Format For, applicant performed or learned those skills. It’s the Template Presentation, fact that the candidate holds those skills relevant to Technician Cover the specific job opening, is Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation highlighted in Media Cover Letter the functional format. The functional format would be useful for 2 Powerpoint you when- You need to create a Fresher Resume Format Templates with no previous work experience but when you are confident about your skills You have big gaps in Residential | Best Business your career history You are looking forward to Competitive Template Presentation promote a particular skill set. Media Technician Cover Letter? As the name suggests, combination resume focuses on a fusion of the Analysis Template, traditional chronological functional resumes. Such a resume would usually start with professional profile/summary of Blank April 2017 Pdf | Calendar Template, qualifications which will include your skills, abilities achievements that are pertinent to the specific job opening you are applying for- it’s for the functional side.

The introductory section would be followed by Competitive Analysis Presentation, job experience, education (B.E) additional related sections in the reverse chronological format. Blank April Calendar 2017 Template? Such a resume would be great when- You are looking forward to Analysis highlight a well-developed relevant skill set You have mastered your art You are planning a switch to Electrician Resume Business another industry. Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint? For example, let’s say you are working as an investment banker but you are really good at cartoons or conceptual sketching- such artistic skills would be a wealth for Complaint Letter Templates Example advertising industry in Analysis Template case you are planning to turn your hobbies into Osha Form your profession. Formatting a resume is Template no rocket science but you have to be really strategic with the Residential | Best, overall planning. As mentioned earlier, the traditional chronological approach is Analysis Presentation relevant when you are proud of the upward mobility that you have attained in your career.

If you are a person with huge or at least some professional experience in April 2017 Calendar Pdf | 2017 Template your industry- the chronological style would be the Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint, proper resume format for New Teacher Cover Letter you. Analysis Template Presentation? The best resume format for Media a functional resume strategically groups the Analysis, key skills abilities of the candidate in various categories to Blank 2017 2017 Calendar explain his eligibility expertise for Analysis some particular job. Residential Resume Business Template? The skill-based focus will enable you to pull the Competitive Analysis Template, prospective employer’s attention on your strength which would in turn divert the focus from Complaint Templates – Free Sample,, your absent or flawed employment record. For example, let’s say you are applying for the position of a sales manager in Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation a MNC with an international market- and in such a case your functional resume would stress on New Teacher Letter categories with headings like “team building leadership expertise”, “fluency in Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation foreign languages” etc. In some of cases, the Residential Electrician | Best Template, functional resume is completely devoid of the Analysis 2 Powerpoint, employment history.

Even if it is New Teacher Cover Letter mentioned, it appears at Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint, the very bottom of the resume or in the next page to de-stress on List Suitcase its importance. When you are planning a combination resume , you have to Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint commence with your key qualifications skills. You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to the job application here. The strategy here is to fill up 80-85% of your resume with your skills talents and the rest 15-20 percent would be about your career history. Unlike the functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here. To Parents Format For? Make sure it’s easy to Template 2 Powerpoint read Use bullet points and 15+ Employee Complaint Templates – Free Sample, Example, adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about Presentation, your skills under same category and double-spacing before the start of another category.

Use contextual keywords relevant to 15+ Employee Letter Templates – Free Sample, Example your job position industry. Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint? Use formal fonts and Media Technician, the font size should be 14 for headings and 12 for the rest. You must use strong verbs such as “managed”, “handled”, “led”, “administered”, “charted” etc. Begin the resume with summary sentence so that the Analysis 2 Powerpoint, hiring manager can have a blue-print of Blank Calendar Pdf | 2017 Calendar Template, your skills abilities at Analysis 2 Powerpoint, a glance. Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to the relevant job opening. Focus on quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures. No grammar mistake or typo error is Log Template | allowed in Template Presentation your resume. Don’t use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use “efficient at handling big teams for Log Template crucial projects”. Don’t use informal email ids in contact details.

Don’t use chronological resume when you have big gaps in your career. Don’t include irrelevant personal hobbies. No lengthy resume. Don’t lie in your resume and be honest. When you are looking for best resume format examples, we at Template Presentation, are ready to help you with your expert-designed resumes- whether you need a chronological one or a functional one or a combination resume. Ceative Resume Templates must be drafted using a formal format and New Teacher Cover, a professional tone but it may not be possible for Competitive 2 Powerpoint Presentation everyone to get it right. Technician Letter? Thus one can make use of a resume format. Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint? A resume format is a detailed layout and format of 15+ Employee Complaint Letter Templates – Free, a resume which can be used by those who are confused about the Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation, format of such a formal document. A resume format is 15+ Employee Letter Sample, Example divided into Competitive sections and Calendar Pdf | 2017 Template, categories in the exact same way as needed in Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint a resume. It gives the Complaint Letter Example, users a reference point of view and Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation, idea of how a professional Resume Templates must look like. Resume formats may also be provided with the main headings like personal details, academic details, professional experience etc. for Templates better use and reference of the users.

What makes a resume format the best resume format is the Template Presentation, manner in which it is Osha Recordkeeping drafted or framed and how much convenience it offers to the user. Competitive 2 Powerpoint? It must be time saving for 15+ Employee Complaint Letter Example the user to Competitive Analysis Template use and Format, customize and should also be self-explanatory. The following are some of the Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation, contents of Letter, a resume format which truly make it ‘best’: What is the format of Analysis Presentation, a CV?(100 Words) When it comes to Media Cover Letter CV, it has to Competitive Template Presentation be professional. Residential | Best Business Template? There are different types of Presentation, CV possible depending on For Osha Recordkeeping the purpose of Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint, its use and the expectation of the Osha 301 Pdf Recordkeeping, targeted audiences. Competitive Analysis Template? Similarly, different types of CVs will have different formats.

For example, CV for applying in Electrician | Best an IT firm would be different from Competitive, a CV to apply for a marketing company. Calendar Pdf | 2017 Calendar Template? Instead of taking the risk of designing CV format yourself, it is better to Analysis download for sample CV collection. For example, if you download marketing resume collection, you will get a lot of Marketing Resume Format Templates and 9+ Food Log Template, you can choose the best one that appeals to you and fill in the details to Competitive Analysis Template Presentation send it out. What kind of Calendar Pdf | Calendar Template, Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint, resume available. They are chronological, functional, combinational and targeted. Cover Letter? Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the data sequentially for the employers to Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation find them easily at Residential | Best Template, the very first glance. Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint? In case you have some lapse in Blank April Calendar 2017 Template your work and Competitive Analysis Presentation, study, then it is better to use a functional resume to cover it up skillfully.

Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and your work history matters more than basic data. Targeted resumes are most effective and Osha Recordkeeping, you need to Competitive spend more time preparing it. Blank 2017 2017 Template? Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint, some samples to make a perfect resume yourself. Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for Resumes? Depending on the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. Residential Electrician Resume? If the job requirement is for freshers only, employers would like to Competitive Analysis Template receive chronological resumes as the data and information about the Osha For Osha, candidate would be sequentially and Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint, it would be easy to Cover Letter locate required information easily. Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation? But in the case of hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to 15+ Employee Letter Templates have functional resumes where experience and skills get the Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint, priority. But in Osha Form 301 Pdf For Osha Recordkeeping general, employers prefer chronological resume format.

Therefore, you need to download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation apply in New Teacher Letter IT firm and Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation, then based on the job requirements, you have to form the Electrician | Best Business, resume that the employers would prefer the most. Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation? To write a resume, you have to collect all the required data and 11+ Thank | Letter For, information about you in one place. Then you have to Competitive download some sample resumes and resume templates as per the purpose of the resume. Osha 301 Pdf? For example, if you are applying in Template 2 Powerpoint an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for 11+ Thank | Letter For a post of HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. After downloading them, open them and Template, start filling the details.

If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to 9+ Food | omit and Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation, delete them. You should refer to New Teacher Cover Letter sample resume for checking out how exactly to fill the data and Analysis, information to look impressive. To Parents For? what are two of the Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation, Most Popular Resume Formats. Out of the You Letter | Letter For, four different types of Presentation, resumes we listed above, chronological and functional are the Media Technician, most popular resume formats. Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of Presentation, a couple of Packing List Archives, years. On the Competitive Analysis, other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at least experience of Blank April Calendar Calendar Template, working in two and more companies. Freshers can also use it in Analysis Presentation case the candidate has diverse skills and has done many internships in the past.

There are multiple formats available in these two categories and one should download freshers and Experienced Resume Format Templates to have different variations to choose from. Residential Resume | Best Business Template? A chronological resume is the Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation, most used resumes in Resume | Best Business the world. In a chronological resume, everything is Competitive Presentation listed from the recent to the earliest format. For example, in Osha academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by the college degree and then at last school qualification. Similarly, in Competitive Analysis work experience, your recent work would be listed and in Residential Electrician Resume | Best Template the end, you can have your internships. This is the Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation, most preferred Writer Resumes format by 15+ Employee Letter Templates – Free Sample, Example, the employers as it is easy for Template Presentation them to 9+ Food | get a snapshot of everything very quickly in Competitive Analysis Template Presentation their mind.

There are various types of Form 301 Pdf For Osha Recordkeeping, chronological formats available and Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation, you should download freshers resume format templates to get all the variations and choose the Media Technician Cover Letter, best.

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GRE Argument Essay: How to Get a Perfect 6 Score. Of all the various types of questions on Template the GRE, Analytical Writing questions can seem like the trickiest ones to answer perfectly. Packing List Archives. Not only do you have to write hundreds of words to answer the Argument essay GRE question, but there’s also no one set correct answer that you can give and automatically get it right. So how do you reliably score well on the GRE Argument essay? In this article, we’ll focus in on Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint what goes into a high-scoring response and offer some GRE Argument essay tips to help you consistently write essays that meet those standards. Do You Need a Perfect GRE Argument Essay Score? Practically speaking, no, you don’t need a perfect 6.0 on the Argument essay. GRE Analytical Writing scores are generally not all that important when it comes to admissions decisions—as long as you can get a 4.5, you’ll be set for most schools. If you really want to highlight your writing ability (for example, if you’re an international student whose first language isn’t English), then scoring a 5.0 or above can be helpful; however, even then a perfect score isn’t necessary. Some writing intensive programs do have GRE Writing score cutoffs, but none of these cutoffs are going to be above a 4.5 . You can get a better idea of Archives what GRE Writing score cutoffs for different programs are with our article about what makes a good GRE Writing score.

There are a few doctoral programs (e.g. UChicago’s PoliSci Ph.D.) that have higher average GRE scores, but that’s more of a side-effect of the applicant pool than because that’s something the admissions committees look for. Students applying to top-notch doctoral programs in the humanities and social sciences will need to Template 2 Powerpoint, have strong analytical writing skills, yes, but this is usually presented through writing portfolios or other materials required by grad schools. Quick side note: we've created the world's leading online GRE prep program that adapts to you and your strengths and weaknesses. Not sure what to study?

Confused by how to improve your score? PrepScholar guides you, step by step. I want to Packing List - Stuffed, be clear - you don't NEED a prep program to get a great GRE score. But we believe PrepScholar is the Competitive best GRE prep program available right now , especially if you find it hard to Form Recordkeeping, organize your study schedule and don't know what to study. What Makes a Perfect-Scoring GRE Argument Essay? To get the most accurate picture of what goes into Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation a perfect GRE Argument essay, we’ll turn to Log Template, the official scoring rubric.

This is the chart that the human GRE essay graders use for scoring the Argument essay on Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation the real test, so it’s the best standard against Cover Letter which to hold your own practice essays. Below, I’ve done a side-by-side comparison of the Competitive Analysis Template Presentation different criteria needed to - Stuffed Suitcase, get a 4.0 vs. a 6.0 on the Argument essay GRE question. I know there is a lot of Analysis information to process in that chart, so I’ve summarized it below by extracting the most important points. A good GRE Argument essay: Must limit its discussion to identifying and explaining the parts of the argument that are relevant to the essay task Must develop its ideas logically Must be organized and connect ideas smoothly Must include support for the main points of the author’s analysis Must be well-written. To get a perfect score on the Argument essay, you must display mastery with each one of 15+ Employee Letter these items . Official GRE Argument Essay, Analyzed. Now that we’ve gone over Competitive Analysis Presentation, the rubric in the abstract, it’s time to apply it to a high-scoring essay. By taking the rubric criteria and looking at how they are exemplified by a real essay, you’ll be able to New Teacher Letter, get a better feel for what exactly it takes to get a perfect score . For this analysis, we’ll be looking at Template Presentation, this officially-graded GRE Argument essay.

Here’s the prompt the 9+ Food Log Template essay was written in response to: In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. 2 Powerpoint. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for New Teacher Letter, these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river’s water and the river’s smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase. The city government should for Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation, that reason devote more money in this year’s budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in 15+ Employee, which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint the assumptions and Residential Resume | Best Template what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. The sample Argument essay we’ll be looking at discusses and disputes three different assumptions made by Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation, the argument : That the survey is a reliable measure of preferences and should be used as a source of Complaint Letter information to inform budget planning.

That there is a link between the river’s odor and pollution and the lack of residents’ recreational use of the river. That plans to clean up Mason River will be effective. To analyze this essay, I’ll highlight places where the Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint essay fulfills each of the criteria for the 6.0 GRE Writing score level. The first of 9+ Food | these rubric criteria is a description of what a perfect-scoring Argument essay should look like overall: Rubric description : In addressing the specific task directions, a 6 response presents a cogent, well-articulated examination of the argument and Competitive Template conveys meaning skillfully. This description of what a perfect Argument essay should look like is much more general than the rest of the other rubric items and is more meant as a summary of what the Osha Form For Osha Recordkeeping other four items indicate than as a specific criterion in and of itself. If an essay meets all of the other four rubric requirements for a 6.0 Argument essay score, then it should fit under this broader description as well; if it does not, then that can be an indicator to the essay rater that she needs to reassess her scoring of the essay.

Above: portrait of a sad essay grader who, upon re-reading the Competitive Analysis Presentation holistic essay grading criteria, now has to reassess his scoring. The first non-general Argument essay rubric item relates to whether or not an essay accomplishes the assigned task. Rubric description : A 6 essay clearly identifies aspects of the 9+ Food Log Template | argument relevant to the assigned task and examines them insightfully. The sample essay succeeds in meeting both parts of this criterion. In the Competitive Template essay, the author pinpoints three different assumptions of the argument (survey is reliable, water being dirty is why people don’t use it for recreational sports, and cleaning it will work). New Teacher Letter. Each of these claims is Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint a key assumption upon which the argument depends, since if any one of these three claims proved unfounded, then the argument becomes illogical. The author also “examines [the assumptions] insightfully” by Osha For Osha, discussing the implications of each assumption and what it would mean for the argument were the assumptions to prove false . If the author had merely identified the key elements of the argument without this kind of discussion, the essay would have received a lower score. Below is an excerpt from the essay that illustrates an instance of the author fulfilling this criterion: “If the Competitive 2 Powerpoint river’s water quality and smell result from problems which can be cleaned, [that a river clean up will result in 9+ Food Log Template, increased river usage] may be true… But if the Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint quality and Archives - Stuffed Suitcase aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true.” In this excerpt, the author points out an assumption of the argument (that the quality and Competitive 2 Powerpoint smell problems from the Archives - Stuffed river can be dealt with) and Competitive Analysis Presentation presents the Packing List - Stuffed implications if the assumption is unwarranted (if the problems are from mineral deposits, quality and smell change might not be possible).

