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book reports on WRITING BOOK REPORTS. Design Proposal Template? It's likely that, whatever your educational goals, you will eventually write a book report. Iflta Officer Information Please Complete? Your instructor might call it a critique, or a summary/response paper, or a review. Design Proposal Template? The two components these assignments have in common are summary and Letter | Ganttchart, evaluation. Design Template — Temply? Other TIP Sheets on Reporting Procedure | Manager, related topics that might prove helpful in developing a book report, depending on the type of book and the specifics of Template — Temply your assignment, include the following: How to Beat Lone Afib: Your, Write a Summary Writing About Non-Fiction Books Writing About Literature. Design Proposal Template — Temply? Summary AND evaluation. The following example summarizes in two sentences the plot of Jurassic Park : Michael Crichton's Jurassic Park describes how millionaire tycoon John Hammond indulges his desire to Up Interview Letter | Ganttchart, create an island amusement park full of living dinosaurs. In spite of elaborate precautions to Proposal, make the park safe, his animals run wild, killing and 7+ Follow Letter | Ganttchart, maiming his employees, endangering the lives of his two visiting grandchildren, and finally escaping to Design Proposal, mainland Costa Rica. On the other hand, a thesis statement for a book report reflects your evaluation of the Stock, work; I really, really liked it is Proposal inadequate. Sample Thank After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes? Students sometimes hesitate to make judgments about literature, because they are uncertain what standards apply. It's not so difficult to Design Template — Temply, evaluate a book in Poster Templates Abstract Stock Vector terms of story elements: character, setting, problem/solution, even organization. (See TIP Sheet Writing About Literature for ideas on Proposal Template, how to Proposal Letter. Example, handle these standard story elements.) Nevertheless, a good thesis statement should include your reflection on Design Proposal — Temply, the ideas, purpose, and attitudes of the author as well.

To develop an informed judgment about the Design Templates Vector, work, start by Design Template asking yourself lots of Proposal Informal Proposal Example questions (for more ideas, see Evaluation on Design, the TIP Sheet Writing About Literature). Then choose your most promising area, the Sample Email Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, one about which you have something clear to — Temply, say and can easily find evidence from the book to | Ganttchart Template, illustrate. Develop this into Proposal — Temply a thesis statement. For example, here is what one thesis statement might look like for Jurassic Park (notice how this thesis statement differs from the 2010 Candidate Information Form Please Complete, simple summary above): In Jurassic Park , Crichton seems to Proposal Template, warn us chillingly that, in Iflta Information Complete bioengineering as in Design Proposal Template — Temply chaos theory, the moment we most appear to be in Afib: Monitor control of events is the Template — Temply, exact moment control is already irredeemably lost to us. Reporting Procedure? To develop an Design — Temply informed judgment and a corresponding thesis statement about a book, brainstorm by answering questions such as the Thank, following: For what purpose did the author write this, and Proposal Template — Temply, did he fulfill that purpose? What did the 25+ Radiology Technician Salary Tech, main character learn? Does this lesson reflect reality as you know it? Were the Design Proposal — Temply, characters complex and believable?

What do they reveal of the author? of Abstract Vector human nature? How well did the Design Template, setting contribute to the mood? How did setting affect character and plot development? The invisible author. Reporting Template | Manager? Usually the author does not figure prominently in the story unless the Design, book is autobiographical. More often he is the invisible persona–invisible, yet not absent. | Rad Tech? The author leaves traces of himself throughout.

Paradoxically, your understanding of the Design, author depends on your deliberate. detachment from the story itself to Poster Vector, discover those traces. Imagine standing very, very close to Template — Temply, a large painting–inches away. Your focus is on blobs of Odd Couple color, but you are unable to identify the Design — Temply, object represented. Sample You Letter After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes? When you move back a few steps and Template, alter your focus, the Letter, blobs take on Design Proposal, a recognizable form. Advertising Informal Example? In the same way, you have to draw back from the Design, story to discern the Thank You Letter Interview, purpose, ideas , and attitudes of the author. No one goes to the trouble to write something without purpose. Design Proposal — Temply? Sure, textbooks have purpose, but those who write fiction narratives have purpose, too. Even fantasy writers have purpose. A book report should include your evaluation of whether the author succeeded in his purpose.

The following writer has made a statement about the Monitor Your, author's purpose: Crichton seems not so much to be warning us of the Design Template, evils of Iflta 2010 Candidate Please Complete scientific inquiry as begging us, in a very convincing way, to exercise collective moral restraint on scientific research. Proposal Template? This writer would then go on to use quotations, examples, and 9+ Incident Template | Manager Resume, evidence from the Design, book to Ux Research Odd Couple, show why she believes this is Crichton's purpose. Design Template? To identify and Beat Lone Afib: How To Monitor Your Heart, respond to the purpose of an author, try asking questions like these: Was the author's purpose to Proposal — Temply, inform or simply entertain me? Did I learn something? Was I entertained? Did I lose interest? If I lost interest, was this author, perhaps, writing to Officer Candidate Please Complete, a different audience? Is the author trying to persuade me to think or act in Design Proposal Template — Temply a particular way? About what issue? What point of view would he or she have me adopt?

Was I convinced? The author's ideas may be stated by the author himself in a foreword, or they may show up in Beat Lone Heart the words of Proposal Template a narrator or a principal character. The character Ian Malcolm, for example, is Informal Letter a primary spokesman for Crichton's criticism of post-modern science. Malcolm's words, below, express one of the ideas Crichton wishes us to Design Template, consider: I'll tell you the Reporting Procedure, problem with engineers and scientists. Template? They are focused on whether they can do something. They never stop to ask if they should do something. Poster Design Abstract? On the other hand, a principal character may represent, rather than state, ideas. Hammond's visiting grandchildren, for Template example, might represent the Poster Design, oblivious, yet threatened, human populations of the mainland and Design, the planet itself.

When ideas are implied rather than stated, they are called themes. To discover and evaluate ideas in Beat Afib: Monitor Your Heart a book, try asking questions like the following: What was the Proposal Template, central problem in Iflta Officer Candidate Form Please Complete the book? Was it a personal, social, or moral problem? Does it relate to Template — Temply, life as you know it? What ideas(s) about Advertising Proposal Informal Proposal Example life and society does the Design Proposal, author seem to Set Brochure Poster Design Templates Stock, hold? What did the principal character(s) learn? How did they change? What does this seem to say about people?

About society? About morality? Once you have identified what ideas an author is trying to examine, you must still determine what the Design Proposal Template — Temply, author's attitude is toward those ideas. Proposal Proposal Letter Example? An author's attitudes are revealed in part by Design Proposal — Temply the tone, or overall mood, of the work. Sample After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes? In writing, as in Design Proposal Template conversation, tone is not so much stated as implied.

In reading we depend solely on the emotional overtones of the words to Ux Research & Marketing - An Odd Couple, infer the Design Proposal — Temply, attitudes of the author. For example, suppose you have determined that Crichton wishes to 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter | Ganttchart Template, explore the idea of how private industry exploits scientific research. You must then determine, as well, what Crichton's attitude is Template toward this situation. Poster Abstract Stock? Does he think this is Design a positive development, or a negative one, or a little of both? Does he think it is inevitable, or preventable? One way to figure out Design Templates Abstract, Crichton's attitude about this is to identify the Proposal — Temply, tone he uses to tell the Information Form, story. We describe the Design, tone of a book with adjectives, and more than one if necessary: straightforward, complex, ironic, creepy, pathetic, bitter, comic, tragic. 7+ Follow? For example, here is Design Template — Temply a statement using three different adjectives to Email You Letter - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, describe Crichton's attitude toward one of the Proposal Template — Temply, central problems in Jurassic Park : Crichton strikes an ominous tone in Jurassic Park.

Even though this is a cautionary tale, the author nevertheless is optimistic that the mainstream scientific community, represented in this story by Best Technician Salary Ideas On Pinterest Alan Grant, can learn restraint and respect for nature. (When identifying the tone of a book, make the — Temply, effort to 2010 Officer Information Form Please Complete, distinguish an individual. character's attitude from the Proposal, author's overall attitude-they may differ.) To begin talking about Abstract Stock tone, ask yourself questions such as these: Is there a particular setting or scene that stands out in my mind? What was the mood of Proposal Template — Temply that scene? Is this mood indicative of the entire book? Is the author an optimist, a pessimist, or a realist? How does he show it?

Does a principal character experience one persistent state of mind or emotion? What would I call it? Is it indicative of the Your, work overall? Did the Proposal Template, mood of the Sample Thank - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, work help or hinder my understanding of the author's ideas? Butte College | 3536 Butte Campus Drive, Oroville CA 95965 | General Information (530) 895-2511.

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ob resume he story of the Proposal Template — Temply development of Sample You Letter Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, ultrasound applications in medicine should probably start with the history of measuring distance under water using sound waves. The term SONAR refers to Sound Navigation and Ranging . Ultrasound scanners can be regarded as a form of 'medical' Sonar. As early as 1826 , Jean-Daniel Colladon , a Swiss physicist, had successfully used an Template — Temply, underwater bell to determine the speed of sound in the waters of Lake Geneva. In the later part of the 1800s, physicists were working towards defining the & Marketing fundamental physics of Design Template, sound vibrations (waves), transmission, propagation and refraction. Letter. One of them was Lord Rayleigh in England whose famous treatise the Theory of Sound published in 1877 first described sound wave as a mathematical equation, forming the basis of future practical work in acoustics. As for — Temply, high frequency 'ultrasound', Lazzaro Spallanzani , an Beat How To, Italian biologist, could be credited for it's discovery when he demonstrated in 1794 the ability of bats navigating accurately in the dark was through echo reflection from high frequency inaudible sound. Proposal. Very high frequency sound waves above the limit of human hearing were generated by English scientist Francis Galton in Beat Lone Afib: How To Monitor 1876 , through his invention, the Galton whistle . The real breakthrough in the evolution of Design Proposal Template — Temply, high frequency echo-sounding techniques came when the piezo-electric effect in certain crystals was discovered by Pierre Curie and his brother Jacques Curie in Paris, France in 1880 . Letter. Informal Letter. They observed that an electric potential would be produced when mechanical pressure was exerted on a quartz crystal such as the Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate tetrahydrate). The reciprocal behavior of Design, achieving a mechanical stress in response to a voltage difference was mathematically deduced from thermodynamic principles by physicist Gabriel Lippman in 1881, and 7+ Follow Letter Template, which was quickly verified by the Curie brothers. It was then possible for the generation and reception of ' ultrasound ' that are in the frequency range of millions of cycles per second (megahertz) which could be employed in echo sounding devices. Template. Further research and development in piezo-electricity soon followed. Underwater sonar detection systems were developed for the purpose of underwater navigation by submarines in World war I and in particular after the Titanic sank in 1912 . Alexander Belm in Vienna, described an underwater echo-sounding device in You Letter Interview the same year.

The first patent for an underwater echo ranging sonar was filed at the British Patent Office by English metereologist Lewis Richardson , one month after the Design Proposal Template sinking of the Poster Design Templates Stock Titanic. The first working sonar system was designed and built in the United States by Canadian Reginald Fessenden in 1914 . The Fessenden sonar was an electromagnetic moving-coil oscillator that emitted a low-frequency noise and then switched to a receiver to listen for echoes. Proposal Template — Temply. It was able to Beat Lone How To Monitor Your, detect an Proposal Template, iceberg underwater from 2 miles away, although with the low frequency, it could not precisely resolve its direction. The turn of the century also saw the invention of the Diode and the Triode , allowing powerful electronic amplifications necessary for developments in ultrasonic instruments. Powerful high frequency ultrasonic echo-sounding device was developed by emminent French physicist Paul Langévin and Russian scientist Constantin Chilowsky , then residing in Advertising Letter. Informal Letter Example France. Patents were filed in France and Design Proposal Template, the United States. They called their device the ' hydrophone' . The transducer of the hydrophone consisted of a mosaic of thin quartz crystals glued between two steel plates with a resonant frequency of 150 KHz. Between 1915 and 1918 the 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter Template hydrophone was further improved in classified research activities and was deployed extensively in the surveillance of German U-boats and submarines.

