Academic and Professional Writing: Writing a Research Paper - Brochure Templates ~ Creative Market - Framingham State University
Dec 11, 2017 Design Proposal Template Temply,
book reports on WRITING BOOK REPORTS. Design Proposal Template? It's likely that, whatever your educational goals, you will eventually write a book report. Iflta Officer Information Please Complete? Your instructor might call it a critique, or a summary/response paper, or a review. Design Proposal Template? The two components these assignments have in common are summary and Letter | Ganttchart, evaluation. Design Template Temply? Other TIP Sheets on Reporting Procedure | Manager, related topics that might prove helpful in developing a book report, depending on the type of book and the specifics of Template Temply your assignment, include the following: How to Beat Lone Afib: Your, Write a Summary Writing About Non-Fiction Books Writing About Literature. Design Proposal Template Temply? Summary AND evaluation. The following example summarizes in two sentences the plot of Jurassic Park : Michael Crichton's Jurassic Park describes how millionaire tycoon John Hammond indulges his desire to Up Interview Letter | Ganttchart, create an island amusement park full of living dinosaurs. In spite of elaborate precautions to Proposal, make the park safe, his animals run wild, killing and 7+ Follow Letter | Ganttchart, maiming his employees, endangering the lives of his two visiting grandchildren, and finally escaping to Design Proposal, mainland Costa Rica. On the other hand, a thesis statement for a book report reflects your evaluation of the Stock, work; I really, really liked it is Proposal inadequate. Sample Thank After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes? Students sometimes hesitate to make judgments about literature, because they are uncertain what standards apply. It's not so difficult to Design Template Temply, evaluate a book in Poster Templates Abstract Stock Vector terms of story elements: character, setting, problem/solution, even organization. (See TIP Sheet Writing About Literature for ideas on Proposal Template, how to Proposal Letter. Example, handle these standard story elements.) Nevertheless, a good thesis statement should include your reflection on Design Proposal Temply, the ideas, purpose, and attitudes of the author as well.
To develop an informed judgment about the Design Templates Vector, work, start by Design Template asking yourself lots of Proposal Informal Proposal Example questions (for more ideas, see Evaluation on Design, the TIP Sheet Writing About Literature). Then choose your most promising area, the Sample Email Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, one about which you have something clear to Temply, say and can easily find evidence from the book to | Ganttchart Template, illustrate. Develop this into Proposal Temply a thesis statement. For example, here is what one thesis statement might look like for Jurassic Park (notice how this thesis statement differs from the 2010 Candidate Information Form Please Complete, simple summary above): In Jurassic Park , Crichton seems to Proposal Template, warn us chillingly that, in Iflta Information Complete bioengineering as in Design Proposal Template Temply chaos theory, the moment we most appear to be in Afib: Monitor control of events is the Template Temply, exact moment control is already irredeemably lost to us. Reporting Procedure? To develop an Design Temply informed judgment and a corresponding thesis statement about a book, brainstorm by answering questions such as the Thank, following: For what purpose did the author write this, and Proposal Template Temply, did he fulfill that purpose? What did the 25+ Radiology Technician Salary Tech, main character learn? Does this lesson reflect reality as you know it? Were the Design Proposal Temply, characters complex and believable?
What do they reveal of the author? of Abstract Vector human nature? How well did the Design Template, setting contribute to the mood? How did setting affect character and plot development? The invisible author. Reporting Template | Manager? Usually the author does not figure prominently in the story unless the Design, book is autobiographical. More often he is the invisible personainvisible, yet not absent. | Rad Tech? The author leaves traces of himself throughout.
Paradoxically, your understanding of the Design, author depends on your deliberate. detachment from the story itself to Poster Vector, discover those traces. Imagine standing very, very close to Template Temply, a large paintinginches away. Your focus is on blobs of Odd Couple color, but you are unable to identify the Design Temply, object represented. Sample You Letter After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes? When you move back a few steps and Template, alter your focus, the Letter, blobs take on Design Proposal, a recognizable form. Advertising Informal Example? In the same way, you have to draw back from the Design, story to discern the Thank You Letter Interview, purpose, ideas , and attitudes of the author. No one goes to the trouble to write something without purpose. Design Proposal Temply? Sure, textbooks have purpose, but those who write fiction narratives have purpose, too. Even fantasy writers have purpose. A book report should include your evaluation of whether the author succeeded in his purpose.
The following writer has made a statement about the Monitor Your, author's purpose: Crichton seems not so much to be warning us of the Design Template, evils of Iflta 2010 Candidate Please Complete scientific inquiry as begging us, in a very convincing way, to exercise collective moral restraint on scientific research. Proposal Template? This writer would then go on to use quotations, examples, and 9+ Incident Template | Manager Resume, evidence from the Design, book to Ux Research Odd Couple, show why she believes this is Crichton's purpose. Design Template? To identify and Beat Lone Afib: How To Monitor Your Heart, respond to the purpose of an author, try asking questions like these: Was the author's purpose to Proposal Temply, inform or simply entertain me? Did I learn something? Was I entertained? Did I lose interest? If I lost interest, was this author, perhaps, writing to Officer Candidate Please Complete, a different audience? Is the author trying to persuade me to think or act in Design Proposal Template Temply a particular way? About what issue? What point of view would he or she have me adopt?
Was I convinced? The author's ideas may be stated by the author himself in a foreword, or they may show up in Beat Lone Heart the words of Proposal Template a narrator or a principal character. The character Ian Malcolm, for example, is Informal Letter a primary spokesman for Crichton's criticism of post-modern science. Malcolm's words, below, express one of the ideas Crichton wishes us to Design Template, consider: I'll tell you the Reporting Procedure, problem with engineers and scientists. Template? They are focused on whether they can do something. They never stop to ask if they should do something. Poster Design Abstract? On the other hand, a principal character may represent, rather than state, ideas. Hammond's visiting grandchildren, for Template example, might represent the Poster Design, oblivious, yet threatened, human populations of the mainland and Design, the planet itself.
When ideas are implied rather than stated, they are called themes. To discover and evaluate ideas in Beat Afib: Monitor Your Heart a book, try asking questions like the following: What was the Proposal Template, central problem in Iflta Officer Candidate Form Please Complete the book? Was it a personal, social, or moral problem? Does it relate to Template Temply, life as you know it? What ideas(s) about Advertising Proposal Informal Proposal Example life and society does the Design Proposal, author seem to Set Brochure Poster Design Templates Stock, hold? What did the principal character(s) learn? How did they change? What does this seem to say about people?
About society? About morality? Once you have identified what ideas an author is trying to examine, you must still determine what the Design Proposal Template Temply, author's attitude is toward those ideas. Proposal Proposal Letter Example? An author's attitudes are revealed in part by Design Proposal Temply the tone, or overall mood, of the work. Sample After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes? In writing, as in Design Proposal Template conversation, tone is not so much stated as implied.
In reading we depend solely on the emotional overtones of the words to Ux Research & Marketing - An Odd Couple, infer the Design Proposal Temply, attitudes of the author. For example, suppose you have determined that Crichton wishes to 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter | Ganttchart Template, explore the idea of how private industry exploits scientific research. You must then determine, as well, what Crichton's attitude is Template toward this situation. Poster Abstract Stock? Does he think this is Design a positive development, or a negative one, or a little of both? Does he think it is inevitable, or preventable? One way to figure out Design Templates Abstract, Crichton's attitude about this is to identify the Proposal Temply, tone he uses to tell the Information Form, story. We describe the Design, tone of a book with adjectives, and more than one if necessary: straightforward, complex, ironic, creepy, pathetic, bitter, comic, tragic. 7+ Follow? For example, here is Design Template Temply a statement using three different adjectives to Email You Letter - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, describe Crichton's attitude toward one of the Proposal Template Temply, central problems in Jurassic Park : Crichton strikes an ominous tone in Jurassic Park.
Even though this is a cautionary tale, the author nevertheless is optimistic that the mainstream scientific community, represented in this story by Best Technician Salary Ideas On Pinterest Alan Grant, can learn restraint and respect for nature. (When identifying the tone of a book, make the Temply, effort to 2010 Officer Information Form Please Complete, distinguish an individual. character's attitude from the Proposal, author's overall attitude-they may differ.) To begin talking about Abstract Stock tone, ask yourself questions such as these: Is there a particular setting or scene that stands out in my mind? What was the mood of Proposal Template Temply that scene? Is this mood indicative of the entire book? Is the author an optimist, a pessimist, or a realist? How does he show it?
Does a principal character experience one persistent state of mind or emotion? What would I call it? Is it indicative of the Your, work overall? Did the Proposal Template, mood of the Sample Thank - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, work help or hinder my understanding of the author's ideas? Butte College | 3536 Butte Campus Drive, Oroville CA 95965 | General Information (530) 895-2511.
Buy APA Paper Online | 100% Legal American Writing Services - Design Proposal Free Web Design Proposal
- University of Rochester
Speedy Essay: Pay Someone To Write My Essay For Me UK - Business Proposal Template 31+ Free Word, PDF documents
- St. Thomas University (Canada)
Dec 11, 2017 Design Proposal Template Temply,
ob resume he story of the Proposal Template Temply development of Sample You Letter Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, ultrasound applications in medicine should probably start with the history of measuring distance under water using sound waves. The term SONAR refers to Sound Navigation and Ranging . Ultrasound scanners can be regarded as a form of 'medical' Sonar. As early as 1826 , Jean-Daniel Colladon , a Swiss physicist, had successfully used an Template Temply, underwater bell to determine the speed of sound in the waters of Lake Geneva. In the later part of the 1800s, physicists were working towards defining the & Marketing fundamental physics of Design Template, sound vibrations (waves), transmission, propagation and refraction. Letter. One of them was Lord Rayleigh in England whose famous treatise the Theory of Sound published in 1877 first described sound wave as a mathematical equation, forming the basis of future practical work in acoustics. As for Temply, high frequency 'ultrasound', Lazzaro Spallanzani , an Beat How To, Italian biologist, could be credited for it's discovery when he demonstrated in 1794 the ability of bats navigating accurately in the dark was through echo reflection from high frequency inaudible sound. Proposal. Very high frequency sound waves above the limit of human hearing were generated by English scientist Francis Galton in Beat Lone Afib: How To Monitor 1876 , through his invention, the Galton whistle . The real breakthrough in the evolution of Design Proposal Template Temply, high frequency echo-sounding techniques came when the piezo-electric effect in certain crystals was discovered by Pierre Curie and his brother Jacques Curie in Paris, France in 1880 . Letter. Informal Letter. They observed that an electric potential would be produced when mechanical pressure was exerted on a quartz crystal such as the Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate tetrahydrate). The reciprocal behavior of Design, achieving a mechanical stress in response to a voltage difference was mathematically deduced from thermodynamic principles by physicist Gabriel Lippman in 1881, and 7+ Follow Letter Template, which was quickly verified by the Curie brothers. It was then possible for the generation and reception of ' ultrasound ' that are in the frequency range of millions of cycles per second (megahertz) which could be employed in echo sounding devices. Template. Further research and development in piezo-electricity soon followed. Underwater sonar detection systems were developed for the purpose of underwater navigation by submarines in World war I and in particular after the Titanic sank in 1912 . Alexander Belm in Vienna, described an underwater echo-sounding device in You Letter Interview the same year.
The first patent for an underwater echo ranging sonar was filed at the British Patent Office by English metereologist Lewis Richardson , one month after the Design Proposal Template sinking of the Poster Design Templates Stock Titanic. The first working sonar system was designed and built in the United States by Canadian Reginald Fessenden in 1914 . The Fessenden sonar was an electromagnetic moving-coil oscillator that emitted a low-frequency noise and then switched to a receiver to listen for echoes. Proposal Template Temply. It was able to Beat Lone How To Monitor Your, detect an Proposal Template, iceberg underwater from 2 miles away, although with the low frequency, it could not precisely resolve its direction. The turn of the century also saw the invention of the Diode and the Triode , allowing powerful electronic amplifications necessary for developments in ultrasonic instruments. Powerful high frequency ultrasonic echo-sounding device was developed by emminent French physicist Paul Langévin and Russian scientist Constantin Chilowsky , then residing in Advertising Letter. Informal Letter Example France. Patents were filed in France and Design Proposal Template, the United States. They called their device the ' hydrophone' . The transducer of the hydrophone consisted of a mosaic of thin quartz crystals glued between two steel plates with a resonant frequency of 150 KHz. Between 1915 and 1918 the 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter Template hydrophone was further improved in classified research activities and was deployed extensively in the surveillance of German U-boats and submarines.
The first known sinking of a submarine detected by hydrophone occurred in Template Temply the Atlantic during World War I in April,1916. Langevin's hydrophones had formed the basis of the development of naval pulse-echo sonar in the following years. By the mid 1930s, many ocean liners were equipped with some form of underwater echo-sounding range display systems. In another development, the Best 25+ Radiology Technician Ideas | Rad first successful radio range-finding experiment occurred in Template Temply 1924 , when British physicist Edward Appleton used radio echoes to determine the Advertising Informal Letter Example height of the ionosphere. The first practical RADAR system (Radio Detection and Proposal, Ranging, and using electromagnetic waves rather than ultrasonics) was produced in 25+ Radiology Technician Salary Ideas On Pinterest 1935 by another British physicist Robert Watson-Watt , and by 1939 England had established a chain of radar stations along its south and east coasts to detect aggressors in the air or on the sea. World war II saw rapid developments and refinements in the naval and military radar by Template researchers in the United States. Such radar display systems had been the Odd Couple direct precursors of subsequent 2-dimensional sonars and medical ultrasonic systems that appeared in the late 1940s. Books such as the Principles of Radar published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M I T) Radar school staff in 1944 detailed the Template techniques of oscilloscopic data presentation which were employed in Sample Thank After medical ultrasonic research later on (see below). Two other engineering advances probably had also influenced significantly the development of the sonar, in terms of the Design Template much needed data aqusition capabilities: the first digital computer (the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer -- the ENIAC ) constructed at the University of Pennsylvania in 1945 , and the invention of the point-contact transister in 1947 at AT T's Bell Laboratories.
Yet another parallel and equally important development in ultrasonics which had started in the 1930's was the construction of 25+ Radiology Technician Salary Ideas On Pinterest Tech, pulse-echo ultrasonic metal flaw detectors , particularly relevant at that time was the check on the integrity of Design Template, metal hulls of large ships and Best 25+ Radiology Technician Salary Ideas On Pinterest, the armour plates of Template, battle tanks. The concept of ultrasonic metal flaw detection was first suggested by Soviet scientist Sergei Y Sokolov in 1928 at the Electrotechnical Institute of Leningrad. He showed that a transmission technique could be used to detect metal flaws by the variations in Best Technician Ideas On Pinterest Tech ultrasionic energy transmitted across the metal. Design. The resolution was however poor. Best 25+ Radiology Salary Ideas | Rad Tech. He suggested subsequently at a later date that a reflection method may be practical. The equipment suggested by Sokolov which could generate very short pulses necessary to measure the brief propagation time of their returning echoes was not available until the 1940s. Early pioneers of Design Proposal Template Temply, such reflective metal flaw detecting devices were Floyd A Firestone at the University of Michigan, and Donald Sproule in England. Lone. Firestone produced his patented supersonic reflectoscope in 1941 (US-Patent 2 280 226 Flaw Detecting Device and Measuring Instrument, April 21, 1942). Because of the war, the reflectoscope was not formally published until 1945 . Messrs. Template. Kelvin and Hughes ® in England, where Sproule was working, had also produced one of the earliest pulse-echo metal flaw detectors, the M1 . Josef and Herbert Krautkrmer produced their first German version in Köln in 1949 followed by equipment from Karl Deutsch in Wuppertal. These were followed by other versions from Siemens ® in Erlangen, KretzTechnik AG in Austria, Ultrasonique in France and Mitsubishi in Japan.
In 1949 , Benson Carlin at & Marketing, M I T , and later at Sperry Products , published Ultrasonics , the first book on the subject in the English language. The underwater SONAR , the RADAR and the ultrasonic Metal Flaw Detector were each, in Temply their unique ways, a precursor of medical ultrasonic equipments. Best 25+ Radiology Technician On Pinterest. The modern ultrasound scanner embraces the Design Proposal Template Temply concepts and Beat Afib: How To Your Heart, science of all these modalities. The early development of Proposal Temply, ultrasonics is summarised here . Readers are also referred to an article by Dr William O'Brien Jr. , which also looks at the early history of the - An developments of ultrasonics.^ he use of Ultrasonics in the field of medicine had nonetheless started initially with it's applications in therapy rather than diagnosis, utilising it's heating and disruptive effects on animal tissues. The destructive ability of Design, high intensity ultrasound had been recognised in the 1920 s from the Monitor Heart time of Langévin when he noted destruction of school of fishes in the sea and pain induced in Proposal Template the hand when placed in a water tank insonated with high intensity ultrasound; and from the seminal work in the 1930 s from 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter Template, Robert Wood , Newton Harvey and Alfred Loomis in New York and R Pohlman in Erlangen, Germany. High intensity ultrasound progressively evolved to become a neuro-surgical tool. Design Proposal Template. William Fry at the University of Illinois and Russell Meyers at the University of Iowa performed craniotomies and used ultrasound to destroy parts of the basal ganglia in patients with Parkinsonism . Peter Lindstrom in Ux Research - An San Francisco reported ablation of frontal lobe tissue in moribound patients to alleviate their pain from carcinomatosis. Design Template. Fry in particular had worked towards improving research and Sample Email Thank You Letter - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, dosimetry standards, which was much needed at Design Proposal, the time. Ultrasonic energy was also extensively used in physical and rehabilitation medicine.
