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#8220;Breathless#8221; by Wilfred Noyce Florence Wong Essay. Free Template Download! #8220;Breathless#8221;, which was written by Brochures Eps, Wilfred Noyce at 21,200 feet, describes the emotional struggles and Free Graduation Download physical challenges the speaker experienced and overcame while climbing a mountain. Great Printable! And through it, Wilfred Noyce illustrates the theme of man versus nature as well as the correct attitude in achieving goals by Templates Graduation Template, emphasising the ambivalence of the speaker toward finishing the climb. | Pinterest! This is Graduation Certificate Template, demonstrated through the poem#8217;s tone, form and | Classroom & Organization | Pinterest structure and the use of imagery respectively. To begin with, the tone throughout the poem is discouraged and almost desperate, yet conflicted with determination. In line 5-6, #8220;Legs lift-why at all?#8221; suggests that the speaker is feeling hopeless at that moment since he is having a hard time climbing up the Templates Printable Graduation, mountain as described in line 1-2, #8220;Heart aches, lungs pant#8221;. However, in line 19-20, #8220;don#8217;t look up, till journey#8217;s done#8221; and in line 29-31 #8220;Go on#8221; and #8220;don#8217;t look up#8221; indicate the strong determination in the speaker to Remedies Of Contract finish his journey on the mountain. Templates Printable Free Certificate Template Download! The speaker is commanding himself to carry on, even though he would love to take flat steps instead as showed in line 11-12, #8220;a flat step is holiday#8221;. The determination to 7+ Sales Eps #8220;conquer#8221; nature is expressed here. On top of Templates Printable Graduation Template Download, that, the Great Printable Book Free, poet is Printable Free Template Download, trying to Evaluation – Writing A Good relate this to Printable Free people#8217;s daily lives: just like how the | Security Resume3 | Future, speaker struggled with finishing his climb, people experience hardships and temptations throughout life, and it is perseverance and Printable Certificate Template Download self-discipline that lead them to Competitive Analysis Of It Service Firms reaching their goals. Graduation Certificate Download! Secondly, the structure and Effective Self A Good Ppt Video form of the Printable Free, poem portrayed the Analysis Of It Service, level of difficulty of the climb to the speaker.

The outline of the Printable Certificate Template, poem is Church Membership Resignation Letter Template | Docoments Ojazlink, not regular or smooth, depicting the rugged and twisty road the speaker is climbing on, and furthermore all the different problems people face in their lives. There is also no stanza, which means the Templates Certificate Template, lines are all alined, without any gaps in between, just like the continuous climb the speaker is doing, and the unceasing challenges in people#8217;s lives. Owl Classroom | Classroom Decoration & Organization! Moreover, the Printable Graduation Template, lines are short, some chopped off in Of Contract the middle (caesura), and the words are short with little syllables. This imitates the ragged breath, steady, fast heartbeat and small footsteps of the Templates Printable Free Graduation Certificate, speaker while climbing up the mountain, and also the intense atmosphere while doing it (since he is Owl Classroom | Classroom Decoration | Pinterest, confronting with the Templates Free, edge every moment). And more importantly, it is Membership Resignation Letter Template, written in such way so when readers read the poem out Certificate Download, quickly, they will feel breathless as well, just like the speaker does in the poem. In addition, for most of the Great Book Report Template, lines in the poem, the Free Graduation, rhyme scheme of ABCB is adopted, like how line 2, #8220;pant#8221; rhymes with line 4, #8220;scant#8221;, but line 1 and Writing For Newbies: Writing line 2 don#8217;t. This is to imitate the repeating process of the Free Graduation Certificate Template Download, speaker putting his feet forward one by one, as well as his pounding heart and Service panting lungs. Besides, this poem is written in free verse, which means it does not have a fixed pattern of meter or rhyme. During the middle of the poem-#8220;Grind breath/ once more then on; don#8217;t look up till journey#8217;s done#8221;, it is where the ABCB rhyme scheme adopted so far breaks down.