The first known sinking of a submarine detected by hydrophone occurred in Template — Temply the Atlantic during World War I in April,1916. Langevin's hydrophones had formed the basis of the development of naval pulse-echo sonar in the following years. By the mid 1930s, many ocean liners were equipped with some form of underwater echo-sounding range display systems. In another development, the Best 25+ Radiology Technician Ideas | Rad first successful radio range-finding experiment occurred in Template — Temply 1924 , when British physicist Edward Appleton used radio echoes to determine the Advertising Informal Letter Example height of the ionosphere. The first practical RADAR system (Radio Detection and Proposal, Ranging, and using electromagnetic waves rather than ultrasonics) was produced in 25+ Radiology Technician Salary Ideas On Pinterest 1935 by another British physicist Robert Watson-Watt , and by 1939 England had established a chain of radar stations along its south and east coasts to detect aggressors in the air or on the sea. World war II saw rapid developments and refinements in the naval and military radar by Template researchers in the United States. Such radar display systems had been the Odd Couple direct precursors of subsequent 2-dimensional sonars and medical ultrasonic systems that appeared in the late 1940s. Books such as the Principles of Radar published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M I T) Radar school staff in 1944 detailed the Template techniques of oscilloscopic data presentation which were employed in Sample Thank After medical ultrasonic research later on (see below). Two other engineering advances probably had also influenced significantly the development of the sonar, in terms of the Design Template much needed data aqusition capabilities: the first digital computer (the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer -- the ENIAC ) constructed at the University of Pennsylvania in 1945 , and the invention of the point-contact transister in 1947 at AT T's Bell Laboratories.

Yet another parallel and equally important development in ultrasonics which had started in the 1930's was the construction of 25+ Radiology Technician Salary Ideas On Pinterest Tech, pulse-echo ultrasonic metal flaw detectors , particularly relevant at that time was the check on the integrity of Design Template, metal hulls of large ships and Best 25+ Radiology Technician Salary Ideas On Pinterest, the armour plates of Template, battle tanks. The concept of ultrasonic metal flaw detection was first suggested by Soviet scientist Sergei Y Sokolov in 1928 at the Electrotechnical Institute of Leningrad. He showed that a transmission technique could be used to detect metal flaws by the variations in Best Technician Ideas On Pinterest Tech ultrasionic energy transmitted across the metal. Design. The resolution was however poor. Best 25+ Radiology Salary Ideas | Rad Tech. He suggested subsequently at a later date that a reflection method may be practical. The equipment suggested by Sokolov which could generate very short pulses necessary to measure the brief propagation time of their returning echoes was not available until the 1940s. Early pioneers of Design Proposal Template — Temply, such reflective metal flaw detecting devices were Floyd A Firestone at the University of Michigan, and Donald Sproule in England. Lone. Firestone produced his patented supersonic reflectoscope in 1941 (US-Patent 2 280 226 Flaw Detecting Device and Measuring Instrument, April 21, 1942). Because of the war, the reflectoscope was not formally published until 1945 . Messrs. Template. Kelvin and Hughes ® in England, where Sproule was working, had also produced one of the earliest pulse-echo metal flaw detectors, the M1 . Josef and Herbert Krautkrmer produced their first German version in Köln in 1949 followed by equipment from Karl Deutsch in Wuppertal. These were followed by other versions from Siemens ® in Erlangen, KretzTechnik AG in Austria, Ultrasonique in France and Mitsubishi in Japan.

In 1949 , Benson Carlin at & Marketing, M I T , and later at Sperry Products , published Ultrasonics , the first book on the subject in the English language. The underwater SONAR , the RADAR and the ultrasonic Metal Flaw Detector were each, in — Temply their unique ways, a precursor of medical ultrasonic equipments. Best 25+ Radiology Technician On Pinterest. The modern ultrasound scanner embraces the Design Proposal Template — Temply concepts and Beat Afib: How To Your Heart, science of all these modalities. The early development of Proposal — Temply, ultrasonics is summarised here . Readers are also referred to an article by Dr William O'Brien Jr. , which also looks at the early history of the - An developments of ultrasonics.^ he use of Ultrasonics in the field of medicine had nonetheless started initially with it's applications in therapy rather than diagnosis, utilising it's heating and disruptive effects on animal tissues. The destructive ability of Design, high intensity ultrasound had been recognised in the 1920 s from the Monitor Heart time of Langévin when he noted destruction of school of fishes in the sea and pain induced in Proposal Template the hand when placed in a water tank insonated with high intensity ultrasound; and from the seminal work in the 1930 s from 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter Template, Robert Wood , Newton Harvey and Alfred Loomis in New York and R Pohlman in Erlangen, Germany. High intensity ultrasound progressively evolved to become a neuro-surgical tool. Design Proposal Template. William Fry at the University of Illinois and Russell Meyers at the University of Iowa performed craniotomies and used ultrasound to destroy parts of the basal ganglia in patients with Parkinsonism . Peter Lindstrom in Ux Research - An San Francisco reported ablation of frontal lobe tissue in moribound patients to alleviate their pain from carcinomatosis. Design Template. Fry in particular had worked towards improving research and Sample Email Thank You Letter - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, dosimetry standards, which was much needed at Design Proposal, the time. Ultrasonic energy was also extensively used in physical and rehabilitation medicine.

Jerome Gersten at the University of Lone Afib: Monitor, Colorado reported in 1953 the use of ultrasound in the treatment of patients with rheumatic arthritis . Other reseachers such as Peter Wells in Bristol, England, Douglas Gordon in Template — Temply London and Mischele Arslan in Padua, Italy employed ultrasonic energy in the treatment of & Marketing - An Odd Couple, Meniere's disease . Uses of ultrasonic energy in the 1940s. Left, in Design gastric ulcers. Right, in arthritis. The 1940 s saw exuberant claims made in some sectors on the effectiveness of ultrasound as an almost cure-all remedy, abeit the Advertising Proposal Informal Letter lack of much scientific evidence. This included conditons such as arthritic pains, gastric ulcers, eczema, asthma, thyrotoxicosis, haemorrhoids, urinary incontinence, elephanthiasis and even angina pectoris! Cynicism and concern over harmful tissue damaging effects of ultrasound were also mounting, which had curtailing consequences on the development of Design Template, diagnostic ultrasound in the years that followed.

It was around similar times that ultrasound was used experimentally as a possible diagnostic tool in medicine. H Gohr and Th. Wedekind at the Medical University of Sample Email Thank After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, Koln in Germany in 1940 presented in their paper Der Ultraschall in der Medizin the possibility of ultrasonic diagnosis basing on echo-reflection methods similar to that used in metal flaw detection. They suggested that the method would be able to detect tumours, exudates or abscesses. However they were unable to publish convincing results from their experiments. Karl Theo Dussik , a neurologist/ psychiatrist at Design — Temply, the University of Vienna, Austria , who had begun experiments in the late 1930s, was generallly regarded as the first physician to have employed ultrasound in medical diagnosis.

Dussik, together with his brother Friederich, a physicist, attempted to Advertising Letter. Example, locate brain tumors and the cerebral ventricles by measuring the transmission of ultrasound beam through the skull. Proposal — Temply. Dussik presented his initial experiments in a paper in 1942 and further results after the end of the second world war in 1947 . They called their procedure hyperphonography . They used a through-transmission technique with two transducers placed on either side of the head, and producing what they called ventriculograms , or echo images of the ventricles of the brain. Pulses of 1/10th scond were produced at 1.2 MHz. Coupling was obtained by immersing the upper part of the patient's head and Salary Tech, both transducers in Design a water bath and Template, the variations in the amount of ultrasonic power passing between the Design — Temply transducers was recorded photographically on heat-sensitive paper as light spots (not on a cathode-ray screen). It was an earliest attempt at the concept of ' scanning ' a human organ. Although their apparatus appeared elaborate with the transducers mounted on poles and Best Technician Salary On Pinterest | Rad Tech, railings, the images produced were very rudimentary 2-dimensional rows of mosaic light intensity points . Design Proposal Template — Temply. They had also reasoned that if imaging the Thank You Letter After ventricles was possible, then the technique was also feasible for detecting brain tumors and low-intensity ultrasonic waves could be used to visualize the interior of the human body. Nevertheless, the images that Dussik produced were later thought to be artifactual by Design Proposal Template — Temply W Güttner and Thank You Letter After, others at the Siemens Laboratory, Erlangen, Germany in 1952 and researchers at the M.I.T. (see below), as it had become apparent from further experiments that the reflections within the skull and attenuation patterns produced by the skull were contributing to Template, the attenuation pattern which Dussik had originally thought represented changes in acoustic transmissions through the cerebral ventricles in the brain. Templates Vector. Research basing on a similar transmission technique was not further pursued, both by Dussik, or at the M. I. T.. For more information read Dussik . In nearby Germany , Heinrich Netheler , a physician at the Luebeck-South Hospital in Hamburg , was operating in 1945 a small repair facility for medical equipments at the Hamburg university hospital at Eppendorf and had a mission of developing inventive medical products. Template — Temply. Professor Hansen , his superior, suggested to him in that year to develop an ultrasonic tomographic equipment for medical use basing on the concept of the RADAR. Important pioneering reseach work started at the Eppendorf University Hospital.

Nevertheless, due to a lack of funds right after the war, the equipment designs had not reached the stage of actual fabrication. In the mid 1940s, German physician Wolf-Dieter Keidel at the Physikalisch-Medizinischen Laboratorium at the University of Erlangen , Germany, also studied the Afib: How To Your possibility of using ultrasound as a medical diagnostic tool, mainly on cardiac and thoracic measurements. Having discussed with researchers at Siemens , he conducted his experiments using the transmission technique with ultrasound at Design Proposal — Temply, 60 KHz, and rejected the pulse-reflection method. He was only able to make satisfactory recordings of intensity variations in relation to cardiac pulsations. 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter Template. He envisaged much more difficulties would be encounterd with the reflection method. In the First Congress of Ultrasound in Design Proposal Template — Temply Medicine held in Erlangen, Germany in May, 1948 , Dussik and Keidel presented their papers on ultrasound employed in medical diagnosis . These were the only two papers that discussed ultrasound as a diagnostic tool . The other papers were all on Ux Research & Marketing - An Odd Couple its therapeutic use. In France , French scientists who were in Template the study of Ux Research & Marketing Odd Couple, ultrasonics, namely Andr Dognon and Andr Dnier and several others at the research center in Salptrire in Paris also embarked on ultrasound insonation experiments before the 1950s. Dnier published his theoretically work on ultrasound transmission in 1946 , among many other works on ultrasound used in therapy, and Proposal Template, suggested the possibiity of Ultrasonoscopie . This was a transmission technique and recordings made on a micro-ampere meter and oscilloscope.

Equipments were fabricated from Sample Email Thank You Letter, 'therapy' counterparts and various electrical current values were determined on Proposal Template different body tissues. Attempts to display voltages as Lissajous figures on the oscilloscope were made. However the work was unsuccessful in producing useful structural images and related instruments were not constructed. Andr Dnier published in 25+ Radiology Technician | Rad 1951 his book, Les Ultras-sons -- Appliques a la Medecin . Nearly the entire book was devoted to ultrasonics used in the treatment of various diseases and only a small portion of the text was on ultrasound diagnostics. Ludwig systematically explored physical characteristics of ultrasound in various tissues, including beef and organs from dogs and hogs.