The clear way in which the author gets to the point (if A, then B may be true…but if not A, then B may not be true) and the insight she uses in determining why the assumption might not be true and what effect that might have all contribute to this essay achieving a 6-level score. “You don’t have to be a detective to write the essay, but it helps*!” * does not actually help. All you need is Competitive Analysis adequate preparation. The next specific rubric item delves into the logic of the author’s writing and the organization of the essay. Rubric description : A 6 essay develops ideas cogently, organizes them logically and connects them with clear transitions. While the previous rubric item is concerned with the author’s ability to pick apart the logic of the New Teacher Cover Letter argument in 2 Powerpoint, the prompt, this item focuses in on Archives - Stuffed the author’s own writing style and her ability to logically develop and connect ideas in the Argument essay. GRE guidelines for both the Issue and Argument essay place a premium on clear logic and organization, both in terms of Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint how ideas are linked within a paragraph as well as on a larger scale. For the Recordkeeping Argument essay, it makes sense to group your discussion of each assumption into its own separate paragraph. However, if you want to get a perfect essay score, you can’t just throw in Analysis 2 Powerpoint, information about the assumption and its implications willy-nilly, without a care for its organization.

Instead, you must make sure that each of your points about the assumption is directly followed by |, support for Template Presentation, that point. Media Technician Cover. This clarity of Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation development allows the reader to follow your logic more easily, which in turn makes your essay that much more persuasive and effective. In the Packing Archives - Stuffed Suitcase Argument essay, organization and Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint logic are also important when it comes to Log Template, ordering the paragraphs of your essay and transitioning between ideas. Here’s an example of a transition that connects the ideas of two consecutive paragraphs: “Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to Competitive Template Presentation, the quality of the river’s water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage.” This sentence begins the fourth paragraph of the essay and logically transitions to the new assumption about to be discussed (“river clean up will result in increased river usage”) by New Teacher Cover, referencing the idea just discussed in the third paragraph (“residents do not use the river due to Competitive, the quality of the river’s water and the smell”). The sentence structure “building upon the implication that…the author suggests that” connects the two ideas skillfully, strengthening the link between the two paragraph by 15+ Employee – Free Example, framing it as a logical progression.

The clear and logical way in which the author develops her points within each paragraph and the tight organizational connections between paragraphs are how the essay exemplifies this rubric item. On the other hand, a dirty river means more residents on the river trying to Analysis, clean it up, so…at least there’s that? Gabriela Avram/Flickr. Want to improve your GRE score by 7 points? We have the industry's leading GRE prep program.

Built by world-class instructors with 99th percentile GRE scores, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through machine learning data science, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible. Try our 5-day full access trial for Sample, Example, free: The third non-general item on the GRE Argument essay rubric is focused entirely on Competitive 2 Powerpoint Presentation how well the author supports her points. Rubric description : A 6 essay provides compelling and thorough support for its main points. Essentially, this rubric item is all about determining whether or not an author properly supports her ideas and their development throughout the essay. Correctly identifying assumptions and examining them in a logical and organized way is all very well and Letter good and satisfies the first two rubric criteria, but if you don’t support your analysis with either scenarios from the Presentation argument or hypothetical scenarios that could also explain assumptions made in the argument, you’re not going to get a perfect score. Here’s an excerpt from the essay that demonstrates an New Teacher Letter, instance of Competitive Analysis “compelling and Media Letter thorough support”: “Additionally, the Analysis Presentation author implies that residents do not use the river for Log Template |, swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the Competitive Analysis Template water is polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the Template resident’s lack of river use and the river’s current state is not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints.” The first sentence of this excerpt lays out the assumption made in the argument: the reason people don’t use the water for sport is because it’s dirty and odiferous. Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation. The next two sentences support the author’s claim that this assumption is unfounded in two important ways: #1: The author singles out a particular way in which the argument is flawed , stating that “a concrete connection…is not effectively made” between two specific claims linked in the argument.

#2: The author explains why the argument is flawed by presenting relevant details, like the fact that the source of the Cover Letter complaints is unknown and could potentially be just a few people. The reasoning and 2 Powerpoint support used by the author in her essay are effective because the author explains clearly the ways in which they support her points. If the author had just said, “There is no clear connection between the lack of Letter river use and the river’s polluted state because it could just be a few people complaining,” the link between the Competitive Analysis Presentation number of people complaining and why this matters for the validity of the complaints would’ve been unclear and the support would be less compelling. The final rubric area for the Argument essay has to do with how skillfully an Residential Electrician | Best, essay is written and Competitive Analysis Presentation how well it adheres to the standards of written English. Rubric description : A 6 essay conveys ideas fluently and precisely, using effective vocabulary and sentence variety. Demonstrates superior facility with the conventions of standard written English (i.e., grammar, usage and mechanics), but may have minor errors. This last group of items on the Argument essay rubric gets into the mechanics of how well the Letter author writes. The two ways in which this is Competitive Template Presentation effected are through the precise use of Archives - Stuffed language and general dearth of errors . Here’s an example of an effective use of language in the sample essay: “While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident’s lack of river use and the river’s current state is not effectively made.” The precise language in this sentence successfully differentiates between the “likely” correlation that is made in Analysis 2 Powerpoint, the prompt and the “concrete connection” that is Residential Electrician | Best not made.

This differentiation bolster’s the author’s point that the assumption made in the argument is unwarranted. The second part of this set of rubric items has to do with the author’s ability to Competitive Template Presentation, write in List Suitcase, standard English without making too many errors. This is demonstrated throughout the Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation mostly error-free sample essay; the errors that do remain, like “afffected” in paragraph four, do not impede the reader’s understanding of what the author is trying to say. This last point is a good distillation of what all the rubric items for a perfect-scoring essay are trying to Osha Recordkeeping, capture: a 6.0 GRE Argument essay is one that is clear and precise, whether in ideas, analysis, support, development, organization, or language . The river’s “CURRENT” state, get it? See, it’s funny because it’s also a river, so it has its own current, so…you know what, I’ll just see myself out. Competitive Analysis Template. Karyn Christner/Flickr. 6 Steps to a 6.0: GRE Argument Essay Tips. To finish up this discussion of the essay rubric, I’ll go over Form Recordkeeping, the six GRE Argument essay tips you need to ensure a high score. One of the core skills you must master in order to score at all well on the GRE Argument essay is Analysis Template Presentation being able to Cover, analyze the structure and logic of the arguments , rather than getting caught up in whether you agree or disagree with the points being made. It may be difficult to Analysis Presentation, do this at first, as it can be hard to be objective when the subject being argued about is one you have firm opinions on or when the logical flaws of the argument are so obvious it drives you crazy. Part of practicing and preparing for the GRE Argument essay task, though, is New Teacher Letter learning how to channel that irritation and outrage into an unflinching analysis and explanation of how the argument works and where it falls apart.

Focus on the task at hand. In this case, the task is a swan, staring at you with its cold, swan-y eyes. Beware. Making sure you analyze the argument (rather than agreeing or disagreeing with its position) is only the first step to writing a successful GRE Argument essay, though. You’ll also need to make sure that in your dissection of the argument, your main focus stays on Template the major features of the argument that add (or detract from) the argument’s effectiveness. With only 30 minutes to complete the Complaint Letter Templates Sample, argument task, your job is Competitive Template not to be comprehensive, but to analyze the points that matter. Just because you can identify every single thing wrong with the argument doesn’t mean that you should do this in your essay. In fact, if you end up trying to identify every single possible flaw in the argument’s reasoning, you’ll likely end up running out of time to Form Recordkeeping, do any analysis whatsoever.

And while finding the flaws in 2 Powerpoint Presentation, the argument is an important part of the GRE Argument essay, an equally important part is explaining in a coherent and unified way why the flaws matter. Let’s consider the Osha Form 301 Pdf Mason City riverfront prompt again as an example. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and Competitive 2 Powerpoint Presentation fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the Residential Electrician Resume Business Template city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the Competitive Presentation quality of the river’s water and the river’s smell.

In response, the state has recently announced plans to Form Recordkeeping, clean up Mason River. Competitive Analysis Template Presentation. Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year’s budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the Form For Osha Recordkeeping argument depends on the assumptions and Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. There’s a lot of information in the prompt to 9+ Food |, mull over, and it can be tempting to leap into analyzing the first problematic assumption you notice, even if isn’t a major issue. 2 Powerpoint. Don’t fall prey to this temptation! It may be true that the prompt assumes that water sports can only be perpetrated on a river (rather than in a pool or the Residential Resume ocean), but the argument depends on this fact far less than it does on 2 Powerpoint Presentation the assumption that the Electrician Resume | Best river’s bad smell and Competitive Presentation quality is why Mason City residents rarely use the Mason River for water sports. The importance of keeping your analysis to major points is supported by the ideas and analysis rubric item: a 4-scoring essay “may also discuss some extraneous points”, while a 6-scoring essay only covers “aspects of the argument relevant to the assigned task.” Boating in a pool is totally possible. These guys get it.

Baltimore RecNParks/Flickr. Because the GRE Argument essay involves critiquing someone else’s argument, rather than building your own, it may be difficult to see at Archives - Stuffed Suitcase, first how you can keep your essay organized. In this case, as with many other types of essay, the five-paragraph essay form is Analysis Presentation your friend. To start your essay, you will need to introduce the bare bones of 15+ Employee Complaint Letter what the argument is arguing. For the sample argument we went through above, those bare bones are that the Mason City government should spend more money this year on riverside recreational facilities. You must also include at Analysis Presentation, least a general description of the Media Cover thrust of your analysis (whether or not the argument is supported, if there are holes in the argument, or if the argument is more true than not). Ideally, these two points will connect to each other in a lean fashion, like in Competitive Template Presentation, the introduction of this sample essay: Want to Media Technician Cover Letter, improve your GRE score by 7+ points? Check out 2 Powerpoint our best-in-class online GRE prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your GRE score by 7 points or more. PrepScholar GRE is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to Media Letter, your strengths and weaknesses.

We also feature thousands of practice questions, 2 official GRE practice tests, and 1-on-1 scoring and feedback on your AWA essays. Check out our 5-day free trial now: While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author’s argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is easy to Competitive Presentation, understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to Complaint Templates Example, increased funding. In each of the Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation three body paragraphs of your essay, you should discuss the three major components of the argument that go to prove your point. Because of the way the GRE Argument prompts are structured, there are usually three main assumptions propping up each argument, which makes your analysis fit quite snugly into the five paragraph form. If you only end up discussing two major questions or assumptions from the argument, it’s perfectly fine to end up with two body paragraphs, but you should keep in mind that if you have time, there might be a third avenue of the argument that’s worth exploring. Finally, conclude your essay with a reference to your introduction and Media Technician Cover incorporation of some of the points you made. Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation. This conclusion can be short, depending on how you’re doing for time and brainpower by 9+ Food Log Template, the time you get to it, but including at least some sort of conclusion statement is an Competitive, important part of keeping your essay organized.

Planning out your essay into five-paragraph form before you start writing can also help you stay organized. #4: Do Mock Analyses of Real GRE Essay Prompts. There are 176 possible topics you’ll be asked to write about on the GRE Argument essay, and all of them are available for free online. Letter. Because of this wealth of real essay topics, it’s unlikely that you’ll run out of prompts you can write practice essays on Competitive 2 Powerpoint (unless you’re planning on spending 88 hours doing practice GRE Argument essays). Therefore, it’s safe to do practice outlines , rather than entire practice essays, for Residential Electrician Resume Business Template, a portion of these prompts. Writing mock Argument essay outlines is Presentation good practice if you’re fine with explaining your thoughts but are struggling with speedily analyzing arguments.

Even if you have difficulty with both these aspects of the Argument task, creating outlines is still good practice because it will at least help you increase your analytical skills; once you’ve bolstered your ability to analyze an argument under time pressure, you can then proceed to writing full-length practice essays. For each prompt you choose to Media Technician, outline, come up with at least three points of Competitive Template Presentation analysis and a few sentences to explain the importance of each point. Log Template. These points of Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint analysis could be assumptions made in the argument, the evidence that’s needed to successfully evaluate the argument, alternative explanations or arguments that could be made based on Osha For Osha Recordkeeping the facts presented in Analysis Presentation, the task, and so on. Make sure, however, to Technician Cover, follow step two above and only discuss points that are central to the argument. You don’t have to play through an entire song or write an entire essay every time you practice. Sometimes, targeted practice is just as valuable. Wolfgang Lonien/Flickr. The rubric is a good way to Analysis Template Presentation, grade your own essays, but it can sometimes be hard to know how to take the abstract criteria from the scoring guidelines and apply them to a real essay. Fortunately, in addition to the free and publicly available sample argument essay I analyzed earlier, sample Argument essays at several different score levels are included in chapters 8 and 9 of The Official Guide to the GRE revised General Test (2nd Ed.) . You can maximize the Media value of these sample essays by Analysis 2 Powerpoint, not only reading them over but by also taking the GRE Argument essay rubric and applying it to them. Use the major differences I pointed out in the 4-vs.-6 Writing score level comparison and Cover my analysis of the 6-scoring sample GRE Argument essay to help you identify features that make the example essays so high-scoring. Make sure to note both what the authors do well and Template Presentation why what they do is effective . The official GRE reader commentary that goes along with each sample essay is Media Technician Letter also a valuable resource you should use to supplement your analysis and ensure you haven’t missed anything.

You should not copy exact words or phrases from the Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation perfect-scoring essays to use in your own work (that’s plagiarism, which is 15+ Employee Complaint – Free not permitted on the GRE). Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation. Instead, observe how other students successfully earned high essay scores and plan out Packing Archives - Stuffed Suitcase how you can emulate them. Examine perfect-scoring essays so you know what standards your essays need to meet. The word processor you use to write the Issue and Argument essays on the GRE does not have the standard amenities of autocorrect, spell check, or grammar check, which means you’re likely to make typos and not notice it. You’re also going to be typing under time pressure, which may lead you to make more errors than usual. Because of this, it’s imperative you check over your essay before submitting it. Having a few minor errors in your essay is fine, as long as the Competitive Analysis Template Presentation errors don’t make it impossible to understand what you’re trying to say.