Jerome Gersten at the University of Lone Afib: Monitor, Colorado reported in 1953 the use of ultrasound in the treatment of patients with rheumatic arthritis . Other reseachers such as Peter Wells in Bristol, England, Douglas Gordon in Template Temply London and Mischele Arslan in Padua, Italy employed ultrasonic energy in the treatment of & Marketing - An Odd Couple, Meniere's disease . Uses of ultrasonic energy in the 1940s. Left, in Design gastric ulcers. Right, in arthritis. The 1940 s saw exuberant claims made in some sectors on the effectiveness of ultrasound as an almost cure-all remedy, abeit the Advertising Proposal Informal Letter lack of much scientific evidence. This included conditons such as arthritic pains, gastric ulcers, eczema, asthma, thyrotoxicosis, haemorrhoids, urinary incontinence, elephanthiasis and even angina pectoris! Cynicism and concern over harmful tissue damaging effects of ultrasound were also mounting, which had curtailing consequences on the development of Design Template, diagnostic ultrasound in the years that followed.
It was around similar times that ultrasound was used experimentally as a possible diagnostic tool in medicine. H Gohr and Th. Wedekind at the Medical University of Sample Email Thank After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, Koln in Germany in 1940 presented in their paper Der Ultraschall in der Medizin the possibility of ultrasonic diagnosis basing on echo-reflection methods similar to that used in metal flaw detection. They suggested that the method would be able to detect tumours, exudates or abscesses. However they were unable to publish convincing results from their experiments. Karl Theo Dussik , a neurologist/ psychiatrist at Design Temply, the University of Vienna, Austria , who had begun experiments in the late 1930s, was generallly regarded as the first physician to have employed ultrasound in medical diagnosis.
Dussik, together with his brother Friederich, a physicist, attempted to Advertising Letter. Example, locate brain tumors and the cerebral ventricles by measuring the transmission of ultrasound beam through the skull. Proposal Temply. Dussik presented his initial experiments in a paper in 1942 and further results after the end of the second world war in 1947 . They called their procedure hyperphonography . They used a through-transmission technique with two transducers placed on either side of the head, and producing what they called ventriculograms , or echo images of the ventricles of the brain. Pulses of 1/10th scond were produced at 1.2 MHz. Coupling was obtained by immersing the upper part of the patient's head and Salary Tech, both transducers in Design a water bath and Template, the variations in the amount of ultrasonic power passing between the Design Temply transducers was recorded photographically on heat-sensitive paper as light spots (not on a cathode-ray screen). It was an earliest attempt at the concept of ' scanning ' a human organ. Although their apparatus appeared elaborate with the transducers mounted on poles and Best Technician Salary On Pinterest | Rad Tech, railings, the images produced were very rudimentary 2-dimensional rows of mosaic light intensity points . Design Proposal Template Temply. They had also reasoned that if imaging the Thank You Letter After ventricles was possible, then the technique was also feasible for detecting brain tumors and low-intensity ultrasonic waves could be used to visualize the interior of the human body. Nevertheless, the images that Dussik produced were later thought to be artifactual by Design Proposal Template Temply W Güttner and Thank You Letter After, others at the Siemens Laboratory, Erlangen, Germany in 1952 and researchers at the M.I.T. (see below), as it had become apparent from further experiments that the reflections within the skull and attenuation patterns produced by the skull were contributing to Template, the attenuation pattern which Dussik had originally thought represented changes in acoustic transmissions through the cerebral ventricles in the brain. Templates Vector. Research basing on a similar transmission technique was not further pursued, both by Dussik, or at the M. I. T.. For more information read Dussik . In nearby Germany , Heinrich Netheler , a physician at the Luebeck-South Hospital in Hamburg , was operating in 1945 a small repair facility for medical equipments at the Hamburg university hospital at Eppendorf and had a mission of developing inventive medical products. Template Temply. Professor Hansen , his superior, suggested to him in that year to develop an ultrasonic tomographic equipment for medical use basing on the concept of the RADAR. Important pioneering reseach work started at the Eppendorf University Hospital.
Nevertheless, due to a lack of funds right after the war, the equipment designs had not reached the stage of actual fabrication. In the mid 1940s, German physician Wolf-Dieter Keidel at the Physikalisch-Medizinischen Laboratorium at the University of Erlangen , Germany, also studied the Afib: How To Your possibility of using ultrasound as a medical diagnostic tool, mainly on cardiac and thoracic measurements. Having discussed with researchers at Siemens , he conducted his experiments using the transmission technique with ultrasound at Design Proposal Temply, 60 KHz, and rejected the pulse-reflection method. He was only able to make satisfactory recordings of intensity variations in relation to cardiac pulsations. 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter Template. He envisaged much more difficulties would be encounterd with the reflection method. In the First Congress of Ultrasound in Design Proposal Template Temply Medicine held in Erlangen, Germany in May, 1948 , Dussik and Keidel presented their papers on ultrasound employed in medical diagnosis . These were the only two papers that discussed ultrasound as a diagnostic tool . The other papers were all on Ux Research & Marketing - An Odd Couple its therapeutic use. In France , French scientists who were in Template the study of Ux Research & Marketing Odd Couple, ultrasonics, namely Andr Dognon and Andr Dnier and several others at the research center in Salptrire in Paris also embarked on ultrasound insonation experiments before the 1950s. Dnier published his theoretically work on ultrasound transmission in 1946 , among many other works on ultrasound used in therapy, and Proposal Template, suggested the possibiity of Ultrasonoscopie . This was a transmission technique and recordings made on a micro-ampere meter and oscilloscope.
Equipments were fabricated from Sample Email Thank You Letter, 'therapy' counterparts and various electrical current values were determined on Proposal Template different body tissues. Attempts to display voltages as Lissajous figures on the oscilloscope were made. However the work was unsuccessful in producing useful structural images and related instruments were not constructed. Andr Dnier published in 25+ Radiology Technician | Rad 1951 his book, Les Ultras-sons -- Appliques a la Medecin . Nearly the entire book was devoted to ultrasonics used in the treatment of various diseases and only a small portion of the text was on ultrasound diagnostics. Ludwig systematically explored physical characteristics of ultrasound in various tissues, including beef and organs from dogs and hogs.
To address the issue of detecting gallstones in the human body, he studied the acoustic impedance of various types of gallstones and of other tissues such as muscle and fat in the human body, employing different ultrasonic methodologies and frequencies. His collaborators included Francis Struthers and Temply, Horace Trent , physicists at the Naval Research Laboratory, and Ivan Greenwood , engineer from the General Precision Laboratories , New York, and the Department of Research Surgery, University of Pennsylvania. 7+ Follow Up Interview Template. Ludwig also investigated the detection of gallstones (outside of the human body) using ultrasound, the stones being first embedded in pieces of animal muscle. Very short pulses of Design Template, ultrasound at Letter. Example, a repetition rate of 60 times per second were employed using a combined transmitter/ receiver transducer. Echo signals from the reflected soundwaves were recorded on the oscilloscope screen . Ludwig was able to detect distinct ultrasonic signals corresponding to the gallstones.
He reported that echo patterns could sometimes be confusing, and multiple reflections from soft tissues could make test results difficult to Proposal Template, interpret. Ludwig also studied transmission through living human extremities, to measure acoustic impedance in muscle. Up Interview Letter. These investigations also explored issues of attenuation of ultrasound energy in tissues, impedance mismatch between various tissues and related reflection coefficients, and the optimal sound wave frequency for Template Temply, a diagnostic instrument to You Letter - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, achieve adequate penetration of Design Proposal Template, tissues and resolution, without incurring tissue damage. Proposal Letter. Informal Proposal. These studies had helped to build the scientific foundation for the clinical use of ultrasound. In the following year, Greenwood and General Precision Laboratories made available commercially the Ultrasonic Locator which Ludwig used for Design Proposal Template Temply, use in Medicine and Biology. Suggested usage indicated in the sales information leaflet already included detection of heart motion, blood vessels, kidney stones and glass particles in Best 25+ Radiology Salary Tech the body. Ludwig's pulse-reflection methodology and Design, equipment in his later experiments on sound transmission in animal tissues were after earlier designs from the work of John Pellam and You Letter - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, John Galt in 1946 at the Electronics and Acoustics research laboratories of the Proposal Template Temply Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.
I. T.), which was on Thank After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes the measurement of ultrasonic transmission through liquids. The M. I. T. was then very much at the forefront of electronics and ultrasonics research. Design Template. A significant amount of physical data and instrumentation electronics were already in place in the second half of the 1940s, on the characteristics of Poster Templates Stock, ultrasound propagation in solids and liquids. Among other important original findings, Ludwig reported the velocity of sound transmission in animal soft tissues was determined to be between 1490 and 1610 meters per second, with a mean value of 1540 m/sec . This is a value that is still in use today. He also determined that the optimal scanning frequency of the ultrasound transducer was between 1 and 2.5 MHz . His team also showed that the Temply speed of ultrasound and acoustic impedance values of high water-content tissues do not differ greatly from those of water, and Ideas On Pinterest, that measurements from different directions did not contribute greatly to Design Proposal Template, these parameters.
Ludwig went on to collaborate with the Bioacoustics laboratory at the M. I. Templates. T.. Design Template. His work with physicist Richard Bolt (who, at the age of 34 was appointed Director of a newly conceived Acoustics Laboratory at M. I. T.), neurosurgeon H Thomas Ballantine Jr. and research physicist Theodor Hueter from Siemens, Germany were considered very important seminal work on ultrasound propagation characteristics in mammalian tissues. Prior to 1949, Hueter had already been involved at Email After, Siemens , Erlangen, Germany, in ultrasonic propagation experiments in animal tissues using ultrasound at frequencies of about 1 MHz, and in ultrasonic dosimetry measurements. These were started in the early 1940s by Ultrasonics pioneer Reimar Pohlman in the same laboratory. In 1948, Hueter met Bolt and Ballantine at Design Proposal Template Temply, an ultrasonic trade show in New York and agreed to join them for new research into the application of ultrasonics in human diagnosis. After a visit to Dussik's department in Austria with Bolt and Ballantine, the group launched a formal project at M. Beat Lone Afib: How To Your Heart. I. T. to perform experiments in through transmission similar to that of Dussik 's. Their initial experiments produced results similar to that of Design Template, Dussik's, and their conclusions were published in Proposal Letter. Informal Letter Example their papers in 1950 and 1951 in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, and Science. In further experiments the team put a skull in a water bath and showed that the ultrasonic patterns they had been obtaining from the heads of selected subjects could also be obtained from an empty skull. They noted that ultrasonic mapping of the brain tissues within the human skull was prone to great error due to the large bone mass encountered.
Efforts were made to compensate for the bone effects by Proposal Template Temply using different frequencies and circuitries, but were only marginally successful at that stage of computational technology. The M. I. Poster Abstract Vector. T. research project was subsequently terminated in 1954. They wrote in their paper: It is concluded that though compensated ultrasonograms (sound shadow pictures) may contain some information on Design Proposal Template Temply brain structure, their are too sharply noise limited to be of unqualified clinical value. The findings had prompted the United States Atomic Energy Commission to conclude that ultrasound will not be useful in the diagnosis of On Pinterest, brain pathologies. Medical research in this area was somewhat curtailed for the several years that followed, and enthusiasm was dampened at the Siemens laboratories in Germany to carry out further developments in Proposal imaging with ultrasound. At M .I. T. nevertheless, in the course of Lone How To Monitor, these pursuits, much basic data essential for Design Template, tissue characterization and dosimetry were assembled and proved useful for later diagnostic work on other body regions. They had also demonstrated very importantly that interpretable 2-dimensional images was not impossible to obtain. These efforts had paved the way for the subsequent development of 2-D ultrasonic image formation. M. Best Salary | Rad Tech. I. T.'s research had also benefited from interactions between the various groups at Champaign-Urbana , Minnesota and Denver . By the mid 1950s , bibliographic listing of work on ultrasonic physics and engineering applications had totalled more than 6,000. Ultrasonics was already extensively deployed in non-destructive testing, spot welding, drilling, gas analysis, aerosol agglomeration, shear processing, clothes washing, laundering, degreasing, sterilization and, to a lesser extent, medical therapy.
Hueter and Bolt 's book SONICS - techniques for Design Template Temply, the use of sound and ultrasound in engineering and & Marketing - An Odd Couple, science published in Design Proposal Template 1954 became, for example, one of the Poster Design Abstract Vector important treatises in ultrasonic engineering. In 1956 , D Goldman and Hueter pulled together all the then available data on ultrasonic propagation in mammalian tissues for publication in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. The earliest journal devoted entirely to the application of ultrasonics in medicine was Der Ultraschall in der Medizin published in Germany. Articles prior to 1952 were entirely on aspects of ultrasound used in therapy. Much of the academic activity at M. I. T. were published in the M. I. T. quarterly progress reports and the Journal of the Acoustic Society of Design Temply, America . After the mid-1950s, due to Email Thank After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, its ineffectiveness, the transmission technique in ultrasonic diagnosis was abandoned from medical ultrasound research worldwide except for some centers in Japan, being replaced by the reflection technique which had received much attention in Proposal Template Temply a number of pioneering centers throughout Europe, Japan and the United States. Smaller and better transducers were being assembled from the newer piezoceramics barium titanate after the mid 1940s.
They were replaced by lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) when it was discovered in 1954. Letter. Proposal Example. PZT had a high electro-mechanical coupling factor and more superior frequency-temperature characteristics. The newer transducers had better overall sensitivity, frequency handling, coupling efficiency and output. The availability of very high input impedance amplifiers built from improved quality electrometer tubes in the early 1950s had also enabled engineers to greatly amplify their signals to improve sensitivity and stability. The 'newer' uni-directional pulse-echo A-mode devices developed from the reflectoscope/ metal flaw detectors were soon employed in experiments on medical diagnosis by bold and visionary pioneers around the world. Such were the Design Temply cases with Douglas Gordon , JC Turner and Ux Research - An, Val Mayneord in London, Lars Leksell (in 1950), Stigg Jeppson and Brita Lithander in Sweden, Marinus de Vlieger in Rotterdam and Kenji Tanaka and Template, Toshio Wagai in Japan for their pioneering work in the examination of brain lesions. These devices were also employed by Inge Edler and Carl Hellmuth Hertz in Lund in Best Technician Ideas Tech cardiac investigations in Design Proposal Template Temply 1953, and followed on by Sven Effert in Germany in 1956, Claude Joyner and John Reid at the University of Pennsylvania in 1957 and Chih-Chang Hsu in China, designing their own A- and later on M-mode equipment. Similarily A-mode devices were used in ophthalmologic investigations by Henry Mundt Jr and William Hughes at the University of Illinois in Beat Lone How To Monitor 1956 , Arvo Oksala in Finland in 1957 and Gilbert Baum and Ivan Greeenwood in 1955 . These uses were all in the 1950s and Proposal Template Temply, largely predated clinical applications in Sample Email After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes the abdomen and pelvis. Researchers in Japan were also actively investigating and Template Temply, producing similar ultrasonic devices and their diagnostic use in neurology, but their findings have only been sparsely documented in the English literature (see below).
John Julian Wild , an English surgeon and graduate of the Cambridge University in England, immigrated to the United States after World War II ended in 1945. He took up a position at the Medico Technological Research Institute of Minnesota and started his investigations with ultrasound waves on Letter the thickness of the bowel wall in various surgical conditions, such as paralytic ileus and obstruction. Working with Donald Neal , an engineer, Wild published their work in Design Template 1950 on uni-directional A-mode ultrasound investigations into the thickness of surgical intestinal material and later on the properties of gastric malignancies. They noted that malignant tissue was more echogenic than benign tissue and Sample After Interview, the former could be diagnosed from their density and failure to contract and relax. Wild's original vision of the application of ultrasound in medical diagnosis was more of a method of tissue diagnosis from the intensity and characteristics of different returning echos rather than as an imaging technique. Between 1950 and Proposal, 51, he also collaborated with Lyle French at Best 25+ Radiology Technician Salary Ideas Tech, the department of Neurosugery in making diagnosis of brain tumors using ultrasound, although they had not found the method to be very helpful. Donald Neal was soon deployed to regular naval services at Template, the naval air base after the 7+ Follow Letter Korean war.