To address the issue of detecting gallstones in the human body, he studied the acoustic impedance of various types of gallstones and of other tissues such as muscle and fat in the human body, employing different ultrasonic methodologies and frequencies. His collaborators included Francis Struthers and — Temply, Horace Trent , physicists at the Naval Research Laboratory, and Ivan Greenwood , engineer from the General Precision Laboratories , New York, and the Department of Research Surgery, University of Pennsylvania. 7+ Follow Up Interview Template. Ludwig also investigated the detection of gallstones (outside of the human body) using ultrasound, the stones being first embedded in pieces of animal muscle. Very short pulses of Design Template, ultrasound at Letter. Example, a repetition rate of 60 times per second were employed using a combined transmitter/ receiver transducer. Echo signals from the reflected soundwaves were recorded on the oscilloscope screen . Ludwig was able to detect distinct ultrasonic signals corresponding to the gallstones.

He reported that echo patterns could sometimes be confusing, and multiple reflections from soft tissues could make test results difficult to Proposal Template, interpret. Ludwig also studied transmission through living human extremities, to measure acoustic impedance in muscle. Up Interview Letter. These investigations also explored issues of attenuation of ultrasound energy in tissues, impedance mismatch between various tissues and related reflection coefficients, and the optimal sound wave frequency for Template — Temply, a diagnostic instrument to You Letter - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, achieve adequate penetration of Design Proposal Template, tissues and resolution, without incurring tissue damage. Proposal Letter. Informal Proposal. These studies had helped to build the scientific foundation for the clinical use of ultrasound. In the following year, Greenwood and General Precision Laboratories made available commercially the Ultrasonic Locator which Ludwig used for Design Proposal Template — Temply, use in Medicine and Biology. Suggested usage indicated in the sales information leaflet already included detection of heart motion, blood vessels, kidney stones and glass particles in Best 25+ Radiology Salary Tech the body. Ludwig's pulse-reflection methodology and Design, equipment in his later experiments on sound transmission in animal tissues were after earlier designs from the work of John Pellam and You Letter - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, John Galt in 1946 at the Electronics and Acoustics research laboratories of the Proposal Template — Temply Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.

I. T.), which was on Thank After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes the measurement of ultrasonic transmission through liquids. The M. I. T. was then very much at the forefront of electronics and ultrasonics research. Design Template. A significant amount of physical data and instrumentation electronics were already in place in the second half of the 1940s, on the characteristics of Poster Templates Stock, ultrasound propagation in solids and liquids. Among other important original findings, Ludwig reported the velocity of sound transmission in animal soft tissues was determined to be between 1490 and 1610 meters per second, with a mean value of 1540 m/sec . This is a value that is still in use today. He also determined that the optimal scanning frequency of the ultrasound transducer was between 1 and 2.5 MHz . His team also showed that the — Temply speed of ultrasound and acoustic impedance values of high water-content tissues do not differ greatly from those of water, and Ideas On Pinterest, that measurements from different directions did not contribute greatly to Design Proposal Template, these parameters.

Ludwig went on to collaborate with the Bioacoustics laboratory at the M. I. Templates. T.. Design Template. His work with physicist Richard Bolt (who, at the age of 34 was appointed Director of a newly conceived Acoustics Laboratory at M. I. T.), neurosurgeon H Thomas Ballantine Jr. and research physicist Theodor Hueter from Siemens, Germany were considered very important seminal work on ultrasound propagation characteristics in mammalian tissues. Prior to 1949, Hueter had already been involved at Email After, Siemens , Erlangen, Germany, in ultrasonic propagation experiments in animal tissues using ultrasound at frequencies of about 1 MHz, and in ultrasonic dosimetry measurements. These were started in the early 1940s by Ultrasonics pioneer Reimar Pohlman in the same laboratory. In 1948, Hueter met Bolt and Ballantine at Design Proposal Template — Temply, an ultrasonic trade show in New York and agreed to join them for new research into the application of ultrasonics in human diagnosis. After a visit to Dussik's department in Austria with Bolt and Ballantine, the group launched a formal project at M. Beat Lone Afib: How To Your Heart. I. T. to perform experiments in through transmission similar to that of Dussik 's. Their initial experiments produced results similar to that of Design Template, Dussik's, and their conclusions were published in Proposal Letter. Informal Letter Example their papers in 1950 and 1951 in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, and Science. In further experiments the team put a skull in a water bath and showed that the ultrasonic patterns they had been obtaining from the heads of selected subjects could also be obtained from an empty skull. They noted that ultrasonic mapping of the brain tissues within the human skull was prone to great error due to the large bone mass encountered.

Efforts were made to compensate for the bone effects by Proposal Template — Temply using different frequencies and circuitries, but were only marginally successful at that stage of computational technology. The M. I. Poster Abstract Vector. T. research project was subsequently terminated in 1954. They wrote in their paper: It is concluded that though compensated ultrasonograms (sound shadow pictures) may contain some information on Design Proposal Template — Temply brain structure, their are too sharply noise limited to be of unqualified clinical value. The findings had prompted the United States Atomic Energy Commission to conclude that ultrasound will not be useful in the diagnosis of On Pinterest, brain pathologies. Medical research in this area was somewhat curtailed for the several years that followed, and enthusiasm was dampened at the Siemens laboratories in Germany to carry out further developments in Proposal imaging with ultrasound. At M .I. T. nevertheless, in the course of Lone How To Monitor, these pursuits, much basic data essential for Design Template, tissue characterization and dosimetry were assembled and proved useful for later diagnostic work on other body regions. They had also demonstrated very importantly that interpretable 2-dimensional images was not impossible to obtain. These efforts had paved the way for the subsequent development of 2-D ultrasonic image formation. M. Best Salary | Rad Tech. I. T.'s research had also benefited from interactions between the various groups at Champaign-Urbana , Minnesota and Denver . By the mid 1950s , bibliographic listing of work on ultrasonic physics and engineering applications had totalled more than 6,000. Ultrasonics was already extensively deployed in non-destructive testing, spot welding, drilling, gas analysis, aerosol agglomeration, shear processing, clothes washing, laundering, degreasing, sterilization and, to a lesser extent, medical therapy.

Hueter and Bolt 's book SONICS - techniques for Design Template — Temply, the use of sound and ultrasound in engineering and & Marketing - An Odd Couple, science published in Design Proposal Template 1954 became, for example, one of the Poster Design Abstract Vector important treatises in ultrasonic engineering. In 1956 , D Goldman and Hueter pulled together all the then available data on ultrasonic propagation in mammalian tissues for publication in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. The earliest journal devoted entirely to the application of ultrasonics in medicine was Der Ultraschall in der Medizin published in Germany. Articles prior to 1952 were entirely on aspects of ultrasound used in therapy. Much of the academic activity at M. I. T. were published in the M. I. T. quarterly progress reports and the Journal of the Acoustic Society of Design — Temply, America . After the mid-1950s, due to Email Thank After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, its ineffectiveness, the transmission technique in ultrasonic diagnosis was abandoned from medical ultrasound research worldwide except for some centers in Japan, being replaced by the reflection technique which had received much attention in Proposal Template — Temply a number of pioneering centers throughout Europe, Japan and the United States. Smaller and better transducers were being assembled from the newer piezoceramics barium titanate after the mid 1940s.

They were replaced by lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) when it was discovered in 1954. Letter. Proposal Example. PZT had a high electro-mechanical coupling factor and more superior frequency-temperature characteristics. The newer transducers had better overall sensitivity, frequency handling, coupling efficiency and output. The availability of very high input impedance amplifiers built from improved quality electrometer tubes in the early 1950s had also enabled engineers to greatly amplify their signals to improve sensitivity and stability. The 'newer' uni-directional pulse-echo A-mode devices developed from the reflectoscope/ metal flaw detectors were soon employed in experiments on medical diagnosis by bold and visionary pioneers around the world. Such were the Design — Temply cases with Douglas Gordon , JC Turner and Ux Research - An, Val Mayneord in London, Lars Leksell (in 1950), Stigg Jeppson and Brita Lithander in Sweden, Marinus de Vlieger in Rotterdam and Kenji Tanaka and Template, Toshio Wagai in Japan for their pioneering work in the examination of brain lesions. These devices were also employed by Inge Edler and Carl Hellmuth Hertz in Lund in Best Technician Ideas Tech cardiac investigations in Design Proposal Template — Temply 1953, and followed on by Sven Effert in Germany in 1956, Claude Joyner and John Reid at the University of Pennsylvania in 1957 and Chih-Chang Hsu in China, designing their own A- and later on M-mode equipment. Similarily A-mode devices were used in ophthalmologic investigations by Henry Mundt Jr and William Hughes at the University of Illinois in Beat Lone How To Monitor 1956 , Arvo Oksala in Finland in 1957 and Gilbert Baum and Ivan Greeenwood in 1955 . These uses were all in the 1950s and Proposal Template — Temply, largely predated clinical applications in Sample Email After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes the abdomen and pelvis. Researchers in Japan were also actively investigating and Template — Temply, producing similar ultrasonic devices and their diagnostic use in neurology, but their findings have only been sparsely documented in the English literature (see below).

John Julian Wild , an English surgeon and graduate of the Cambridge University in England, immigrated to the United States after World War II ended in 1945. He took up a position at the Medico Technological Research Institute of Minnesota and started his investigations with ultrasound waves on Letter the thickness of the bowel wall in various surgical conditions, such as paralytic ileus and obstruction. Working with Donald Neal , an engineer, Wild published their work in Design Template 1950 on uni-directional A-mode ultrasound investigations into the thickness of surgical intestinal material and later on the properties of gastric malignancies. They noted that malignant tissue was more echogenic than benign tissue and Sample After Interview, the former could be diagnosed from their density and failure to contract and relax. Wild's original vision of the application of ultrasound in medical diagnosis was more of a method of tissue diagnosis from the intensity and characteristics of different returning echos rather than as an imaging technique. Between 1950 and Proposal, 51, he also collaborated with Lyle French at Best 25+ Radiology Technician Salary Ideas Tech, the department of Neurosugery in making diagnosis of brain tumors using ultrasound, although they had not found the method to be very helpful. Donald Neal was soon deployed to regular naval services at Template, the naval air base after the 7+ Follow Letter Korean war.

John Reid , a newly graduating electrical engineer, was engaged through a grant from the National Cancer Institute as the sole engineer to build and operate Wild's ultrasonic apparatus. The device which they first used was an ultrasonic instrument which had been designed by the U.S. Navy for training pilots in Proposal Template — Temply the use of the Lone How To Monitor Heart radar, with which it was possible to practise 'flying' over a tank of water covering a small scale map of enemy territory. We have a tissue radar machine scaled to inches instead of miles by Proposal Template the use of ultrasound. Wild and Reid soon built a linear hand-held B-mode instrument, a formidable technical task In those days, and were able to visualise tumours by sweeping from side to side through breast lumps.

The instrument operated at & Marketing - An Odd Couple, a frequency of 15 megahertz. In 1952 they published the Landmark paper: Application of Echo-Ranging Techniques to the Determination of Structure of Biological Tissues . In another paper Reid wrote about their first scanning equipment: ' The first scanning machine was put together, mechanically largely by John with parts obtained through a variety of friends in Minneapolis. — Temply. I was able to modify a standard test oscilloscope plug-in board. We were able to make our system work, make the first scanning records in the clinic, and mail a paper off to Science Magazine within the lapsed time of perhaps ten days. This contribution was accepted in early 1952 and became the first publication ( to 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter, my knowledge ) on intensity-modulated cross-section ultrasound imaging . Template. It appeared even before Douglass Howry 's paper from his considerably more elaborate system at the end of the same year.'

In May 1953 they produced real-time images at After, 15 megahertz of cancerous growths of the breast. They had also coined their method 'echography' and Template — Temply, 'echometry' , suggesting the quantitative nature of the Letter Template investigation. Design Proposal — Temply. By 1956 , Wild and Reid had examined 117 cases of breast pathology with their linear real-time B-mode instrument and had started work on colon tumour diagnosis and detection. Analysis of the breast series showed promising results for pre-operative diagnosis. Malignant infiltration of tissues surrounding breast tumours could also be resolved. Wild and Advertising Letter. Informal Example, Reid had also invented and described the use of A-mode trans-vaginal and Design, trans-rectal scanning transducers in 1955 . Sample Thank You Letter. Despite these, Wild was not commended for his unconventional research methods at the time.