However, if there are too many typos and in mistakes in your essays, the essay graders (both human and Form 301 Pdf Recordkeeping computer) will have difficulty understanding what you’re trying to say and following your analysis, and so will not be able to Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation, give you a high score. Example 1: Not revised, major errors (grammar, spelling, and punctuation) One of 15+ Employee Complaint Letter Example ht ecornerstones of the argument is that the fewer. Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint. In order for this to meaningful, hwoever, reporting methods from hospital to hospital would have to be equivalent, not just now, but also before from before the “recent est” was begun. wihtout having a reliable baseline it, would be imposisble to know if fhte measured reduction in patient infection gy harmful bacteria was all meaningful. Example 2: Revised, some minor errors remaining. One of the cornerstones of the argument is that the hospitals reported fewer pateint infections after using UltraClean. Packing Archives - Stuffed. In order for this to matter, however, reporting methods from hospital to hospital would have to be equivalent. Furthermore, the methods of reporting patient infection would have to have been equivalent before the “recent test” was begun. Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint. Without having a reliable baseline, it would be imposisble to know if fhte measured reduction in patient infection by harmful bacteria was at Media Cover Letter, all meaningful. Barnaby Monkey would never have gotten sick from a post-op infection if the hospital had used UltraClean.

Now you have a better understanding of what it takes to Competitive Analysis Template Presentation, get a perfect score on the Argument essay, but what about on the other half of 15+ Employee Letter Templates Sample, Analytical Writing? Find out with our exploration of what it takes to Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation, get a perfect score on the GRE Issue essay and our analyses of perfect scoring GRE essay samples. How well your essay matches up with the criteria in this essay rubric is Resume Business Template just part of the GRE essay story. Learn more about how exactly GRE Writing is scored here! I’ve discussed in this article about Presentation how a good GRE essay score isn’t necessarily a perfect score, but the same doesn’t necessarily follow for the rest of the GRE. Read more about how to decide on what’s a good GRE score for you here. Ready to improve your GRE score by Media Technician Letter, 7 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation, improving your score.

Download it for free now: Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Osha Form, Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on Residential | Best Business how to excel and Competitive Analysis fulfill their college and grad school dreams. View all posts by Laura Staffaroni. Subscribe and Osha Form 301 Pdf get FREE tips to crush the GRE! Join our Facebook GRE Study Group. Our Top 10 Most Viewed GRE Posts Ever. Grad School (28) GRE Analytical Writing (7) GRE General Info (44) GRE Logistics (26) GRE Prep (33) GRE Quantitative (12) GRE Subject Tests (1) GRE Verbal (14) TOEFL (15) © PrepScholar 2013-2017. All rights reserved.

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accepted usc essays EssayEdge offers all users free access to over 100 admissions essays accepted by the United States' top undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs. The following Sample Admissions Essays were accepted by Anderson and UCLA. 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Sample MBA Admissions Essays - Accepted by Osha For Osha, Anderson and UCLA (Courtesy of EssayEdge ) What do you consider to be your most important personal and professional accomplishments to date? (Please limit to three.) With no money, no direction, and Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation no goals, I graduated from high school in 1987 not knowing if I would ever be a man, if I would ever know what life means. Unable to afford college tuition, I worked odd jobs for a few months before deciding to join the United States Marine Corps. A scrappy kid who needed structure and support, I entered the Marines unprepared for the next thirteen weeks of extraordinary physical and mental challenges. Arriving at the recruit-training depot in Parris Island South Carolina on February 3,1988 not knowing what to New Teacher Cover Letter expect, I watched my hair fall off my head, had vaccinations for every disease ever discovered, and learned to live with sixty other young men in Competitive Analysis Template close quarters.

The days were long. I would wake up at 4 a.m. and work nonstop for 18 hours until I could collapse on my bed. Exposed to - Stuffed Suitcase individuals from many different cultural and economic backgrounds, I learned the value of Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation teamwork and the work ethic essential to leadership. When we first arrived on the island, my platoon was a jumbled mess of disobedient, out of Form 301 Pdf For Osha Recordkeeping shape, undisciplined boys. After three months of Competitive exhausting training we were molded into a group of highly motivated, physically fit men. On the proudest day of my life, I marched in the graduation parade to become a United States Marine. After being discharged from the United States Marine Corps, I became determined to attain an electrical engineering degree from Florida State University. I wisely invested in Residential Electrician Resume Template the GI Bill early on in my Marine Corps career in Competitive 2 Powerpoint order to go to college. Although a substantial amount of Archives - Stuffed money, the GI Bill only covered my tuition; to pay for food and rent, I took a full time job with the VA work-study program. In the beginning I had difficulty adjusting to working full time while maintaining a full coarse load, and I began to feel hindered by my years outside the classroom.

However, determined to succeed, I learned to manage my time well, and I established good study habits, which have continued to the present. In the Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint, spring of Letter Templates Example 1997 I obtained a Bachelors degree in Electrical engineering, a full year ahead of schedule. I take pride in the fact that I am the first person in Competitive 2 Powerpoint Presentation my family to obtain a college degree. I moved to Los Angeles after graduating from college and accepted a position at an aerospace company as a design engineer. Although I had multiple offers, I chose to work at Residential Business my particular company to further my education. Putting in long hours at work while devoting most of Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation my personal time to obtaining a Masters degree in electrical engineering, I felt like I was in college again with my full time job and academic responsibilities. To keep some sense of sanity and Packing Suitcase maintain good spirits, I decided to Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation learn how to snowboard. Complaint Letter Sample, Example! Although at first snowboarding seemed a most impossible mission given the Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation, long drive to the resort and my inexperience with cold weather, I persevered and by the end of my first day could navigate my way down the New Teacher Cover, mountain. I have since become an accomplished snowboarder, but nothing matches the exhilaration I felt at the end of Competitive Template Presentation that first day when I completed my first run without falling. Residential Electrician | Best! Why have you decided to Presentation enter the Residential Business Template, Fully Employed MBA program?

Why is Competitive 2 Powerpoint Presentation it the appropriate time for you to begin? With the drive, determination, and discipline to both work at my career and attend an MBA program, I am excited to pursue a high quality MBA at UCLA. Interested in acquiring the Letter Sample, Example, skill set and technical knowledge necessary to become a hi-tech consultant, the UCLA program will prove central to Competitive Analysis Template Presentation my future success. As an engineering major in college, I developed excellent analytical skills and improved my problem-solving ability, but I never had the opportunity to take courses exploring business strategy, finance, or market forces. To realize my career goal, I clearly must enhance my abilities in these as well as other areas of business. Media Technician Cover! I believe that the management core at Anderson will provide me with the necessary knowledge to enhance and develop my capabilities. Also, in order to Competitive Analysis Template become a successful consultant, it is imperative that I gain a more thorough education in 301 Pdf For Osha Recordkeeping foreign markets, business technology, and competition.

As a hi-tech consultant in the twenty-first century, the ability to Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation understand business on a global scale will be highly prized. New Teacher! The International Field Study at Anderson would suit my needs well by allowing students to learn about business by working with foreign companies. Moreover, I look forward to interacting with the highly qualified, diverse students of the Anderson FEMBA program. With only 132 students forming numerous study groups, the program ensures the intimacy necessary to learn from each other's varying perspectives and backgrounds. I know I could both contribute and grow in this unique environment where all students are fully employed. From my time as an officer in US Marine Corps and as an Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint, employee at a high-tech aerospace company, I have both developed strong team abilities and have seen the value and synergies of combining people with different backgrounds, knowledge, and Osha experience levels. The dynamics created by these teams help produce the most innovative and Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint creative ideas, whether in the Marines or an Anderson classroom. List - Stuffed! While I will never regret joining the Marine Corps, the Competitive Template Presentation, five years I spent serving my country led me off the beaten path for achieving my career goals. Although I developed a strong work ethic and a goal-oriented nature, I have not followed the standard path. The FEMBA program will be the great equalizer, ensuring future employers that I have both the personal qualities and rigorous academic training necessary for success. By working full time and working on my masters degree in engineering from the University of Southern California, I have shown that I have what it takes to manage my work schedule while attending a prestigious institution.

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como fazer um essay AFOGAMENTO - ACLS (Setembro de 2002) Dr David Szpilman. “Deus criou o mundo, a VIDA, e dela surgiu o ser humano, Os anjos foram enviados por Deus para nos guardar, O primeiro anjo a entrar no mar chamou-se GUARDA-VIDAS” (Szpilman 1999) A cada ano mais de 500.000 pessoas falecem em decorrncia de afogamento em todo mundo (1).

No Brasil o afogamento representa a 2a causa “mortis” na faixa etria de 5 a 14 anos. Presentation! Anualmente 7.500 brasileiros morrem, aproximadamente 600 vtimas no so encontradas, um milho e trezentos mil so salvos em nossas guas, e 260.000 so hospitalizados, vtimas de afogamento (2,3). Complaint Letter! Estes dados catastrficos impulsionaram um grande avano nesta rea nos ltimos 10 anos. Analysis! O acesso s informaes de sade permitiu importantes mudanas nos mtodos de preveno e na melhoria do estudo de afogados modificando radicalmente o conhecimento da fisiopatologia, das fases do processo de afogamento e principalmente da abordagem ao afogado proporcionando uma reduo de 18% na mortalidade por afogamento nos ltimos 20 anos(1979-1998) (2). O afogamento considerado como “Trauma” e contribui com uma parcela significativa na mortalidade Brasileira hoje em dia.

Quando avaliamos a mortalidade no contexto geral considerando todas as idades, o trauma se encontra em segundo lugar ficando atrs apenas das doenas do aparelho circulatrio com 249.639 (27,63%) mortes(3). Form 301 Pdf For Osha! O afogamento diferentemente de outras doenas ocorre inesperadamente na grande maioria das vezes, o que gera invariavelmente uma situao catica dentro do mbito familiar. Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! O afogamento est em sua grande. maioria relacionado ao lazer familiar e geralmente testemunhado por ela, ou menos freqentemente se insere em seu contexto. Technician Cover! Situaes de catstrofe familiar podem ser observadas quando famlias inteiras se afogam juntos, por desconhecimento, ou pela tentativa infrutfera de salvar uns aos outros. Competitive Template! A perda de um ente querido de forma inesperada sempre um desastre emocional familiar, e ainda pior quando este ser jovem e com uma grande expectativa de vida ainda por vir. Media! Citando a me de uma vtima de afogamento “um filho jamais deveria. morrer antes dos pais”. HISTRIA DO AFOGAMENTO (4) Senhor, Senhor! methought, que dor era se afogar!

Que rudo terrvel de guas em minhas orelhas! Que vises feias da morte dentro meus olhos! Methought eu vi mil naufrgios temerosos. Dez mil homens que pescam roeram em ti. King Richard III (William Shakespeare) Dentre as causas externas, o afogamento foi sem dvida um dos primeiros a causar preocupaes e chamar a ateno da humanidade, tendo vrias passagens bblicas onde se descrevem as primeiras tentativas de ressuscitao em afogados. Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation! verdade que na poca a ocorrncia de homicdios, suicdios, acidentes de transportes e doena coronariana eram bem menores, prevalecendo a maior.

preocupao com os casos de afogamento. 9+ Food Log Template |! A era Renascentista embora tenha significado o despertar de uma importante. atividade intelectual, se desenvolveu dentro de conceitos e crenas do cristianismo. 2 Powerpoint! A cincia ortodoxa da poca considerava que ao morrer o esprito tinha de ser julgado, e esta “vontade de deus” no podia ser contrariada. 301 Pdf Recordkeeping! A possibilidade de tentar uma ressuscitao era considerada uma blasfmia. 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Passamos ao sculo 18, onde a aceitao do conhecimento do corpo humano tornou-se mais aceita, e com ela a necessidade de desenvolvimento de mtodos cientficos que levassem ao conhecimento, em um perodo chamado “Iluminismo”. Electrician Resume | Best! Os. lderes intelectuais da poca proclamaram que o mundo podia ser mais bem entendido atravs da cincia e que os meios para chegar a verdade eram os mtodos cientficos. Os quatros principais componentes da ressuscitao (respirao, compresso-circulao, fenmeno eltrico e servios de emergncia) comearam a ser conhecidos e desenvolvidos. Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint! Na poca, as mortes que ocorriam inesperadamente (morte sbita) eram as que mais provocavam ansiedade e desespero.

A causa mais freqente na poca era o afogamento. New Teacher Cover Letter! O homem tentava restaurar o calor e a vida ao corpo frio e inerte, aplicando objetos quentes sobre o abdome ou chicoteando-o com urtiga ou outros instrumentos. Presentation! Nos perodos compreendidos entre, o sculo 18 e o sculo 20, diversos mtodos manuais de reanimao foram utilizados, alguns at Media Cover Letter como rituais. Competitive 2 Powerpoint Presentation! O ndio norte-americano enchia a bexiga de um animal com fumaa e depois passava a espreme-la no reto da vtima afogada. Electrician | Best Business! Os mtodos de ressuscitao na sua maioria visavam insuflar ou desinsuflar os pulmes, manipulando o trax e/ou o abdome da vtima. Template 2 Powerpoint! A maioria, porm, sem conhecimento fisiolgico adequado, raramente resultava em sucesso. Packing Archives! Uma das primeiras citaes cientficas sobre a utilizao da respirao boca-a-boca na ressuscitao apareceu no ano de 1744. Template! Um cirurgio Escocs, William Tossach, utilizou a manobra para reanimar com sucesso uma vtima asfixiada por inalao por fumo. O pice do movimento de preocupao com a ressuscitao e o afogamento surgiu no sculo XVIII na Europa, mais especificamente na Holanda por sua liderana no setor naval na poca e as grande ocorrncias de naufrgios.

O primeiro esforo organizado na luta contra a morte sbita foi realizado em Agosto de 1767, na cidade de Amsterd, com a criao da primeira sociedade de ressuscitao “Maatschappij tot Redding van Drenkelingen” (Sociedade para Recuperar vtimas de afogamento - existente at New Teacher os dias de hoje). Analysis Template Presentation! As sociedades de resgate de afogados se difundiram rapidamente por toda Europa, assim como nos EUA. Packing List - Stuffed Suitcase! Estas Sociedades tinham como objetivo principal encontrar o caminho para a ressuscitao com xito e comearam a difundir informaes sobre os cuidados na recuperao de vtimas de afogamento e outros tipos de asfixia. Presentation! Quatro anos depois de iniciado o trabalho da Sociedade em Amsterd, 150 vtimas de afogamento haviam sido salvas seguindo s recomendaes (“guidelines”) da poca: a)Aquecer a vtima (recomendado at New Teacher hoje) b)Remover roupas molhadas (recomendado at Analysis 2 Powerpoint hoje) c)Drenar gua dos pulmes posicionando-se a vtima com a cabea mais baixa que os ps (parou-se de recomendar em 1993). d)Estimular a vtima com tcnicas tais como instilao de fumaa de tabaco via retal ou oral (parou-se de recomendar em 1890). e)Utilizar o mtodo de respirao boca-a-boca (recomendado at | Best Template hoje) f)Sangrias (parou-se de recomendar h mais de 60 anos). No havia na poca um limite de tempo para a reanimao, considerando-se 6 horas um tempo razovel para o esforo de ressuscitar.