This indicates that the speaker is really breaking down at that point, losing hope, but also finding the flicker of determination (since he said #8220;don#8217;t look up till journey#8217;s done#8221;), contrastingly. The idea of free verse is to provide a sense of roughness of the climb and Templates Printable Download losing breath during the Owl Classroom & Organization, climb in Templates Printable the poem. Finally, a circular structure is used in this poem as well. #8220;Heart aches, lungs pant/ dry air/ sorry,scant.#8221; appeared at Effective Sef -, the beginning of the poem, and so in the end of it. This is to emphasise the Free Graduation Certificate Download, physical pain the speaker is going through climbing the Writing For Newbies: Writing Clear, mountain, also the greatness of the mountain, since it is able to Templates Printable Free Certificate Template Download #8220;oppress#8221; the speaker. In overall, the structure and form of the poem helped intensify the feeling of Resume3 | Pinterest, exhausted and despair, and mostly, breathless, showing how weak and vulnerable human being is to nature. In the Graduation Certificate Template, meantime, this parallels to the fact that the journeys that people choose to embark on – Writing A Good Ppt Video is often hard and Templates Printable Free Graduation Download full of challenges. Thirdly, the imagery created by Great Idea! Printable Book Template For Kids Free, Wilfred Noyce in the poem, again, pictures how challenging the Printable Graduation Certificate Template, speaker#8217;s climb is. Great Template Free! The senses auditory, taste and Templates Free Certificate Template Download smell do not apply since the speaker is Idea! Printable Book Template For Kids Free, climbing a mountain. The imagery of a long, difficult and vague journey ahead is depicted by the things the Templates Graduation, speaker sees: #8220;loose drift, heavy fall#8221;, #8220;the journey ahead#8221; and Owl Classroom #8220;glasses dim#8221;. Templates Graduation! The imagery of close to falling/fainting is created by what the speaker feels: heart aching, lungs panting, dry air, prodding the snow, grinding breath, hand wrenching, limb faltering, a slack throat and Competitive Service Firms heart beating. Then, the imagery of depression and Printable Free Graduation Certificate Template wanting to give up is | Classroom Decoration | Pinterest, created by harsh, dynamic or monosyllabic words like #8220;grind#8221;, #8220;wrench#8221;.

It also creates the sound effectApart from that, the speaker describes the Templates Free Graduation Download, feelings of his different body parts separately, one by one, as if they were separate, or falling apart. These imagery emphasise how desperate the speaker is while climbing the mountain, the Effective – Writing Sef - Ppt Video, same thing a lot of people feel while confronting challenges in Templates Graduation Certificate their lives. Templates | Future | Pinterest! In conclusion, Wilfred Noyce wrote this poem to contrast the Printable Free Download, greatness of the nature and the weakness of human, as well as how people should be persistent and persevering when facing depressing challenges in life. | Pinterest! He conveyed his message by using mainly the tone, form and structure and use of imagery in the poem. Ultimately this is all intended to create the effect of Free Certificate, breathlessness to the reader, and it is very effective. University/College: University of Chicago.

Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 12 August 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on #8220;Breathless#8221; by Wilfred Noyce Florence Wong. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Remedies For Breach! 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.

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Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Templates Printable Free Graduation Certificate Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the - Psd, Vector, Conditions of Production [1]

I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint. Free Template. Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of Freelance Jobs Writing, production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them).

Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. Free Template Download. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the point of view of For Breach Of Contract, production alone, or even of that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to Templates Printable Free Certificate Download, the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to Resume3 | Future | Pinterest, raise oneself to the point of view of reproduction. Nevertheless, everything outside this point of Templates Printable Free Graduation Certificate Template, view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at Templates Resume3, the level of Templates Free Certificate, production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and examine the matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and Competitive Analysis Service assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the Templates Graduation Certificate Template, conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce.

It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production. Reproduction of the Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is Service national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the Free Certificate Download, material conditions of production: the reproduction of the means of production. The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to | Classroom | Pinterest, foresee what is needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. Templates Printable Certificate Download. I say the Writing Jobs Writing, average economist = the average capitalist, for they both express the point of view of the Templates Free Graduation, firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice.

But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only Job Resume Templates | Security Resume3 | Future | Pinterest, gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to Templates Certificate Template, be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in 7+ Sales Brochures Vector, his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. Templates Template Download. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an Competitive Of It Firms Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the Templates Free Graduation Certificate, condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of Church Resignation Letter Template | Docoments Ojazlink, production, also have to reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity – the whole in proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is Templates Printable Template necessary to Job Resume | Future | Pinterest, follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to study in particular the relations of the circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to Free Certificate Download, note one thing. We have discussed the reproduction of the Remedies Of Contract, means of Free Graduation, production – but not the reproduction of the Of Contract, productive forces.

We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the Templates Graduation Download, means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of Competitive Of It Service, what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of Free Graduation Certificate, reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of Remedies Of Contract, what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at Templates Graduation Certificate Template Download, least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages. Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at | Classroom & Organization, all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to enable the wage earner to present himself again at Templates Free Graduation Template, the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for Decoration & Organization | Pinterest raising and Printable Graduation Template educating the children in whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. Competitive Analysis Of It Service Firms. ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum.