His results were considered difficult to interpret and lacked overall stability. Intellectual and financial support for Wild's research dwindled, and legal disputes and politics also hampered further governmental grants. His work was eventually supported only by private funds which ran scarce and his data apparently received much less recognition than they deserved. John Reid completed his MS thesis in 1957 on focusing radiators. In addition he had importantly verified that dynamic focusing was practical. After leaving Wild's laboratory he pursued his doctoral degree at Design Proposal Template, the University of Pennsylvania. From 1957-1965 he worked on echocardiography, producing and using the first such system in the United States, with cardiologist Claude Joyner . Visit John Wild's own site on his discoveries and current activities. At the University of Colorado in Denver, Douglass Howry had also started pioneering ultrasonic investigations since 1948 . Howry, a radiologist working at the Veteran's Administration Hospital , had concentrated more of his work on the development of B-mode equipment, displaying body structures in a 2-dimensional and sectional manner comparable to the actual gross sectioning of structures in 7+ Follow Up Interview Template the pathology laboratory.

Published works from the Design — Temply M I T Radar school staff served as initial reference material on techniques in data presentation. He was able to demonstrate an ultrasonic echo interface between structures or tissues, such as that between fat and Templates Abstract Vector, muscle, so that the individual structures could be outlined. Supported by his nephrologist friend and colleague Joseph Homles , who was then the acting director of the hospital's Medical Research Laboratories, Howry produced in 1951 with William Roderic Bliss and Gerald J Posakony , both engineers, the 'Immersion tank ultrasound system' *, the first 2-dimensional B-mode (or PPI , plan position indication mode) linear compound scanner. Two dimensional cross-sectional images were published in 1952 and 1953 , which convincingly demonstrated that interpretable 2-D images of Design, internal organ structures and pathologies could be obtained with ultrasound. The team produed the formal motorized ' Somascope' , a compound circumferential scanner, in 1954 . The transducer of the somascope was mounted around the rim of a large metal immersion tank filled with water . The machine was able to make compound scans of an intra-abdominal organ from different angles to produce a more readable picture. The sonographic images were referred to as 'somagrams' . The discovery and apparatus were reported in the Medicine section of the Lone Afib: How To Heart LIFE Magazine ® in Design Template 1954 . The 'Pan-scanner' *, where the transducer rotated in Up Interview | Ganttchart Template a semicircular arc around the — Temply patient, was developed in Beat Lone Heart 1957 . Design Proposal Template. The patient sat on a modified dental chair strapped against a plastic window of a semicircular pan filled with saline solution, while the transducer rotated through the solution in a semicircular arc. The achievement was commended by the American Medical Association in Email Thank Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes 1958 at its scientific meeting in San Francisco, and the team's exhibit was awarded a Certificate of Merit by the association. The work of Douglass Howry , Joseph Holmes and his team is necessarily the most important pioneering work in B-mode ultrasound imaging and contact scanning in Design Proposal the United States that had been the direct precursor of the kind of ultrasound imaging we have today.

Pioneering designs in electronic circuitries were also made in conjunction with the development of the B-scan, these included the pulse-echo generator circuitry, the limiter and log amplification circuitry and the demodulator and time gain compensation circuitries. The Howry/ Holmes systems, although capable of producing 2-D, accurate, reproducible images of the body organs, required the patient to be totally or partially immersed in Technician Salary Ideas Tech water, and remained motionless for a length of time. Migration to lighter and more mobile versions of these systems, particularly with smaller water-bag devices or transducers directly in contact and Design Template, movable on the body surface of patients were imminently necessary. Read notes and Sample Email You Letter - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, see more pictures from Gerald Posakony on the early Howry scanners here . Homles , together with consultant engineers William Wright and Ralph (Edward) Meyerdirk , and support from the U. S. Public Health Services and the University of Colorado, continued to fabricate a new prototype compound contact scanner , which had the transducer in direct contact with the patient's body and suspended on moving railings above the patient. The apparatus and the usuage of ultrasound scanning were reported in the May 22 issue of the TIME Magazine in 1964. After working on the project for Design, about 2 years, the Sample Email team finally came up with an innovative multi-joint articulated-arm compound contact scanner with wire mechanisms and electronic position transducing potentiometers. Design Template. The transducer could be positioned by hand and Lone How To Monitor Your, moved over Proposal — Temply, the scanning area in various directions by the operator. Set Brochure Abstract Stock. In 1962 , with blessing from Holmes, Wright and Meyerdirk left the Template University to form the Set Brochure Abstract Stock Physionics Engineering® Inc. at Longmont, Colorado, to produce and Design Proposal — Temply, market their scanner. In 1963 , the first hand-held articulated arm compound contact B-mode scanner (pictured on the left) was commercially launched in the United States.

The launch was reported in the Longmont Daily Times-Call in 1963. This was the start of the most popular design in the history of static ultrasound scanners, that of the articulated-arm scanning mechanism. Much of the later work in clinical ultrasound was followed up by Homles and Set Brochure Abstract, his colleagues, Stewart Taylor , Horace Thompson and Kenneth Gottesfeld in Denver. The group published some of the earliest papers in obstetrical and gynecological ultrasound from North America. Douglass Howry had moved to Boston in 1962 where he worked at the Massachussetts General Hospital until he passed away in Design Proposal Template — Temply 1969. Earliest Wright-Meyerdirk scanner console with one of the first images from a. practical commercial articulated-arm scanner. Portability was also emphasized. In Japan , at Proposal Letter. Informal, about the same time as Wild and Howry's development, Kenji Tanaka and Toshio Wagai , surgeons at the Juntendo University, Tokyo, together with Shigeru Nakajima , director of the Japan Radio Company, Rokuro Uchida , physicist and chief engineer, had also started looking into the use of ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial disease in collaboration with the Nihon Musen Radiation and Proposal — Temply, Medical Electronics Laboratory which had later become the ALOKA ® Company in 1950 , headed by Uchida . Nakajima and Uchida built Japan's first ultrasonic scanner operating in the A-mode in Ux Research & Marketing - An Odd Couple 1949 , modified from a metal-flaw detector. Yoshimitsu Kikuchi , Professor at the Research Institute of Electrical Communications at the Tohoku University in Sendai also assisted in their research.

Together, the team started their formal ultrasound work in ultrasound imaging in 1952 . They published 5 papers on ultrasonic diagnosis in brain diseases in that year and many other papers in the ensuing few years. In 1954 , Tanaka published an important review entitled Application of Design Template, ultrasound to diagnostic field, and investigations had started with other body organs. By 1955 , experiments and Set Brochure Design Templates Stock, fabrication with B-mode scanning had started using a similar scope modified from the original A-mode machine coupled with a linear moving transducer gantry . This was shortly developed into the water-bag scanners . Also read the Proposal Template — Temply Preface and introduction (history) to Tanaka's book Diagnosis of Brain Disease by Ultrasound published in 1969 for a short history of his pioneering work in the 1950s. The M I T hosted a historical conference in Bioacoustics in 1956 and those who attended included Wagai, Kikuchi, Dussik, Bolt, Ballantine, Hueter, Wild, Fry and Howry . Many of them met each other for Beat Lone Afib: Monitor Your Heart, the first time and important views concerning methods and instrumentations were exchanged at the meeting. Kikuchi was very active in equipment designs, and by 1957 he was able to Proposal, demonstrate the one-point contact-sector scanning tomography using the plan-position indication (PPI) B-mode format, which had a resemblance to 25+ Radiology Technician Salary Ideas On Pinterest | Rad Tech, a ' radar display '. This development, which was at around a similar time as the pioneering work of Howry in Denver and Ian Donald in Proposal Glasgow (see below), had a similar concept of position-referenced contact scanning. Aloka® produced japan's first commercial medical A-scanner, the SSD-2 and the water-bag B-scanner, the SSD-1 in 1960 (pictured on the right). The application of ultrasound in Lone Afib: How To Your Heart Obstetrical and Gynaecological diagnosis started around 1956 with the A-scan basing on a vaginal approach and later B-scans at around 1962 basing on the use of the one-point contact-sector scanner in the PPI format. Early commercial water-bag scanners were being produced by Design Proposal — Temply Aloka® and Toshiba® in the early 1960s. Masao Ide at the Musashi Institute of Technology in Sample Email Thank Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes Toyko, working with Wagai and others launched important pioneering research on the bioeffects of ultrasound. William Fry hosted another conference on ultrasonics in 1962 at the University of Illinois which served as a very important meeting point for researchers from the United States, Europe and Japan.

Michio Ishihara at the National Sanatorium Kiyose Hospital in Tokyo and Hajime Murooka at the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Oomiya Red Cross Hospital, Saitama, delivered the first paper on ultrasound diagnosis of gynecological masses in the Japanese language at the 19th Kanto District Meeting of the Design Template — Temply Japanese Obstetrical and Poster Design Stock, Gynecological Society in 1958 , basing on the A-scan. Murooka had earlier in 1957 received instructions from Wagai on the A-scan methods at the Juntendo University. They described A-scan echoes in Proposal Template cancer of the cervix and also in the presence of & Marketing Odd Couple, different causes of uterine enlargement. Wagai published a review article in the use of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology in 1959 . The Murooka's group apparently did not continue their work after the first two papers presented at scientific meetings. ohn Wild was back in England in 1954 to give a lecture on his new discovery and this was attended by Design Proposal Val Mayneord , Professor of Advertising Proposal Letter. Informal Letter, medical physics at the Royal Cancer Hospital (now the Royal Marsden) who had also been experimenting with the Kelvin Hughes® MK llB metal flaw-detector in neurological diagnosis. Among the audience was Ian Donald who was then Reader in Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the St. Thomas Hospital Medical School in London and was about to take up the Design — Temply appointment of Regius Chair of Midwifery at Glasgow University. Donald was quick to realize what ultrasound had to offer. # Wild, while returning to Minnesota, had mainly concentrated his investigations on the diagnosis of tumors of the breast and Up Interview Template, colon using 15 MHz probes which had tissue penetrations of only Template — Temply up to 2 cm.

In 1956 , Wild published his landmark paper on the study of 117 breast nodules, reporting an Abstract Stock Vector, accuracy of diagnosis of over Design Proposal Template — Temply, 90 percent. Despite that, the Letter. Proposal Letter ultrasonic method of tissue diagnosis which he so popularised did not reach the point of wide acceptance. Pioneering work in ultrasonic diagnosis in the field of Obstetrics and Gynaecology however, soon took off in Glasgow , Scotland . The following is an excerpt from an Design Template — Temply, article in the University of Glasgow publication 'Avenue' No. 19: January 1996 entitled ' Medical Ultrasound ---- A Glasgow Development which Swept the Beat Monitor World ' , by Dr. James Willocks MD , who had best described the Template circumstances of Donald 's early work : He was born in Cornwall in December 1910, the son and grandson of Scottish doctors. His school education began in Scotland and finished in South Africa.

He returned to England in 1931 and graduated in medicine at St Thomas's Hospital Medical School in 1937. In 1939 he joined the RAF where his service was distinguished. He was decorated for gallantry for entering a burning bomber with the bombs still in it, to rescue injured airmen. Service in the RAF stimulated his interest in gadgetry of all kinds and Best 25+ Radiology Salary On Pinterest Tech, he became familiar with radar and sonar, a technique which had been devised by the French physicist, Paul Langevin in the First World War as a possible method of submarine detection. On returning to London at the end of the War, he took up obstetrics and gynaecology and held appointments at various London hospitals.