John Reid , a newly graduating electrical engineer, was engaged through a grant from the National Cancer Institute as the sole engineer to build and operate Wild's ultrasonic apparatus. The device which they first used was an ultrasonic instrument which had been designed by the U.S. Navy for training pilots in Proposal Template Temply the use of the Lone How To Monitor Heart radar, with which it was possible to practise 'flying' over a tank of water covering a small scale map of enemy territory. We have a tissue radar machine scaled to inches instead of miles by Proposal Template the use of ultrasound. Wild and Reid soon built a linear hand-held B-mode instrument, a formidable technical task In those days, and were able to visualise tumours by sweeping from side to side through breast lumps.
The instrument operated at & Marketing - An Odd Couple, a frequency of 15 megahertz. In 1952 they published the Landmark paper: Application of Echo-Ranging Techniques to the Determination of Structure of Biological Tissues . In another paper Reid wrote about their first scanning equipment: ' The first scanning machine was put together, mechanically largely by John with parts obtained through a variety of friends in Minneapolis. Temply. I was able to modify a standard test oscilloscope plug-in board. We were able to make our system work, make the first scanning records in the clinic, and mail a paper off to Science Magazine within the lapsed time of perhaps ten days. This contribution was accepted in early 1952 and became the first publication ( to 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter, my knowledge ) on intensity-modulated cross-section ultrasound imaging . Template. It appeared even before Douglass Howry 's paper from his considerably more elaborate system at the end of the same year.'
In May 1953 they produced real-time images at After, 15 megahertz of cancerous growths of the breast. They had also coined their method 'echography' and Template Temply, 'echometry' , suggesting the quantitative nature of the Letter Template investigation. Design Proposal Temply. By 1956 , Wild and Reid had examined 117 cases of breast pathology with their linear real-time B-mode instrument and had started work on colon tumour diagnosis and detection. Analysis of the breast series showed promising results for pre-operative diagnosis. Malignant infiltration of tissues surrounding breast tumours could also be resolved. Wild and Advertising Letter. Informal Example, Reid had also invented and described the use of A-mode trans-vaginal and Design, trans-rectal scanning transducers in 1955 . Sample Thank You Letter. Despite these, Wild was not commended for his unconventional research methods at the time.
His results were considered difficult to interpret and lacked overall stability. Intellectual and financial support for Wild's research dwindled, and legal disputes and politics also hampered further governmental grants. His work was eventually supported only by private funds which ran scarce and his data apparently received much less recognition than they deserved. John Reid completed his MS thesis in 1957 on focusing radiators. In addition he had importantly verified that dynamic focusing was practical. After leaving Wild's laboratory he pursued his doctoral degree at Design Proposal Template, the University of Pennsylvania. From 1957-1965 he worked on echocardiography, producing and using the first such system in the United States, with cardiologist Claude Joyner . Visit John Wild's own site on his discoveries and current activities. At the University of Colorado in Denver, Douglass Howry had also started pioneering ultrasonic investigations since 1948 . Howry, a radiologist working at the Veteran's Administration Hospital , had concentrated more of his work on the development of B-mode equipment, displaying body structures in a 2-dimensional and sectional manner comparable to the actual gross sectioning of structures in 7+ Follow Up Interview Template the pathology laboratory.
Published works from the Design Temply M I T Radar school staff served as initial reference material on techniques in data presentation. He was able to demonstrate an ultrasonic echo interface between structures or tissues, such as that between fat and Templates Abstract Vector, muscle, so that the individual structures could be outlined. Supported by his nephrologist friend and colleague Joseph Homles , who was then the acting director of the hospital's Medical Research Laboratories, Howry produced in 1951 with William Roderic Bliss and Gerald J Posakony , both engineers, the 'Immersion tank ultrasound system' *, the first 2-dimensional B-mode (or PPI , plan position indication mode) linear compound scanner. Two dimensional cross-sectional images were published in 1952 and 1953 , which convincingly demonstrated that interpretable 2-D images of Design, internal organ structures and pathologies could be obtained with ultrasound. The team produed the formal motorized ' Somascope' , a compound circumferential scanner, in 1954 . The transducer of the somascope was mounted around the rim of a large metal immersion tank filled with water . The machine was able to make compound scans of an intra-abdominal organ from different angles to produce a more readable picture. The sonographic images were referred to as 'somagrams' . The discovery and apparatus were reported in the Medicine section of the Lone Afib: How To Heart LIFE Magazine ® in Design Template 1954 . The 'Pan-scanner' *, where the transducer rotated in Up Interview | Ganttchart Template a semicircular arc around the Temply patient, was developed in Beat Lone Heart 1957 . Design Proposal Template. The patient sat on a modified dental chair strapped against a plastic window of a semicircular pan filled with saline solution, while the transducer rotated through the solution in a semicircular arc. The achievement was commended by the American Medical Association in Email Thank Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes 1958 at its scientific meeting in San Francisco, and the team's exhibit was awarded a Certificate of Merit by the association. The work of Douglass Howry , Joseph Holmes and his team is necessarily the most important pioneering work in B-mode ultrasound imaging and contact scanning in Design Proposal the United States that had been the direct precursor of the kind of ultrasound imaging we have today.
Pioneering designs in electronic circuitries were also made in conjunction with the development of the B-scan, these included the pulse-echo generator circuitry, the limiter and log amplification circuitry and the demodulator and time gain compensation circuitries. The Howry/ Holmes systems, although capable of producing 2-D, accurate, reproducible images of the body organs, required the patient to be totally or partially immersed in Technician Salary Ideas Tech water, and remained motionless for a length of time. Migration to lighter and more mobile versions of these systems, particularly with smaller water-bag devices or transducers directly in contact and Design Template, movable on the body surface of patients were imminently necessary. Read notes and Sample Email You Letter - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, see more pictures from Gerald Posakony on the early Howry scanners here . Homles , together with consultant engineers William Wright and Ralph (Edward) Meyerdirk , and support from the U. S. Public Health Services and the University of Colorado, continued to fabricate a new prototype compound contact scanner , which had the transducer in direct contact with the patient's body and suspended on moving railings above the patient. The apparatus and the usuage of ultrasound scanning were reported in the May 22 issue of the TIME Magazine in 1964. After working on the project for Design, about 2 years, the Sample Email team finally came up with an innovative multi-joint articulated-arm compound contact scanner with wire mechanisms and electronic position transducing potentiometers. Design Template. The transducer could be positioned by hand and Lone How To Monitor Your, moved over Proposal Temply, the scanning area in various directions by the operator. Set Brochure Abstract Stock. In 1962 , with blessing from Holmes, Wright and Meyerdirk left the Template University to form the Set Brochure Abstract Stock Physionics Engineering® Inc. at Longmont, Colorado, to produce and Design Proposal Temply, market their scanner. In 1963 , the first hand-held articulated arm compound contact B-mode scanner (pictured on the left) was commercially launched in the United States.
The launch was reported in the Longmont Daily Times-Call in 1963. This was the start of the most popular design in the history of static ultrasound scanners, that of the articulated-arm scanning mechanism. Much of the later work in clinical ultrasound was followed up by Homles and Set Brochure Abstract, his colleagues, Stewart Taylor , Horace Thompson and Kenneth Gottesfeld in Denver. The group published some of the earliest papers in obstetrical and gynecological ultrasound from North America. Douglass Howry had moved to Boston in 1962 where he worked at the Massachussetts General Hospital until he passed away in Design Proposal Template Temply 1969. Earliest Wright-Meyerdirk scanner console with one of the first images from a. practical commercial articulated-arm scanner. Portability was also emphasized. In Japan , at Proposal Letter. Informal, about the same time as Wild and Howry's development, Kenji Tanaka and Toshio Wagai , surgeons at the Juntendo University, Tokyo, together with Shigeru Nakajima , director of the Japan Radio Company, Rokuro Uchida , physicist and chief engineer, had also started looking into the use of ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial disease in collaboration with the Nihon Musen Radiation and Proposal Temply, Medical Electronics Laboratory which had later become the ALOKA ® Company in 1950 , headed by Uchida . Nakajima and Uchida built Japan's first ultrasonic scanner operating in the A-mode in Ux Research & Marketing - An Odd Couple 1949 , modified from a metal-flaw detector. Yoshimitsu Kikuchi , Professor at the Research Institute of Electrical Communications at the Tohoku University in Sendai also assisted in their research.
Together, the team started their formal ultrasound work in ultrasound imaging in 1952 . They published 5 papers on ultrasonic diagnosis in brain diseases in that year and many other papers in the ensuing few years. In 1954 , Tanaka published an important review entitled Application of Design Template, ultrasound to diagnostic field, and investigations had started with other body organs. By 1955 , experiments and Set Brochure Design Templates Stock, fabrication with B-mode scanning had started using a similar scope modified from the original A-mode machine coupled with a linear moving transducer gantry . This was shortly developed into the water-bag scanners . Also read the Proposal Template Temply Preface and introduction (history) to Tanaka's book Diagnosis of Brain Disease by Ultrasound published in 1969 for a short history of his pioneering work in the 1950s. The M I T hosted a historical conference in Bioacoustics in 1956 and those who attended included Wagai, Kikuchi, Dussik, Bolt, Ballantine, Hueter, Wild, Fry and Howry . Many of them met each other for Beat Lone Afib: Monitor Your Heart, the first time and important views concerning methods and instrumentations were exchanged at the meeting. Kikuchi was very active in equipment designs, and by 1957 he was able to Proposal, demonstrate the one-point contact-sector scanning tomography using the plan-position indication (PPI) B-mode format, which had a resemblance to 25+ Radiology Technician Salary Ideas On Pinterest | Rad Tech, a ' radar display '. This development, which was at around a similar time as the pioneering work of Howry in Denver and Ian Donald in Proposal Glasgow (see below), had a similar concept of position-referenced contact scanning. Aloka® produced japan's first commercial medical A-scanner, the SSD-2 and the water-bag B-scanner, the SSD-1 in 1960 (pictured on the right). The application of ultrasound in Lone Afib: How To Your Heart Obstetrical and Gynaecological diagnosis started around 1956 with the A-scan basing on a vaginal approach and later B-scans at around 1962 basing on the use of the one-point contact-sector scanner in the PPI format. Early commercial water-bag scanners were being produced by Design Proposal Temply Aloka® and Toshiba® in the early 1960s. Masao Ide at the Musashi Institute of Technology in Sample Email Thank Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes Toyko, working with Wagai and others launched important pioneering research on the bioeffects of ultrasound. William Fry hosted another conference on ultrasonics in 1962 at the University of Illinois which served as a very important meeting point for researchers from the United States, Europe and Japan.
Michio Ishihara at the National Sanatorium Kiyose Hospital in Tokyo and Hajime Murooka at the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Oomiya Red Cross Hospital, Saitama, delivered the first paper on ultrasound diagnosis of gynecological masses in the Japanese language at the 19th Kanto District Meeting of the Design Template Temply Japanese Obstetrical and Poster Design Stock, Gynecological Society in 1958 , basing on the A-scan. Murooka had earlier in 1957 received instructions from Wagai on the A-scan methods at the Juntendo University. They described A-scan echoes in Proposal Template cancer of the cervix and also in the presence of & Marketing Odd Couple, different causes of uterine enlargement. Wagai published a review article in the use of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology in 1959 . The Murooka's group apparently did not continue their work after the first two papers presented at scientific meetings. ohn Wild was back in England in 1954 to give a lecture on his new discovery and this was attended by Design Proposal Val Mayneord , Professor of Advertising Proposal Letter. Informal Letter, medical physics at the Royal Cancer Hospital (now the Royal Marsden) who had also been experimenting with the Kelvin Hughes® MK llB metal flaw-detector in neurological diagnosis. Among the audience was Ian Donald who was then Reader in Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the St. Thomas Hospital Medical School in London and was about to take up the Design Temply appointment of Regius Chair of Midwifery at Glasgow University. Donald was quick to realize what ultrasound had to offer. # Wild, while returning to Minnesota, had mainly concentrated his investigations on the diagnosis of tumors of the breast and Up Interview Template, colon using 15 MHz probes which had tissue penetrations of only Template Temply up to 2 cm.
In 1956 , Wild published his landmark paper on the study of 117 breast nodules, reporting an Abstract Stock Vector, accuracy of diagnosis of over Design Proposal Template Temply, 90 percent. Despite that, the Letter. Proposal Letter ultrasonic method of tissue diagnosis which he so popularised did not reach the point of wide acceptance. Pioneering work in ultrasonic diagnosis in the field of Obstetrics and Gynaecology however, soon took off in Glasgow , Scotland . The following is an excerpt from an Design Template Temply, article in the University of Glasgow publication 'Avenue' No. 19: January 1996 entitled ' Medical Ultrasound ---- A Glasgow Development which Swept the Beat Monitor World ' , by Dr. James Willocks MD , who had best described the Template circumstances of Donald 's early work : He was born in Cornwall in December 1910, the son and grandson of Scottish doctors. His school education began in Scotland and finished in South Africa.
He returned to England in 1931 and graduated in medicine at St Thomas's Hospital Medical School in 1937. In 1939 he joined the RAF where his service was distinguished. He was decorated for gallantry for entering a burning bomber with the bombs still in it, to rescue injured airmen. Service in the RAF stimulated his interest in gadgetry of all kinds and Best 25+ Radiology Salary On Pinterest Tech, he became familiar with radar and sonar, a technique which had been devised by the French physicist, Paul Langevin in the First World War as a possible method of submarine detection. On returning to London at the end of the War, he took up obstetrics and gynaecology and held appointments at various London hospitals.
His first research work was directed towards respiratory problems in Proposal the newborn, and he devised apparatus to help babies breathe when respiration did not get off to a flying start. Because of his interest in machines, Ian was known as 'Mad Donald' by some of his London colleagues, who caricatured him as a crazy inventor, but his talent was spotted by that great university statesman, Sir Hector Hetherington, and Poster Design Templates Stock Vector, he was appointed to the Regius Chair of Midwifery at Proposal Temply, the University of Proposal Example, Glasgow in 1954 . . His interest soon turned to the idea that sonar could be used for medical diagnosis and the idea was first put into practice on 21 July 1955 , when he visited the Research Department of the boilermakers Babcock Wilcox at Renfrew on the invitation of one of the directors, who was the Design Template husband of a grateful patient. He took with him two cars, the boots of which were loaded up with a collection of lumps such as fibroids and ovarian cysts which had recently been removed from patients in his Department. He carried out Sample Email Thank You Letter Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes some experiments with an industrial ultrasonic metal flaw detector on these tumours, and on a large lump of steak which the company had kindly provided as control material. (No one had the appetite for the steak afterwards!) Later he formed a link with the Design Proposal Template Kelvin Hughes Scientific Instrument Company , and particularly with a young technician called Tom Brown . Quite by accident, Tom Brown had heard the strange tale of a professor who was attempting to use a metal flaw detector to Email Thank Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, detect flaws in Design Proposal Template Temply women. & Marketing Odd Couple. He telephoned Professor Donald and suggested a meeting, and it was not long before Donald and Design, Brown together with Dr John MacVicar , later Professor of Obstetrics Gynaecology in Beat the University of Leicester, plunged into an intensive investigation into Design Proposal Template the value of ultrasound in differentiating between cysts, fibroids and Ux Research - An, any other intra abdominal tumours that came their way. Early results were disappointing and Proposal Template Temply, the enterprise was greeted with a mixture of scepticism and ridicule. However, a dramatic case where ultrasound saved a patient's life by diagnosing a huge, easily removable, ovarian cyst in a woman who had been diagnosed as having inoperable cancer of the stomach, made people take the technique seriously. Sample Thank You Letter After. 'From this point', Ian Donald wrote, 'there could be no turning back'. Results eventually appeared in print in The Lancet of 7 June 1958 under the arid title 'Investigation of Design Template, Abdominal Masses by Pulsed Ultrasound' . This was probably the Poster Design Stock most important paper on medical diagnostic ultrasound ever published. Ten years later all doubt had been cast away and Ian Donald was able to review the early history of ultrasound in Proposal Template a characteristic , forthright manner. 'As soon as we got rid of the backroom attitude and brought our apparatus fully into Email Thank After Interview the Department with an inexhaustible supply of living patients with fascinating clinical problems, we were able to get ahead really fast. Design Template Temply. Any new technique becomes more attractive if its clinical usefulness can be demonstrated without harm, indignity or discomfort to the patient . . Anyone who is satisfied with his diagnostic ability and with his surgical results is unlikely to contribute much to the launching of a new medical science.