Com a inteno de retirar a gua, posicionava-se a vtima de afogamento com a cabea mais baixa que o tronco. Analysis 2 Powerpoint! Na tentativa de melhorar esta manobra foi adicionada a presso do trax, de forma a aumentar a sada desta gua. Letter! Desta maneira nascia de forma espontnea e ao acaso a ventilao artificial indireta. Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Muitas vidas foram salvas desta forma. Osha 301 Pdf For Osha Recordkeeping! Fazia-se o certo por razes erradas.

Em 1817, um mdico Ingls, professor de medicina, Marshall Hall (1790 a 1857) publica seu livro, intitulado “Handbook of Competitive Template Presentation, National Science of Resume Template, Medicine for Analysis 2 Powerpoint Theologist”, no qual a compresso cardaca e a respirao boca-a-boca eram preconizadas como mtodos de reanimao. Osha Form For Osha Recordkeeping! Foram feitas vrias consideraes como: perda de tempo no transporte da vtima; a tentativa de restaurar a temperatura sem fazer ventilao artificial era perigoso e ineficaz; a exposio da vtima ao ar fresco era um benefcio e o fato de a posio supina bloquear as vias areas com a queda da lngua sobre a faringe. Competitive! Surgiu ento a proposta de alternar a posio do corpo, abaixando-o e elevando-o alternadamente, 15 vezes por minuto, conseguindo-se volumes de ventilao (70 a 240 ml) que poderiam recuperar uma vtima. Archives - Stuffed! Pouco tempo depois, Henry Silvester sugeriu elevar os braos da vtima sobre sua cabea, de forma a expandir desta maneira a caixa torcica facilitando a entrada de ar aos pulmes, e em seguida o socorrista colocava as mos da vtima e as suas por sobre o peito do afogado de forma a comprimir o trax e exalar o ar. Benjamin Howard, um mdico de Nova York, criticou as manobras de Hall e Silvester e descreveu seu prprio mtodo, conhecido como mtodo direto. 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Colocava-se a vtima sobre uma elevao e enquanto um ajudante segurava a lngua, o ressuscitador realizava presso, iniciando no abdome superior at List Archives Suitcase o trax em uma freqncia de 15 vezes por minuto. Analysis Template Presentation! Em 1884, Braatz sustenta a recomendao da compresso cardaca e respirao artificial como mtodo de tratamento da parada cardaca.

Em 1890, a “Royal Lifesaving United Kingdom” (Sociedade de Salvamento aqutico do Reino Unido – existente at Residential Resume | Best Template hoje e responsvel pelo salvamento aqutico na Inglaterra) formou um comit para avaliar as tcnicas existentes. Competitive Template Presentation! O presidente do comit, Edward Schafer, considerou todas as manobras ineficientes e criou uma nova manobra tcnica chamada de “Prono-presso”. Apesar de toda oposio que teve, a Cruz Vermelha Americana comeou a ensin-la em 1910 (20 anos aps). Log Template |! O mtodo de Schafer tornou-se muito popular devido a sua simplicidade de aplicao, requerendo apenas uma pessoa. Competitive Analysis Template Presentation! Consistia em realizar a expirao ativa e a inspirao passiva e ficou conhecido como mtodo indireto de ventilao artificial. New Teacher Letter! Existiam amplas variaes geogrficas na mecnica de seu mtodo de ventilao artificial. Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation! O mtodo de Silvester teve maior difuso na Alemanha, Holanda e Rssia, enquanto o mtodo de Schafer se desenvolveu principalmente na Inglaterra, Frana e Blgica e os pases Americanos.

Na Dinamarca, em 1932, o Coronel Holger Nielsen desenvolveu seu prprio mtodo que combinava as melhores partes das duas tcnicas. No Brasil, com seu grande litoral em praias e com o turismo desenvolvido na Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, o processo de desenvolvimento da ressuscitao acompanhou de forma semelhante o que ocorreu em todo mundo (Entra foto 6). For Osha Recordkeeping! Todos os mtodos de ventilao indireta (Schafer, Holger-Nielsen, Marshall Hall, Howard, Silvester, e outros) foram idealizados com dois propsitos principais: a ventilao artificial e a retirada de gua do pulmo nos casos de afogamento. Analysis Template Presentation! Todos tiveram grande sucesso no princpio do sculo e certamente ressuscitaram muitas vtimas da morte. Residential Resume | Best Business Template! Todos eles utilizavam o princpio contrrio a fisiologia do organismo, onde a inspirao era passiva e a expirao era ativa, desta forma o volume corrente produzido era geralmente inferior ao necessrio. Competitive 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Estes mtodos so extremamente cansativos para o socorrista e difceis de serem mantidos alm de 5 minutos. | Best Template! Foram baseados na idia de retirar gua do pulmo do afogado, o que hoje em dia se mostra desnecessrio e at 2 Powerpoint prejudicial. Packing! Foram idealizados antes da noo da compresso cardaca, sendo possvel ainda sim sua realizao conjugada, porm com grandes dificuldades em casos de PCR. Analysis Presentation! Nos casos de trauma cervical impossvel a sua realizao. 9+ Food! Nos casos especficos de afogamento estes mtodos indiretos de ventilao no podem ser realizados dentro da gua, o que hoje em dia uma prioridade. A partir da metade do sculo 20, com a melhor compreenso da fisiologia aliada a pesquisa, os mtodos de ressuscitao foram aperfeioados.

Diversas conferncias sobre reanimao foram realizadas, entre elas a pioneira de 1948, realizada pela “National Academy of Competitive 2 Powerpoint, Science - National Research Council” (NAS-NRC), promoveram a divulgao e o debate amplo entre sociedades e autoridades mdicas, na tentativa da padronizao de condutas. Em 1949, Archer Gordon realizou trabalhos de investigao em estudantes anestesiados, curarizados e entubados. List - Stuffed! Faz meno a respirao boca-a-boca, mas no a realiza. Competitive Analysis! Conclui que, nenhum dos mtodos propostos at Suitcase o momento, nem mesmo suas combinaes, ofertam quantidade suficiente de ar (100/500 ml). Analysis Presentation! James Elam foi o primeiro investigador contemporneo que demonstrou que o ar expirado atravs do boca-a-boca era suficiente para manter uma adequada oxigenao. Osha 301 Pdf For Osha! Isto foi durante uma epidemia de Poliomielite em Minessota no ano de 1946. Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Em viajem de automvel a Kansas para um congresso mdico, foi acompanhado por outro mdico que se interessou por sua experincia. Media Cover! Este mdico dedicou sua vida a investigao da ressuscitao – Dr Peter Safar. Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint! Realizou experincias em voluntrios anestesiados que lhe permitiram chegar em 1957 a trs concluses principais sobre a respirao boca-a-boca: 1. 9+ Food Log Template |! Simplesmente inclinando a cabea da vtima para trs se pode abrir as.

2. Competitive Analysis Presentation! A respirao boca-a-boca fornece uma excelente respirao artificial. 3. Packing Archives - Stuffed! Qualquer pessoa pode aplic-la facilmente e de forma efetiva. Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint! O mtodo boca-a-boca foi adotado pelo exrcito dos EUA em 1957 e pela Associao Americana de Medicina (AMA) em 1958. Osha Form 301 Pdf! Nesta poca, o mdico Brasileiro Dr John Cook Lane, contribuiu efetivamente para a pesquisa e difuso destes mtodos em nosso pas. No ano de 1883 o Dr. Competitive Analysis Presentation! Franz Koenig prope em seu livro, a compresso torcica como tcnica para ventilar um paciente de forma artificial. Embora na posio correta para a compresso cardaca, ele a descreve para outro fim. Osha Form 301 Pdf! Seu assistente, Dr. Template! Friederich Maass, durante a cirurgia de um jovem de 18 anos que havia tido uma parada cardaca durante a induo anestsica, inicia as manobras antes descritas, a princpio lentamente, simulando o ritmo ventilatrio. New Teacher Cover Letter! Diante a falta de resposta aumenta a freqncia, chegando a 120 compresses por minuto, e observa que o pulso carotdeo se recupera, e em alguns minutos o paciente se encontra bem.

Em 1901, Kristian Igelsrud recuperou uma paciente com massagem cardaca interna ao final de uma anestesia, com recuperao em 1 minuto. Competitive Template Presentation! O primeiro caso Americano de massagem cardaca (como era denominado at - Stuffed poucos anos atrs) fechada ocorreu em 1904, quando o Dr George Crile ressuscitou uma mulher de 28 anos de idade cujo corao parou durante o ato cirrgico. Competitive Presentation! No se tem conhecimento do porque as tcnicas de compresso cardaca no foram mais difundidas. 301 Pdf For Osha Recordkeeping! Talvez porque, a parada na respirao a princpio, parecia mais evidente e por esta razo deve ter sido mais investigada. Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Na realidade a tcnica de compresso torcica na circulao artificial foi simplesmente ignorada at Osha 301 Pdf For Osha Recordkeeping o incio dos anos 60 quando foi redescoberta. O redescobrimento parece ter sido acidental no laboratrio do Dr. Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint! William Kouwenhoven na universidade John Hopkins em Baltimore. 15+ Employee Complaint Templates! Junto com os Drs.

Guy Kinckerbocker e James Jude, descrevem a massagem cardaca aps uma srie de observaes. 2 Powerpoint! Publicam seus resultados sobre 20 casos de parada cardiorrespiratria intra-hospitalar no ano de 1960 na revista JAMA. For Osha! Entre os anos de 58 e 61, a respirao se combinou finalmente com a circulao artificial (compresso cardaca): Nascia a Ressuscitao Crdio-Pulmonar - RCP. Iniciasse assim uma nova poca onde a campanha anuncia “qualquer um, em qualquer lugar, pode iniciar a Ressuscitao Crdio-Pulmonar - RCP”. Analysis Template Presentation! Houve ento um perodo de demonstraes por todo mundo onde, Safar, Kinckerbocker, e Jude explicariam que “as duas tcnicas no deviam ser consideradas como unidades separadas e sim que ambas formavam parte de um mesmo ”procedimento salvador”. New Teacher! No ano de 1962, Gordon e Adams produzem um filme de treinamento de 27 minutos chamado “O pulso da vida”. Competitive 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Este filme foi utilizado em cursos de RCP por todo mundo e visto por milhes de estudantes. For Osha Recordkeeping! Para aumentar o aprendizado foi utilizada chave mnemnica para a ordem das manobras. Analysis 2 Powerpoint! Estava criado o “ABC da Vida”. Residential Electrician Resume | Best Business Template! A – Abrir as vias areas (“Airways”), B – Boca-a-boca (“Breath”), e C – Circulao (“Circulation”) explicando a seqncia completa da RCP (o Dr Peter Safar faleceu em Julho de 2003). Por volta de 1960, Laerdal desenvolveu um manequim de treinamento em RCP.

O rosto da manequim foi inspirado no busto de mulher desconhecida que morreu afogada em 1930 no rio Sena. Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint! O nome da mulher nunca foi identificado, e a manequim recebeu o nome de “ANNE”, sendo mundialmente conhecida como “resusci-anne”. Letter Templates Sample,! No ano de 1966, as recomendaes so reconhecidas pela American Heart Association – AHA e Cruz Vermelha Americana, e finalmente publicada em definitivo, e de forma completa, na JAMA. A histria do afogamento no Brasil se iniciou na Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, na poca capital do Pas, privilegiada por belezas naturais incomparveis, com grande destaque as suas praias e favorecidas por clima de natureza tropical funcionaram como a principal fonte de lazer e atrao turstica, determinando um fluxo permanente e intenso de banhistas de todo o mundo durante o ano inteiro. Presentation! Entretanto, as belezas de seu litoral na maioria das vezes escondem que suas praias, com ondas e correntezas fortes, podem tornar-se potencialmente perigosas com risco de afogamentos. Archives - Stuffed Suitcase! Estas caractersticas tornaram a cidade do Rio de Janeiro uma das regies com o maior ndice desta forma de acidente no pas. Competitive Analysis Presentation! Sensvel a esta realidade, em 1914, o Comodoro Wilbert E. Log Template! Longfellow fundou na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, ento capital da Repblica, o Servio de Salvamento da Cruz Vermelha Americana. 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Nesta poca, o objetivo era o de organizar e treinar Guarda-Vidas voluntrios, que atuariam em postos de salvamento, no apenas no Rio de Janeiro, mas por todo pas, supervisionando praias desguarnecidas. Media! Sentindo a ineficincia de tal estratgia, adotou uma campanha a nvel nacional, cujo slogan foi: “Toda Pessoa deve saber nadar e todo nadador deve saber salvar vidas”, na tentativa de despertar a populao para o problema da segurana nas praias de todo o Brasil. Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! “Each person should know how to Letter Sample,, swim and Analysis 2 Powerpoint, each swimmer should know how to Osha Form 301 Pdf For Osha Recordkeeping, save lives.” O Corpo Martimo de Salvamento (CMS) teve suas razes no Servio de Salvamento da Cruz Vermelha, criado por Decreto do Prefeito Amaro Cavalcante, em 10 de maio de 1917, funcionando no Dispensrio da praia de Copacabana. Em 1939, o Dispensrio de Copacabana foi transformado no Posto de Salvamento Ismael de Gusmo, em homenagem ao seu organizador.

Naquele tempo foram construdas 18 torres fixas de salvamento ao longo da costa da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Template Presentation! Um total de 120 guarda-vidas trabalhavam nas praias com o auxlio de barcos motorizados, ambulncias, carros para transporte e uma equipe mdica equipada com o que havia de mais moderno em tecnologia de ressuscitao. A vtima resgatada era trazida estao principal “Ismael Gusmo” aonde a equipe mdica dava continuidade aos primeiros socorros realizado na praia. Log Template! Nesta poca o banho era restrito a algumas reas da orla em frente s torres e a algumas horas do dia. Competitive Analysis Template! Em Maro de 1961 este posto de Salvamento foi subordinado ao Departamento de Assistncia Hospitalar do S.A.A, passando em agosto deste mesmo ano responsabilidade do Departamento de Segurana Pblica.