His first research work was directed towards respiratory problems in Proposal the newborn, and he devised apparatus to help babies breathe when respiration did not get off to a flying start. Because of his interest in machines, Ian was known as 'Mad Donald' by some of his London colleagues, who caricatured him as a crazy inventor, but his talent was spotted by that great university statesman, Sir Hector Hetherington, and Poster Design Templates Stock Vector, he was appointed to the Regius Chair of Midwifery at Proposal — Temply, the University of Proposal Example, Glasgow in 1954 . . His interest soon turned to the idea that sonar could be used for medical diagnosis and the idea was first put into practice on 21 July 1955 , when he visited the Research Department of the boilermakers Babcock Wilcox at Renfrew on the invitation of one of the directors, who was the Design Template husband of a grateful patient. He took with him two cars, the boots of which were loaded up with a collection of lumps such as fibroids and ovarian cysts which had recently been removed from patients in his Department. He carried out Sample Email Thank You Letter Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes some experiments with an industrial ultrasonic metal flaw detector on these tumours, and on a large lump of steak which the company had kindly provided as control material. (No one had the appetite for the steak afterwards!) Later he formed a link with the Design Proposal Template Kelvin Hughes Scientific Instrument Company , and particularly with a young technician called Tom Brown . Quite by accident, Tom Brown had heard the strange tale of a professor who was attempting to use a metal flaw detector to Email Thank Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, detect flaws in Design Proposal Template — Temply women. & Marketing Odd Couple. He telephoned Professor Donald and suggested a meeting, and it was not long before Donald and Design, Brown together with Dr John MacVicar , later Professor of Obstetrics Gynaecology in Beat the University of Leicester, plunged into an intensive investigation into Design Proposal Template the value of ultrasound in differentiating between cysts, fibroids and Ux Research - An, any other intra abdominal tumours that came their way. Early results were disappointing and Proposal Template — Temply, the enterprise was greeted with a mixture of scepticism and ridicule. However, a dramatic case where ultrasound saved a patient's life by diagnosing a huge, easily removable, ovarian cyst in a woman who had been diagnosed as having inoperable cancer of the stomach, made people take the technique seriously. Sample Thank You Letter After. 'From this point', Ian Donald wrote, 'there could be no turning back'. Results eventually appeared in print in The Lancet of 7 June 1958 under the arid title 'Investigation of Design Template, Abdominal Masses by Pulsed Ultrasound' . This was probably the Poster Design Stock most important paper on medical diagnostic ultrasound ever published. Ten years later all doubt had been cast away and Ian Donald was able to review the early history of ultrasound in Proposal Template a characteristic , forthright manner. 'As soon as we got rid of the backroom attitude and brought our apparatus fully into Email Thank After Interview the Department with an inexhaustible supply of living patients with fascinating clinical problems, we were able to get ahead really fast. Design Template — Temply. Any new technique becomes more attractive if its clinical usefulness can be demonstrated without harm, indignity or discomfort to the patient . . Anyone who is satisfied with his diagnostic ability and with his surgical results is unlikely to contribute much to the launching of a new medical science.

He should first be consumed with a divine discontent with things as they are. It greatly helps, of course, to have the right idea at the right time, and quite good ideas may come, Archimedes fashion, in Advertising Proposal Informal one's bath.' In 1959 Ian Donald noted that clear echoes could be obtained from the fetal head and began to apply this information. I became involved shortly afterwards, and indeed was given the Design Template project to Email Thank, play with on my own. At the Royal Maternity Hospital, Rottenrow, there was no separate room to examine the patients and not even a cupboard in which to keep the apparatus, so my colleague, the physicist Tom Duggan , and I pushed it about on a trolley and approached patients in the wards for permission to examine them at the bedside. Glasgow women are wonderful and they accepted all this without demur . . We applied the Proposal — Temply method of fetal head measurement to assess the size and growth of the foetus. When the Lone Your Heart Queen Mother's Hospital opened in Proposal 1964 it became possible to refine the Up Interview Template technique greatly.

My colleague Dr. Stuart Campbell (now Professor at King's College Hospital, London) did this and fetal cephalometry became the standard method for the study of fetal growth for many years. Within the next few years it became possible to Proposal, study pregnancy from beginning to end and diagnosis of complications like multiple pregnancy, fetal abnormality and placenta praevia (which causes life threatening haemorrhage) became possible. Professor Donald had gathered around him a team of talented young doctors and technologists, including the research engineers John Fleming and Angus Hall , who were engaged by the University when the Kelvin Hughes company was closed in 1966. John Fleming has continued at the Queen Mother's Hospital as the technical genius behind all developments, and is also in charge of the 25+ Radiology Salary valuable historical collection about diagnostic ultrasound. Practically all apparatus is now Japanese in origin, but the — Temply contribution of Scottish engineering to the development of medical ultrasound should never be forgotten. ' Ian Donald was also aware of the work of - An Odd Couple, Howry in the United States and Kikuchi in Japan in Design Proposal — Temply the early 1950s, and had referenced these pioneers alongside with the work of Wild and Reid in Sample Email Thank You Letter After his Lancet paper in 1958 . Donald had felt that it was his fortune to have started with these historical A-mode and B-mode instruments instead of the apparatus that Wild and Howry had used, as these involved high frequency transducers (and hence associated with poor penetration into tissues) or a water-bath arrangement which could both become deterrants to further development in a medical setting ## . Aside from Design Proposal Template, this, Donald had on many occasions remarked that a lot of his developments in ultrasound was from Up Interview | Ganttchart Template, a stroke of accident, coincidence and luck.

The ' full bladder ' was one, which he only discovered in 1963. Design Proposal. That the fetal head, being a symmetrical skull bone could be easily demonstrable and measured accurately by a beam of ultrasound in an A-scan was another, as was the opportunity of meeting up with a number of important administrators on the way and working with the very bright engineer Tom Brown from Kelvin Hughes®. Brown , at the age of 24, invented and constructed with Ian Donald the prototype of the world's first Compound B-mode (plan-position indication, PPI) contact scanner in 1957 . The transducer operated at 2.5 MHz. The prototype was progressively improved to become the Set Brochure Poster Design Stock Vector Diasonograph ® manufactured commercially by Smith Industrials of England which had taken control of the Kevin and Hughes Scientific Instrument Company in Proposal Template 1961. For a detailed account of the pioneering development of the prototypes, read an important unpublished paper by Tom Brown entitled Development of ultrasonic scanning techniques in Scotland 1956-1979 . One of Brown 's first generation models was sold to Bertil Sunden at Lund , Sweden (see below). The console design of the Diasonograph ® came from Dugald Cameron who was then an 7+ Follow Up Interview Template, industrial design student at the Glasgow school of Design Template — Temply, Art. Brown also invented and patented an elaborate and expensive automated compound contact scanner in 1958 and it was at Ux Research & Marketing - An Odd Couple, the machine's exhibition in London in — Temply 1960 that Ian Donald met for the first time Douglass Howry from the United States who had been using the much larger size water-tank circumferential scanner for several years (see above).

Donald nevertheless had quoted in his 1958 paper in the Lancet Howry 's work in B-mode scanning. The meeting had also influenced Howry and his team into producing a similar compound contact scanner like the Donald's although this had rapidly evolved into the multi-joint articulated arm version. A brief description of the working of the prototype compound contact scanner (which eventually developed into the Diasonograph ®) was given by Donald and Brown in 1958 , the same concept and design were extended into the later commercial models: . A probe containing both transmitting, and Ux Research, receiving transducers is Design Proposal — Temply, mounted on a measuring jig, which is placed above the patient's bed. The probe is free to move vertically and horizontally and, as it does so, operates two linear potentiometers, which give voltage outputs proportional to its horizontal and vertical displacements from some reference point. & Marketing - An Odd Couple. The probe is also free to rotate in the plane of its horizontal and vertical freedom, and transmits its rotation via a linkage to a sine-cosine potentiometer. The voltage outputs from this system of potentiometers control an electrostatic cathode-ray tube, so that the Design Proposal Template direction of the linear time-base sweep corresponds to the inclination of the probe, and the point of origin of the sweep represents the Best Ideas On Pinterest instantaneous position of the probe. The apparatus is so calibrated that the same reflecting point will repeat itself in Proposal exactly the Lone Heart same position on the cathode-ray tube screen from whatsoever angle it is scanned, and likewise a planar interface comes to be represented as a consistent line. The echoes picked up by the probe are displayed on three oscilloscope screens: an A-scope display, a combined B-scope and PPI display on a long-persistence screen for monitoring: and a similar screen and display of short persistence with a camera mounted in front of it. The probe is moved slowly from one flank, across the abdomen to the other flank being rocked to and fro on its spindle the whole time to scan the deeper tissues from as many angles as possible. . Design Proposal Template. The automated scanner which Brown originally designed to overcome the effects of 25+ Radiology Technician Salary On Pinterest, motion variables did not catch on Template — Temply well, while the Diasonograph ® was sold to 7+ Follow Up Interview | Ganttchart Template, many other parts of Britain and Design Proposal Template, Europe including Sweden, London and Bristol, the place where another ultrasound pioneer, Peter NT Wells , a medical physicist, had been developing a different version of the multi-joint articulated arm scanner (basing on the Diasonograph electronics ), independently from his American counterpart. In 1966 , Smiths pulled out of Scotland because the factory was apparently not making money.

At the same time the US Supreme Court ruled against Sample Email - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, Smiths in favour of Template, Automation Industries (formerly the Sperry Company ) of Denver on the question of the so-called Firestone patents (Floyd Firestone's patent on flaw-detection devices in 1942, see above). As part of the settlement, Smiths undertook to withdraw both from the industrial and Up Interview Template, medical applications of ultrasound, and Automation acquired title to the collection of Smiths' patents on these subjects. This included the Brown patents on 2-D contact scanning. Smiths sold the medical business to Nuclear Enterprises (G.B.) Ltd . in Edinburgh, which took over the manufacturing of the Design Template Diasonograph ® (see Tom Brown's Recollections ). Ian Donald had to set up his own Department of Ultrasonic Technology at the Queen Mother's Hospital. He had John Fleming and Angus Hall back to Up Interview | Ganttchart, help him. They worked as development engineers on all the ultrasound projects and Fleming worked until his retirement in 1995. He is co-ordinator of the BMUS historical collection and Design Proposal Template, oversees the ultrasonic equipments at the Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow. By 1968, Brian Fraser and Alan Cole at Nuclear Enterprises revamped the mechanical and Letter. Proposal Letter, valve design and redeveloped a new electronic system using semiconductor technology.

The resulting NE 4102 became a very popular instrument, and was used in most British hospitals and many European ones. For a detailed account of the pioneering development of medical ultrasonics in Glasgow, Scotland, read the biography of Tom Brown and an important unpublished paper by — Temply Brown on the Development of ultrasonic scanning techniques in Scotland 1956-1979 . Joseph Holmes and Sample Email You Letter After, Ian Donald had subsequently become good friends across the Atlantic and Ian Donald and John Fleming were invited to Design Proposal Template — Temply, speak on their experiences at the International Conference at Pittsburg hosted by 7+ Follow | Ganttchart Homles and Template, others in 1965 . 25+ Radiology Technician On Pinterest Tech. This was among the many American tours which Ian Donald did starting from 1961. He spoke about Homles in a speech he gave in 1967 to the World Federation for Ultrasound in Design Template Medicine and Biology (WFUMB) , ' I think Joe Holmes has done more than anyone to pull us all together from our several pathways '. Holmes became the founding editor of the Journal of Clinical Ultrasound in 1973 . Over in continental Europe , Bertil Sunden in Lund, Sweden , had started investigations in 1958 with Alf Sjovall , his professor in Obstetrics and Gynecology, on early pregnancies using an A-mode echoscope (a Krautkramer® reflectoscope USIP 9). The study on Design Templates Abstract Vector the application of ultrasound in Lund had already started formally in 1953 in cardiology and neurology (see above). Sunden visited Ian Donald for 3 weeks in 1960 on a sabbatical to study B-mode scanning. His work at Donald's department had resulted in the shipment of the first generation Diasonograph® to Lund, with which he produced his doctoral thesis on the use of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, and reported his experience on 400 cases of Template, pelvic pathologies. He also studied the possible harmful effects of ultrasound on pregnant rats, and Sample You Letter Interview, did not find any. Sunden's thesis published in the Acta Obstet Gynaecol Scand in 1964 represented the earliest and the most comprehensive publication in Design Template — Temply Obstetrical and Vector, Gynecological ultrasonography at that time. At around the same time, N D Selezneva , a disciple of the famous Soviet scientist, S Y Sokolov , published his work in ultrasonography in Template Gynecology in Stock Vector the former USSR in the early 1960s. R A Khentov , R A Khestova and I A Skorunskii from the Design — Temply Central Institute of Advanced Training in Medicine, Moscow followed on with a large number of Templates Stock, Russian publications in Obstetrics and Gynecology from Design, 1965 onwards, using A-mode and 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter, later on — Temply B-mode equipments made at the USSR Scientific Research Institute of Medical instruments and Equipment. Almost ninety-nine percent of these publications were nevertheless in the Russian language.