He should first be consumed with a divine discontent with things as they are. It greatly helps, of course, to have the right idea at the right time, and quite good ideas may come, Archimedes fashion, in Advertising Proposal Informal one's bath.' In 1959 Ian Donald noted that clear echoes could be obtained from the fetal head and began to apply this information. I became involved shortly afterwards, and indeed was given the Design Template project to Email Thank, play with on my own. At the Royal Maternity Hospital, Rottenrow, there was no separate room to examine the patients and not even a cupboard in which to keep the apparatus, so my colleague, the physicist Tom Duggan , and I pushed it about on a trolley and approached patients in the wards for permission to examine them at the bedside. Glasgow women are wonderful and they accepted all this without demur . . We applied the Proposal Temply method of fetal head measurement to assess the size and growth of the foetus. When the Lone Your Heart Queen Mother's Hospital opened in Proposal 1964 it became possible to refine the Up Interview Template technique greatly.
My colleague Dr. Stuart Campbell (now Professor at King's College Hospital, London) did this and fetal cephalometry became the standard method for the study of fetal growth for many years. Within the next few years it became possible to Proposal, study pregnancy from beginning to end and diagnosis of complications like multiple pregnancy, fetal abnormality and placenta praevia (which causes life threatening haemorrhage) became possible. Professor Donald had gathered around him a team of talented young doctors and technologists, including the research engineers John Fleming and Angus Hall , who were engaged by the University when the Kelvin Hughes company was closed in 1966. John Fleming has continued at the Queen Mother's Hospital as the technical genius behind all developments, and is also in charge of the 25+ Radiology Salary valuable historical collection about diagnostic ultrasound. Practically all apparatus is now Japanese in origin, but the Temply contribution of Scottish engineering to the development of medical ultrasound should never be forgotten. ' Ian Donald was also aware of the work of - An Odd Couple, Howry in the United States and Kikuchi in Japan in Design Proposal Temply the early 1950s, and had referenced these pioneers alongside with the work of Wild and Reid in Sample Email Thank You Letter After his Lancet paper in 1958 . Donald had felt that it was his fortune to have started with these historical A-mode and B-mode instruments instead of the apparatus that Wild and Howry had used, as these involved high frequency transducers (and hence associated with poor penetration into tissues) or a water-bath arrangement which could both become deterrants to further development in a medical setting ## . Aside from Design Proposal Template, this, Donald had on many occasions remarked that a lot of his developments in ultrasound was from Up Interview | Ganttchart Template, a stroke of accident, coincidence and luck.
The ' full bladder ' was one, which he only discovered in 1963. Design Proposal. That the fetal head, being a symmetrical skull bone could be easily demonstrable and measured accurately by a beam of ultrasound in an A-scan was another, as was the opportunity of meeting up with a number of important administrators on the way and working with the very bright engineer Tom Brown from Kelvin Hughes®. Brown , at the age of 24, invented and constructed with Ian Donald the prototype of the world's first Compound B-mode (plan-position indication, PPI) contact scanner in 1957 . The transducer operated at 2.5 MHz. The prototype was progressively improved to become the Set Brochure Poster Design Stock Vector Diasonograph ® manufactured commercially by Smith Industrials of England which had taken control of the Kevin and Hughes Scientific Instrument Company in Proposal Template 1961. For a detailed account of the pioneering development of the prototypes, read an important unpublished paper by Tom Brown entitled Development of ultrasonic scanning techniques in Scotland 1956-1979 . One of Brown 's first generation models was sold to Bertil Sunden at Lund , Sweden (see below). The console design of the Diasonograph ® came from Dugald Cameron who was then an 7+ Follow Up Interview Template, industrial design student at the Glasgow school of Design Template Temply, Art. Brown also invented and patented an elaborate and expensive automated compound contact scanner in 1958 and it was at Ux Research & Marketing - An Odd Couple, the machine's exhibition in London in Temply 1960 that Ian Donald met for the first time Douglass Howry from the United States who had been using the much larger size water-tank circumferential scanner for several years (see above).
Donald nevertheless had quoted in his 1958 paper in the Lancet Howry 's work in B-mode scanning. The meeting had also influenced Howry and his team into producing a similar compound contact scanner like the Donald's although this had rapidly evolved into the multi-joint articulated arm version. A brief description of the working of the prototype compound contact scanner (which eventually developed into the Diasonograph ®) was given by Donald and Brown in 1958 , the same concept and design were extended into the later commercial models: . A probe containing both transmitting, and Ux Research, receiving transducers is Design Proposal Temply, mounted on a measuring jig, which is placed above the patient's bed. The probe is free to move vertically and horizontally and, as it does so, operates two linear potentiometers, which give voltage outputs proportional to its horizontal and vertical displacements from some reference point. & Marketing - An Odd Couple. The probe is also free to rotate in the plane of its horizontal and vertical freedom, and transmits its rotation via a linkage to a sine-cosine potentiometer. The voltage outputs from this system of potentiometers control an electrostatic cathode-ray tube, so that the Design Proposal Template direction of the linear time-base sweep corresponds to the inclination of the probe, and the point of origin of the sweep represents the Best Ideas On Pinterest instantaneous position of the probe. The apparatus is so calibrated that the same reflecting point will repeat itself in Proposal exactly the Lone Heart same position on the cathode-ray tube screen from whatsoever angle it is scanned, and likewise a planar interface comes to be represented as a consistent line. The echoes picked up by the probe are displayed on three oscilloscope screens: an A-scope display, a combined B-scope and PPI display on a long-persistence screen for monitoring: and a similar screen and display of short persistence with a camera mounted in front of it. The probe is moved slowly from one flank, across the abdomen to the other flank being rocked to and fro on its spindle the whole time to scan the deeper tissues from as many angles as possible. . Design Proposal Template. The automated scanner which Brown originally designed to overcome the effects of 25+ Radiology Technician Salary On Pinterest, motion variables did not catch on Template Temply well, while the Diasonograph ® was sold to 7+ Follow Up Interview | Ganttchart Template, many other parts of Britain and Design Proposal Template, Europe including Sweden, London and Bristol, the place where another ultrasound pioneer, Peter NT Wells , a medical physicist, had been developing a different version of the multi-joint articulated arm scanner (basing on the Diasonograph electronics ), independently from his American counterpart. In 1966 , Smiths pulled out of Scotland because the factory was apparently not making money.
At the same time the US Supreme Court ruled against Sample Email - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, Smiths in favour of Template, Automation Industries (formerly the Sperry Company ) of Denver on the question of the so-called Firestone patents (Floyd Firestone's patent on flaw-detection devices in 1942, see above). As part of the settlement, Smiths undertook to withdraw both from the industrial and Up Interview Template, medical applications of ultrasound, and Automation acquired title to the collection of Smiths' patents on these subjects. This included the Brown patents on 2-D contact scanning. Smiths sold the medical business to Nuclear Enterprises (G.B.) Ltd . in Edinburgh, which took over the manufacturing of the Design Template Diasonograph ® (see Tom Brown's Recollections ). Ian Donald had to set up his own Department of Ultrasonic Technology at the Queen Mother's Hospital. He had John Fleming and Angus Hall back to Up Interview | Ganttchart, help him. They worked as development engineers on all the ultrasound projects and Fleming worked until his retirement in 1995. He is co-ordinator of the BMUS historical collection and Design Proposal Template, oversees the ultrasonic equipments at the Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow. By 1968, Brian Fraser and Alan Cole at Nuclear Enterprises revamped the mechanical and Letter. Proposal Letter, valve design and redeveloped a new electronic system using semiconductor technology.
The resulting NE 4102 became a very popular instrument, and was used in most British hospitals and many European ones. For a detailed account of the pioneering development of medical ultrasonics in Glasgow, Scotland, read the biography of Tom Brown and an important unpublished paper by Temply Brown on the Development of ultrasonic scanning techniques in Scotland 1956-1979 . Joseph Holmes and Sample Email You Letter After, Ian Donald had subsequently become good friends across the Atlantic and Ian Donald and John Fleming were invited to Design Proposal Template Temply, speak on their experiences at the International Conference at Pittsburg hosted by 7+ Follow | Ganttchart Homles and Template, others in 1965 . 25+ Radiology Technician On Pinterest Tech. This was among the many American tours which Ian Donald did starting from 1961. He spoke about Homles in a speech he gave in 1967 to the World Federation for Ultrasound in Design Template Medicine and Biology (WFUMB) , ' I think Joe Holmes has done more than anyone to pull us all together from our several pathways '. Holmes became the founding editor of the Journal of Clinical Ultrasound in 1973 . Over in continental Europe , Bertil Sunden in Lund, Sweden , had started investigations in 1958 with Alf Sjovall , his professor in Obstetrics and Gynecology, on early pregnancies using an A-mode echoscope (a Krautkramer® reflectoscope USIP 9). The study on Design Templates Abstract Vector the application of ultrasound in Lund had already started formally in 1953 in cardiology and neurology (see above). Sunden visited Ian Donald for 3 weeks in 1960 on a sabbatical to study B-mode scanning. His work at Donald's department had resulted in the shipment of the first generation Diasonograph® to Lund, with which he produced his doctoral thesis on the use of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, and reported his experience on 400 cases of Template, pelvic pathologies. He also studied the possible harmful effects of ultrasound on pregnant rats, and Sample You Letter Interview, did not find any. Sunden's thesis published in the Acta Obstet Gynaecol Scand in 1964 represented the earliest and the most comprehensive publication in Design Template Temply Obstetrical and Vector, Gynecological ultrasonography at that time. At around the same time, N D Selezneva , a disciple of the famous Soviet scientist, S Y Sokolov , published his work in ultrasonography in Template Gynecology in Stock Vector the former USSR in the early 1960s. R A Khentov , R A Khestova and I A Skorunskii from the Design Temply Central Institute of Advanced Training in Medicine, Moscow followed on with a large number of Templates Stock, Russian publications in Obstetrics and Gynecology from Design, 1965 onwards, using A-mode and 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter, later on Temply B-mode equipments made at the USSR Scientific Research Institute of Medical instruments and Equipment. Almost ninety-nine percent of these publications were nevertheless in the Russian language.
The Ultrasonic Boom. The increase in Informal Proposal Letter Example the research and application of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology appeared to boom from 1966 onwards (see chart below) when there was an upsurge of centers and Design, people in Europe, the United States and Japan that had begun to embark on Ux Research & Marketing - An studies in the application of ultrasound diagnosis in Design Template Temply this specialty. A- and B- mode equipment were both in use including the first 'fast B-scanner', the Vidoson ® from Siemens ® (see part 2 ) used by D Hofmann and Hans Holländer at the Wilhelm University in Münster, Germany . Alfred Kratochwil at the Second University Frauenklinik, Vienna, Austria started working on 7+ Follow Letter placental localisation with the A-mode scanner he acquired from Paul Kretz , founder of KretzTechnik AG in Zipf, Austria. Temply. He soon learned of Ian Donald 's work with the B-scan and quickly collaborated the company to develop a similar device. The model 4100 originally designed for ophthalmologic use was adapted to carry an articulated-arm gantry (pictured below) for the abdominal B-scan mode. Advertising Proposal Example. The articulated-arm design he found, was easier to manipulate than the Glasgow counterpart. He initially tried to used it on localizing pelvic recurrences in patients who had radical surgery for carcinoma of the cervix, and also on a variety of obstetric conditions. As early as 1972, Kratochwil had, among other endeavours, successfully demonstrated the visualisation of ovarian follicles with static B-mode ultrasound. Kratochwil soon became one of the most prolific users of the instrument and Proposal Template Temply, worked on areas such as the Advertising Informal Letter breasts and other surgical conditions, where he also published a number of important early papers. Since 1968 he developed training courses in ultrasound in Vienna and his department was visited by many hundreds of radiologists and obstetricians to learn about the applications of ultrasonography.
Kratochwil was probably the most productive of all the Design Temply investigators in & Marketing Europe and was instrumental to the constantly improving designs at KretzTechnik AG . Hans Henrik Holm , a urologist, started the ultrasound laboratory at the Gentofte Hospital in Copenhagen , Denmark in 1964 , and with Jorgen Kristensen , Allen Northeved , Jan Pedersen , Jens Bang among others had established a strong research team. Holm also designed their version of an articulated-arm scanner which subsequently was taken up for commercial production at Smith Kline Instrument ® in the United States. The Copenhagen center had in time become a leading center in Interventional ultrasound , even up to this day. And so it was that the early pioneers in diagnostic ultrasound from the United States , Japan , United Kingdom , Austria , Germany , Sweden , Switzerland , Denmark , France , Poland , Holland , USSR and China have all started with the A-scan basing on the metal flaw detector or a modification of the instrument. Design Template Temply. Many had first started their investigations in neurology , cardiology and ophthalmology , and only later on did they apply ultrasonic techniques to the abdomen and pelvis. In Germany , at around 1950 both Siemens ® and 25+ Radiology Ideas, Krautkrmer ® had started to make flaw-detecting equipment. Located close to the steel industry Krautkrmer ® provided better service than Siemens ® and soon dominated the market. After W Güttner and others had shown the impracticality of the transmission technique in 1952, Siemens had lost interest in diagnostic ultrasound. Around the end of 1956 the Design Template company decided to stop producing flaw-detection equipment completely. It was Inge Edler and Carl Hertz in Lund who adapted three of the Siemens® flaw detectors for cardiac investigations in 1957 (see above), and these were introduced back into hospitals in Germany. How To. After a lapse of almost 10 years, the company developed the first fast B-scanner, the Vidoson in 1967, suitable for Proposal, gynecological and abdominal examination (see Part 2 ). Germany was nevertheless one of the more 'prolific' of the European countries in terms of Beat Lone Afib: How To Monitor Heart, centers in early ultrasonic applications and research, with publications coming from Muchen, Erlangen, Bonn, Heidelberg, Berlin, Frankfurt, Freiburg and Bochum.
Vienna in Austria, as noted above was 'historically' important because of the company Kretztechnik AG which produced some of the best and most advanced machines in the world at that time. The B-scan , basing on more sophisticated instrumentation emanating from radar sciences quickly evolved and replaced the A-scans. Centers worldwide started to develop their own machines (see above) while others would import them commercially, largely because of Design, a perceived better quality than their home-made counterparts. For example, in the late 1960s some Finnish centers used Physionics / Picker ® machines from the Sample Thank After Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes United States and French and Italian centers used scanners from Nuclear Enterprise ® and KretzTechnik AG . Smith Kline Instruments ® scanners were used in Spain, Aloka ® models in Brussels and the Siemens ® Vidoson was employed by Design Proposal Template a number of centers outside of Germany. The First World Congress on Ultrasonic Diagnostics in Medicine was held in Vienna in Best Salary 1969 and the second in Rotterdam in 1972 where an increasing number of papers in this specialty was presented. These meetings identified and brought together an international group of clinicians and scientists who started to contribute heavily towards the developments of ultrasonic instrumentation and methodology. In Europe , Alfred Kratochwil (1966), ( Austria ), D Hofmann (1966), Hans Hollander (1966), Manfred Hansmann (1966), ( Germany ), Malte Hinselmann (1968) ( Switzerland ), Salvator Levi (1967) ( Brussels ), Hans Henrik Holm (1967), Jens Bang (1967) ( Denmark ), Georges Boog (1969), Francis Weill (1969) ( France ), I Roszkowski I (1968), Jerzy Groniowski (1968), ( Poland ), Paavo Pystynen (1966), Pekka Ylöstalo (1971), Pentti Jarvinen (1968), Pentti Jouppila (1970) ( Finland ), J Hernandez (1970), R Montero (1970), Fernando Bonilla-Musoles (1971) ( Spain ), Bruno Damascelli (1967), L Roncoroni (1967), Alberto Zacutti (1968), C Brugnoli (1968), Achille Ianniruberto (1970) ( Italy ), E Kalamara (1972), M Bulic (1972), Asim Kurjak (1973) ( Yugoslavia, now Croatia ), Juriy Wladimiroff (1974) ( Netherlands ), M Falus (1969), M Sobel (1969), L Kun (1973), P Bosze (1973) ( Hungary ), among many others, soon followed up with their many publications in obstetrical and gynecological sonography, although much of what was published was not in the English language. [The year in parenthesis denoted the year in which publications in Design Proposal Obstetrics and Gynecology from the particular author first appeared in the literature]. Sample - Bbq-Grill-Recipes. The delegates of 13 European ultrasound societies met in Basel, Switzerland in 1972 to form the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) . In the United Kingdom , Ellis Barnett , Patricia Morley , Hugh Robinson , Usama Abdulla in Glasgow, Peter Wells in Bristol, A C Christie in Design Proposal Aberdeen, E I Kohorn , Stuart Campbell in London (see Part 2 ), Hyton Meire and Pat Farrant in Middlesex, and Christopher Hill at the Royal Marsden continued to 7+ Follow | Ganttchart Template, make very important contributions in Design Temply many areas. Barnett and Morley's book in 1974 : Clinical Diagnostic Ultrasound was the first book (including publications from the Sample Email Thank You Letter After Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes United States) devoted to abdominal B-mode ultrasonography. Peter Wells in particular, was the single most important contributor to the advancement of ultrasound technology in Britain.