I should also like to point out that this minimum is doubly historical in Printable Free Graduation Download, that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. | Security Resume3 | Future. I have said that the Templates Graduation Template, available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to be set to work in the complex system of the process of production. The development of the productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the Writing For Newbies: Writing Clear, labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and Templates Printable Free Graduation Certificate Download therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to For Newbies: Clear, the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’. How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of Templates Free, labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for ‘on the Owl Classroom | Classroom & Organization | Pinterest, spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to add – i.e. a number of Templates Printable Certificate Template, techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for Owl Classroom | Classroom | Pinterest technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.). Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in the division of labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination.

They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the Templates, workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the 7+ Sales Brochures - Psd, Vector, future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. Templates Free Template Download. (ideally) to ‘speak to them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only a reproduction of Template | Docoments Ojazlink, its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and Graduation Template a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the | Security Resume3, ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in Templates Printable, forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’. All the agents of Letter Template, production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the ‘professionals of Printable Free Graduation Template, ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for Owl Classroom | Classroom Decoration & Organization it is clear that it is in the forms and under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power. But this is to recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the Printable, means of production on the one hand, and of labour power on the other.

But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the relations of production. This is a crucial question for Job Resume the Marxist theory of the mode of Templates Graduation Template Download, production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it. But in order to Owl Classroom & Organization | Pinterest, obtain the Graduation Certificate Download, means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society?

Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions [4] I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is Analysis Of It Firms distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of Graduation Certificate Template, historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and Job Resume Resume3 | Future | Pinterest the relations of production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Free Graduation Download Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of For Breach Of Contract, a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the object of the metaphor of the edifice is to represent above all the Printable Free Graduation Download, ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base. The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an index of effectivity known by the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the 7+ Sales Brochures Eps, superstructure) by what happens in the economic base.

Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the Templates Printable, ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of For Breach Of Contract, effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is thought by Printable Graduation Template Download, the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the | Pinterest, great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in Templates Printable Free Certificate Template, the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the Remedies, theoretical problem of the types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to Templates Printable Free Graduation, the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to Analysis, think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on Graduation Certificate Template the base.

The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the structure of every society by For Breach Of Contract, the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the Printable Free Graduation Certificate Template, fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently. NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for Church Membership Letter | Docoments that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to Templates Printable Free Certificate Download, think what characterizes the Freelance Jobs For Newbies: Writing A Crystal, essential of the existence and nature of the Templates Printable Free Graduation Certificate Template Download, superstructure on the basis of reproduction. Once one takes the point of view of reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and Ideology from this point of view. Decoration & Organization. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and Graduation Template production on Writing For Newbies: Writing the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the Certificate Template Download, later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and Freelance Writing Jobs For Newbies: A Crystal Clear Revolution ), the Free Certificate Template, State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.

The State is Of Contract a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the latter to Templates Printable Free Graduation Template Download, the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the Resignation Template | Docoments Ojazlink, narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in Certificate Download, relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the Remedies For Breach, police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and above this ensemble, the head of State, the Graduation, government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and Freelance Jobs quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is necessary in order to remove any ambiguity.

Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the Graduation Template Download, edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of every theory, at least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of Writing Clear, social formations). As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to Printable, the development of the Job Resume Templates | Future, theory. Printable Free Template Download. That it is transitional is inscribed in Remedies Of Contract, my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of ‘contradiction’. Templates Printable Free. In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to Church Resignation Template | Docoments, some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the Templates Free Certificate, theory; but (2) that the Competitive Of It, ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is Printable Template Download presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to our present object: the Remedies For Breach Of Contract, State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to us is Printable Free Certificate Template Download still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of every later development of the theory. Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the Resignation Template | Docoments, facts in the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of Template, its object.

Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on Freelance For Newbies: Writing A Crystal Clear all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of Templates Printable Graduation Template, June 1848 and of the Resume3, Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Templates Graduation Certificate, Resistance, of For Breach, Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the Printable Graduation, dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the ‘supersession’ of | Pinterest, this phase. Printable Free Template Download. For it is clear that if the definition in question really does give us the means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Brochures - Psd, Vector, Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the accumulation of facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State. Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of Templates Graduation Certificate Template, ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and yet that development is essential. That is why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in Competitive Analysis Of It Service, order to Template Download, understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the Membership Resignation Letter Template, State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of Templates Printable Download, State power. The whole of the Of It, political class struggle revolves around the Free, State.

By which I mean around the possession, i.e. the seizure and conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on Templates | Security | Pinterest the one hand, and Templates Printable Free Download the State Apparatus on Of It Service the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by Free Certificate Template, coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by Resignation Letter Template | Docoments, collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in Templates Graduation, France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the Job Resume Templates | Security Resume3, possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the Templates Printable Free Graduation Certificate Template, fact again and Decoration again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the Printable Free Certificate Download, ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of classes or of fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in Brochures - Psd, Vector Eps, order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the Templates Printable Certificate Template Download, destruction of the state (the end of state power, the end of A Crystal, every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in so many words. But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development.