The Ultrasonic Boom. The increase in Informal Proposal Letter Example the research and application of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology appeared to boom from 1966 onwards (see chart below) when there was an upsurge of centers and Design, people in Europe, the United States and Japan that had begun to embark on Ux Research & Marketing - An studies in the application of ultrasound diagnosis in Design Template — Temply this specialty. A- and B- mode equipment were both in use including the first 'fast B-scanner', the Vidoson ® from Siemens ® (see part 2 ) used by D Hofmann and Hans Holländer at the Wilhelm University in Münster, Germany . Alfred Kratochwil at the Second University Frauenklinik, Vienna, Austria started working on 7+ Follow Letter placental localisation with the A-mode scanner he acquired from Paul Kretz , founder of KretzTechnik AG in Zipf, Austria. — Temply. He soon learned of Ian Donald 's work with the B-scan and quickly collaborated the company to develop a similar device. The model 4100 originally designed for ophthalmologic use was adapted to carry an articulated-arm gantry (pictured below) for the abdominal B-scan mode. Advertising Proposal Example. The articulated-arm design he found, was easier to manipulate than the Glasgow counterpart. He initially tried to used it on localizing pelvic recurrences in patients who had radical surgery for carcinoma of the cervix, and also on a variety of obstetric conditions. As early as 1972, Kratochwil had, among other endeavours, successfully demonstrated the visualisation of ovarian follicles with static B-mode ultrasound. Kratochwil soon became one of the most prolific users of the instrument and Proposal Template — Temply, worked on areas such as the Advertising Informal Letter breasts and other surgical conditions, where he also published a number of important early papers. Since 1968 he developed training courses in ultrasound in Vienna and his department was visited by many hundreds of radiologists and obstetricians to learn about the applications of ultrasonography.

Kratochwil was probably the most productive of all the Design — Temply investigators in & Marketing Europe and was instrumental to the constantly improving designs at KretzTechnik AG . Hans Henrik Holm , a urologist, started the ultrasound laboratory at the Gentofte Hospital in Copenhagen , Denmark in 1964 , and with Jorgen Kristensen , Allen Northeved , Jan Pedersen , Jens Bang among others had established a strong research team. Holm also designed their version of an articulated-arm scanner which subsequently was taken up for commercial production at Smith Kline Instrument ® in the United States. The Copenhagen center had in time become a leading center in Interventional ultrasound , even up to this day. And so it was that the early pioneers in diagnostic ultrasound from the United States , Japan , United Kingdom , Austria , Germany , Sweden , Switzerland , Denmark , France , Poland , Holland , USSR and China have all started with the A-scan basing on the metal flaw detector or a modification of the instrument. Design Template — Temply. Many had first started their investigations in neurology , cardiology and ophthalmology , and only later on did they apply ultrasonic techniques to the abdomen and pelvis. In Germany , at around 1950 both Siemens ® and 25+ Radiology Ideas, Krautkrmer ® had started to make flaw-detecting equipment. Located close to the steel industry Krautkrmer ® provided better service than Siemens ® and soon dominated the market. After W Güttner and others had shown the impracticality of the transmission technique in 1952, Siemens had lost interest in diagnostic ultrasound. Around the end of 1956 the Design Template company decided to stop producing flaw-detection equipment completely. It was Inge Edler and Carl Hertz in Lund who adapted three of the Siemens® flaw detectors for cardiac investigations in 1957 (see above), and these were introduced back into hospitals in Germany. How To. After a lapse of almost 10 years, the company developed the first fast B-scanner, the Vidoson in 1967, suitable for Proposal, gynecological and abdominal examination (see Part 2 ). Germany was nevertheless one of the more 'prolific' of the European countries in terms of Beat Lone Afib: How To Monitor Heart, centers in early ultrasonic applications and research, with publications coming from Muchen, Erlangen, Bonn, Heidelberg, Berlin, Frankfurt, Freiburg and Bochum.

Vienna in Austria, as noted above was 'historically' important because of the company Kretztechnik AG which produced some of the best and most advanced machines in the world at that time. The B-scan , basing on more sophisticated instrumentation emanating from radar sciences quickly evolved and replaced the A-scans. Centers worldwide started to develop their own machines (see above) while others would import them commercially, largely because of Design, a perceived better quality than their home-made counterparts. For example, in the late 1960s some Finnish centers used Physionics / Picker ® machines from the Sample Thank After Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes United States and French and Italian centers used scanners from Nuclear Enterprise ® and KretzTechnik AG . Smith Kline Instruments ® scanners were used in Spain, Aloka ® models in Brussels and the Siemens ® Vidoson was employed by Design Proposal Template a number of centers outside of Germany. The First World Congress on Ultrasonic Diagnostics in Medicine was held in Vienna in Best Salary 1969 and the second in Rotterdam in 1972 where an increasing number of papers in this specialty was presented. These meetings identified and brought together an international group of clinicians and scientists who started to contribute heavily towards the developments of ultrasonic instrumentation and methodology. In Europe , Alfred Kratochwil (1966), ( Austria ), D Hofmann (1966), Hans Hollander (1966), Manfred Hansmann (1966), ( Germany ), Malte Hinselmann (1968) ( Switzerland ), Salvator Levi (1967) ( Brussels ), Hans Henrik Holm (1967), Jens Bang (1967) ( Denmark ), Georges Boog (1969), Francis Weill (1969) ( France ), I Roszkowski I (1968), Jerzy Groniowski (1968), ( Poland ), Paavo Pystynen (1966), Pekka Ylöstalo (1971), Pentti Jarvinen (1968), Pentti Jouppila (1970) ( Finland ), J Hernandez (1970), R Montero (1970), Fernando Bonilla-Musoles (1971) ( Spain ), Bruno Damascelli (1967), L Roncoroni (1967), Alberto Zacutti (1968), C Brugnoli (1968), Achille Ianniruberto (1970) ( Italy ), E Kalamara (1972), M Bulic (1972), Asim Kurjak (1973) ( Yugoslavia, now Croatia ), Juriy Wladimiroff (1974) ( Netherlands ), M Falus (1969), M Sobel (1969), L Kun (1973), P Bosze (1973) ( Hungary ), among many others, soon followed up with their many publications in obstetrical and gynecological sonography, although much of what was published was not in the English language. [The year in parenthesis denoted the year in which publications in Design Proposal Obstetrics and Gynecology from the particular author first appeared in the literature]. Sample - Bbq-Grill-Recipes. The delegates of 13 European ultrasound societies met in Basel, Switzerland in 1972 to form the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) . In the United Kingdom , Ellis Barnett , Patricia Morley , Hugh Robinson , Usama Abdulla in Glasgow, Peter Wells in Bristol, A C Christie in Design Proposal Aberdeen, E I Kohorn , Stuart Campbell in London (see Part 2 ), Hyton Meire and Pat Farrant in Middlesex, and Christopher Hill at the Royal Marsden continued to 7+ Follow | Ganttchart Template, make very important contributions in Design — Temply many areas. Barnett and Morley's book in 1974 : Clinical Diagnostic Ultrasound was the first book (including publications from the Sample Email Thank You Letter After Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes United States) devoted to abdominal B-mode ultrasonography. Peter Wells in particular, was the single most important contributor to the advancement of ultrasound technology in Britain.

Stuart Campbell eventually became one of the world's most well-known researcher and teacher in the field of Obstetrical and Gynecological ultrasound. The British Medical Ultrasound group was formed in 1969 by members of the Hospital Physicists Association and the British Institute of Radiology. The group later changed its name and became officially the British Medical Ultrasound Society (BMUS) in 1977 . Back in the United States , J Stauffer Lehman , in Design Hahnemann, Philadelphia was instrumental in the early 1960's to the continuing development of ultrasound technology in the United States . His association with Smith Kline Instruments ® had been catalytic to & Marketing Odd Couple, the company's production of water-bag and contact B-mode scanners on top of their existing line of A- and M- mode equipments for echocardiography. The LIFE® magazine made an introduction to Ultrasound scanning at Lehman's laboratory in their January and September issues in 1965 . The Family Circle® magazine also reported on Template — Temply the medical use of ultrasound in their October 1966 issue. Lehman's equipment was nevertheless cumbersome and expensive to fabricate and later on a smaller company, Hoffrel took up the production of his machine. After the expiration of SKI's contract, Lehmann turned to use the articulated arm scanner originally invented and produced by the Physionics Inc in Letter. Informal Proposal Longmont, Colorado (later on acquired by the Picker Corporation and Proposal Template, further expanding its development).

Barry Goldberg joined Lehman in 1968 and expanded the research. He published extensively on a variety of subjects including echocardiography and interventional ultrasonography and Lone How To Monitor Your, was on record the first to describe fetal cephalometry in Design Template 1965 outside of Britain and Europe. George Evans , then a young Radiologist, was responsible for 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter | Ganttchart, organizing the service and several important research projects. With his team was Marvin Ziskin . Together they have introduced ultrasound to the Radiological community in the United States and convincing them of the technique's clinical value. Lajos von Micsky , working at the St. Luke's Medical Center in New York, was also one of the Design — Temply important pioneers of 7+ Follow | Ganttchart, abdominal as well as endoscopic sonographic equipment . He established a bioacoustical laboratory at the center in 1963 and devised many innovative abdominal, trans-vesical, rectal and Design Proposal, trans-vaginal scanners. Articulated arm scanners such as the PortaScan from Physionics Inc ® produced in the mid-1960s had become the most popular format in compound contact B-scanners in the United States and throughout the world. Other earliest manufacturers of Best Salary On Pinterest Tech, similar devices included the Design Proposal Template — Temply UniRad Corporation ®. Newer machines soon followed from manufacturers in Design Abstract Stock Vector the United States and worldwide.

These included the Picker ® Laminograph 102, the KretzTechnik AG Combison 1 and 2, the Proposal Template — Temply Nuclear Enterprise ® Diasonograph 4102 (pictured above), the 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter Aloka ® SSD-10 compound contact scanner (pictured below) and the Toshiba ® TSL systems. Jan C Somer and Nicolaas Bom in the Netherlands introduced the phased-array and linear-array transducers respectively in 1968 and 1971 (see Part 2 ). Louis M Hellman , Mitsunao Kobayashi , Ross Brown , George Leopold , Roy Filly , Roger Sanders , Arthur Fleischer , Kenneth Taylor , Fred Winsberg , John Hobbins and William Cochrane were among those who produced a substantial amount of work from the early 1970s on the application of ultrasound relating to Obstetrics and Gynecology and had contributed much to moving the modality forward. Winsberg had a particular interest in real-time scanners and he was the Design Template first to use the German Vidoson ® real-time scanner (see part 2) in North America (at the McGill University in Montreal, Canada) in 1970 . One of the very earliest textbooks in sonography in the English language aside from Bertil Sunden 's thesis was from Kobayashi , Hellmen and Cromb : Atlas of Ultrasonography in Technician | Rad Obstetrics and Gynaecology published in 1972 . The American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) which was founded in 1952 by a group of physicians engaged primarily in the use of ultrasound in physical medicine only started to accept members in Template the diagnostic arena in 1964 . Diagnostic ultrasound has since then become the mainstream application in the organization. Thank You Letter Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes. The First International Conference on Proposal Template Diagnostic Ultrasound was held in Pittsburgh, Pensylvannia in 1965 and 25+ Radiology Technician On Pinterest Tech, was well attended by most of the ultrasound pioneers.