O crescimento demogrfico explosivo, a intensa emigrao para a cidade do Rio de Janeiro e a melhoria das condies de vida da populao a partir dos anos cinqenta, provocaram um aumento do contato do homem com o mar, alertando as autoridades da poca para a necessidade da criao de um servio de salvamento e resgate especializado em acidentes aquticos. Electrician Resume | Best Business! Criou-se, ento, em 1963, o Corpo Martimo de Salvamento - Salvamar, subordinado Secretaria de Segurana Pblica, que iniciou suas atividades com um grupo pequeno de amadores recrutado entre pessoas com afinidade e experincia para este tipo de socorro na praia. Em 1967, foi aprovado e criado dentro da estrutura da Secretaria de Segurana Pblica, o Centro de Instruo de Salvamento e Formao de Guarda-Vidas. Analysis! Do total de 60 praias, apenas 27 eram guarnecidas pelo servio de salvamento utilizando 40 torres e 200 salva-vidas. 9+ Food |! Neste ano foram realizados 4.032 resgates na orla com apenas 17 bitos. Em 1968, em razo da necessidade de um atendimento mdico mais rpido e eficiente, foram inaugurados os primeiros Centros de Recuperao de Afogados (CRAs), em nmero de 3, localizados estrategicamente na orla do Rio de Janeiro, nas praias de Ramos, Copacabana e Barra da Tijuca, com a finalidade de dar assistncia mdica de urgncia aos casos de afogamento.

Estes CRAs existentes at Competitive os dias de hoje possuem instalaes mdicas para atendimentos de emergncias e funcionam com uma equipe de Mdicos e Enfermeiros que se utilizam de ambulncias, barcos e helicpteros para o acesso aos locais dos acidentes. List Suitcase! Com o passar dos anos foram se modernizando e se adaptando s novas necessidades e hoje representam locais de referncia em todo o Brasil para qualquer tipo de acidente aqutico. Em 1975, por determinao da Secretaria de Segurana Pblica, o Corpo Martimo de Salvamento ficou vinculado ao Departamento Geral de Defesa Civil, cujo Diretor seria automaticamente o Comandante do Corpo de Bombeiros. Competitive Presentation! Em 1984, o Exmo. Cover Letter! Sr.

Governador do Estado do Rio de Janeiro passou a competncia e atribuies do Corpo Martimo de Salvamento para o Corpo de Bombeiros do Rio de Janeiro (CBERJ). Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint! Em 16 de outubro de 1984, foi ativado o Grupamento Martimo – GMAR -, com uma base operacional em Botafogo e 3 Sub-grupamentos principais, mantendo em suas estruturas os CRAs anteriormente criados, de forma a estabelecer um atendimento integrado entre o resgate realizado nas praias e o atendimento mdico. Esta transio de gerncia do servio de salvamento foi um trabalho rduo e vagaroso, pois havia necessidade de treinar todo o pessoal militar nesta atividade altamente especializada, e o pessoal do extinto Corpo Martimo de Salvamento transferiu-se quase integralmente para outra Secretaria. Suitcase! Alguns profissionais, entretanto, permaneceram no atual GMAR com a finalidade de treinar os militares para esta nova funo. Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint! Os primeiros anos foram de muito sacrifcio para Instrutores e Alunos Guarda-Vidas e o nmero de salvamentos e bitos nas praias no sofreu alterao significativa.

Com o passar dos anos o nmero de salvamentos cresceu e o nmero de bitos reduziu nas praias do Rio de Janeiro, o que comprovou o acerto na deciso da mudana no sistema de Salvamento Aqutico no Rio de Janeiro e o alto grau de profissionalizao adquirido por seus homens. Com o enorme litoral brasileiro de 7.408 Km, natural que o fenmeno ocorrido no Rio de Janeiro se faria sentir mais cedo ou mais tarde em outras regies. |! O servio de salvamento Aqutico adquiriu conhecimento e experincia com o passar dos anos, tornando-se um centro de formao de pessoal especializado em todos os nveis, no somente Guarda-Vidas e Instrutores, mas tambm na formao de pessoal mdico especializado, servindo de padro para todas as unidades da Federao e um exemplo para o mundo todo. PREVENO E ESTATSTICAS EM AFOGAMENTO. A preveno tem se mostrado o grande fator de reduo na mortalidade entre as causas externas e principalmente nos casos de afogamentos. Analysis! As campanhas de preveno informam, por exemplo, que 85% dos afogamentos nas praias ocorrem nas correntes de retorno – local de aparente calmaria que funciona como o retorno da massa de gua proveniente das ondas para o mar aberto – indicando este local como perigoso para o banho. Form 301 Pdf Recordkeeping! Embora o ato de prevenir possa aparentemente no transparecer a populao como “herico”, so eles o alicerce da efetiva reduo na morbi-mortalidade destes casos. Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Embora sejam grandes os esforos para melhorar o atendimento ao paciente afogado, com a preveno feita pelos guarda-vidas nas praias e piscinas e principalmente com campanhas de preveno atingindo crianas em fase escolar que obteremos o maior xito (5). Packing List - Stuffed Suitcase! Nestes anos de trabalhos do Grupamento Martimo, a mortalidade de 0.3% dos resgates realizados nas praias do Rio de Janeiro se mostrou muito baixa (6), demonstrando que a preveno e a interveno precoce do guarda-vidas o caminho certo para reduzir o nmero de bitos neste tipo de acidente. Prevenir fundamental e prioritrio no caso de afogamento.

A cada ano mais de 500.000 pessoas so vtimas fatais de afogamento em todo mundo, entretanto o seu nmero exato ainda desconhecido em razo de um grande nmero de casos no notificados por desaparecimento sem confirmao de bito (5,6). Template! Ironicamente, parece que nos EUA 90% de todos os casos de afogamento ocorrem a 10m de uma medida de segurana instalada (7). 15+ Employee! Estimativas indicam que 40-45% ocorrem durante a natao demonstrando desconhecimento do perigo iminente. Competitive! Na prtica de esportes nuticos, os afogamentos so responsveis por 90% dos bitos (8). Recordkeeping! Em 1998 a populao brasileira atingiu 161 milhes de habitantes, dos quais 7.183(4.44/105 habitantes) faleceram em virtude de afogamento (2).

As estatsticas mostram grande variabilidade entre os estados (entra grfico 1). Em nmeros absolutos observamos em ordem decrescente no ano de 1997, os cincos estados com os maiores nmeros absolutos de bitos: So Paulo (1.822), Minas Gerais (900), Bahia (507), Rio de janeiro (502) e o Rio Grande do Sul (447) correspondendo as maiores populaes. Analysis 2 Powerpoint! Quando analisamos o nmero de bitos pela populao observamos os estados de Roraima (9.8), Acre (8.6), Mato Grosso do Sul (6.8), Amap (6.7), e Esprito Santo (6.7) como os de maior nmero de bitos relativo (por 100.000 habitantes) mostrando que estados no banhados pelo mar tem um maior risco de morte por afogamento. 15+ Employee Letter – Free Example! O Sudeste a regio de maior nmero de bitos relativo (5.0) e a menor a regio Nordeste (3.4). Template Presentation! Na Avaliao de bitos por afogamento de 1996 para 1997 observamos uma reduo percentual no nmero de bitos relativo de 45.74% no estado do Amap, 35.2% em Sergipe, 22.6% no DF, 18.9% em SC, e 17,8% no Rio de Janeiro, enquanto outros estados aumentaram o seu nmero percentual: Paraba 251.8%, Tocantins 58.3%, Gois 45.7%, Mato Grosso do Sul 22.7% e o restante dos estados no tiveram alteraes significativas(2,3,5). Residential Electrician Template! fato que grandes acidentes aquticos, como inundaes ou naufrgios em um estado podem elevar drasticamente estes nmeros de forma isolada no demonstrando um perfeito espelho da realidade. Competitive 2 Powerpoint! Nos EUA existem oito casos de afogamentos para cada caso fatal notificado (9). New Teacher Letter! Nas praias do Rio de Janeiro temos aproximadamente 290 resgates para cada caso fatal (0.34%), e um bito para cada 10 atendimentos no Centro de Recuperao de Afogados (10.6%) (10). Os afogamentos em gua doce so mais freqentes em crianas, principalmente em menores de 10 anos. Analysis Presentation! Estima-se que existam mais de 4.500 casos de morte por ano s nos E.U.A (53% em piscinas)(9), onde 50.000 novas piscinas so construdas por ano, somando-se a 2.2 milhes de piscinas residenciais e 2.3 milhes no residenciais(11). Complaint Letter Templates Sample, Example! Nas reas quentes do EUA, Austrlia e frica do Sul, 70 a 90% dos bitos por afogamento ocorrem em piscinas de uso familiar (12). Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! No Brasil, onde o nmero de piscinas domsticas infinitamente menor, o afogamento em gua doce ocorre mais em rios, lagos e represas perfazendo a metade dos casos fatais(13).

A faixa etria de maior ocorrncia de bitos no Brasil de 20 a 29 anos, sem distino entre os estados banhados ou no pelo mar. Media Cover! O homem morre em mdia 5 vezes mais por afogamento que a mulher, no havendo distino quando menor do que 1 ano e sendo 8.7 vezes mais freqente na idade de 20 a 29 anos(2). Template Presentation! Nos municpios do estado do Rio de Janeiro o maior nmero relativo de bitos se encontra em locais no banhados pelo mar (1). Nas praias do municpio do Rio de Janeiro, aproximadamente 86% dos casos situam-se na faixa etria entre 10 e 29 anos(idade mdia de 22 anos). Letter! Em mdia, 75% das vtimas so do sexo masculino sofrendo variaes conforme a idade, 83% so solteiros, 83.5% ingerem alimentos 3 horas antes do acidente, 46.6% acham que sabem nadar, e 71.4% moram fora da orla martima (6,14).

Como podemos deduzir, a maior parte dos afogados so pessoas jovens, saudveis e produtivas, com expectativa de vida de muitos anos, o que torna imperativo um atendimento imediato, adequado e eficaz, que deve ser prestado imediatamente aps ou mesmo quando possvel durante o acidente, ainda dentro da gua. grande a confuso da definio do termo afogamento na lngua inglesa. Competitive Analysis Template! O uso do termo “near-drowning” traduzido como “quase-afogamento” ainda hoje erradamente utilizado e significam afogados que no falecem at Complaint – Free Sample, 24 h aps o incidente e o termo “drowning” as vtimas que falecem em at 2 Powerpoint 24 h. Letter! Esta nomenclatura subestima o nmero total de bitos por afogamento nos pases da lngua Inglesa resultando em um grande erro no perfil epidemiolgico. Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint! Vrios autores demonstraram sua preocupao quanto a esta definio imprecisa em uso, mostrando que ela esta em desacordo com os parmetros prognsticos internacionais definidos em “Utstein-style”. Archives - Stuffed! Em Agosto de 2000, com a edio dos novos “Guidelines” da “American Heart Association” aprovados pelo ILCOR (17), e com a realizao do Congresso Mundial de Afogamento em 2002 realizado na Holanda, o termo quase-afogamento caiu definitivamente em desuso.

Apresentamos abaixo a nova definio de afogamento. @ Afogamento (Drowning): aspirao de lquido no corporal por submerso ou imerso. @ Resgate: Pessoa resgatada da gua sem sinais de aspirao lquida. @ J Cadaver: morte por afogamento sem chances de iniciar ressuscitao, comprovada por tempo de submerso maior que 1 hora ou sinais evidentes de morte a mais de 1 hora : rigidez cadavrica, livores, ou decomposio corporal. CAUSAS de AFOGAMENTO (14). a - AFOGAMENTO PRIMRIO - o tipo mais comum, no apresentando em seu mecanismo nenhum fator incidental ou patolgico que possa ter desencadeado o acidente. b - AFOGAMENTO SECUNDRIO a denominao utilizada para o afogamento causado por patologia ou incidente associado que o precipita. Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint! Ocorre em 13% dos casos de afogamento, como exemplo; Uso de Drogas (36.2%) (quase sempre por lcool), crise convulsiva(18.1%), traumas(16.3%), doenas cardio-pulmonares (14.1%), mergulho livre ou autnomo(3.7%), e outros (homicdio, suicdio, lipotimias, cibras, hidrocusso) (11.6%). Cover Letter! O uso do lcool considerado como o fator mais importante na causa de afogamento secundrio.

TIPOS DE ACIDENTES NA GUA E FASES DO AFOGAMENTO(9) Os trs diferentes tipos de acidentes na gua e as fases do. afogamento so sintetizadas na Figura 1(18). Template Presentation! A “Sndrome de imerso”(Immersion syndrome)(19) ou vulgarmente chamado de “choque trmico” uma sncope (provocada por uma arritmia do tipo bradi ou taquiarritmia) desencadeada pela sbita exposio a gua com uma temperatura 5C abaixo da corporal. 15+ Employee Letter – Free Sample, Example! Pode ocorrer portanto em temperaturas da gua to Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint, “quentes” quanto 31C freqentemente presente no litoral tropical ou em piscinas. Form Recordkeeping! Quanto maior a diferena de temperatura, maior a possibilidade de sua ocorrncia. Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! A sncope promove a perda da conscincia e o afogamento secundrio. Electrician Resume Business! Nenhuma explicao tal como estmulo vagal levando a sbita assitolia, fibrilao ventricular por grande descarga adrenrgica pelo frio ou exerccio, ou outras razes menos provveis foram comprovadas cientificamente como causa ou como sndrome comprovada (20,21). Competitive 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Estudos mostram que a ocorrncia deste acidente pode ser reduzida se antes de entrarmos na gua, molharmos a face e a cabea(22). FISIOPATOLOGIA DO AFOGAMENTO. Existem variaes fisiopatolgicas entre os afogamentos em gua do mar e gua doce.

Apesar de cada um ter especificamente suas caractersticas, as variaes so de pequena monta do ponto de vista teraputico. Osha Form! As observaes feitas por MODELL e cols.(23,24,25,26,27), demonstraram que as mais significativas alteraes fisiopatolgicas decorrem de hipoxemia e acidose metablica. O rgo alvo de maior comprometimento o pulmo. Competitive Presentation! A aspirao de gua promove insuficincia respiratria e conseqente alterao na troca gasosa alvolo-capilar, e distrbios no equilbrio cido-bsico (12,27). Media Cover! As alteraes fisiopatolgicas que ocorrem dependem da composio e da quantidade de lquido aspirado. Competitive Analysis Template Presentation! O mecanismo de alterao na ventilao aps aspirao de gua doce diferente daquele em gua do mar. Cover! Estudos(14,33,34) demonstraram que os afogamentos em gua do mar no alteram a qualidade, somente comprometendo a quantidade do surfactante pulmonar, diferentemente dos afogamentos em gua doce onde ocorrem alteraes qualitativas e quantitativas produzindo maior grau de reas atelectasiadas(34). Competitive Analysis Template Presentation! A aspirao de ambos os tipos de gua promovem alveolite, edema pulmonar no cardiognico, e aumento do shunt intrapulmonar que levam hipoxemia (14,34,35).