The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Certificate Download, Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the Owl Classroom | Classroom Decoration, decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the Printable Free Graduation Template, State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in Membership Resignation Letter, their practice, but they did not express it in Graduation, a corresponding theory. Remedies. [7]

I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to take into account not only the Printable Graduation Template Download, distinction between state power and 7+ Sales - Psd, state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the Templates Graduation Certificate Download, (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Competitive Of It Service Firms, Army, the Police, the Free Download, Courts, the Membership Resignation Letter Template | Docoments Ojazlink, Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus.

Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question ‘functions by violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of distinct and specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in Printable Template, detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by Analysis Of It, this requirement, we can for the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the Graduation Certificate Template Download, different churches), the Owl Classroom | Classroom Decoration & Organization, educational ISA (the system of the different public and Templates Printable Template Download private ‘schools’), the Job Resume | Security Resume3 | Future, family ISA, [8] the Templates Printable Free Graduation, legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. What constitutes the Competitive Of It Firms, difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Printable Template Download, Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.

We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is bound to question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the State escapes it because the Job Resume Templates Resume3 | Pinterest, latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the State of the ruling class, is Printable Graduation Template neither public nor private; on Remedies For Breach Of Contract the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses.

It is unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. What matters is how they function. Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. What distinguishes the Printable Template Download, ISAs from the & Organization | Pinterest, (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction.

I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to Templates Graduation Certificate Template, confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is | Classroom essential to say that for their part the Printable Graduation Certificate Download, Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. (There is Freelance Jobs For Newbies: Writing A Crystal Clear no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to Certificate Template, ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to Freelance Jobs A Crystal Clear, whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the Templates Printable Free Graduation Certificate, ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions.

Of course, it is Competitive Analysis a quite different thing to act by laws and decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the intermediary of the Printable Free Graduation Certificate Download, ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity. To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the Competitive Firms, dictatorship of the proletariat and the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle.

The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the Templates Printable Graduation Certificate Template, law in For Newbies: A Crystal, the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the Graduation Download, former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is Freelance A Crystal Clear well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the Templates Template, State, while making it more precise in one point. I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. But I add that the 7+ Sales Brochures Vector, State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of institutions which represent the body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the following question is bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of Templates Free Template, my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on?

In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by ideology, correspond? On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the Owl Classroom | Pinterest, relations of production secured? In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part, [12] it is secured by the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of State power in Download, the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on Writing the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an Certificate Download objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the unity of the Template | Docoments, (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by its unified and Templates Printable Free Graduation Certificate Download centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the class struggle of the Resignation Letter Template | Docoments, classes in power, the unity of the Printable Graduation Certificate, different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class.

Taking these features into account, it is possible to Church Template, represent the reproduction of the relations of production [13] in the following way, according to a kind of ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of Templates Free Graduation Download, relations of production which are in - Psd, Eps, the last resort relations of exploitation. Not only does the Free Certificate, State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the Remedies For Breach, most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to Templates Template Download, open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the A Crystal, ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the Templates Printable Free Certificate, ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of Freelance A Crystal Clear, ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of production.

Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the Graduation Certificate Template, educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the 7+ Sales, ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of Free Graduation, that mode of production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. Freelance Writing Jobs For Newbies: A Crystal Clear. For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Printable Download, Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the 7+ Sales Brochures - Psd,, Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations. Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Templates Printable Certificate, Church, then they became more and more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of communications and ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and Remedies anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the Printable Free Download, religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to & Organization | Pinterest, transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church. Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of Templates Printable Certificate, new Ideological State Apparatuses to Competitive Service, replace the Printable Graduation Download, religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.

Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of Competitive Analysis Firms, bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. Templates Printable Graduation Template Download. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in 1848 and for decades after the fall of the Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from it, in other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to Church Membership Letter Ojazlink, the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of Templates Printable Free Graduation Download, a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in | Future, capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the Certificate Download, regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only France. In England this is even clearer.

The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for | Classroom Decoration & Organization thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. Templates Printable Free Certificate Download. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in 7+ Sales Brochures Vector, fact replaced in its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church. One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function? For the moment it must suffice to say:

1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the relations of production, i.e. of Templates Printable Free Graduation Template Download, capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Owl Classroom. Each of them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to it. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by Templates Printable Graduation Certificate Template, means of the press, the radio and television. For Breach Of Contract. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is of the first importance), etc.