The Journal of Ultrasound in Template — Temply Medicine , the official journal of the AIUM , was inaugurated in 1982 replacing the Journal of Clinical Ultrasound as the association's main vehicle of communication with it's members. George Leopold was its founding editor. By the mid-1970s important producers of articulated compound B-scanners in the United States included the Picker Corp ®, Smith Kline Instruments ®, the UniRad Corporation ®, Searle Ultrasound ®, Rohe Scientific ®, Litton Medical Systems ® and Metrix Inc ®. A list of Advertising Letter. Informal Proposal Letter, manufacturers of static compound contact scanners as at 1975 can be found here . The number of publications in the world literature each year on the application of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology rose from 1(Ian Donald's paper) in 1958 to 296 in 1978 . In the first 10 years, most publications were of a general descriptive nature and Design Proposal — Temply, had similar titles to the effect of The use of ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Odd Couple, Gynecology. ref. In Japan, Shigemitsu Mizuno , Hisaya Takeuchi , Koh Nakano and Masao Arima followed up the ultrasound work at the Juntendo University in Tokyo, and experimented with new versions of the A-mode transvaginal scanner . The first ultrasound scan of a 6-week gestational sac by vaginal A-scan was reported in the Japanese language in 1963. From 1962, the group worked extensively with the Proposal Template water-bag B-scanner, the Aloka SSD-1 and was very active in many areas and producing a huge number of research publications, ranging from early pregnancy diagnosis to cephalometry to placentography. They also reported on a large series of pelvic tumors in 1965, and in the following 2 years switched from the water-bag contact scanner to the articulated-arm compound contact scanner, the SSD-10 . Another group consisting of T Tanaka , I Suda and S Miyahara started researches into the different stages of pregnancy in 1964. Shigemitsu Mizuno , Hisaya Takeuchi and their team also demonstrated in 1965 an endovaginal scanner for pelvic examination using the plan-position indication (PPI) B-mode format.

The device was mannually rotated and the resulting display was very similar to a circular military 'radar display. | Ganttchart. Used either transrectally or transvaginally, It was capable of Design Proposal Template, producing some meaningful pictures of the pelvic organs. See Hisaya Takeuchi for Advertising Proposal Example, a list of early work from the — Temply group. The Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine was officially formed in 1962 . In the 1970s important work started at the Tottori Uinversity , Toyko under Kazuo Maeda , particularly on doppler fetal cardiotocography and at the University of Toyko under Shoichi Sakamoto . Toshiba® produced their first A-mode scanner , the SSA-01A and the compound contact B-scanner , the TSL system in 1967 . Design Abstract. Hitachi ® produced their first A-mode (the EUA-1 ) and B-mode scanner ( EUB-1 ) in 1971 and Design Template — Temply, 72 respectively. In the Republic of China , Shih An founded in 1958 the Shanghai Ultrasonic Medical Research group at the Sixth People's Hospital of Shanghai and his team included Tao-Hsin Wang and & Marketing, Shih-Yuan An. In the Design Template same year they started ultrasonic investigations using a modified metal flaw detector (the Chiang Nan Type I ) manufactured at the chiang Nan Ship Building Plant.

The group collaborated with investigators from the Shanghai First and Second Medical Colleges, namely Shih-Liang Chu, Hsiang-Huei Wu, Chih-Chang Hsu (Zhi-Zhang Xu) and Kuo-Juei Yu. They published in 1960 their preliminary report on the application of diagnostic ultrasound in various clinical conditions. This article which was published in Chinese in the ' Chinese Medical Journal ' was not known to the west until two years later when their follow-up publication The use of pulsed ultrasound in clinical diagnosis appeared in the foreign language edition of the same journal. Lone How To Monitor Heart. In these articles the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole with A-mode ultrasound was described, supposedly the first time in world literature, where they demonstrated a significant increase in the number of small echo spikes between the proximal and distal uterine walls. Further work in Obstetrics and Gynecology came from Xin-Fang Wang and Ji-Peng Xiao at the Wuhan Medical College (now Tongji Medical University) in Wuhan, China . In 1963 , the group reported on the sonographic findings in 261 abnormal pregnancies and in Proposal — Temply 1964 described fetal M-mode echocardiography which was probably the earliest of such reports in the medical literature°°. No correlation between M-mode waveforms and specific cardiac structures was however made. Yong-Chang Chou who had also been pioneering A-mode ultrasound diagnosis since the Proposal Informal Proposal Example late 1950s at the Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital published a similar report in the next issue of the same journal (May, 1964). China was at that time closed to the outside world and equipments were only manufactured locally. Apart from the A-mode scanners, B-mode equipments were produced from a radar factory in Wuhan . One of the more important designs came from Zhi-Zhang Xu of the Shanghai Research group working at Proposal Template — Temply, the ZhongShan Hospital. Regrettably progress was completely brought to a halt by the Cultural Revolution in 1966 and did not resume until the late 1970's.

In Taiwan , Republic of China, ultrasonic investigations started at the National Taiwan University in 1966, where J P Hung and Y C Chen used the Aloka® SSD-2C in Poster Design Templates Abstract Vector the detection of mid-line shifts in head injuries and Proposal — Temply, brain tumors. In the following year, their department and Obsteticians Hsi-Yao Chen and S M Wu had switched to the use of the B-mode SSD-10 from Aloka ® and published papers on B-mode cephalometry in 1971 in the chinese language. The Society of Ultrasound in Medicine, Republic of China (SUMROC) was founded in 1984 . Down under in Australia , the Ultrasonic Research Section at the National (formerly Commonwealth ) Acoustic Laboratory in Sydney was established in 1959 , with the objective of creating a center of technical expertise in the field of medical ultrasound. The section was headed by 25+ Radiology Technician it's chief physicist George Kossoff . The CAL was established back in 1948 by the Australian Government to undertake research relating to hearing deficits. An ultrasonics committee was set up in 1955 under the chairmanship of Norman Murray . Murray visited Joseph Holmes' laboratory in 1958 and was impressed with the use of Proposal Template — Temply, ultrasound as a diagnostic tool. The Ultrasound Research Section was soon established in Proposal Proposal Example the following year. Working in conjunction with William Garrett , a gynecologist from the Royal Hospital for Women in Sydney, who was eager to have a new diagnostic method for Design Proposal, placental localization, Kossoff introduced the water-coupling CAL echoscope in 1959 and perfected it in 1962 , which was also modified for breast scanning.

His team also included David Robinson , who joined the Institute in 1961. Thank You Letter Interview. They published their first obstetric scans at the Ultrasonics symposium in Design Template — Temply Illinois in the following year. In 1968, Garrett , Robinson and Kossoff published one of the earliest papers in fetal anatomy Fetal anatomy displayed by ultrasound using the water-bath CAL echoscope that had brought out the role ultrasound would play in the diagnosis of fetal malformations . In 1970 they published one of the ealiest papers on the diagnosis of fetal malformation, reporting a case of fetal polycystic kidneys at & Marketing - An Odd Couple, 31 weeks of Design Template, gestation. The original echoscope was replaced with a Mark II version in | Ganttchart Template 1969 , which had already incoporated basic gray scaling in the images, before the invention of the Proposal Template — Temply 'scan-converter'. The group reported gray-scale obstetric scans in 1971 at the International Biological Engineering meeting in Melbourne and then at the World Congress of Ultrasonic Diagnosis in Medicine in Set Brochure Design Abstract Vector Rotterdam in Proposal Template — Temply 1973 . David Carpenter joined the Ux Research & Marketing Section in 1968, and headed the Engineering Research subsection. Stanley Barnett , a physiologist who subsequently published extensively on ultrasound bioeffects joined the Section in 1970. Kossoff and his team developed sophisticated annular dynamic phased-arrays in 1974 which was installed in Proposal — Temply the mark II water-coupling echoscope. In 1975 , they constructed the UI Octoson , a rapid multi-transducer water-bath scanner which had then incoporated the new scan-converter , improved annular array transducers and more powerful computing electronics that had allowed for superior compound scans to be completed in less than 1 second. The scanning mechanism of the Octoson is completely immersed in the coupling tank and the patient, lying prone, is examined from below. (see also Part 2 ) Interestingly about terminologies in the early days: At the Thank First International Conference on Diagnostic Ultrasound in Pittsburgh, Pensylvannia in 1965 , Charles Grossman , editor of the proceedings made the — Temply following comments: . Best 25+ Radiology Ideas On Pinterest Tech. The terminology of diagnostic ultrasonics, like that of any new science, is still in the formative stage . Template — Temply. The first term to describe the diagnostic medical procedure involving the application of ultrasound appears to be ultrasonoscopie and was suggested by Denier in 1946.

Dussik in 1947 used hyperphonography for the transmission technic and Ballantine, Bolt, Hueter and Ludwig in 1950 ultrasonic ventriculography . Wild and Reid in 1952 tried to simplify the terminology and changed the term ultrasonoscope to Letter | Ganttchart, echoscope , in their words 'to correspond with the word stethoscope.' They further suggested the terms ' echograph ' for the equipment and ' echograms ' for the records as well as unidimensional echography for Proposal Template — Temply, A-scope and two- dimensional echography for B-scan presentations. In the same year (1952) Howry and Bliss referred to 7+ Follow Letter, their instrument as the ' somascope ' and to the B-Scan recordings as ' somagrams '. Leksell introduced the term ' echoencephalogram ' in 1955 for ultrasonic brain recordings. In my own publications the Design — Temply medical procedure of ultrasonic diagnostic examination of the brain is Sample Email Thank You Letter Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, termed ' sonoencephalography ', whereas the graph is called ' sonoencephalogram '. . In Japan, they call it 'ultrasono-tomogram' and in Australia ' echograms ' . . Most have quickly settled with calling this diagnostic medical procedure involving the application of ultrasound ' ultrasonography ' and Design Proposal — Temply, the images recorded ' ultrasonograms '. In North America, the terms ' sonography ' and ' sonogram ' soon became more fashionable, and technical staff performing the procedure became known as ' sonographers '. In 1974, 'sonography' was recognised as a separate profession in the United States by the American Medical Association. On the other hand, Ultrasonography is now used as the sole MeSH keyword in Medline indexes to delineate the subject. Some of the early references: Curie. Letter | Ganttchart Template. J.P., Curie. (1880) Développement par pression de l'é'lectricite polaire dans les cristaux hémièdres à faces inclinées. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 91:294. Chilowsky C.M.

Langévin. M.P. (1916) Procídés et appareil pour production de signaux sous-marins dirigés et pour la localsation à distances d'obstacles sons-marins. French patent no. 502913. Langévin, M.P. (1928) Lés ondes ultrasonores. Rev Gen Elect 23:626. Firestone, F.A. (1945) The supersonic reflectoscope for interior inspection.

Met. Progr, 48:505-512. Firestone, F.A. (1945) The supersonic reflectoscope, an Design, instrument of inspecting the interior of solid parts by means of sound waves. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 17:287-299. Desch, C.H., Sproule, D.O. and Dawson, W.J. (1946) The detection of cracks in steel by means of supersonic waves. J. Sample Thank After Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes. Iron and Steel Inst. (1964):319.

Tanaka, K., Miyajima, G., Wagai, T., Yasuura, M. Kikuchi, Y and Uchida, R. Detection of Design Template, intracranial anatomical abnormalities by ultrasound. Tokyo Med. J. 69:525. (1950). Tanaka, K. Beat Lone Afib: Your. (1952) Application of ultrasound to diagnostic field. Electr. Design Template. Ind. 3. Miyajima, G., Wagai, T., Fukushima, Y., Uchida, R. and Hagiwara, I. (1952) Detection of intracranial disease by pulsed ultrasound.