Stuart Campbell eventually became one of the world's most well-known researcher and teacher in the field of Obstetrical and Gynecological ultrasound. The British Medical Ultrasound group was formed in 1969 by members of the Hospital Physicists Association and the British Institute of Radiology. The group later changed its name and became officially the British Medical Ultrasound Society (BMUS) in 1977 . Back in the United States , J Stauffer Lehman , in Design Hahnemann, Philadelphia was instrumental in the early 1960's to the continuing development of ultrasound technology in the United States . His association with Smith Kline Instruments ® had been catalytic to & Marketing Odd Couple, the company's production of water-bag and contact B-mode scanners on top of their existing line of A- and M- mode equipments for echocardiography. The LIFE® magazine made an introduction to Ultrasound scanning at Lehman's laboratory in their January and September issues in 1965 . The Family Circle® magazine also reported on Template Temply the medical use of ultrasound in their October 1966 issue. Lehman's equipment was nevertheless cumbersome and expensive to fabricate and later on a smaller company, Hoffrel took up the production of his machine. After the expiration of SKI's contract, Lehmann turned to use the articulated arm scanner originally invented and produced by the Physionics Inc in Letter. Informal Proposal Longmont, Colorado (later on acquired by the Picker Corporation and Proposal Template, further expanding its development).
Barry Goldberg joined Lehman in 1968 and expanded the research. He published extensively on a variety of subjects including echocardiography and interventional ultrasonography and Lone How To Monitor Your, was on record the first to describe fetal cephalometry in Design Template 1965 outside of Britain and Europe. George Evans , then a young Radiologist, was responsible for 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter | Ganttchart, organizing the service and several important research projects. With his team was Marvin Ziskin . Together they have introduced ultrasound to the Radiological community in the United States and convincing them of the technique's clinical value. Lajos von Micsky , working at the St. Luke's Medical Center in New York, was also one of the Design Temply important pioneers of 7+ Follow | Ganttchart, abdominal as well as endoscopic sonographic equipment . He established a bioacoustical laboratory at the center in 1963 and devised many innovative abdominal, trans-vesical, rectal and Design Proposal, trans-vaginal scanners. Articulated arm scanners such as the PortaScan from Physionics Inc ® produced in the mid-1960s had become the most popular format in compound contact B-scanners in the United States and throughout the world. Other earliest manufacturers of Best Salary On Pinterest Tech, similar devices included the Design Proposal Template Temply UniRad Corporation ®. Newer machines soon followed from manufacturers in Design Abstract Stock Vector the United States and worldwide.
These included the Picker ® Laminograph 102, the KretzTechnik AG Combison 1 and 2, the Proposal Template Temply Nuclear Enterprise ® Diasonograph 4102 (pictured above), the 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter Aloka ® SSD-10 compound contact scanner (pictured below) and the Toshiba ® TSL systems. Jan C Somer and Nicolaas Bom in the Netherlands introduced the phased-array and linear-array transducers respectively in 1968 and 1971 (see Part 2 ). Louis M Hellman , Mitsunao Kobayashi , Ross Brown , George Leopold , Roy Filly , Roger Sanders , Arthur Fleischer , Kenneth Taylor , Fred Winsberg , John Hobbins and William Cochrane were among those who produced a substantial amount of work from the early 1970s on the application of ultrasound relating to Obstetrics and Gynecology and had contributed much to moving the modality forward. Winsberg had a particular interest in real-time scanners and he was the Design Template first to use the German Vidoson ® real-time scanner (see part 2) in North America (at the McGill University in Montreal, Canada) in 1970 . One of the very earliest textbooks in sonography in the English language aside from Bertil Sunden 's thesis was from Kobayashi , Hellmen and Cromb : Atlas of Ultrasonography in Technician | Rad Obstetrics and Gynaecology published in 1972 . The American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) which was founded in 1952 by a group of physicians engaged primarily in the use of ultrasound in physical medicine only started to accept members in Template the diagnostic arena in 1964 . Diagnostic ultrasound has since then become the mainstream application in the organization. Thank You Letter Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes. The First International Conference on Proposal Template Diagnostic Ultrasound was held in Pittsburgh, Pensylvannia in 1965 and 25+ Radiology Technician On Pinterest Tech, was well attended by most of the ultrasound pioneers.
The Journal of Ultrasound in Template Temply Medicine , the official journal of the AIUM , was inaugurated in 1982 replacing the Journal of Clinical Ultrasound as the association's main vehicle of communication with it's members. George Leopold was its founding editor. By the mid-1970s important producers of articulated compound B-scanners in the United States included the Picker Corp ®, Smith Kline Instruments ®, the UniRad Corporation ®, Searle Ultrasound ®, Rohe Scientific ®, Litton Medical Systems ® and Metrix Inc ®. A list of Advertising Letter. Informal Proposal Letter, manufacturers of static compound contact scanners as at 1975 can be found here . The number of publications in the world literature each year on the application of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology rose from 1(Ian Donald's paper) in 1958 to 296 in 1978 . In the first 10 years, most publications were of a general descriptive nature and Design Proposal Temply, had similar titles to the effect of The use of ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Odd Couple, Gynecology. ref. In Japan, Shigemitsu Mizuno , Hisaya Takeuchi , Koh Nakano and Masao Arima followed up the ultrasound work at the Juntendo University in Tokyo, and experimented with new versions of the A-mode transvaginal scanner . The first ultrasound scan of a 6-week gestational sac by vaginal A-scan was reported in the Japanese language in 1963. From 1962, the group worked extensively with the Proposal Template water-bag B-scanner, the Aloka SSD-1 and was very active in many areas and producing a huge number of research publications, ranging from early pregnancy diagnosis to cephalometry to placentography. They also reported on a large series of pelvic tumors in 1965, and in the following 2 years switched from the water-bag contact scanner to the articulated-arm compound contact scanner, the SSD-10 . Another group consisting of T Tanaka , I Suda and S Miyahara started researches into the different stages of pregnancy in 1964. Shigemitsu Mizuno , Hisaya Takeuchi and their team also demonstrated in 1965 an endovaginal scanner for pelvic examination using the plan-position indication (PPI) B-mode format.
The device was mannually rotated and the resulting display was very similar to a circular military 'radar display. | Ganttchart. Used either transrectally or transvaginally, It was capable of Design Proposal Template, producing some meaningful pictures of the pelvic organs. See Hisaya Takeuchi for Advertising Proposal Example, a list of early work from the Temply group. The Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine was officially formed in 1962 . In the 1970s important work started at the Tottori Uinversity , Toyko under Kazuo Maeda , particularly on doppler fetal cardiotocography and at the University of Toyko under Shoichi Sakamoto . Toshiba® produced their first A-mode scanner , the SSA-01A and the compound contact B-scanner , the TSL system in 1967 . Design Abstract. Hitachi ® produced their first A-mode (the EUA-1 ) and B-mode scanner ( EUB-1 ) in 1971 and Design Template Temply, 72 respectively. In the Republic of China , Shih An founded in 1958 the Shanghai Ultrasonic Medical Research group at the Sixth People's Hospital of Shanghai and his team included Tao-Hsin Wang and & Marketing, Shih-Yuan An. In the Design Template same year they started ultrasonic investigations using a modified metal flaw detector (the Chiang Nan Type I ) manufactured at the chiang Nan Ship Building Plant.
The group collaborated with investigators from the Shanghai First and Second Medical Colleges, namely Shih-Liang Chu, Hsiang-Huei Wu, Chih-Chang Hsu (Zhi-Zhang Xu) and Kuo-Juei Yu. They published in 1960 their preliminary report on the application of diagnostic ultrasound in various clinical conditions. This article which was published in Chinese in the ' Chinese Medical Journal ' was not known to the west until two years later when their follow-up publication The use of pulsed ultrasound in clinical diagnosis appeared in the foreign language edition of the same journal. Lone How To Monitor Heart. In these articles the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole with A-mode ultrasound was described, supposedly the first time in world literature, where they demonstrated a significant increase in the number of small echo spikes between the proximal and distal uterine walls. Further work in Obstetrics and Gynecology came from Xin-Fang Wang and Ji-Peng Xiao at the Wuhan Medical College (now Tongji Medical University) in Wuhan, China . In 1963 , the group reported on the sonographic findings in 261 abnormal pregnancies and in Proposal Temply 1964 described fetal M-mode echocardiography which was probably the earliest of such reports in the medical literature°°. No correlation between M-mode waveforms and specific cardiac structures was however made. Yong-Chang Chou who had also been pioneering A-mode ultrasound diagnosis since the Proposal Informal Proposal Example late 1950s at the Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital published a similar report in the next issue of the same journal (May, 1964). China was at that time closed to the outside world and equipments were only manufactured locally. Apart from the A-mode scanners, B-mode equipments were produced from a radar factory in Wuhan . One of the more important designs came from Zhi-Zhang Xu of the Shanghai Research group working at Proposal Template Temply, the ZhongShan Hospital. Regrettably progress was completely brought to a halt by the Cultural Revolution in 1966 and did not resume until the late 1970's.
In Taiwan , Republic of China, ultrasonic investigations started at the National Taiwan University in 1966, where J P Hung and Y C Chen used the Aloka® SSD-2C in Poster Design Templates Abstract Vector the detection of mid-line shifts in head injuries and Proposal Temply, brain tumors. In the following year, their department and Obsteticians Hsi-Yao Chen and S M Wu had switched to the use of the B-mode SSD-10 from Aloka ® and published papers on B-mode cephalometry in 1971 in the chinese language. The Society of Ultrasound in Medicine, Republic of China (SUMROC) was founded in 1984 . Down under in Australia , the Ultrasonic Research Section at the National (formerly Commonwealth ) Acoustic Laboratory in Sydney was established in 1959 , with the objective of creating a center of technical expertise in the field of medical ultrasound. The section was headed by 25+ Radiology Technician it's chief physicist George Kossoff . The CAL was established back in 1948 by the Australian Government to undertake research relating to hearing deficits. An ultrasonics committee was set up in 1955 under the chairmanship of Norman Murray . Murray visited Joseph Holmes' laboratory in 1958 and was impressed with the use of Proposal Template Temply, ultrasound as a diagnostic tool. The Ultrasound Research Section was soon established in Proposal Proposal Example the following year. Working in conjunction with William Garrett , a gynecologist from the Royal Hospital for Women in Sydney, who was eager to have a new diagnostic method for Design Proposal, placental localization, Kossoff introduced the water-coupling CAL echoscope in 1959 and perfected it in 1962 , which was also modified for breast scanning.
His team also included David Robinson , who joined the Institute in 1961. Thank You Letter Interview. They published their first obstetric scans at the Ultrasonics symposium in Design Template Temply Illinois in the following year. In 1968, Garrett , Robinson and Kossoff published one of the earliest papers in fetal anatomy Fetal anatomy displayed by ultrasound using the water-bath CAL echoscope that had brought out the role ultrasound would play in the diagnosis of fetal malformations . In 1970 they published one of the ealiest papers on the diagnosis of fetal malformation, reporting a case of fetal polycystic kidneys at & Marketing - An Odd Couple, 31 weeks of Design Template, gestation. The original echoscope was replaced with a Mark II version in | Ganttchart Template 1969 , which had already incoporated basic gray scaling in the images, before the invention of the Proposal Template Temply 'scan-converter'. The group reported gray-scale obstetric scans in 1971 at the International Biological Engineering meeting in Melbourne and then at the World Congress of Ultrasonic Diagnosis in Medicine in Set Brochure Design Abstract Vector Rotterdam in Proposal Template Temply 1973 . David Carpenter joined the Ux Research & Marketing Section in 1968, and headed the Engineering Research subsection. Stanley Barnett , a physiologist who subsequently published extensively on ultrasound bioeffects joined the Section in 1970. Kossoff and his team developed sophisticated annular dynamic phased-arrays in 1974 which was installed in Proposal Temply the mark II water-coupling echoscope. In 1975 , they constructed the UI Octoson , a rapid multi-transducer water-bath scanner which had then incoporated the new scan-converter , improved annular array transducers and more powerful computing electronics that had allowed for superior compound scans to be completed in less than 1 second. The scanning mechanism of the Octoson is completely immersed in the coupling tank and the patient, lying prone, is examined from below. (see also Part 2 ) Interestingly about terminologies in the early days: At the Thank First International Conference on Diagnostic Ultrasound in Pittsburgh, Pensylvannia in 1965 , Charles Grossman , editor of the proceedings made the Temply following comments: . Best 25+ Radiology Ideas On Pinterest Tech. The terminology of diagnostic ultrasonics, like that of any new science, is still in the formative stage . Template Temply. The first term to describe the diagnostic medical procedure involving the application of ultrasound appears to be ultrasonoscopie and was suggested by Denier in 1946.
Dussik in 1947 used hyperphonography for the transmission technic and Ballantine, Bolt, Hueter and Ludwig in 1950 ultrasonic ventriculography . Wild and Reid in 1952 tried to simplify the terminology and changed the term ultrasonoscope to Letter | Ganttchart, echoscope , in their words 'to correspond with the word stethoscope.' They further suggested the terms ' echograph ' for the equipment and ' echograms ' for the records as well as unidimensional echography for Proposal Template Temply, A-scope and two- dimensional echography for B-scan presentations. In the same year (1952) Howry and Bliss referred to 7+ Follow Letter, their instrument as the ' somascope ' and to the B-Scan recordings as ' somagrams '. Leksell introduced the term ' echoencephalogram ' in 1955 for ultrasonic brain recordings. In my own publications the Design Temply medical procedure of ultrasonic diagnostic examination of the brain is Sample Email Thank You Letter Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, termed ' sonoencephalography ', whereas the graph is called ' sonoencephalogram '. . In Japan, they call it 'ultrasono-tomogram' and in Australia ' echograms ' . . Most have quickly settled with calling this diagnostic medical procedure involving the application of ultrasound ' ultrasonography ' and Design Proposal Temply, the images recorded ' ultrasonograms '. In North America, the terms ' sonography ' and ' sonogram ' soon became more fashionable, and technical staff performing the procedure became known as ' sonographers '. In 1974, 'sonography' was recognised as a separate profession in the United States by the American Medical Association. On the other hand, Ultrasonography is now used as the sole MeSH keyword in Medline indexes to delineate the subject. Some of the early references: Curie. Letter | Ganttchart Template. J.P., Curie. (1880) Développement par pression de l'é'lectricite polaire dans les cristaux hémièdres à faces inclinées. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 91:294. Chilowsky C.M.
Langévin. M.P. (1916) Procídés et appareil pour production de signaux sous-marins dirigés et pour la localsation à distances d'obstacles sons-marins. French patent no. 502913. Langévin, M.P. (1928) Lés ondes ultrasonores. Rev Gen Elect 23:626. Firestone, F.A. (1945) The supersonic reflectoscope for interior inspection.
Met. Progr, 48:505-512. Firestone, F.A. (1945) The supersonic reflectoscope, an Design, instrument of inspecting the interior of solid parts by means of sound waves. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 17:287-299. Desch, C.H., Sproule, D.O. and Dawson, W.J. (1946) The detection of cracks in steel by means of supersonic waves. J. Sample Thank After Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes. Iron and Steel Inst. (1964):319.
Tanaka, K., Miyajima, G., Wagai, T., Yasuura, M. Kikuchi, Y and Uchida, R. Detection of Design Template, intracranial anatomical abnormalities by ultrasound. Tokyo Med. J. 69:525. (1950). Tanaka, K. Beat Lone Afib: Your. (1952) Application of ultrasound to diagnostic field. Electr. Design Template. Ind. 3. Miyajima, G., Wagai, T., Fukushima, Y., Uchida, R. and Hagiwara, I. (1952) Detection of intracranial disease by pulsed ultrasound.
Tokyo Med. J. 72:37. Dussik, K.T. (1942) Uber die moglichkeit hochfrequente mechanische schwingungen als diagnostisches hilfsmittel zu verwerten. Z Neurol Psychiat 174:153. Dussik, K.T. Templates Abstract Vector. (1942) On the possibility of using ultrasound waves as a diagnostic aid. Design Temply. Neurol. Psychiat. 174:153-168. Dussik, K.T., Dussik, F. and Wyt, L. (1947) Auf dem Wege Zur Hyperphonographie des Gehirnes. Wien.
Med. Wochenschr. 97:425-429. Dussik, K.T. (1948) Ultraschall Diagnostik, in besondere bei Gehirnerkrankungen, mittels Hyperphongraphie Z. Phys. Med. 1:140-145. Dussik, K.T. (1949) Zum heutigen stand der medizinischen ultraschallforschung. Wien. Klin.
Wochenschr. 61:246-248. Ludwig, G.D., Bolt, R.H., Hueter, T.F. and Thank Interview, Ballantine, H.T. Proposal Temply. (1950) Factors influencing the & Marketing - An use of ultrasound as a diagnostic aid. Trans. Am. Neurol. Design Proposal Temply. Assoc. 225-228.