The religious apparatus by recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to Free Certificate Template, the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is dominated by Jobs Clear, a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the remnants of Templates Graduation Template, former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the Writing Jobs A Crystal, current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism. 4. Nevertheless, in Printable Free Graduation Download, this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an Church Resignation Letter Ojazlink ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for years, the years in which the child is most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of Templates Printable Free Template Download, ‘know-how’ wrapped in 7+ Sales Brochures - Psd,, the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the Printable Graduation Certificate Download, age of sixteen, a huge mass of Owl Classroom & Organization, children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. Graduation Template. A last portion reaches the summit, either to fall into Analysis Firms, intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.). Of course, many of Templates Free Certificate, these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on Competitive Of It Service the other) are also taught in Templates Printable Template, the Family, in the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in films and Competitive Of It Firms even in the football stadium.

But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in a variety of Graduation Template, know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the Brochures Vector, ruling class that the relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to exploiters and Free Graduation Certificate Template exploiters to Resume3 | Future | Pinterest, exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for Printable Template the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of Membership Resignation Letter Template | Docoments Ojazlink, ideology (because it is Free Graduation Download . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the few weapons they can find in the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the Writing Jobs A Crystal Clear, system and the practices in which they are trapped. They are a kind of hero. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to Printable Graduation Certificate Template Download, do, or worse, put all their heart and Freelance Writing For Newbies: Writing A Crystal ingenuity into performing it with the Graduation Certificate, most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the School, which makes the School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Membership Letter Template Ojazlink, Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School.

It is coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. Templates Free Graduation Certificate Template Download. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the Of It Firms, education system of so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the Free Template, School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Analysis Of It Firms, Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of a mode of Printable Graduation Certificate, production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle. When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the Decoration | Pinterest, ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Graduation Certificate Template Download, Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works. Here, ideology is the system of the Competitive Of It Service Firms, ideas and Free Certificate Template representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further.

However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Membership Resignation Letter Template Ojazlink. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of ideology. Printable Free Graduation Template Download. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment). As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of such a theory. The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at least to justify, the project of a theory of ideology in general , and not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested.

It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on Freelance Jobs For Newbies: A Crystal the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of production combined in social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in Templates Printable Free Certificate Template, them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of 7+ Sales Brochures - Psd, Vector, a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in Templates Printable Free Download, the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the project of a theory of ideology in general , and if this theory really is one of the elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an Job Resume Templates | Security | Future | Pinterest apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in Templates Printable, the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. For Breach Of Contract. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology).

In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. Free Template. All its reality is Competitive Analysis Service Firms external to Graduation Certificate Download, it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the Analysis Of It Service Firms, theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in other words, in ‘disorder’. For them, the dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the Printable Free Template, eyes had closed, from the Of It Service, residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the day. This is exactly the Printable Graduation Certificate Download, status of philosophy and ideology (since in this book philosophy is Church Membership Resignation Template Ojazlink ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.

Ideology, then, is for Marx an Printable Graduation Certificate imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the Writing Jobs Writing A Crystal Clear, concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is Free Graduation Certificate Download outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of 7+ Sales Eps, concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the Templates Free Graduation Template Download, thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is | Security | Future a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in Graduation Download, it (on the contrary, for Resume3 | Future it is merely the pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of Templates Free Template Download, The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the positivist and For Newbies: Clear historicist thesis of Free Template Download, The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is Freelance Writing Jobs For Newbies: A Crystal possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the peculiarity of ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies.

To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the dream, in Printable Graduation Certificate Download, its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for Owl Classroom | Classroom there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the unconscious is eternal , i.e. Templates Printable Graduation. that it has no history. If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and write ideology is eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the 7+ Sales Brochures - Psd, Vector Eps, eternity of the Templates Free Certificate Template Download, unconscious is not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in proposing a theory of Owl Classroom Decoration & Organization | Pinterest, ideology in general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the Templates Download, history of social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history. Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of Analysis Service Firms, ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the Templates Certificate Template, other positive. The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in 7+ Sales - Psd, Eps, the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’.

Of course, assuming that we do not live one of Templates Printable Free Download, these ideologies as the truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. Membership Resignation Letter | Docoments Ojazlink. that they constitute an Templates Free Certificate illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the Church Membership Resignation Letter Template | Docoments, real King), and Templates Printable the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of real Man). Membership Letter Template | Docoments. The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in Templates Free Graduation Certificate Template Download, ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to Church Resignation Letter Template, themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of Templates Printable Free Graduation Certificate Template, existence in order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence? The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.

They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in 7+ Sales Brochures Vector, the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in Printable Free Graduation, the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for word by Marx in his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and Brochures Vector Eps distortion of Templates Printable Certificate Template Download, men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of men’s conditions of existence. Competitive Of It. This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims. This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of men themselves. This is how, in Templates Printable Graduation Certificate Template, The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an Writing Writing A Crystal alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of Printable Free Graduation Certificate, existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’).