Tokyo Med. J. 72:37. Dussik, K.T. (1942) Uber die moglichkeit hochfrequente mechanische schwingungen als diagnostisches hilfsmittel zu verwerten. Z Neurol Psychiat 174:153. Dussik, K.T. Templates Abstract Vector. (1942) On the possibility of using ultrasound waves as a diagnostic aid. Design — Temply. Neurol. Psychiat. 174:153-168. Dussik, K.T., Dussik, F. and Wyt, L. (1947) Auf dem Wege Zur Hyperphonographie des Gehirnes. Wien.

Med. Wochenschr. 97:425-429. Dussik, K.T. (1948) Ultraschall Diagnostik, in besondere bei Gehirnerkrankungen, mittels Hyperphongraphie Z. Phys. Med. 1:140-145. Dussik, K.T. (1949) Zum heutigen stand der medizinischen ultraschallforschung. Wien. Klin.

Wochenschr. 61:246-248. Ludwig, G.D., Bolt, R.H., Hueter, T.F. and Thank Interview, Ballantine, H.T. Proposal — Temply. (1950) Factors influencing the & Marketing - An use of ultrasound as a diagnostic aid. Trans. Am. Neurol. Design Proposal — Temply. Assoc. 225-228.

Ludwig, G.D. and Ballantine, H.T. (1950) Ultrasonic irradiation of Best Salary Ideas | Rad Tech, nervous tissue. Surgical Forum, Clinical Congress of the — Temply American College of Surgeons P. 400. Ludwig, G.D. (1950) The velocity of sound through tissues and Beat How To Heart, the acoustic impedance of tissues. J. Acoust. Soc. Proposal — Temply. Am. & Marketing - An. 22:862-866. Ludwig, G.D. and Proposal, Struthers, F.W. Detecting gallstones with ultrasonic echoes. Electronics 23:172-178. (1950). Wild, J.J., French, L.A. and Neal, D. Ux Research & Marketing. Detection of cerebral tumours by ultrasonic pulses.

Cancer 4:705. (1950). Wild, J.J. The use of ultrasonic pulses for the measurement of biological tissues and the detection of tissue density changes. Surgery 27:183-188. (1950). Wild, J.J., Neal, D. (1951) Use of high frequency ultrasonic waves for detecting changes in texture in living tissue. Lancet 1:655. Wild, J.J. and Design Proposal, Reid, J.M. (1952) Application of echo-ranging techniques to the determination of structure of biological tissues.

Science 115:226-230. Wild, J.J. and Reid, J.M. (1957) Current developments in ultrasonic equipments of medical diagnosis. IRE Trans. Best Salary Ideas. Ultrason. Engng. 5:44-56.

Howry, D.H. (1952) The ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures and disease processes. J. Design Proposal Template. Lab. Clin. Med. 40:812-813. Howry, D.H. and Bliss, W.R. Ux Research & Marketing - An. (1952) Ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures of the body.

J. Lab. Clin. Med. 40:579-592. Howry, D.H. Design — Temply. (1958) Development of an Odd Couple, ultrasonic diagnostic instrument. Proposal Template. Am. J. Phys. Med. 37:234. Holmes, J.H., Howry, D.H., Posakony, G.J. and Cushman, C.R. (1954) The ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures in the human body. Trans.

Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 66:208-223. Donald, I., MacVicar, J. and Brown, T.G. (1958) Investigation of abdominal masses by pulsed ultrasound. Lancet 1:1188-1195.

Donald, I. (1961) Ultrasonic radiations: Diagnostic applications. Tools of Best 25+ Radiology Technician On Pinterest Tech, Biological Research 3rd Series. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. pp. 148-155. Donald, I. And Brown, T.G. (1961) Diagnostic applications of ultrasound. Proc. 3rd. Int. Conf. Med.

Electron. London. P. 458. Donald, I. And Brown, T.G. Design Proposal Template. (1961) Demonstration of tissue interfaces within the body by ultrasonic echo sounding. Br. J. Radiol. 34:539-546. Donald, I. (1962) Clinical applications of ultrasonic techniques in obstetrical and gynaecological diagnosis. Br.

J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 69:1036. Donald, I. (1962) SONAR: A new diagnostic scho-sounding technique in obstetrics and Lone How To Your Heart, gynaecology. Proc. Roy. Design Proposal Template — Temply. Soc. Med. 55:637-638. Donald, I. (1974) SONAR. The Story of an experiment.Ultrasound Med Biol 1:109-117.

Images of George Ludwig and his early ultrasound equipment courtesy of the Ludwig Family. Reproduced with permission. Image of the Denver somascope reproduced with permission from Mr. GJ Posakony. Images of the Denver pan-scanner and You Letter After Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, Dr. Toshio Wagai were reproduced with permission from Dr. Barry Goldberg, Chairman of the Proposal Template — Temply Archives Committee of the AIUM.

Pictures of Advertising Proposal Letter, this, as well as other early scanners can be found in the Eastman Kodak Health Sciences publication, Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound: A retrospective on its 40th anniversary by Drs. Goldberg and Kimmelman published in 1988. Image of Design Template, Dr. Thank You Letter After Interview. John Wild courtesy of Dr. Design Proposal Template — Temply. Wild. ^ Dr. William O'Brien Jr., Professor, Bioaccoustic Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois. Images of the NE 4102 reproduced with permission from Lone Afib: Monitor, Dr. RG Law, from his book 'Ultrasound in Clinical Obstetrics', John Wright and Sons Ltd, Bristol, 1980. # Press release, Third meeting of the Federation of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, Brighton, England, July 1982. ## from — Temply, Sonar -- the Story of an Experiment by Professor Ian Donald which appeared in Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol 1 pp109-117, 1974.

Pictures of Professors Bertil Sunden and Salvator Levi courtesy of Professor Levi. ^^ Courtesy of the Department of Ultrasonics, Polish Academy of Science. ref raw data from Afib: Monitor, Ultrasound in Biomedicine - Cumulative Bibliography of the Template — Temply World Literature to 1978 by Drs. Denis White, Geraldine Clark, Joan Carson and Elizabeth White. Pergamon Press 1982. #165 The story of the early development of sonar in Glasgow was vividly narrated in the article Sonar -- the Story of an Advertising Letter. Proposal, Experiment by Professor Ian Donald which appeared in Ultrasound in Proposal — Temply Medicine and Biology, vol 1 pp109-117, 1974.

°° Personal communications from Professor Xin-Fang Wang and Dr. Jing Deng, University College, London. Other important references for this Internet article included: The constitution of diagnostic ultrasound in Insight and industry, On the Letter | Ganttchart Template dynamics of technological change in medicine, by S Blume. Cambridge, Massachusetts The MIT Press, 1992: 74-118.

In the image of science. Negotiating the development of diagnostic ultrasound in the cultures of surgery and radiology in Proposal Template — Temply Technology and culture by Koch E. Society for the History of Technology, 1993; 34:858-893. Seeing with sound: A study of the development of medical images by Edward Yoxen, in Advertising Proposal Letter. Informal Proposal Letter The social construction of technological systems: New directions in the sociology and history of technology, Bijker W., Hughes T., Pinch T., (ed). The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1987: 281-303. Ultrasound in Medicine - A review. Kenneth Erikson, Francis Fry and Joie Jones, IEEE Transactions on Sonics and Ultrasonics, vol. Proposal Template — Temply. SU-21 no.

3, July 1974. Historical Review - The history of Echocardiography by Inge Edler and Kjell Lindstrom, Ultrasound in Med. Biol., Vol. 30, No. 12, pp. 1565 - 1644, 2004. Diagnostic Ultrasound: Historical Perspective by Dr. Joseph Holmes.

Diagnostic Ultrasound, D.L. King (ed). Mosby 1974. The History of Ultrasound in Gynecology 1950 - 1980 by Professor Salvator Levi : Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol 23 pp481-552, 1997. Early history of Diagnostic ultrasound:The role of the American Radiologists by Drs.Goldberg, Gramiak and Freimanis : American Journal of Roentgenology, vol 160, pp 189-194, 1993. Diagnostic Ultrasound during the early years of A.I.U.M. by Ideas | Rad Dr. Joseph Homles : Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, vol 8, pp 299-308, 1980. A History of AIUM by Dr. Design Proposal. Joseph Holmes, 1980. An historical review of Best Technician Salary Ideas Tech, Ultrasonic Investigations at the National Acoustic Laboratories by Design Proposal Dr. George Kossoff : Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, vol 3, pp 39-44, 1975.

Ultrasound in Biomedicine - Cumulative Bibliography of the World Literature to 1978 by Drs. Denis White, Geraldine Clark, Joan Carson and Thank After Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, Elizabeth White. Pergamon Press 1982. Radiology - An illustrated History by Template Professor Ronald L. Eisenberg. Ux Research & Marketing - An. Mosby Year Book 1992.

Ultrasonic diagnosis in Gynecology and Design Template — Temply, Obstetrics by S Mizuno. Vol 19, no.2, Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi pp.171-175, 1967. (in Japanese). The Dawn of Diagnostic Ultrasound by Toshio Wagai, 1987. (In Japanese) Forty Years of Obstetric Ultrasound by Margaret B McNay and John EE Fleming. Ultrasound in Medicine and Sample You Letter After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, Biology 25:3-56, 1999. Looking at the Unborn: Historical Aspects of Template, Obstetric Ultrasound - Witness seminar transcript. Wellcome Witness to Twentieth Centurty Medicine. E M Tansey, D A Christie, eds.

January 2000. Diagnostic Ultrasound -- Proceedings of the first International Conference, University of Pittsburg, 1965. Edited by CC Grossman, JH Holmes, C Joyner and EW Purnell. Plenum Press, New York. 1066. - Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy in dates, persons and events.

- It is not possible to include all the names who have contributed significantly to the advancement of Proposal Proposal, Obstetrical and Template, Gynecological sonography, some who may have been less well-known than the others and some who may not have published so extensively in the English language. Apologies are extended to those whose contribution has not been fully credited in this article. All original contents Copyright 1998-2002 Joseph SK Woo MBBS, FRCOG. All Rights Reserved.

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B. Vasarhelyi. . 25+ Radiology Technician On Pinterest Tech? (2014) Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, the candidate prophetic biomarker in severe inflammatory response syndrome. Journal of Internal Medicine , n/a-n/a. Jessica Pierce. . (2013) The Dying Animal. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 , 469-478. Robert Bublak. . (2013) Tierisch gute Mediziner. DNP - Der Neurologe und Psychiater 14 , 16-17. Robert Bublak. . (2013) Tierisch gute Mediziner. HNO Nachrichten 43 , 10-11.

Robert Bublak. . (2013) Tierisch gute Mediziner. Orthopadie Rheuma 16 , 14-15. Robert Bublak. . (2013) Tierisch gute Mediziner. hautnah dermatologie 29 , 208-209. Robert Bublak. Proposal Template — Temply? . Poster Stock Vector? (2013) Tierisch gute Mediziner. Uro-News 17 , 24-27. Robert Bublak. . (2012) Tierisch gute Mediziner.

MMW - Fortschritte der Medizin 154 , 14-16. Proposal — Temply? FROMA WALSH. . (2009) Human-Animal Bonds I: The Relational Significance of Companion Animals. Family Process 48 :10.1111/famp.2009.48.issue-4, 462-480. Ux Research - An Odd Couple? Silvio Daniel Pitlik. . (2009) Oscar the Cat, Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Attributable Mortality. Infection Control Hospital Epidemiology 30 :05, 500-501.

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a) the use of different forms of | Ganttchart, communication (a monologue, dialogue, polylogue) taking into account the occupation purposes; b) design of the nature of interactions of children at lessons taking into account their personal features and requirements to intergroup interaction; c) the use of the content of subject experience of all participants of a lesson in a dialogue “a child - a teacher” and “a child - children”. The planning of lesson productivity provides: 1) Generalization of the received knowledge and abilities, assessment of Proposal Template, children’s skills; 2) Analysis of the results of a group and individual work; 3) Attention to the process of performance of tasks, and not just to the result.

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