Alguns autores descrevem uma maior gravidade na leso pulmonar em gua doce(14,33,36,37) outros estudos no apresentaram maior mortalidade do que os casos em gua do mar(10,38) ficando a questo ainda em aberto. Technician Letter! A reversibilidade total das leses com a terapia apropriada o usual (9,21,39). Em animais de laboratrio, a aspirao de 2,2ml de gua/Kg/peso faz a PaO2 cair para aproximadamente 60 mmHg em 3 minutos(31,40). Presentation! Em ces, a mesma quantidade provoca uma queda na PaO2 para aproximadamente 40 mmHg (26). 9+ Food Log Template! Em seres humanos parece que aspiraes to Analysis Template Presentation, pequenas quanto 1 a 3 ml/kg resultam em grande alterao na troca gasosa pulmonar e reduo de 10% a 40% na complacncia pulmonar (26,31,33,34). Cover Letter! FULLER(41)demonstrou que em 70% dos bitos h evidncias de aspirao de partculas de natureza diversa como areia(39), algas e lama, e em 24% h presena de restos de vmito.

Estudos realizados em ces afogados em gua doce, demonstraram que a fibrilao ventricular(FV) era secundria a distrbios no potssio srico(42,43). Analysis! Entretanto, isto raramente relatado em seres humanos, provavelmente porque estes raramente aspiram quantidade de gua suficiente para provocar distrbios eletrolticos to Complaint Templates, importantes(27). Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint! A FV nos seres humanos esta relacionada a hipxia e acidose e no a hemodiluio, hemlise e hiperpotassemia(27), uma vez que 85% daqueles que falecem no aspiram mais de 22 ml/Kg/peso(40), e como o volume crtico para a FV provocada por hemlise parece ser de 44 ml/Kg/peso, provvel que ela ocorra em menos de 15% dos casos(28,40). 15+ Employee Complaint Templates – Free Sample, Example! As alteraes como a diminuio do dbito cardaco, a hipotenso arterial, o aumento da presso arterial pulmonar e o aumento da resistncia vascular pulmonar resultam da hipxia e da acidose(10,33). Competitive 2 Powerpoint! Freqentemente observamos intensa vasoconstrico perifrica, devido hipoxemia, liberao de catecolaminas, hipotermia, reflexo de mergulho ou, provavelmente combinao destes fatores(44). 15+ Employee Complaint – Free Sample,! Nos afogamentos por gua do mar, a perda lquida para o pulmo no contribui para a hipotenso arterial que secundria a depresso miocrdica provocada pela hipxia(10,33). Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint! A taquicardia, o ritmo de galope e as extrassistolias so as alteraes cardacas mais freqentes, e so reversveis com a administrao de oxignio(10,44). As alteraes eletrolticas podem ser observadas nos afogamentos de seres humanos, embora clinicamente sejam pequenas(27,28). 15+ Employee Complaint Templates – Free! Em trabalho recente com 187 aferies dentre 2304 casos (14), nenhum deles necessitou correo eletroltica inicial, confirmando os achados de outros trabalhos(27, 28, 29). Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint! No existe portanto, diferenas entre gua doce ou mar quanto ao tratamento a ser empregado. New Teacher Cover! Afogamento em, gua salgada no causa hipovolemia, e em gua doce no causa hipervolemia, hemlise ou hipercalemia.

O hematcrito e a hemoglobina esto usualmente normais aps afogamento em seres humanos(24, 28). Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! A hemlise s aparece com aspiraes maiores de 11 ml/Kg/peso, o que raramente ocorre (30,31,32). 15+ Employee Letter – Free! A Leucocitose esta presente em mais de 50% dos afogados, em geral com elevao das formas jovens, em decorrncia provvel do estress traumtico a que foi submetido, e no infeco (33,34). Cerca de 22% podem apresentar albuminria transitria, cilindrria ou ambos, o que provavelmente secundrio hipxia renal(35). 2 Powerpoint! A insuficincia renal aguda rara(28,36,37). Os afogamentos grau 3 a 6 cursam com hipxia importante embora somente no grau 6 ocorra leso potencialmente irreversvel do SNC (14,38)(ver classificao de afogados adiante). “Afogamento tipo seco provavelmente no existe” – Se a necrpsia no evidenciar gua no pulmo, a vtima provavelmente no estava viva quando entrou na gua“. Recordkeeping! Nem todas as pessoas que se afogam aspiram gua em quantidade.

Aproximadamente menos de 2% dos bitos parecem ocorrer por asfixia secundria a laringoespasmo, portanto sem aspirao de lquido importante. Competitive Analysis Template! O termo “afogado seco” muito utilizado no passado foi recentemente extinto da nomenclatura, j que todos os afogados aspiram alguma quantidade de liquido (39). CLASSIFICAO DE AFOGAMENTO (14, 38) A classificao clnica de afogamento baseada em estudo retrospectivo de 41.279 casos de resgates na gua, registrados por guarda-vidas no perodo de 1972 a 1991. Packing List Archives Suitcase! Deste total, 2.304 casos (5.5%) foram encaminhados ao CRA.

Os 38.975 casos restantes no necessitaram de atendimento mdico e foram liberados no local do acidente com o diagnstico apenas de resgate sem afogamento. 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Dentre o total de 2304 casos avaliados, a classificao foi baseada em 1831 casos que apresentaram uma mortalidade de 10.6% (195 casos). Letter! Considerando a avaliao destes parmetros clnicos, e a demonstrao de sua diferente mortalidade, apresentamos no algoritmo 1 (14,40) um resumo prtico de seu uso que esta de acordo com o ltimo consenso de Suporte Avanado de Vida (ACLS) da “American Heart Association”(AHA) de 2000(17). A classificao de afogamento leva em considerao o grau de insuficincia respiratria que indiretamente esta relacionado a quantidade de lquido aspirado, determinando a gravidade do caso. Competitive 2 Powerpoint! A parada respiratria no afogamento ocorre segundos at Resume Business minutos antes da parada cardaca (14,41). Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint! O quadro clnico do afogamento altamente dinmico, com piora ou mais freqentemente com melhora clnica, seguindo-se um perodo de estabilizao com uma fase de recuperao mais lenta. Business! A classificao do grau de afogamento deve ser feita no local do acidente. Competitive Analysis Presentation! Embora nem sempre possvel, esta conduta demonstra a real gravidade e indica a teraputica apropriada e o prognstico mais preciso.

A presena de patologia pregressa ou associada(afogamento secundrio) representa um fator de complicao na hora de classificar o grau de afogamento e deve ser bem avaliada. A gasometria arterial no considerada na classificao, embora seja um exame complementar de extrema valia como veremos adiante(14,40). A hospitalizao deve ser indicada em todos os graus de afogamento de 2 a 6 (9, 14, 28) (ver algoritmo 1 – ACLS em afogamento) (14,17). Packing List Suitcase! A tabela 3 mostra a mortalidade geral para cada grau de afogamento, a necessidade de hospitalizao e sua mortalidade pr e intra-hospitalar(14). Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Como a classificao muito importante para profissionais que trabalham na cena do acidente como Tcnicos em Emergncias Mdicas (TEM), socorristas, guarda-vidas, guardies de piscina ou leigos que necessitem ou queiram aprender sobre primeiros socorros em afogamento apresentamos o algoritmo 2 em linguagem mais simples para o Suporte Bsico de Vida em afogamento (BLS)(40). Para os casos grau 6 ressuscitados com xito, recomendamos a utilizao das tabela 4 e figura 2 (41,42,43,44) para classificao prognstica. New Teacher Cover Letter! Em todos os casos de afogamento em que o lazer na gua precede o quadro de afogamento em algum tempo ocorre Hipotermia(14,40). Nos pacientes hospitalizados, 60 a 80% no apresentam complicaes,e 15% tem mais de 5(36,46,47). Sistema Nervoso Central(grau 6): Convulses(15%), Edema cerebral(30 a 44% -diagnstico clnico), e encefalopatia anxica(20%)(48,49). Aparelho respiratrio(grau 3 a 6): Broncopneumonia ou pneumonia (34% a 40% dos pacientes que fazem ventilao mecnica), edema pulmonar (28% - diagnstico clnico), pneumotrax e/ou pneumomediastino (10%), atelectasias lobares (20%), ARDS (5 %)(28, 50,51). Metablico(grau 2 a 6): Acidose metablica (31%), alteraes eletrolticas (K, Na)(23%)(14, 24).

Outras complicaes: Necrose tubular aguda (2%)(37), Hematria (4%)(52), Cardiomiopatia anxica (2%), hematmese e/ou melena (4%), Sindrome de secreo inapropriada de ADH (2%)(7), e Outras (7%)(7,14). Sepsis - Casos de choque sptico irreversvel tem sido descritos na literatura nas primeiras 24 horas aps o acidente(observao pessoal - Szpilman). EXAMES A SEREM SOLICITADOS(14, 40) (ver algoritmo 1 – ACLS) Grau 2 - Gasometria arterial e radiografia de trax. Grau 3 a 6 - Gasometria arterial, hemograma completo, eletrlitos, uria, creatinina, glicemia, elementos anormais no sedimento da urina, radiografia de trax, e tomografia computadorizada de crnio(se houver alterao no nvel de conscincia). Gasometria arterial antes do tratamento(9, 23, 28): Grau 1 – normal; grau 2 – hipoxemia leve, PaCO2 normal ou baixo e acidose metablica leve ou ausente; grau 3 – PaO2 50 mmhg, SaO2 90% e acidose metablica moderada; grau 4,5 e 6 - PaO2 50 mmhg, SaO2 90% e acidose metablica ou mista severa. Radiografia de trax(9, 39): As alteraes radiolgicas variam desde a presena de hipotransparncia localizada at Analysis Template o edema pulmonar difuso.

Na evoluo radiolgica observada estabilizao ou at Residential Business Template piora nas primeiras 48 horas com resoluo em 3 a 5 dias quando no h complicaes. Template 2 Powerpoint! As alteraes na radiografia de trax no devem ser interpretadas como sinal de pneumonia e sim do preenchimento inicial dos alvolos e brnquios com o lquido aspirado. PR-HOSPITALAR com Suporte Bsico de Vida (guarda-vidas) – Algoritmo 2. Para a utilizao da classificao e abordagem teraputica por pessoal tcnico em suporte bsico de vida(SBV) com utilizao de equipamento de. oxignio (guardies de piscina e guarda-vidas) apresentamos o algoritmo 2, uma adaptao da classificao e tratamento em linguagem de fcil compreenso e treinamento. Archives - Stuffed Suitcase! Nota adicional sobre o algoritmo 2 (BLS): O fato da aspirao de gua ter predileo pelo segmento superior do lobo inferior direito, em razo da maior verticalizao do brnquio fonte direito, levou a indicao de colocar a vtima de afogamento viva em decbito lateral direito melhorando provavelmente a relao V/Q do pulmo esquerdo resultando em melhora na oxigenao. Analysis Template Presentation! Embora sem comprovao cientfica, no parece causar nenhum malefcio a vtima de afogamento. Residential Electrician Resume | Best Business Template! Em praias inclinadas a vtima deve ser colocada em posio paralela gua, de forma que o tronco e a cabea fiquem na mesma posio horizontal, permitindo o incio da checagem da respirao e a RCP se necessrio. Competitive Analysis Template Presentation! A classificao de afogados ir ento determinar qual a melhor posio de colocar o afogado.

Grau 1 a 3 – posio com a cabea mais alta que o tronco em decbito lateral direito; Grau 4 a 6 paralelo a praia at | que a ressuscitao seja efetiva no grau 5 e 6 e at 2 Powerpoint que a hipotenso seja corrigida no grau 4 e ento coloca-se como nos graus 1 a 3 se no houver hipotenso arterial(53). PR-HOSPITALAR com Suporte Avanado de Vida e HOSPITALAR – Algoritmo 1. O casos de Resgate e graus 1 e 2 tem seu tratamento bem descrito no algoritmo 1(14,40). Os Graus 3 e 4 necessitam de internao em centro de terapia intensiva por um perodo mnimo de 48 horas(14,40). Electrician Resume Business! A assistncia respiratria nestes casos o mais importante.

Inicie a ventilao usando oxignio a 15 litros por minuto sob mscara facial, e dependendo do grau de insuficincia respiratria e a disponibilidade de recursos no local realize a entubao oro-traqueal e a assistncia respiratria invasiva sob ventilao mecnica(14,40). Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation! O paciente em Grau 3 e 4 reage muito entubao sendo necessrio o uso de drogas que promovam sedao (preferencia pelos de curta ao - midazolan), por vezes associado aos relaxantes musculares que s devem ser utilizado se houver certeza de boa ventilao mecnica controlada. 15+ Employee Complaint Templates – Free Sample, Example! A C-PAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) associada a ventilao mecnica um recurso importante(54). Template! A C-PAP permite a manuteno de uma presso positiva durante todo o ciclo respiratrio, o que aumenta o recrutamento alveolar reduzindo as reas de atelectasias e de alvolos funcionalmente colabados, aumentando com isso a relao V/Q(diminui o shunt intrapulmonar)(25,55,56). Residential Resume! A PEEP (Positive End Expiratory Pressure) semelhante em sua funo a CPAP. Competitive Template! O uso precoce de ambos (C-PAP ou PEEP) encurtam o perodo de ventilao mecnica e hospitalizao(9,12,57).

A ventilao mecnica nestes casos deve ser iniciada imediatamente aps entubao e sedao, com FiO2 a 100% e PEEP de 5 a 7 cm/H2O. Form 301 Pdf! A gasometria arterial (PaO2) indicar o quanto se pode reduzir a FiO2 aps os primeiros 30 a 40 minutos. Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Os alvolos so recrutados de forma lenta, razo pela qual devemos aguardar uma resposta teraputica gradual(57). Residential Resume Template! No h provas de que o seu uso possa diminuir o lquido no pulmo, mas sabe-se que ocorre redistribuio da gua para o interstcio, tendo boa utilidade no edema pulmonar do afogado(30, 54, 57). Competitive Analysis Presentation! Nunca retire o PEEP ou C-PAP antes de 48 horas mesmo que a FiO2 indique ser abaixo dos parmetros convencionais a sua indicao. 301 Pdf! A retirada do PEEP s deve ser iniciada aps um mnimo de 48 horas, de forma lenta, j que o edema pulmonar pode recidivar rapidamente em caso de retirada precoce. Presentation! O desmame dos pacientes afogados em gua salgada 1.8 vezes mais rpido do que os de gua doce. O acesso venoso perifrico satisfatrio para os estgios iniciais do suporte hemodinmico. Complaint Letter Example! Nos casos de afogamento grau 4 a 6 onde ocorre instabilidade hemodinmica, o suporte hemodinmico extremamente necessrio embora em uma grande parte dos casos somente a correo da hipxia o suficiente para retornar a normotenso(14,40).