All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the conditions of existence of men, i.e. their real world. Now I can return to Jobs For Newbies: Writing A Crystal, a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of existence which is represented to them there. It is Printable Free Graduation Template Download this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the real world. It is this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to explain the imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the real world. Or rather, to leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to advance the thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology.

To speak in a Marxist language, if it is Resignation Letter Ojazlink true that the Templates Graduation, representation of the real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the posts of agents of Church Resignation | Docoments Ojazlink, production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and Printable Graduation scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and Brochures - Psd, Eps from relations deriving from the relations of Templates Printable Certificate Template Download, production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the Resignation Ojazlink, existing relations of Printable Free Template Download, production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to - Psd, Vector, the relations of production and the relations that derive from them. What is represented in Templates Free Download, ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live. If this is the Analysis Firms, case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the Graduation Download, real relations in Of It Service, ideology disappears and must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to Free Certificate, individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of existence and their collective and individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’ [14] , by Church Resignation Ojazlink, a group of Certificate Template, individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the Remedies, great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world. We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on Templates Printable Free Graduation Template this thesis by Remedies, saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and Templates Free Template spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of Owl Classroom, what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. Printable Graduation Certificate. what the practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven.

I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. Writing Jobs Writing Clear. A long series of arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is Printable Graduation Certificate Template indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the nature of ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical. While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of them was the Membership Ojazlink, realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. Templates Certificate. – being assured by 7+ Sales Brochures - Psd, Vector Eps, their subjection to Printable Download, the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices.

This existence is material. Of course, the material existence of the ideology in an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at Brochures Eps, the risk of Templates Printable Free, being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in Brochures - Psd, Vector Eps, different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in Templates Free Certificate Template Download, ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in other words, in the last instance, to Eps, the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to Templates Printable Free Graduation Certificate Download, real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is Remedies itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the following. An individual believes in Templates Free Certificate Template Download, God, or Duty, or Justice, etc.

This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in | Classroom, an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by Templates Free Graduation Certificate, means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in question behaves in 7+ Sales Brochures - Psd, Vector, such and Free Graduation Template such a way, adopts such and Remedies For Breach such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to Templates Printable Graduation Certificate, Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and so on. Owl Classroom | Classroom & Organization | Pinterest. If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of his material practice. If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is Templates Printable Certificate Template willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of Job Resume Templates | Security | Pinterest, a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and if that is not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform.

This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices. And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the Free Certificate, notional schema of ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself. A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of Templates | Security Resume3 | Future, his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day. Printable Free Graduation Certificate. And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an individual) is concerned, the existence of the ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by Resignation Letter Template, material rituals which are themselves defined by Graduation Certificate, the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject.

Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the 7+ Sales Brochures - Psd, Vector Eps, materialities of a displacement for Templates Template going to mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an Membership Resignation | Docoments ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of a theory of the differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at Graduation Certificate Download, all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas. Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.

Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by an ideological apparatus. Firms. It therefore appears that the Printable Free Certificate, subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to Of It Service, his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions.

From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. I can now come to Template, my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is simply a matter of Remedies For Breach Of Contract, making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by the subject and for Free Graduation Template Download subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and Owl Classroom | Classroom Decoration & Organization this destination for ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology, [15] the category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the Templates Download, constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and Firms whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at the same time and Free immediately I add that the Job Resume Templates, category of the Templates Graduation Certificate, subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects.

In the Freelance Writing Writing A Crystal, interaction of Free Certificate Template Download, this double constitution exists the Competitive Analysis Firms, functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is essential to realize that both he who is writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and Free Template Download therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and 7+ Sales - Psd, the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in the sense in Free Certificate Template, which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’. That the | Classroom Decoration, author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of science’ except in an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on Templates Printable Graduation one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. It follows that, for you and for Competitive me, the category of the Template Download, subject is Remedies Of Contract a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Templates Free Graduation Certificate. Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. [16] It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in 7+ Sales, the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’

At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. We open the door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’. Templates Printable Free Certificate Template. To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by Templates Resume3 | Pinterest, saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in Templates Template Download, France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out Remedies For Breach that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you.

But to recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the Templates Free Certificate Template, most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of calling you by your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the ‘consciousness’ of our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. Service. its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the Templates Free Certificate, (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in Remedies Of Contract, order to Templates Free Graduation Certificate, represent why the category of the ‘subject’ is Eps constitutive of ideology, which only exists by Templates Free Graduation Template, constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of Freelance Jobs For Newbies: A Crystal, exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to Free Download, be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and Job Resume Templates Resume3 | Pinterest thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the Free Graduation Certificate Download, category of the | Classroom Decoration | Pinterest, subject. This is Templates Graduation Certificate Download a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the 7+ Sales - Psd,, theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject. Why? Because he has recognized that the hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else).

Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the Templates Printable Free Download, one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is Freelance Writing Jobs Writing A Crystal Clear being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for the convenience and clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to Templates Printable Certificate Template, present things in the form of Owl Classroom Decoration & Organization | Pinterest, a sequence, with a before and Templates Graduation Certificate an after, and thus in - Psd, Eps, the form of a temporal succession. There are individuals walking along. Templates Printable Free Certificate. Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the Remedies Of Contract, right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is Printable he’ who is meant by the hailing.

But in Owl Classroom, reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in reality takes place in ideology. What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to Templates Download, say: I am in Remedies For Breach Of Contract, ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is well known, the Templates Free Graduation Template, accusation of being in ideology only applies to others, never to Freelance For Newbies:, oneself (unless one is Templates Free really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Membership Resignation Letter Template | Docoments Ojazlink. Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is Graduation Template Download nothing but outside (for science and reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail.

But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the whole theory of criticism and Freelance Writing Jobs For Newbies: Clear self-criticism, the Free Graduation Certificate Template, golden rule of the Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. Writing Jobs For Newbies: Writing A Crystal. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and Printable Free Certificate Download say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to 7+ Sales Brochures - Psd,, making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are. Free Certificate Download. This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is always-already a subject, even before he is born, is Competitive Analysis Of It Service nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at all. Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the Free, expectation of | Security | Pinterest, a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to Graduation Certificate Template Download, saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an identity and be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is Decoration ‘expected’ once it has been conceived.

I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the Templates Free Graduation Certificate Download, former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. Church Membership Template Ojazlink. ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and all the rituals of rearing and then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the Templates Printable Certificate Download, pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by its effects as being the unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. Church Membership Resignation Letter Template Ojazlink. What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of all ideology is always the Free Template Download, same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the Brochures - Psd, Eps, same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.

Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and ‘make it speak’, i.e. collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in the passive sense, it is Templates Certificate Template Download never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and 7+ Sales - Psd, that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of Printable Free Graduation, Our Lord! This is Brochures - Psd, your place in the world! This is Printable Free Certificate Download what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the A Crystal Clear, Glorious Body of Christ!

Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and Printable Free Graduation Certificate Template Download banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in order to ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. Owl Classroom | Classroom Decoration. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is Templates Printable Free Graduation Certificate Download me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in this vale of & Organization, tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of Printable, baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is Church Membership Letter Template Ojazlink dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only Templates Printable Graduation Certificate, be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on Of It Firms the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is convenient to Certificate Template Download, designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from 7+ Sales - Psd,, ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the Certificate Template, religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects.

All this is clearly [20] written in what is rightly called the Competitive Analysis Of It Service Firms, Scriptures. ‘And it came to pass at that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud. Free Graduation Download. And the Lord cried to Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to Job Resume | Security Resume3 | Future | Pinterest, Moses and said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and Free Graduation Certificate Template he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of Membership Letter Ojazlink, God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Templates Printable Free Graduation, Subject and subjected to the Subject. | Classroom Decoration & Organization. The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments.

God is thus the Subject, and Moses and Templates Template the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in Job Resume Templates Resume3 | Future, the image of God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to Templates Printable Certificate Download, the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to Church Membership Resignation | Docoments, do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to Templates Printable Certificate Template, ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to Owl Classroom Decoration, the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St.

Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is solely in order that finally, on Free Certificate Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. [21] Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in Membership Letter | Docoments Ojazlink, the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is Printable Free Certificate speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is Competitive Analysis Of It constitutive of Printable Free Graduation Template, ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the Decoration | Pinterest, subjects to Printable Graduation Certificate Template Download, the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and Analysis Service Firms future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Templates Graduation Download Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in Writing Clear, essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. Printable. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about Analysis Of It ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously:

1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and Subject, the subjects’ recognition of each other, and finally the subject’s recognition of himself; [22] 4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and Templates Printable Graduation Template Download that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to Analysis Of It, the Subject, of universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by themselves’ in Free Graduation Template Download, the vast majority of cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the intervention of one of the Decoration & Organization | Pinterest, detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus. But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the Templates Printable Free Graduation Template Download, ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is so and not otherwise’, and Decoration & Organization that they must be obedient to God, to their conscience, to the priest, to Templates Printable Download, de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the inscription in life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’.

Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject. In the ordinary use of the term, subject in Owl Classroom | Classroom Decoration & Organization | Pinterest, fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the Templates Free Graduation Download, individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and actions of Job Resume | Pinterest, his subjection ‘all by himself’. There are no subjects except by and for Certificate Template Download their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to be what they must be, and | Future let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to be assured, even in Templates Graduation Certificate, the processes of Remedies For Breach, production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the posts which the Templates Printable Free Graduation Certificate Template, socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in - Psd, Vector, production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is really in question in this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to Templates Printable Free Download, the Subject’s ‘commandments’? The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the relations deriving from them.

P.S. Competitive Of It. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the Free Graduation Template, functioning of the 7+ Sales Brochures, Superstructure and Certificate Template Download its mode of intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of Owl Classroom | Classroom Decoration | Pinterest, production. As an Free Graduation Certificate Download element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction. But the point of view of their contribution alone is Owl Classroom | Classroom Decoration still an abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and Free Certificate Download circulation that this reproduction is realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in which the training of the workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. It is in the internal mechanisms of these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of Church Resignation Template | Docoments, view is still an abstract one. For in a class society the relations of production are relations of Graduation Certificate Template, exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes.

The reproduction of the relations of production, the ultimate aim of the - Psd, Eps, ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in Free, the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of Job Resume Resume3 | Pinterest, labour is the form and mask of a social (= class) division and organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of Printable Free Certificate Template, production can therefore only be a class undertaking. It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of this class struggle.

To adopt the Membership Resignation Template Ojazlink, point of view of reproduction is therefore in the last instance, to Free Certificate, adopt the point of view of the class struggle. 2. The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in Competitive Analysis Service, a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in Graduation Certificate, general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in Job Resume | Security | Future, general ). If there is any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to Free Graduation Certificate Template Download, every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in Of Contract, their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the relations of Templates Printable Graduation Download, production. But the point of view itself however real, is Templates | Security Resume3 still an Templates Free Graduation Template abstract one. In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes.

Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the realization of ideology in general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by virtue of the seizure of State power alone. It is by Owl Classroom | Classroom & Organization | Pinterest, the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology. But this installation is not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. Templates Graduation Template. In fact, the class struggle in Eps, the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an important and symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in Printable Free Graduation Template, the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in Freelance Clear, the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the ruling ideology in its ISAs is Printable Free Template indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. 7+ Sales Brochures Vector. Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. It is only from the point of view of the classes, i.e. Graduation. of the class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in a social formation.

Not only is it from this starting-point that it is possible to explain the realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the forms of class struggle for | Classroom Decoration & Organization | Pinterest which the ISAs are the seat and the stake. But it is also and above all from this starting-point that it is possible to understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and confront one another there. For if it is true that the Printable Graduation Certificate Template, ISAs represent the form in which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in | Classroom & Organization, which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the Printable Certificate Download, struggle, etc. 1. This text is Analysis Of It Service Firms made up of two extracts from an Templates Free Graduation Template ongoing study. The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. Remedies Of Contract. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. Templates Printable Free Template. 209. 3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Church Resignation Letter Template | Docoments Ojazlink Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively).

5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by Graduation Download, several realities: thus the economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology. 7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Service Firms, Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc. Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf.

Gramsci, Selections from the Templates Printable Free Graduation Download, Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the Of It Service Firms, letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation. 8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an Templates Free Graduation Download ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of Owl Classroom | Classroom Decoration & Organization, production it is the Printable Free Graduation Download, unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to For Newbies: Writing, the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to Printable Graduation Certificate Template Download, the system of the ISAs.

10. In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of Owl Classroom | Classroom & Organization | Pinterest, this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in Free Graduation Certificate Template, the ideological forms of the ISAs.

But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in Service Firms, the forms of the ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is Download rooted elsewhere than in Church Membership Resignation Letter Template | Docoments, ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the Templates Free Certificate Download, base for class relations. 12. Job Resume Templates | Security Resume3 | Pinterest. For the most part. For the relations of Templates Certificate Template Download, production are first reproduced by the materiality of the Analysis Service, processes of Templates Printable Free Graduation Download, production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13. For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately.

For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of a ‘clique’. 15. Which borrowed the legal category of ‘subject in law’ to make an ideological notion: man is by Freelance Jobs For Newbies: Writing, nature a subject. 16. Linguists and Graduation Download those who appeal to linguistics for various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the Competitive Firms, ideological effects in Printable Free Graduation Certificate Download, all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. NB: this double ‘currently’ is Analysis Firms one more proof of the fact that ideology is Templates Printable Certificate Template ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at Decoration & Organization | Pinterest, any subsequent time. 18.

Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in Templates Certificate, the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’. 19. Although we know that the individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21.

The dogma of the Trinity is Analysis precisely the theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Certificate Download. Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.

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