Ludwig, G.D. and Ballantine, H.T. (1950) Ultrasonic irradiation of Best Salary Ideas | Rad Tech, nervous tissue. Surgical Forum, Clinical Congress of the Temply American College of Surgeons P. 400. Ludwig, G.D. (1950) The velocity of sound through tissues and Beat How To Heart, the acoustic impedance of tissues. J. Acoust. Soc. Proposal Temply. Am. & Marketing - An. 22:862-866. Ludwig, G.D. and Proposal, Struthers, F.W. Detecting gallstones with ultrasonic echoes. Electronics 23:172-178. (1950). Wild, J.J., French, L.A. and Neal, D. Ux Research & Marketing. Detection of cerebral tumours by ultrasonic pulses.
Cancer 4:705. (1950). Wild, J.J. The use of ultrasonic pulses for the measurement of biological tissues and the detection of tissue density changes. Surgery 27:183-188. (1950). Wild, J.J., Neal, D. (1951) Use of high frequency ultrasonic waves for detecting changes in texture in living tissue. Lancet 1:655. Wild, J.J. and Design Proposal, Reid, J.M. (1952) Application of echo-ranging techniques to the determination of structure of biological tissues.
Science 115:226-230. Wild, J.J. and Reid, J.M. (1957) Current developments in ultrasonic equipments of medical diagnosis. IRE Trans. Best Salary Ideas. Ultrason. Engng. 5:44-56.
Howry, D.H. (1952) The ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures and disease processes. J. Design Proposal Template. Lab. Clin. Med. 40:812-813. Howry, D.H. and Bliss, W.R. Ux Research & Marketing - An. (1952) Ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures of the body.
J. Lab. Clin. Med. 40:579-592. Howry, D.H. Design Temply. (1958) Development of an Odd Couple, ultrasonic diagnostic instrument. Proposal Template. Am. J. Phys. Med. 37:234. Holmes, J.H., Howry, D.H., Posakony, G.J. and Cushman, C.R. (1954) The ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures in the human body. Trans.
Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 66:208-223. Donald, I., MacVicar, J. and Brown, T.G. (1958) Investigation of abdominal masses by pulsed ultrasound. Lancet 1:1188-1195.
Donald, I. (1961) Ultrasonic radiations: Diagnostic applications. Tools of Best 25+ Radiology Technician On Pinterest Tech, Biological Research 3rd Series. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. pp. 148-155. Donald, I. And Brown, T.G. (1961) Diagnostic applications of ultrasound. Proc. 3rd. Int. Conf. Med.
Electron. London. P. 458. Donald, I. And Brown, T.G. Design Proposal Template. (1961) Demonstration of tissue interfaces within the body by ultrasonic echo sounding. Br. J. Radiol. 34:539-546. Donald, I. (1962) Clinical applications of ultrasonic techniques in obstetrical and gynaecological diagnosis. Br.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 69:1036. Donald, I. (1962) SONAR: A new diagnostic scho-sounding technique in obstetrics and Lone How To Your Heart, gynaecology. Proc. Roy. Design Proposal Template Temply. Soc. Med. 55:637-638. Donald, I. (1974) SONAR. The Story of an experiment.Ultrasound Med Biol 1:109-117.
Images of George Ludwig and his early ultrasound equipment courtesy of the Ludwig Family. Reproduced with permission. Image of the Denver somascope reproduced with permission from Mr. GJ Posakony. Images of the Denver pan-scanner and You Letter After Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, Dr. Toshio Wagai were reproduced with permission from Dr. Barry Goldberg, Chairman of the Proposal Template Temply Archives Committee of the AIUM.
Pictures of Advertising Proposal Letter, this, as well as other early scanners can be found in the Eastman Kodak Health Sciences publication, Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound: A retrospective on its 40th anniversary by Drs. Goldberg and Kimmelman published in 1988. Image of Design Template, Dr. Thank You Letter After Interview. John Wild courtesy of Dr. Design Proposal Template Temply. Wild. ^ Dr. William O'Brien Jr., Professor, Bioaccoustic Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois. Images of the NE 4102 reproduced with permission from Lone Afib: Monitor, Dr. RG Law, from his book 'Ultrasound in Clinical Obstetrics', John Wright and Sons Ltd, Bristol, 1980. # Press release, Third meeting of the Federation of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, Brighton, England, July 1982. ## from Temply, Sonar -- the Story of an Experiment by Professor Ian Donald which appeared in Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol 1 pp109-117, 1974.
Pictures of Professors Bertil Sunden and Salvator Levi courtesy of Professor Levi. ^^ Courtesy of the Department of Ultrasonics, Polish Academy of Science. ref raw data from Afib: Monitor, Ultrasound in Biomedicine - Cumulative Bibliography of the Template Temply World Literature to 1978 by Drs. Denis White, Geraldine Clark, Joan Carson and Elizabeth White. Pergamon Press 1982. #165 The story of the early development of sonar in Glasgow was vividly narrated in the article Sonar -- the Story of an Advertising Letter. Proposal, Experiment by Professor Ian Donald which appeared in Ultrasound in Proposal Temply Medicine and Biology, vol 1 pp109-117, 1974.
°° Personal communications from Professor Xin-Fang Wang and Dr. Jing Deng, University College, London. Other important references for this Internet article included: The constitution of diagnostic ultrasound in Insight and industry, On the Letter | Ganttchart Template dynamics of technological change in medicine, by S Blume. Cambridge, Massachusetts The MIT Press, 1992: 74-118.
In the image of science. Negotiating the development of diagnostic ultrasound in the cultures of surgery and radiology in Proposal Template Temply Technology and culture by Koch E. Society for the History of Technology, 1993; 34:858-893. Seeing with sound: A study of the development of medical images by Edward Yoxen, in Advertising Proposal Letter. Informal Proposal Letter The social construction of technological systems: New directions in the sociology and history of technology, Bijker W., Hughes T., Pinch T., (ed). The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1987: 281-303. Ultrasound in Medicine - A review. Kenneth Erikson, Francis Fry and Joie Jones, IEEE Transactions on Sonics and Ultrasonics, vol. Proposal Template Temply. SU-21 no.
3, July 1974. Historical Review - The history of Echocardiography by Inge Edler and Kjell Lindstrom, Ultrasound in Med. Biol., Vol. 30, No. 12, pp. 1565 - 1644, 2004. Diagnostic Ultrasound: Historical Perspective by Dr. Joseph Holmes.
Diagnostic Ultrasound, D.L. King (ed). Mosby 1974. The History of Ultrasound in Gynecology 1950 - 1980 by Professor Salvator Levi : Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol 23 pp481-552, 1997. Early history of Diagnostic ultrasound:The role of the American Radiologists by Drs.Goldberg, Gramiak and Freimanis : American Journal of Roentgenology, vol 160, pp 189-194, 1993. Diagnostic Ultrasound during the early years of A.I.U.M. by Ideas | Rad Dr. Joseph Homles : Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, vol 8, pp 299-308, 1980. A History of AIUM by Dr. Design Proposal. Joseph Holmes, 1980. An historical review of Best Technician Salary Ideas Tech, Ultrasonic Investigations at the National Acoustic Laboratories by Design Proposal Dr. George Kossoff : Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, vol 3, pp 39-44, 1975.
Ultrasound in Biomedicine - Cumulative Bibliography of the World Literature to 1978 by Drs. Denis White, Geraldine Clark, Joan Carson and Thank After Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, Elizabeth White. Pergamon Press 1982. Radiology - An illustrated History by Template Professor Ronald L. Eisenberg. Ux Research & Marketing - An. Mosby Year Book 1992.
Ultrasonic diagnosis in Gynecology and Design Template Temply, Obstetrics by S Mizuno. Vol 19, no.2, Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi pp.171-175, 1967. (in Japanese). The Dawn of Diagnostic Ultrasound by Toshio Wagai, 1987. (In Japanese) Forty Years of Obstetric Ultrasound by Margaret B McNay and John EE Fleming. Ultrasound in Medicine and Sample You Letter After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, Biology 25:3-56, 1999. Looking at the Unborn: Historical Aspects of Template, Obstetric Ultrasound - Witness seminar transcript. Wellcome Witness to Twentieth Centurty Medicine. E M Tansey, D A Christie, eds.
January 2000. Diagnostic Ultrasound -- Proceedings of the first International Conference, University of Pittsburg, 1965. Edited by CC Grossman, JH Holmes, C Joyner and EW Purnell. Plenum Press, New York. 1066. - Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy in dates, persons and events.
- It is not possible to include all the names who have contributed significantly to the advancement of Proposal Proposal, Obstetrical and Template, Gynecological sonography, some who may have been less well-known than the others and some who may not have published so extensively in the English language. Apologies are extended to those whose contribution has not been fully credited in this article. All original contents Copyright 1998-2002 Joseph SK Woo MBBS, FRCOG. All Rights Reserved.
Buy Essay Online From the Best Academic Writing Fgency - Freelance Designer Proposal Template for download at a
- Texas A&M University
Dec 11, 2017 Design Proposal Template Temply,
A Day in the Life of Oscar the Cat. David M. Dosa, M.D., M.P.H. N Engl J Med 2007; 357:328-329 July 26, 2007 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp078108. Temply? Oscar the Cat awakens from Beat Lone How To Monitor Your Heart his nap, opening a single eye to survey his kingdom. From atop the desk in the doctor's charting area, the cat peers down the two wings of the nursing home's advanced dementia unit. All quiet on the western and eastern fronts. Slowly, he rises and extravagantly stretches his 2-year-old frame, first backward and then forward. He sits up and considers his next move.
In the distance, a resident approaches. It is Design Temply Mrs. P., who has been living on the dementia unit's third floor for 3 years now. She has long forgotten her family, even though they visit her almost daily. Moderately disheveled after eating her lunch, half of which she now wears on her shirt, Mrs. P. is taking one of her many aimless strolls to nowhere. She glides toward Oscar, pushing her walker and muttering to Advertising Letter. Proposal Letter Example, herself with complete disregard for her surroundings. Perturbed, Oscar watches her carefully and, as she walks by, lets out a gentle hiss, a rattlesnake-like warning that says leave me alone. She passes him without a glance and continues down the hallway.
Oscar is relieved. It is not yet Mrs. P.'s time, and he wants nothing to do with her. Oscar jumps down off the desk, relieved to be once more alone and in control of Proposal Template Temply, his domain. He takes a few moments to drink from his water bowl and Best 25+ Radiology On Pinterest | Rad, grab a quick bite.
Satisfied, he enjoys another stretch and sets out on his rounds. Oscar decides to head down the west wing first, along the Design Template way sidestepping Mr. S., who is slumped over on a couch in 25+ Radiology Ideas | Rad, the hallway. With lips slightly pursed, he snores peacefully perhaps blissfully unaware of where he is now living. Oscar continues down the hallway until he reaches its end and Room 310. The door is closed, so Oscar sits and Design Proposal Template, waits. Beat Your? He has important business here. Twenty-five minutes later, the door finally opens, and Design Proposal, out walks a nurse's aide carrying dirty linens. Hello, Oscar, she says. Are you going inside? Oscar lets her pass, then makes his way into the room, where there are two people. Lying in a corner bed and facing the wall, Mrs.
T. is asleep in a fetal position. Beat Afib: Monitor Your Heart? Her body is thin and wasted from the breast cancer that has been eating away at her organs. She is mildly jaundiced and has not spoken in Design Template, several days. Sitting next to her is her daughter, who glances up from her novel to warmly greet the visitor. Hello, Oscar. Beat Lone Afib: How To Monitor? How are you today? Oscar takes no notice of the woman and leaps up onto the bed.
He surveys Mrs. Proposal Template? T. She is clearly in Set Brochure Poster Templates Abstract Vector, the terminal phase of illness, and her breathing is labored. Oscar's examination is interrupted by a nurse, who walks in to ask the Template daughter whether Mrs. T. is uncomfortable and needs more morphine. The daughter shakes her head, and Informal Proposal Example, the nurse retreats. Oscar returns to his work. He sniffs the air, gives Mrs. T. one final look, then jumps off the bed and quickly leaves the Design Template Temply room.
Not today. Making his way back up the hallway, Oscar arrives at Room 313. The door is 7+ Follow Template open, and he proceeds inside. Mrs. Proposal Template? K. is resting peacefully in her bed, her breathing steady but shallow. She is surrounded by photographs of her grandchildren and one from Email Thank her wedding day. Despite these keepsakes, she is alone.
Oscar jumps onto her bed and again sniffs the air. He pauses to consider the situation, and then turns around twice before curling up beside Mrs. K. One hour passes. Oscar waits. A nurse walks into the room to Design Proposal, check on her patient.
She pauses to note Oscar's presence. Concerned, she hurriedly leaves the room and returns to Proposal Letter. Informal, her desk. She grabs Mrs. K.'s chart off the medical-records rack and begins to make phone calls. Within a half hour the family starts to Proposal Template, arrive.
Chairs are brought into the room, where the relatives begin their vigil. The priest is called to Proposal Informal Proposal Example, deliver last rites. And still, Oscar has not budged, instead purring and gently nuzzling Mrs. K. A young grandson asks his mother, What is the cat doing here? The mother, fighting back tears, tells him, He is here to help Grandma get to heaven. Thirty minutes later, Mrs. K. takes her last earthly breath. With this, Oscar sits up, looks around, then departs the room so quietly that the grieving family barely notices. On his way back to the charting area, Oscar passes a plaque mounted on the wall. On it is Template Temply engraved a commendation from Up Interview | Ganttchart Template a local hospice agency: For his compassionate hospice care, this plaque is awarded to Oscar the Cat. Oscar takes a quick drink of water and Design Template, returns to his desk to curl up for a long rest. His day's work is done. 7+ Follow Up Interview Template? There will be no more deaths today, not in Room 310 or in any other room for that matter. After all, no one dies on the third floor unless Oscar pays a visit and stays awhile.
Note: Since he was adopted by staff members as a kitten, Oscar the Cat has had an uncanny ability to Design Proposal Temply, predict when residents are about to die. Thus far, he has presided over the deaths of more than 25 residents on the third floor of Steere House Nursing and Set Brochure Design Abstract Stock Vector, Rehabilitation Center in Providence, Rhode Island. His mere presence at the bedside is viewed by physicians and nursing home staff as an almost absolute indicator of impending death, allowing staff members to adequately notify families. Oscar has also provided companionship to those who would otherwise have died alone. Proposal Temply? For his work, he is Beat Lone How To Monitor Heart highly regarded by the physicians and staff at Steere House and by the families of the residents whom he serves . Dr. Dosa is a geriatrician at Rhode Island Hospital and an assistant professor of Design Template Temply, medicine at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University both in Providence. Monica Fliedner. . (2017) Einbindung von Palliative Care in die onkologische Versorgung. Pflegezeitschrift 70 :8, 38-42. Sample Thank Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes? Piotr Szawarski. . (2016) Classic cases revisited: Oscar the cat and predicting death.
Journal of the Intensive Care Society 17 :4, 341-345. George E. Dickinson, Heath C. Hoffmann. . (2016) The Difference Between Dead and Away: An Exploratory Study of Behavior Change During Companion Animal Euthanasia. Proposal Temply? Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research . Gianfranco Giordo. . (2016) The sense of the body in the dream: Diagnostic capacity in 25+ Radiology Salary Ideas On Pinterest | Rad, the meanings of dreams. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis 97 :2, 281-304. 2016. Bibliography. Metabolomics and Microbiomics, 107-124. Marc Philippe van der Schee, Tamara Paff, Paul Brinkman, Willem Marinus Christiaan van Aalderen, Eric Gerardus Haarman, Peter Jan Sterk. Temply? . (2015) Breathomics in Lung Disease. Chest 147 :1, 224-231.
B. Vasarhelyi. . 25+ Radiology Technician On Pinterest Tech? (2014) Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, the candidate prophetic biomarker in severe inflammatory response syndrome. Journal of Internal Medicine , n/a-n/a. Jessica Pierce. . (2013) The Dying Animal. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 , 469-478. Robert Bublak. . (2013) Tierisch gute Mediziner. DNP - Der Neurologe und Psychiater 14 , 16-17. Robert Bublak. . (2013) Tierisch gute Mediziner. HNO Nachrichten 43 , 10-11.
Robert Bublak. . (2013) Tierisch gute Mediziner. Orthopadie Rheuma 16 , 14-15. Robert Bublak. . (2013) Tierisch gute Mediziner. hautnah dermatologie 29 , 208-209. Robert Bublak. Proposal Template Temply? . Poster Stock Vector? (2013) Tierisch gute Mediziner. Uro-News 17 , 24-27. Robert Bublak. . (2012) Tierisch gute Mediziner.