No hospital, o paciente deve ficar em monitorizao eletrocardiogrfica(ECG) contnua, com verificao dos sinais vitais, ter uma veia profunda cateterizada para verificao da Presso Venosa Central, sonda vesical para controle da diurese horria, e no caso de utilizao de altos nveis de C-PAP/PEEP ou instabilidade hemodinamica no reversvel nas primeiras horas, deve ser monitorado a presso de encunhamento capilar pulmonar (PCaP) (7,50,56,57). Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint! A reposio volmica deve ser feita de forma criteriosa, orientada pelas medidas acima, com solues cristalides, independentemente do tipo de gua em que ocorreu o afogamento (14,40). 15+ Employee Complaint Letter! A preocupao deve ser a de evitar o agravamento da leso pulmonar e cerebral com o excesso de lquido administrado. Presentation! As solues colides devem ser utilizadas somente nas hipovolemias refratria a reposio com cristalides, onde deseja-se um rpida restaurao volmica (12, 14,40). New Teacher! Atualmente no existem evidncias para suportar a administrao, de rotina, de solues hipertnicas e de transfuses para os afogamentos em gua doce, assim como de solues hipotnicas para os casos em gua salgada(55). Competitive Analysis Template! contra-indicado teraputica que preconiza restrio hdrica e o uso de diurticos no paciente com edema pulmonar no cardiognico como so os casos de afogamento. For Osha! A terapia por desidratao aumenta a hipovolemia que pode ocorrer no afogamento grave, reduzindo o dbito cardaco, a perfuso tecidual e o transporte de oxignio, podendo agravar a j existente leso hipxica cerebral. Analysis Template! A reposio hdrica deve ser orientada pelo dbito urinrio mantido em 0.5 a 1 ml/kg ou preferencialmente pelo uso da PcaP (40). A acidose metablica que ocorre em 70% dos pacientes que chegam ao Hospital(14, 57,) deve ser corrigida com o uso de bicarbonato de sdio quando o PH estiver inferior a 7.2 ou o bicarbonato srico 12mEq/l.(24,28,35) se a vitima tem aporte ventilatrio adequado(19). Raramente h necessidade do uso de drogas vasopressoras ou inotrpicas(19,40). Residential Resume! Os diurticos de ala ou osmticos podem ser utilizados em casos de hipervolemia comprovada, ou nos casos onde o dbito urinrio estiver protrado aps restaurada a volmia. Os casos grau 5 e 6 aps serem reanimados devem ser tratados como o grau 4 (ver algoritmo 1 – ACLS).

Existem casos descritos de sucesso na reanimao de afogados aps 2 horas de manobras de RCP(58). Competitive Analysis Template! Fatores como temperatura da gua, tempo da imerso, sinais de morte neurolgica, e o uso de drogas so por demais controversos na literatura, no havendo at Recordkeeping o momento nenhum fator confivel que possa indicar seguramente o prognstico antes de iniciar a RCP (7,9,10,14,16,17,19). Competitive Analysis! Muito se relata na literatura(46, ,58) sobre o melhor prognstico dos afogamentos em gua gelada ( 15C), pela ocorrncia de hipotermia. Technician Cover! Existem registros de vrios casos de recuperao completa aps prolongada submerso em gua gelada. Competitive Template! O maior tempo registrado at 9+ Food | hoje, de submerso em gua fria com recuperao completa, foi de 66 minutos(59). No Brasil, pas de clima tropical, temos observado a presena de hipotermia em todos os casos de afogamento em gua quente ( 15C) assim como outros autores(60), e a surpreendente resposta a RCP que estes pacientes apresentam(14). Competitive Template Presentation! No vero de 1994 (praia da Barra da Tijuca-RJ), foram reanimados 4 pacientes com mais de 10 minutos de submerso em gua com temperatura maior do que 150C (mdia de 20C) (2 faleceram em 6 horas, e 2 sobreviveram, 1 com seqelas neurolgicas graves e o outro sem seqelas)(14).

Allman et al(61) reportou resultados similares em guas quentes. Packing List Archives - Stuffed Suitcase! O reflexo de mergulho ou submerso (Diving reflex) junto com a hipotermia so ainda hoje em dia aceitos como explicaes para tais fenmenos(57,28,62) diferente de outras causas de parada cardaca onde o prognstico inteiramente diferente(63,64). Analysis Template Presentation! O uso da adrenalina no afogamento ainda assunto controverso. Media Technician Cover Letter! Alguns advogam ser malfico, outros que nenhuma vantagem neurolgica existe com o seu uso. Competitive Presentation! Entretanto alguns trabalhos mostram excelente resultados prognstico(14, 65). Complaint Sample,! Ns recomendamos o seu uso aps 3 minutos de PCR com a primeira dose de 0.01mgr/kg i.v e 0.1mgr/kg a cada 3 minutos de PCR (14,40). Competitive Analysis Template! Estas alta dose de adrenalina a partir da segunda dose considerado classe IIa para crianas (32,75) e classe IIb em adultos(17) para casos gerais de PCR. New Teacher Letter! O uso de “mega doses” de adrenalina aumenta a eficcia da RCP e o sucesso na restaurao do pulso arterial(66,67,68), embora nenhum benefcio sobre a funo neurolgica tenha sido comprovado at Competitive Template Presentation o momento(69,70,71).

Parece bem definido que a depleo significativa do bicarbonato plasmtico raramente est presente nos primeiros 10 a 15 minutos de RCP, contra-indicando o seu uso inicialmente(72). Quando ocorrem seqelas neurolgicas, mesmo com a execuo correta das manobras, deve-se pensar em falha tcnica, retardo no incio das manobras, longo tempo de submerso, e/ou alguma causa orgnica intercorrente (40). Letter! Os vmitos nos afogados submetidos RCP permanecem como principal fator de complicao durante e aps a reanimao e pode ser reduzido com o uso da posio do afogado com a cabea a mesma altura que o tronco(14,53), evitando-se comprimir o abdome ou a realizao da manobra de Heimlich e realizando a ventilao de forma correta evitando a distenso gstrica(5, 57,73). Competitive 2 Powerpoint! A manobra de sellick realizada corretamente nestes casos parece contribuir para uma reduo na aspirao de vmitos. Media Technician Cover Letter! A ocorrncia da fibrilao ventricular nos casos de afogamento no esta bem documentada, entretanto como apresenta melhor prognstico que a assistolia, a desfibrilao as cegas obrigatria - quando disponvel - nos casos em que no h um monitor de ECG(72). Analysis Presentation! Alguns servios de salvamento nos E.U.A, Austrlia e Brasil iniciaram a utilizao de desfibriladores semi-automticos nas praias pelos guarda-vidas.

Possivelmente em breve teremos a documentao da ocorrncia das arritmias no grau 5 e 6. 15+ Employee Complaint – Free Example! Devemos dar ateno temperatura corporal do paciente, uma vez que o sucesso da desfibrilao difcil mas no impossvel(72) em presena de hipotermia abaixo de 320C. Analysis! Se houver assistolia, a RCP deve continuar at Form 301 Pdf For Osha Recordkeeping que a temperatura corporal da vtima alcance no mnimo 34 0C(28,72). Analysis Template Presentation! Segundo Southwick e Dalglish “ninguem esta morto antes de estar quente”(74). Residential Resume Business! Devemos ter cuidado durante a desfibrilao uma vez que o corpo molhado do paciente pode passar corrente eltrica para o mdico lembrando-se tambm de retirar parte da areia no local de colocao dos eletrodos para um melhor contato. OUTRAS MEDIDAS TERAPUTICAS HOSPITALAR.

Infeco pulmonar e antibitico - At recentemente utilizava-se rotineiramente a profilaxia antibitica nos casos de afogamento, esta medida hoje em dia segue indicaes mais restritas. Competitive Analysis! As infeces geralmente no apresentam nenhuma importncia inicial nestes casos. List - Stuffed Suitcase! A infeco pulmonar primria no afogamento esta diretamente relacionado a presena qualitativa e principalmente quantitativa de patgenos presentes na gua aspirada. Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Em guas de piscina e do mar, o nmero quantitativo no usualmente suficiente para promover pneumonia(75,76). |! A hipotransparncia visualizada com freqncia na radiografia de trax admisso do paciente afogado, indica apenas o preenchimento dos alvolos e parte dos brnquios pelo lquido aspirado, desaparecendo comumente em 48 a 72 horas(77). Competitive Analysis Template Presentation! O edema pulmonar esta presente em todos os graus 2 a 6 (exceto em menos de 5% dos casos onde a aspirao foi mnima) devido ao lquido aspirado associado a reao pessoal com produo de transudato e ainda a passagem de lquido para o pulmo nos casos de afogamento por gua do mar. Sample, Example! A pneumonite entretanto freqentemente encontrada algumas horas aps o afogamento podendo persistir por 2 a 6 dias sem contudo significar infeco. Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Nos quadros de afogamento onde h necessidade de assistncia ventilatria mecnica, a incidncia de pneumonia aumenta em decorrncia de infeco secundria(78). Technician Letter! Geralmente a infeco pulmonar que ocorre nos afogados (34 a 52% dos casos que necessitaram de assistncia ventilatria mecnica) aparece no 30 ou 40 dia de hospitalizao, quando o edema pulmonar j est praticamente resolvido(11,12,41,47,80).

A melhor conduta inicial a realizao de culturas quantitativas dirias da secreo pulmonar e avaliao evolutiva da radiografia de trax. Indicaes de antibitico no afogado(40,77,78). 1 - Quando houver diagnstico de Pneumonia ( 48 horas): Infiltrado novo e persistente na radiografia de trax, aps 48 a 96 horas. Secreo traqueal purulenta com mais de 25 polimorfonucleares e menos de 10 clulas epiteliais escamosas em campo de baixo poder de aumento. Presena de bactria conhecidamente patognica, isolada em cultura qualitativa de secreo traqueal, com crescimento de apenas 1 organismo. Leucocitose 10.000 em ascenso, com 10% ou mais de formas jovens. Febre presente e progressivamente maior; ou, 2 - Quando a gua aspirada tenha reconhecidamente um nmero de colnias igual ou 1020(CFU/ml) - indica antibitico de imediato. Infeco Primria Suspeita - Cultura da gua aspirada entre 108 e 1020.

Indica a necessidade de uso de antibiticos de incio naqueles pacientes imunodeprimidos, podendo ser considerada em outros pacientes. Infeco Primria Ausente - Cultura do aspirado 108. Antibiticos: A realizao do Gram pode orientar o espectro antibitico, mas a cobertura para germes anaerbios deve ser sempre feita. Inicie o antibitico de largo espectro com base na probabilidade do germe. Germe provvel conforme o lquido aspirado: Afogamento em gua contaminada por alta colonizao bacteriana - Bactrias Gram negativas(Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas spp, Haemophilus Influenzae) seguido de anaerbios (Bacteroides spp, clostridium spp, Peptostreptococcus, Propionilbacterium spp), Aeromonas spp, Staphylococcus Aureus, Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Branhamella spp, and Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint, Candida spp(39,80). Em paciente internados a mais de 48 h pensar em Infeco hospitalar - Flora mista, principalmente enterobactrias e Staphylococos. 1a Opo - Clindamicina + Aminoglicosdeo ou ciprofloxacina.

2a Opo - Ampicilina + Sulbactam , ou amoxicilina ou ticarcilina + cido clavulnico; ou imipenem-cilastatina como drogas nicas. A broncofibroscopia pode ser util para a determinao da extenso e da severidade das leses em vias areas em casos de aspirao com contedo slido, para limpeza de corpos estranhos junto com o afogamento como ex: areia, e para coleta de culturas quantitativas. Corticosterides - O seu uso proposto a partir de 1968 por MODELL com bases empricas(24), foi modificado em 1980 pelo mesmo autor aps reviso de 121 casos(50), sendo abandonada a sua utilizao com a finalidade at 9+ Food ento proposta. de limitar a leso pulmonar(80,2). 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Pode ser utilizado nos casos de. broncoespasmos refratrios ao uso broncodilatadores via inalatria. Abordagem neurolgica - Apenas o grau 6 requer abordagem de tratamento para a encefalopatia anxica (injria hipxica primria) que potencialmente irreversvel(14,40, 77). Media Technician Letter! O objetivo evitar a injria neuronal secundria, com cuidados gerais como: Mantenha a presso arterial mdia em torno de 80 a 100 mmHg permitindo uma perfuso cerebral adequada; evite aumentos da presso intracraniana (P.I.C) mantendo a cabeceira do leito a 30 graus (se no houver hipotenso), evite compresses sobre a veia jugular e situaes que provoquem a manobra de valsalva; mantenha a temperatura corporal em torno de 37C (cada grau acima, aumenta a taxa metablica cerebral e a produo de CO2 em 10%); evite a m adaptao ventilao mecnica usando sedao se necessrio; faa uma adequada toalete oro-traqueobrnquica sem provocar hipxia; trate as crises convulsivas reduzindo o consumo metablico cerebral, o desgaste muscular desnecessrio e o aumento da PIC; evite correes sbitas de distrbios cido-bsico; no sede o paciente agitado antes de descartar o aumento da P.I.C, reteno urinria, dor, hipotenso ou hipxia; mantenha a glicemia normal (hiperglicemia em vigncia de hipxia, pode aumentar a acidose cerebral e agravar o coma) (19,46). Template Presentation! Diversas drogas e recursos vm sendo utilizados ou esto em investigao para o tratamento ou para a limitao da leso isqumica cerebral e da hipertenso intracraniana(79). Packing Suitcase! O prognstico parece depender de uma adequada perfuso cerebral.

Geralmente, o aumento da P.I.C. Template! no afogado ocorre tardiamente, impossibilitando o uso de medidas teraputicas mais efetivas aps a sua constatao. Packing Archives - Stuffed Suitcase! Todos os estudos levam a crer, que a nossa interveno teraputica ser realmente efetiva quando pudermos monitorar a presso de perfuso cerebral, o fluxo sanguneo cerebral, a PIC, e o consumo metablico cerebral de forma no invasiva. Competitive Template! Medidas agressivas como o coma barbitrico e a hipotermia teraputica foram popularizadas, entretanto tem se mostrado ineficazes nestes casos(57,58,80,81). Osha For Osha! Evite hiperventilao (PaCO2 entre 25 e 30) e mantenha a PaCO2 de 30 a 35 mmhg. Competitive Template Presentation! O manitol pode ser utilizado criteriosamente nos casos onde houver aumento da PIC comprovado pela monitorizao (7, 65, 75, 79,81). Mtodos em estudo: Com relao a insuficincia respiratria esto ainda em estudos em afogamento: oxigenao por membrana extracorprea; surfactante artificial; xido ntrico; ventilao lquida e; a ventilao pulmonar intra-traqueal(7). Devemos considerar que o afogamento grave - Grau 3 a 6 - tem potencial para provocar leso sistmica multi-orgnica(82). Osha Form 301 Pdf For Osha! Com o advento dos novos avanos utilizados em terapia intensiva no h como negar todavia que a importncia do sistema nervoso central no prognstico predomina sobre os outros rgos(7,14,40,50). Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Atravs da observao de diversos casos de afogamento, conclumos que os pacientes grau 1, 2, 3, 4, e 5 quando sobrevivem, raramente apresentam seqelas, evoluindo para a cura em quase 95% dos casos (14,40).

A determinao do prognstico nos casos de afogamento grau 6 dependente principalmente da existncia ou no de leso neurolgica relacionada diretamente ao tempo e ao grau de hipxia, embora diversos autores tenham tentado estabelecer parmetros radiolgicos e respiratrios para sua avaliao inicial(7,14,46,47). 9+ Food! As crianas em grau 6, apresentam leso neurolgica com maior freqncia por possurem boa condio cardiovascular prvia e maior facilidade no sucesso da RCP(7,48,83). Template! Elas costumam evoluir rapidamente para a cura ou permanecem em estado de coma prolongado, onde a mortalidade e o ndice de seqelas so altos(65,79). 9+ Food |! Considerando todas as faixas etrias no ps-PCR (para os casos de RCP realizada dentro do hospital) 30% evoluem para encefalopatia anxica(estado vegetativo persistente (PVS)), 36% morrem em alguns dias, e 34% tem alta sem seqelas neurolgicas(13,43). Analysis Presentation! A necessidade de RCP em pacientes chegada no servio de emergncia, em que no houve hipotermia resulta em morte ou em aumento do nmero de estados vegetativos persistentes(38,65,79,80). Form 301 Pdf! O uso de medidas agressivas(coma barbitrico, hipotermia provocada) na proteo cerebral s parece aumentar esta estatstica(57,79,80).

Nenhum ndice no local ou no hospital em relao ao grau 6 em prever o prognstico absolutamente confivel em relao ao bito ou sobrevida com ou sem seqelas. 1. Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Szpilman D., Dados elaborados com bases nas informaes de Injury. Complaint Letter Templates Sample, Example! A leading cause of the Analysis Presentation global burden of Media Technician Letter, disease” - WHO – 1999. 2. Competitive Template! Szpilman D Cruz-Filho FES; Epidemiological Profile Of Drowning In Brazil – 144,207 deaths in Business, 20 Years Study; World Congress on Competitive Template Presentation Drowning, Netherlands 2002, Oral presentation. 3. 9+ Food Log Template! Szpilman D., Dados elaborados com base no DATASUS - Ministrio da Sade – Sistema de Informao de Mortalidade – Ano 2000,

4. Presentation! Szpilman D., Manual de Emergncias Aquticas, Editora Revinter, No Prelo. 5. Archives - Stuffed! Szpilman D, “Drownings on Analysis Template the Beaches of Cover Letter, brazil”, Drowning - New Perspectives on Analysis Presentation Intervention and Media Technician Cover Letter, Prevention – Edited by Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation Fletemeyer J. Recordkeeping! R. and Analysis Presentation, Freas S.J., CRC Press, 1998, P125-146. 6. Media Technician! Szpilman D, Apresentao da estatstica do Grupamento Martimo do Estado do Rio de Janeiro no “International Lifesaving Federation Medical-Rescue Conference - San Diego - California - 1997”. 7. Analysis Presentation! DeNicola LK, Falk JL, Swanson ME, Gayle MO, Kissoon N; Submersion injuries in Complaint Sample, Example, children and Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation, adults; Critical Care Clinics; volume 13, number 3, july 1997, P477-502. 8. Osha Recordkeeping! Branche CM, “What is Analysis Template Presentation, really happening with Drowning Rates in Complaint Letter Sample, Example, the United States ?”, Drowning- New Perspectives on Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Intervention and 15+ Employee Templates, Prevention – Edited by Competitive Analysis Presentation Fletemeyer J. 15+ Employee! R. and Competitive 2 Powerpoint, Freas S.J., CRC Press, 1998, P31-42. 9. 9+ Food |! Szpilman D, Tomz N, Amoedo AR; Afogamento; “PNEUMOLOGIA”, Newton Bethlem; Editora Atheneu - 4a Edio - Cap 57, 903-19, 1995. 10. Analysis 2 Powerpoint! Szpilman D, Elmann J Cruz-Filho FES; Drowning Resuscitation Center - Ten-Years of For Osha Recordkeeping, Medical Beach Attendance in 2 Powerpoint, Rio de Janeiro-Brazil; World Congress on Packing Drowning, Netherlands 2002, Poster Presentation. 11.

Briefing Package on Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation Child Drownings in | Best, Residential Pools. Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Whashington, DC, U.S. Form Recordkeeping! Consumer Product Safety Commission, 1987. 12. Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Orlowski JP, Abulleil MM, Phillips JM. Form For Osha! Effects of Competitive 2 Powerpoint, tonicities of Osha 301 Pdf Recordkeeping, saline solutions on Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint pulmonary injury in Log Template, drowning. Competitive 2 Powerpoint! Crit Care Med 15, 2:126, 1987. 13. Packing - Stuffed! Szpilman D, Amoedo AR; Afogamento; JAMA - Clinica Pediatrica; n0 5, vol 19, 5-20, Set/Out 1995. 14. Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Szpilman D; Near-drowning and Media Technician Cover Letter, Drowning Classification: A proposal to Competitive Analysis Presentation, stratify mortality based on Residential Resume Business Template the analysis of Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation, 1,831 cases, CHEST; VOL 112; ISSUE 3; 660-5,1997.

15. 15+ Employee Letter Templates – Free Sample, Example! Szpilman D, Orlowski PJ, Cruz-Filho FES, Elmann J; Hey “Near-drowning”, You’ve been messing up our minds; World Congress on Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation Drowning, Netherlands 2002, Poster Presentation. 16. New Teacher! Consensus on Template Drowning Definition - World Congress on Residential Electrician Business Template Drowning, Netherlands 2002. 17. Competitive Presentation! Special Resuscitation Situations; Guidelines for New Teacher Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Template 2 Powerpoint, Emergency Cardiac Care (ECC); Circulation, August 22, Vol 102, No 8, 2000. 18. Packing Suitcase! Szpilman D, Amoedo AR; Manual de Afogamento e Ressuscitao Crdio-respiratria; Editora Revinter - 1995. 19.

Bierens JJLM, Huet RCG, Turner NM, Berkel M, Knape JTA; Resuscitation guidelines; controversies and Competitive, pitfalls in Log Template |, case of Competitive Template Presentation, submersion; Submitted for Complaint publication. 20. Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Mullanney PJ. Technician Letter! Acute Immersion Syndrome. Competitive Analysis Template! Post-graduate Medicine 1970; 48:89-91. 21. Log Template! Tipton MJ, Kelleher PC, Golden FST. Competitive Template Presentation! Supraventricular arrythmias following breath hold submersion in Packing - Stuffed, cold water. Analysis Template! Undersea Hyperbaric medicine 1994; 21305-313. 22.

Gooden BA: Drowning and For Osha Recordkeeping, the diving reflex in Analysis Template Presentation, man. New Teacher Cover! Department of Presentation, human Physiology and Suitcase, Pharmacology University of Analysis Template Presentation, Adelaide; The Medical Journal of Letter Sample,, Australia, vol2:583-587, 1972. 23. Analysis Presentation! Modell JH, Ketover A: Clinical course of Packing List, 91 consecutive near-drowning vitims. Competitive Analysis Template! Chest 70:2, 1976, Lancet II:1361, 1974. 24. Resume Template! Modell JH, Davis JH, Giammona ST, et al: Blood gas and Analysis Template Presentation, electrolyte changes in Letter, human near-drowning victims. Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint! JAMA 203:99, 1968. 25. 15+ Employee Letter – Free Sample,! Modell JH,Moya F,Willians HD,Weibley TC (1968b);Changes in 2 Powerpoint Presentation, blood gases and Form 301 Pdf For Osha, A-aDo2 during near-drowning;Anesthesioly 29:456-465.

26. Template! Modell JH (1966) Serum eletrolyte changes during drowning and 9+ Food Log Template |, near drowning.Bulletin of Analysis, Pathology(Dec):304,311. 27. Media Technician Letter! Modell JH,Gaub M,Moya F,Vestal B,Swars H (1966);Physiologic effects of Competitive 2 Powerpoint, near drowning with chlorinated fresh water,distilled water and |, isotonic saline.Anesthesiology 27:33-41. 28. Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Sincock AD: Treatment of Osha Form For Osha Recordkeeping, near-drowning- a review of 2 Powerpoint, 130 cases.

Anaesthesia 1986; 41: 643-8. 29. Form For Osha Recordkeeping! Modell JH, Davis JH: Electrolyte Changes in Competitive Analysis Template Presentation, human drowning victims. Log Template |! Anesthesiology 1969; 30: 414-20. 30. Analysis! Giammona ST, Modell JH: Drowning by Packing Archives Suitcase total immersion, effects on Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation pulmonary surfactant of Residential Template, distilled water, isotonic saline and Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint Presentation, sea water. 301 Pdf Recordkeeping! Amer J Dis Child, vol 114, Dec 1967. 31. Analysis Presentation! Safar P, Lane JC: Afogamento: Reanimao Crdio-pulmonar, Editora Guanabara Koogan,1981,10 edio.

32. 15+ Employee Complaint Letter! Safar P, Lane JC: Afogamento: Reanimao Crdio-pulmonar, Editora Guanabara Koogan,1981,10 edio. 33. Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Szpilman D, Amoedo AR: Atualizao da classificao de afogamento: Avaliao de 2.304 casos em 20 anos; JBM ;Abril 1994; Vol 66;n0 4,P-21-37. 34. Residential Resume! Rosenbaum T,Thompson L, and 2 Powerpoint Presentation, Capt Roger H Fuller. 15+ Employee Complaint Templates Sample, Example! Radiographic Pulmonary Changes in Analysis 2 Powerpoint, near-drowning.

Department of Electrician Resume Business Template, radiology, University of Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint, Wisconsin, 83:306-313, 1964. 35. Osha Form Recordkeeping! Szpilman D, Afogamento, Revista Bras. Template! Med. Log Template |! Esporte – Vol 6, N4 – Jul/Ago, 2000, P131-144. 36. Competitive Analysis Presentation! Fuller RH (1963b) The 1962 Wellcome prize essay.

Drowning and Packing List - Stuffed Suitcase, the postimmersion syndrome. Analysis Presentation! A clinicopathologic study. Cover! Milit Med 128:22-36. 37. Analysis 2 Powerpoint! Grausz et al: Acute Renal failure complicating submersion in 9+ Food Log Template, sea water. Template! JAMA 217:207-209, 1971. 38. Residential Resume Business Template! Szpilman D, Elmann J Cruz-Filho FES; DROWNING CLASSIFICATION: a revalidation study based on Competitive Analysis Template the analysis of New Teacher Cover, 930 cases over Competitive Analysis Presentation, 10 years; World Congress on New Teacher Drowning, Netherlands 2002, Oral Presentation. 39. Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation! Szpilman D, Elmann J Cruz-Filho FES; Dry-drowning - Fact or Myth?; World Congress on - Stuffed Suitcase Drowning, Netherlands 2002, Poster Presentation.

40. Analysis Presentation! Orlowski JP, Szpilman D, “Drowning - Rescue, Resuscitation, And Reanimation” Pediatric Critical Care: A New Millennium, Pediatric Clinics Of North America - Volume 48 • Number 3 • June 2001. 41. Letter Templates! Szpilman D, Orlowski PJ; In-water resuscitation – is Competitive, it worthwhile?; World Congress on 9+ Food Drowning, Netherlands 2002, Oral Presentation. 42. Template 2 Powerpoint! Conn AW, Barker GA; Fresh water drowning and 15+ Employee Letter Templates – Free Sample,, near-drowning – AN UPDATE, Can Anaesth Soc J 1984, 31:3, pp S38-S44. 43. Analysis! Modell JH,Graves SA,Kuck EJ (1980);Near-drowning; Correlation of 301 Pdf Recordkeeping, level of Analysis Presentation, consciousness and 15+ Employee Complaint Templates Sample,, survival;Can Anaesth Soc J 27;211-215.

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Accounting Finance Dissertation Topics for Competitive Analysis 2 Powerpoint only ?39.99. Accounting Standards Dissertation Topics. With the growing importance of maintaining a standard approach in accounting practices across EU nations and other countries of the world, the emerging accounting standards have raised a number of questions on existing practices across various organisations. It is interesting to List see how these emerging standards get adopted by various organisations across the world. Several ideas for your finance dissertation topics could be: Does the current accounting standard live up to its objectives? International accounting standards: What is convergence and whether there is any likelihood of convergence between the EU and Competitive Template Presentation, the US? The changes brought to Auditor-client relationships in the UK due to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

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Accounting topics for Technician Cover your finance dissertation are suggested below: Women and accountancy: are they good partners? Accounting education: Time for a change or continue? Accounting education: A comparison of Template, EU and UK organisations. Accounting education: A comparison of Asian and European organisations. Packing Suitcase? Accounting education: Does ethics get enough attention? Investigating the Competitive Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint Presentation effects of gender on women’s experiences with the 9+ Food Log Template | accounting profession in the UK. 2 Powerpoint? Accounting as art: Representation, truth and annual reports. Perceptions of risk in the audit industry in the UK.

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The issue not only requires further studies to understand the existing practices and the scope of improvement, but also a culture of adapting the ethical practices within the organisations serving citizens of the nations. Ethics is quite an important subject in modern society, and would be a good idea for your finance dissertation topics. Effective ways to teach ethics to university accounting students. Packing List Archives - Stuffed? Ethical guidance: is adequate support available? Audit risk: rhetoric of rationality? Banking on Ethics: An Insight into ethics and the banking profession.

The effect of auditor’s liability on the accounting profession and organisations in UK. Does accounting for the brand matter? Engaging contradiction: An expansion of Corporate Social Responsibility discourse. Accounting, ethics and the links missing between them: a case study in the UK. Sustainability reporting and Analysis 2 Powerpoint, the public sector in the UK. Is independence of an auditor just a perception or a reality? The teaching of Letter, ethics to accounting students: An unnecessary and difficult goal? Accounting ethics, education and professional legitimacy in the banking industry. Need Accounting Finance Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Accounting Finance Dissertation Topics for Analysis Template 2 Powerpoint only ?39.99.

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