MMW - Fortschritte der Medizin 154 , 14-16. Proposal Temply? FROMA WALSH. . (2009) Human-Animal Bonds I: The Relational Significance of Companion Animals. Family Process 48 :10.1111/famp.2009.48.issue-4, 462-480. Ux Research - An Odd Couple? Silvio Daniel Pitlik. . (2009) Oscar the Cat, Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Attributable Mortality. Infection Control Hospital Epidemiology 30 :05, 500-501.
Do My Essay Free - Freelance Designer Proposal Template for download at a
- Binghamton University (SUNY)
Dec 11, 2017 Design Proposal Template Temply,
Definitive Guide to Resume 71+ Free Resume Templates in Word, PSD #038; MAC. A resume is the most important watchword when it comes to applying for jobs, regardless of the Proposal Template Temply industry. Whether you are a fresher straight out of college or a veteran industry professional looking to move up the ladder, a resume is a basic prerequisite. It can be safely stated here that your job application is Afib: simply incomplete without a resume template . It can be dubbed as your primary representative to the company or the hiring manager, who you have to face for your interview. These templates are intended for Design Template Temply, personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. The function of the resume is to present you as a possible candidate for the job you are applying for. Thus, it will shed some light on your educational qualifications, professional caliber, experience, and any special skills acquired or any relevant industry training you have taken, that would be useful for the proposed job. Set Brochure Poster Design Templates Stock Vector? In short, the resume template will highlight your knowledge base and all the Design hard and Sample Email Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes soft skills that you possess and have developed, which could leverage your potential as a prospective candidate before the hiring manager. Added to all these, the Template resume will also include your personal details like name, contact information and sometimes, your picture. Besides, the Ux Research - An Odd Couple resume would include any special achievements, awards or recognitions that you have received, which can highlight your position as a credible candidate for the job.
As mentioned earlier, your resume is Design Proposal your primary representative before the hiring manager and hence you have to ensure the best possible impression with your resume. Letter Template? There are different resume formats, based on your experience level, job type, and industry. Are you looking for guidelines on how to draft a striking resume? The article below explains how to Design Proposal come up with an invincible resume for your next job application. Yes, its true that a resume can be customized as per the needed job requirements but still there are some basic points that you should include to Sample Email You Letter Interview ensure a standard resume. Without these points, no matter how intelligent, well educated or skilled you are, your resume might not be noticed by the hiring manager. A career objective will clarify your thoughts, missions, and Design Template Temply goals regarding your career. Be careful to align your career objective in line with the specific requirements of the job you are applying for it should mean to fulfill the companys need. Do not go for Letter. Informal Proposal Example, a generic objective.
Your mentioned career objective will play a great role in expressing how much you have thought in terms of that particular job and designation. The summary of qualifications is Design Proposal Temply another important point to leverage your position as a prospective candidate for the job. Set Brochure Templates Abstract Stock? It is meant to state the Proposal Template Temply different kinds of Sample You Letter training and Design Proposal Template Temply experiences that you have gathered, which could be relevant for Beat Lone Afib: Monitor Heart, the designation you are applying for. Design Temply? You should also mention the certificates you have earned that attest the qualifications mentioned on the resume. The potential of Odd Couple a candidate seeking a job is Proposal Template always measured in terms of the skill he or she has mastered.
Are you reputed for your excellent communication and negotiation skills? Does your boss always praise you for your fantastic team-work attitude? Does your office team want to have you as their leader always? All such skills must be mentioned in your resume, if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. Your resume is Thank You Letter After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes incomplete without mentioning your educational qualifications. You might not have to begin with school, but you must mention your college and Design Proposal Temply university education with the percentages scored and the institutions and courses attended. A resume is a dynamic document depicting your career biography, which can be tailored as per your industry and Afib: How To Monitor Heart job type.
For example, a person applying for Design Proposal, a creative job in an ad agency would have a different resume layout compared to that of a banker. Here are 5 main categories of resumes, availabe in Word, PSD, and MAC formats: A graphic resume would be mostly embedded with different graphic elements. These include infographics, charts, and graphs to discuss your personal and professional skill sets, talents, experience graphs and so on. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post.
Its boring to read long lines of & Marketing Odd Couple text; a graphic resume runs high on readability quotient any day, with its easy-to-understand charts, bars, and Design infographics. Beat Afib: How To Monitor Your Heart? The graphic industry, undoubtedly, is the best for graphic designers or for any sort of designers. It can also be used by software professionals. However, its better not to be used by academic professionals. Proposal? Quite literally, the 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter Template main differentiating features of a graphic resume are the various graphic elements like infographics, bar graphs, and charts. Unlike regular resumes, they do not have long lines of text.
Portfolio comes from the word portafoglio, where portare means to carry and foglio means paper or leaf. Thus, Portfolio refers to an album carrying work samples, mostly with images and minimal text. These templates are intended for Design Template, personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. When you have to present a visual representation or samples of your work, which cannot be exactly described in words, a portfolio is the best form of resume for you.
A portfolio resume is How To Monitor especially meant for Proposal Template, those professionals who need to prove their caliber through visual presentations of their works such as photographers, artists, and designers like fashion, website, and graphic designers. Unlike the Email You Letter Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes regular resumes, the most important features of a portfolio resume lie in the pictorial representations through images, website screen shots, on-site media data, as well as letters or praise from the distinguished clients. A clean / basic resume format follows a minimalistic approach. It comes with plain fonts, no graphical elements, brief lines of text, short paragraphs, a few bullet points, as well as a simplistic layout. These templates are intended for personal use only.
In case of commercial use, please give credit to Proposal Template this post. When you are looking for Set Brochure Poster Design Templates Stock, a resume that needs to cover the Design basic details of Advertising Letter. Letter Example your career, a clean resume is the best thing for you. Its simple yet professional. A clean resume format is for Proposal Template, all those who are looking to apply for formal jobs like administrative professionals, banking positions, medical designations or academic positions. It would also be great for freshers who do not have an elaborate career history. & Marketing - An Odd Couple? The most important differentiating features of a clean resume are a neat and basic layout, no use of Design Proposal Template Temply graphic elements, plain and simple formal fonts, brief paragraphs, as well as a spacious framework. A modern resume generally follows a sleek format with popular, formal fonts and a professional outlook.
It must be machine-readable. Sample Thank You Letter? Such resumes usually stick to a neat and clean structure. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. A modern resume assures easy readability with its sleek and smart structure as well as legible fonts.
Its a text-only document with a few bullet points and minimal graphical elements. A modern resume can cater to almost any kind of professional, hailing from any industry. However, it would be best for senior executives, engineers, doctors, accountants, and academic professionals. The most important differentiating feature of a modern resume is that its always a text-only document and does not necessarily include the image of the Proposal Temply applicant. Lone How To Heart? And, its remarkably formal. A creative resume, as the name implies, does not follow any specific resume framework rules when it comes to presenting the resume.
It can take the form of a Facebook Timeline Page, a soda glass, and Template so on. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. A creative resume format enables you to prove your amazing creative instincts right from your resume, which you can present in any form or structure. Salary On Pinterest? It will be the live testimony of your out-of-the-box attitude even before you appear in-person before the hiring manager.
A creative resume is aimed at all those professionals who are looking for jobs in the creative sectors. These could be advertisement professionals, packaging artists, illustrators, cartoonists, fashion designers etc. The primary differentiating feature of a creative resume is that it does not follow the conventional layout of a regular resume. Such resumes can take any form, shape or structure. 7 Steps to Writing an Unbeatable Free Resume. A resume plays a crucial role in helping you to land a job. You must be completely aware of the strategic tips for Design Temply, writing a proper resume to ensure that it maintains a standard format and is in Beat Lone, perfect calibration to Design Proposal Temply the job. 1. Choose the Advertising Proposal Informal Proposal Right Format and Category. A right resume format and Design Proposal Template an appropriate category are a prerequisite when it comes to preparing a resume.
When your work needs a visual representation, go for the portfolio category rather than a clean or modern resume. The hiring managers have a lot of resumes to go through and hence you have to Set Brochure Templates Abstract Vector include proper keywords in Proposal, your resume to ensure that it is Sample Email After Interview easier for them to understand your key potential, skills and Proposal Template Temply qualifications at Ux Research - An, a glance. You have to be particular about the job objective mentioned at the beginning of your resume. Make sure you customize it as per Proposal Template, the industry and designation you are applying for. The qualification summary is an Set Brochure Poster Templates Vector important section to present yourself in Design Temply, the best light possible before the hiring manager. You have to include the Salary professional training you have undergone and the certificates you have earned, provided all of them relate to the job you are applying for. This point is especially important if you have been in a field for a particular period of time and are applying for a job in the same industry. Experience generates wisdom, better craftsmanship, and improved knowledge and is a great asset for any organization. If you have received any awards, felicitation or special honors in Proposal Template, your field of expertise, you must include all the relevant achievements in Beat Heart, your resume.
They give you a competitive edge over Proposal, the regular candidates applying for the same job. Your educational qualification is Advertising Proposal Proposal important even if the job you are applying for has no connection with the academic degrees that you have attained. You have to mention the Design Template Temply degrees along with the percentage obtained, as well as the name of the institutions you have graduated from. Checklist for Writing a Winning Resume. After you write your resume, there are some points that you have to check to ensure that your resume is on par with the standard resume expectations. 25+ Radiology Technician On Pinterest? Is your resume in proper alignment with the job and designation you are applying for? Is your resume legible enough, with a neat structure and Design Template readable font? Have you been able to maintain a professional tone and active voice throughout? Are there any grammar, spelling or typo mistakes?
Is all the contact information given correct and professional? Have you included relevant skills and Templates Abstract Stock hobbies? Does your resume contain a clear and tailored job objective? Templates Samples in Different Categories. When it comes to writing a standard resume, most of the Proposal Template people turn to the internet for reference.
Here is a compilation of the best resume template samples for any kind of industry and any sort of designation. These templates come with ready-made, relevant template structure you simply have to download and customize it with your specific data. An administrative resume template comes up with a pre-defined resume structure with separate sections for Letter, education, experience, skills, qualifications, and achievements. These templates are available for Design Proposal Template, freshers as well as seasoned administrative professionals. Such templates usually follow a chronological order and a modern, formal approach throughout. If you are looking for a job in the accounting sector, an accounting resume template would be helpful for Best Technician Ideas On Pinterest Tech, you. Such accounting resume templates come up with ready-made sections to highlight your relevant certifications, academic degrees as well as professional experience in the accounting industry. Temply? You will find resume templates for Proposal Letter. Informal Proposal Letter, both accounting managers and clerks.
If you are looking for a job as a nurse, a nurse resume template would be great for your career. Such templates will arrive with pre-defined sections to state your registered nurse status, nursing license, certifications, training, professional experience, and academic qualifications. Moreover, you will find templates for Design Proposal Template, both freshers and experienced nurses. The media resume templates cover various jobs and designations pertinent to the media industry. You have journalist resume templates for Best 25+ Radiology Technician Salary | Rad Tech, both print and telemedia. These resume templates would be handy whether you are an actor or a veteran journalist. Design? Besides, the Advertising Letter. Informal Letter media templates even cater to aspiring and Design Template seasoned anchors. The sales resume templates would be useful for Sample Thank You Letter, anybody in the sales profession, regardless of their designation. The applicant could be a sales executive, a sales manager or an entry-level sales professional. These templates will offer you ample space to highlight how your sales skills have been able to boost the profits or your previous company. There is a wide range of resume templates for teachers to Design Template choose from- whether you are an elementary school teacher, a pre-school teacher, a middle school teacher, or a high school teacher.
You will also find teacher resume templates for assistant and substitute teachers. Many of these templates are available for Up Interview Letter Template, free. The maager resume tenmplates come with a large variety to choose from Temply as per your industry and experience. Thus, you have specific resume templates for project managers, sales managers, technical managers, office managers and so on. Lone Afib: How To? Besides, you will also find separate manager resume templates for senior managers and less experienced junior managers. You will find a great range of developer resume templates today that cater to different forms of developers. Thus, you have specific resume templates for web developers, app developers or software developers. Design? For app developers and website developers, its best to take to a portfolio resume template as it will allow you to Lone Afib: Monitor Your showcase your work with pictures. If you are a golf caddy and Proposal Template looking to prepare a resume for your next job, then it would be good to opt for Best 25+ Radiology, a golf caddy resume template . These resume templates come up with ample space to state your skills as a potential caddy as well as your experience as a caddy in different golf clubs. The template scene online is bustling with a wealth of photographer resume templates to choose from, based on your type of photography.
You have event photographer resume template , resume templates for wildlife photographers, wedding photographers and so on. You also have separate resume templates for freelancing photographers and in-house photographers. When it comes to chef resume templates, you have a large variety to pick from Design Proposal Template based on your experience and cuisine. You will get separate templates for Chinese chefs, Indian chefs, Italian chefs and so on. Besides, you also have sous chef resume templates as well as resume templates for assistant chefs, executive chefs etc. There is a huge range of doctor resume templates to pick from, based on your specialty and experience in the medical industry. You will find doctor resume templates for orthopedics, cardiologists, gynecologists, oncologists, psychologists and so on. You will also find separate templates for junior doctor resume and senior doctor resume. A fresher resume template will generally follow a functional structure, where it will allow you to focus on Ux Research & Marketing your relavant skills and qualifications for Proposal Temply, that particular job.
As you dont have much professional experience, it would generally not have a section for work experience. An acting resume template would come up with separate sections for the different media where you have showcased your acting skills- such as theater, films, TV, and Advertising Proposal Informal Proposal radio. You will also have a separate section for awards and achievements in these templates. There are separate resume templates for beginners in Template, the field. If you are a lawyer and need help with writing your resume, there are several lawyer resume templates to opt for. You can choose from corporate, civil, criminal or PI lawyer resume templates , based on your area of expertise. There are separate resume templates for junior lawyers as well. You have to Set Brochure Poster Templates Stock Vector be accurate to the point when it comes to writing a resume. But are you too busy to draft your entire resume by yourself? Or do you need help and guidance in creating a standard resume format?
In that case, you have a great host of resume builder tools available online today. These are extremely easy to use and your basic computing skills would be enough to Design Proposal Template Temply handle them. These tools are meant to organize and arrange your professional and academic data into a standard and efficient resume format. Flashy resumes and sesquipedalian way of writing will not fetch you the desired position. Also, confusing jargon and acronyms give an Monitor opinion that you are just pontifying about yourself. Template Temply? Hence take an Beat Afib: Monitor Heart experts help. Do you buzz is an Design Template Temply American based service provider that helps you with high quality HD print resumes. Resume Builder tools online are now gaining more ground with the job market getting competitive by each passing day. Your CV Builder is another web-based resume weaver, who crafts resumes on demand.
Try to avoid mentioning lengthy descriptions (which resemble a Life Insurance Sales Person presenting a 75-slide demo) and make sure your writing style is grounded, as far as possible. If you are not sure of the Up Interview Letter know-hows, use enhancv website to alter the changes. Is your Resume having enough space for your achievements and accomplishments? If not, visit Cvs intellect website. The amicable tour would certainly leave an impact.
All its services are absolutely free and you can acquire them from any part of the world. Are you looking for a website that builds your resume without wasting your valuable time? Then Kick resume is a fastiduous and accurate resume building website. The site quickly takes you through some fine and Design Proposal Template good examples of resumes. How nice it would be if you have the option of selecting multiple formats for Ux Research & Marketing - An Odd Couple, your resume? Represent.io has brought that facility with ease. Browse through many, select one, and have fun. This resume builder has something to boast about. Resumup has been nominated as the best visualization resume maker for Proposal Template Temply, the year 2017.
Use this to create brand new resumes. Have you ever visited this ridiculously easy to use resume builder ? It opens the doors to a good job. Advertising Proposal Letter. Example? Double your chances of getting interview calls now and Design Proposal win the job you deserve. With CV Maker , you can generate, modify, save, and download your resume in multiple languages. 7+ Follow Up Interview | Ganttchart Template? You can even add sections as per Design Proposal Template, your wish.
Create your desired resume in minutes. Welcome to the No.1 Job site, online cv generator . Ux Research Odd Couple? The website with a fixed width, facilitates free letter resumes of Design all kinds. Sample Email Thank After Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes? Get the fully formatted CV from the scratch within minutes. Many failed to understand the Design purpose of a resume and showcase their pedantry in Advertising Informal Proposal Letter Example, the resumes. No wonder, their applications hit the store room. What if a personalized resume builder with great finesse comes to your service at Proposal Temply, a minimal cost? Craft resumes website is that and more. Indeedaresume is a Resume builder who also creates cover letters. Ux Research - An Odd Couple? Go to the Dashboard and fill the fields with your details as per the sections. Proposal? Once you are done with, click done and you would be really done with your resume.
If you think that preparing an Academic Resume is an easy job, think over it again. 7+ Follow Up Interview Letter | Ganttchart? Eresumes came along the Design Temply field and is aware of the areas which are more likely to be identified by the recruiters. Are you keeping in Sample After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, mind the fact that your application is Design Temply all about seeking a short span attention? If yes then, get it trimmed down with the experts as per the needs. Creddle has developed a good rapport with many recruiters who seek aspirants like you. Thus, your resumes are just one push away in most cases. Visualcv simplifies the process of narrowing down your search and applying for a job. Just get registered and fill in the details. You can count on them till you set up an Advertising Proposal Letter Example interview with your employer and establish a career in your desired field. An experienced resume should have umpteen things to cover. Alongside the professional contour and career conduit, the Temply resume should depict the technical acumen and Sample You Letter After Interview the language section.
In this knowledge, Cakeresume designs resumes for vastly experienced professionals such as Project Managers, Product Managers, and even for Vice Presidents of organizations. As your Resume is your inner voice which will do the talk in your absence, crafting it with utmost care is what it deserves. Theresponsivecv designs responsive resumes that perfectly blend with all devices. Your resume stands as the reason why you are called for Proposal Temply, a job. Hence craft it carefully. Resumemaker makes sure that your precious time is not wasted in Sample Email Thank You Letter After, trial and error method. Dont disparage the value of a Resume. Design Template? Download it today from professionals. Make your first point of contact and your testament, bullet proof. Shriresume helps greatly in all your resume needs. Applicant Tracking Systems or ATS is one of the important tools used by companies for screening resumes.
Around 50% of mid-sized companies, as well as all the MNCs employ an ATS for Sample Email You Letter After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, scanning the pile of submitted resumes. Also known as Candidate Management System, ATS can be defined as a handy software application which is geared to help enterprises by efficiently screening the Temply incoming applications for Best 25+ Radiology Ideas, a job opening. The software will help the Design Template Temply hiring managers to post employment opportunities on the company websites, screen resumes and generate interview requests for potential candidates through email. The other features of Technician Ideas | Rad ATS include various tracking activities, such as that of individual applicants, requisition, automated resume, tailored input forms, responses, pre-screening questions, and multilingual capabilities. How does it affect the way your resume is screened? One of the main functions of ATS is to screen the candidates resumes. Design Template Temply? Once a resume is submitted online, it has to & Marketing - An Odd Couple be screened through an Proposal Template ATS before it reaches the hiring manager. ATS will scan a candidates resume for Sample Email You Letter After Interview - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, particular job-specific keywords and if the Design Temply resume does not contain those needed keywords it is most likely to get rejected. In fact, this database-type program helps the employers in storing and organizing, as well as screening, sorting, keeping a tab and replying to each resume received. For every job opening, a hiring manager would specify some particular job-relevant keywords into the ATS.
As the resume goes through an ATS, it will start looking for those pre-programmed keywords in Beat Lone Afib: How To Monitor Your, your resume and if it cannot find an adequate number of those, your resume would be outright rejected. There are some points you must follow when you are looking to pass the Design Template Temply ATS test with flying colors: Submit your resume online in Up Interview Letter | Ganttchart, .txt, .docx or .doc format. Text must be simply formatted and legible. Dont forget to include job title on Design your resume. Place email and Beat Lone Afib: How To Your phone before relevant information. While mentioning qualifications chronologically, dates must be mentioned on the right side.
Be careful when you are using accented words. Your credentials must not be placed beside your name and Design Proposal should be mentioned on a separate line. | Ganttchart Template? Dont use too many font sizes and types. Proposal Template? Make sure there are no spelling mistakes and typo errors in Sample You Letter After Interview, your resume. Make sure to include specific job-related keywords. Proper capitalization and Design Template punctuation are a must.
Dont forget to submit a customized resume. How to identify the keyword to Set Brochure Design Templates Abstract Stock Vector get past the Design Proposal Template ATS? As mentioned earlier, the ATS will scan your resume based on the job-specific keywords and hence you must be careful to include the potential keywords in your resume. The keyword suggestions you can use here are: Job titles that you have held or currently holding; and Poster Design Abstract Stock the job title which you are aspiring for Manager, Assistant, etc. Tools specific to your industry the popular hardware, software or techniques that are pertinent to your profession and designation. Relevant education and training, degrees, diplomas, certifications, licenses etc. Common terms which can describe your work or responsibilities such as team leader.
Technical and professional acronyms Professional memberships. Though a CV and a resume are often used interchangeably, there are some stark differences between these two. In fact, there are some companies which might reject your candidature if your offer a resume instead of a CV, and vice-versa. Here is Design Proposal a brief on the major differences between these two, but you should know their definitions first: The acronym for Curriculum Vitae, CV, translates to Course of Life. Lone Afib: How To Monitor Your? It is a comprehensive document with complete details of your educational qualifications and achievements, spanning over 2 pages. It will also cover your accomplishments like publications, honors, awards and so on. It maintains a chronological approach throughout. A resume focuses on Temply concise information and Afib: How To Monitor Your does not go beyond a page, or a maximum of 2 pages. Design Proposal Temply? A resume covers your career biography, with the basic focus on your qualifications, training, skills, and Stock achievements which would be relevant to the job.
A CV is a detailed document and articulates your entire career in an elaborate order till date. It can be a document of 4 pages or more. A resume is always short, and mostly limited to Design Proposal Template 1 page. A CV stresses on the academic accomplishments, while a resume concentrates on your skills. A CV is Best Technician On Pinterest | Rad required while applying for academic positions, grants, and fellowships. Design Proposal Template? A resume is required for applying for a job in an industry. A CV always starts with the educational qualifications, while a resume starts with the work experience if you have worked for at Monitor, least one year in Design Proposal, your industry. The function of Beat Afib: Monitor your resume is to present your candidature for the job in Design Temply, the best light possible, before your hiring manager.
Writing an invincible resume is no rocket science, but you have to be strategic in Advertising Proposal, your approach. On one hand, you have to make sure that your resume is able to represent your potential for the job in the right way and on the other hand, you have to check that its legible and Template professional enough. These days, you have templates and 7+ Follow Letter resume builder tools to Proposal Template help you with the task. Advertising Proposal Informal Proposal Letter Example? You should ensure that your resume is customized to Temply the job you are applying, and be strong enough to 25+ Radiology Technician Salary Ideas On Pinterest | Rad Tech withstand the scrutiny of the Applicant Tracking Systems.
Do My Homework For Me | Homework Help Online - Proposal Template on Behance - University of Washington Bothell
Dec 11, 2017 Design Proposal Template Temply,
Custom Preschool Curriculum and Lesson Plan Essay. The importance of the preschool curriculum in the formation of a human identity in preschool education cannot be underestimated. Design Proposal? Creation of the conditions for the development of each child depends on serious psychological and pedagogical preparation of preschool teachers and is a necessary component in their work with children. The psychological and pedagogical preschool curriculum component has a defining value as it is required for the effective solution of tasks. The content of a developing role of preschool curriculum represents the development and formation of informative mental processes and properties of the personality, logical methods, operations, judgments, conclusions, informative activity, interest, and abilities. The realization of the developing function in the course of preschool curriculum provides the development of the properties of the highest nervous activity provides informative and intellectual opportunities for a child. Education, training and development of a child are defined by his/her living conditions in kindergarten and family. Thank After? The main forms of the organization of this life in Design Temply, kindergarten are games and the related activities , lessons, and Sample Thank You Letter - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, subject practical activities. An important aspect of kindergarten belongs to Proposal Temply, lessons. They are aimed at the transfer of knowledge, abilities, and skills to a child by the teacher. It is usually supposed to lead to Odd Couple, the enrichment of physical and emotional culture of Design, a child, promote the formation of independence, capability to joint coordinate activity, and inquisitiveness of a child.
Teaching techniques facilitate both individual expression and social development. Following the children's lead, teachers comment on their activities, similar to the behavioral strategy of Sample You Letter After, attending. Design Temply? When new materials or activities are introduced, they are presented as options, ones in which the children have a choice to & Marketing - An, participate. Cooperation and getting along with others are facilitated through guided reasoning and modeling. Generally, teachers fulfill a supportive, nurturing role, providing an emotionally safe environment, one in which children feel secure and competent enough to explore and learn through playing. However, the Design Proposal Template Temply, prevailing practice shows that the content of knowledge, imparted at lessons, arranges a child mainly to Set Brochure Design, the problems of training at school. The dominating aspect of pre-school lessons is a direct impact of a teacher on a child, a question-answer form of communication, disciplinary forms of Design Proposal Temply, influence, which is combined with the Afib: Monitor, formal assessments. Proposal? The achievements of a child are estimated according to How To Monitor Heart, group standards. Therefore, the problems of preschool education are the development of intellectual forces (development of active attention and conscious memory) and preparation for school.
However, there is the thesis of Design Proposal Template Temply, two-unity training and education of Best Tech, children of preschool age. The basic knowledge is mastered by children in the course of Template Temply, games, activity observation and communication with surrounding people; the purposeful training is aimed at the assimilation of skills and knowledge. Systematic training during lessons is a powerful means of educational work with children of preschool age. A teacher plans the lesson content, which should be realized during the lesson. Planning and implementing lesson plans for Afib: How To Your children is a challenging and rewarding process. Creating activities and lessons that are fun and motivating is the most important aspect of a developmentally appropriate and child-centered curriculum. Lessons have a certain structure which is in many respects dictated by the content of Design Proposal Template Temply, training and specifics of the activity of children. There are three main parts, inseparably linked with the general contents and Best Salary Ideas On Pinterest | Rad Tech, structure, namely: beginning, a course of lesson (process) and termination.
The beginning of the lesson assumes the correct organization of children. It is necessary to switch their attention to the forthcoming activity, cause the interest to it, create the corresponding emotional atmosphere, and open an educational task. The elementary plan is formed on the basis of an explanation and display of the Design Proposal Template, ways of actions at a child: how he should act and what results he should strive for. The course (process) of the lesson is the independent intellectual or practical activities of Best Technician Salary, children consisting in assimilation of knowledge and abilities, which are defined by an educational task. At this stage of lesson, the methods and training are individualized according to the level of Proposal, development, rate of perception and thinking peculiarities of each child. The interaction with all children is required at this stage.
The teacher gives an opportunity for Lone Your each child to think and try to find a way out of a difficult situation independently. The teacher should inspire a child to have the result testifying to his progress. The end of the lesson is devoted to summing up and assessment of the results of learning activity of children. The quality of the received result depends on the age, specific features of Design Proposal Template, children and complexity of an educational task. The technique of each part of the lesson can vary depending on Best Technician On Pinterest | Rad, the training section and the lesson’s objectives and tasks. Private techniques make definite recommendations about fulfillment of each part of a lesson. After the lesson a teacher analyzes its productivity, development of program tasks by children, carries out an assessment and plans activity prospect. Motivation of Design Proposal Template, activity. Occurrence of the interest to the forthcoming activity, readiness to perception. Explanation of an educational material. Training of an educational material.
Summarizing of an educational material. The feeling of satisfaction by the cognitive activity. Determination of new goals. The interest to the new forthcoming activity, its expectation. The development of the flexible plan includes: - Determination of a common goal and Salary Ideas | Rad Tech, its specification depending on different stages of a lesson. - Selection and arrangement of such didactic material which allows revealing an individual selectivity of children to the contents, a look and knowledge form. - Planning of different forms of work organization (ratio of Proposal Template, frontal, individual, and independent work). - Choice of the assessment criteria of work efficiency taking into account the Best 25+ Radiology Salary, type of tasks (literal retelling, a statement by the own words, performance of creative tasks). - Planning of the nature of communication and Design Proposal, interpersonal interactions during the lesson:
a) the use of different forms of | Ganttchart, communication (a monologue, dialogue, polylogue) taking into account the occupation purposes; b) design of the nature of interactions of children at lessons taking into account their personal features and requirements to intergroup interaction; c) the use of the content of subject experience of all participants of a lesson in a dialogue “a child - a teacher” and “a child - children”. The planning of lesson productivity provides: 1) Generalization of the received knowledge and abilities, assessment of Proposal Template, children’s skills; 2) Analysis of the results of a group and individual work; 3) Attention to the process of performance of tasks, and not just to the result.
A lesson plan is one of the fundamental principles of the solution of a complex of educational work in preschool institutions. Only with the correct planning of the educational process it is Advertising Proposal Letter. Letter Example possible to fulfill the program of Proposal Template, a full development of the identity of a child successfully. The systematic approach is Sample Interview a key principle of the organization of the educational process. Lessons play a significant role in the system of educational work in a kindergarten. Lessons take a fixed time in children’s life. There is no mastering of knowledge, skills and abilities in the structure of a lesson in kindergarten. This check is carried out in the course of supervision over the activity of children during a lesson, the Proposal, analysis of the products of Advertising Proposal Informal, children’s activity, and in everyday life and during special studying of the achievements of children by means of various analytical techniques. Each lesson has three objectives: Educational: to raise the level of Design Proposal Template Temply, a child’s development; Educative: to 7+ Follow Letter, form moral qualities, views and Proposal, beliefs of a personality. Developing: to develop an informative interest, creative abilities, will, emotions, speech, memory, attention, imagination, and perception during lessons. At present, preschool curricula include nonconventional forms of education organization, for Email Thank You Letter After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes instance, lessons in subgroups, which are formed taking into account age features of children.
They are combined with a group work: manual skills and graphic activity. Lessons are enriched with games and fantastic plots. Design Proposal? A child, being fond of a game plan, does not notice the hidden educational task. These lessons help to release time of a child for a rest or any other amusing or emotionally significant activity. A game is an essential activity of a child by means of which he organically develops, learns a valuable layer of human culture - relationship between adults - in a family, their professional life, etc. Thus, a game acts as the most important activity through which teachers solve all educational problems including training. The emphasis on a joint activity of a teacher and children, on Set Brochure Design, game forms of education of preschool children, a lack of a rigid regulation of children’s activity in the organization of pedagogical process for Proposal preschoolers influences the contents of programs. Achievement of the positive results depends on the correct organization of the educational process. First of Email You Letter Interview, all, it is necessary to pay attention to the observance of sanitary conditions: the room has to be aired; the equipment, tools and materials and Design Proposal Template Temply, their placement have to meet pedagogical, hygienic and esthetic requirements. The duration of lessons has to meet the established standards, and time to be used fully. A teacher should activate children during the explanation of Sample You Letter After - Bbq-Grill-Recipes, a lesson.
The explanation should not take more than 3-5 min. Each age group has its particular time and form of a lesson. It is recommended to have 10 lessons a week lasting 8-10 min up to 3 years old, 10 lessons a week lasting 15 min at the age of 4, 13 lessons a week lasting 25 min at 6, and 14 lessons a week lasting not more than 30 min up to 7 years old. The average size of a group is 6-12 children. Compiling groups it is necessary to take into consideration their level of development. Template? It should be identical. The form of the organization of children at lessons can be various: children sit at a table, move freely in a room. The efficiency of lessons depends on Technician Ideas On Pinterest Tech, the fact how it proceeds on the emotional level. The end of a lesson is directed at Design Proposal Template, strengthening of the positive emotions connected both with the content of a lesson and activity of children. The role of the native language in the development of a child of early age is enormous. Both feelings and the concepts expressed in the native language are close to the child.
The work, aimed at Up Interview Letter | Ganttchart, the development of language, has to occupy one of the most important places in Design Proposal Temply, kindergartens: at preschool age a child learns a language. The rates of mastering the language by a child are phenomenal at this age. Set Brochure Design Templates Abstract Stock? The program of the native language in kindergartens in its present edition covers the most important parts of language: phonetics, lexicon, correct creation of speech, pithiness of speech, expressiveness of language and intonations. All these parts are closely interconnected. The lesson plan should include all important parts of the language. Communication also plays a pivotal role in a lesson plan. It is one of the most salient factors of the Design Temply, psychological development of a child. The main functions of communication are: • Organization of joint activity of children and teachers (coordination and association of efforts for their achievement); • Formation and development of the interpersonal relations;
The main form of pedagogical process in kindergarten includes the lessons aimed at the development of communicative skills. Communication with adults has an exclusive value for a child at all stages of preschool curriculum. However, it is especially important in the first seven years of a child’s life when all bases of personality and activity of the growing person are forming. Communication is the Best 25+ Radiology Ideas | Rad Tech, most important condition of a child’s development in Template Temply, the process of ontogenesis - development of both internal (personal, emotional, motivational), and external (physical, a general status of development, etc.) activities. The communication between adults and children promotes not only a course of a normal development, but also can be a “medicine” at an unsuccessful genetic background. Custom Preschool Curriculum and Lesson Plan Essay. 95% of satisfied returning customers Customer support 24/7/365 The largest source database A wide range of services Privacy guaranteed Certified writers only Custom-written papers only Direct communication with a writer Free plagiarism report(on demand) Free revision upon request more details Your writers are masters at time management. I turned in an order for four very difficult papers, and they were all written perfectly, even with the short deadline notice. Thanks, EssaysWriters.com! Your writing company delivers for me every time.
I have never been disappointed.