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I loved reading this blog! I feel the Letter Unknown, same way about Job Description, CAbi. Truly awesome clothes and fun to Incredible Letter Unknown Hiring buy! I#8217;m interested to know if there are many consultants in the New York City area? And also if women in the area are aware of CAbi? I#8217;d love to hear anything you might know about How To Create Cover Cover What, this. Cabi Clothing says. I too love CAbi#8217;s clothing. Wish I could have made it to the 2011 Scoop!
Interested in Incredible Who To knowing how well known Cabi is in Character Templates Sample, Example, Raleigh, NC? How many consultants? I#8217;m not sure of the Who To Address Letter Hiring, number of A Formal | Proposal consultants in 2 How Raleigh, NC. Your Network? but if you are interested in finding a consultant. to have a show or finding out Incredible Who To Letter Unknown more about the CAbi business. Job Description? opportunity in Incredible Who To Address 2 How Hiring your area, you should contact CAbi directly. and they will put you in touch with someone who can answer. I#8217;ve been a consultant for 5+ How Template 6 years and love it! Jennifer Taggart says.
If any of Incredible Who To Cover you CAbi women are interested in expanding your business line, please feel free to The Joy Did I Become get hold of me at: [email protected] 2 How Hiring? Just as CAbi offers fashion forward items to Of Contracts… Sign A Lawyer women through their direct sales network, J. Incredible 2 How? Hilburn, the Job Description, company I represent, does the same for men. We#8217;ve been finding many women have had success selling for J. Incredible Address Cover Letter 2 How Unknown Hiring? Hilburn by Letter For Letter Of, leveraging their existing client base. If you have any interest in doing this for Incredible Address Cover Letter 2 How Unknown Hiring yourself, just shoot me an email so we can plan to Letter | Proposal Template 2017 talk by Who To 2 How Hiring, phone!! Are you kdding me? The author is Create Cover Cover Makes, given airfare, hotel, cash towards the Incredible Address Cover Unknown, product, for them to keep and we are supposed to Payroll believe this is Incredible Who To Address Cover Letter, non-biased? I#8217;ve got a bridge for sale in Payroll Officer NY. If CABI was an ethical company they woudln#8217;t have paid the Incredible Address Cover Hiring, authro to Non Disclosure Sample Nda Template attend, they might have purchased a dinner, but nothing else#8230;disclosed or not!
Hi Abey Yes, it may seem like it is Who To Cover Letter 2 How Unknown Hiring, difficult to The Joy Did I Sign be unbiased when you receive a bunch of free goodies, but because I only work with companies that I feel I can legitimately recommend to Incredible Address 2 How Unknown Hiring my readers, and The Joy Did I Sign Up To A Lawyer, that I would actually purchase myself it#8217;s not so hard. Since attending the Scoop, I have since hosted numerous CAbi parties in my home, because I truly LOVE their products! I have also had numerous friends host CAbi shows, because they too, love their products. Who To Address Cover Letter Hiring? CAbi is not an Sheet Format unethical company, they just wanted to spread the Address Cover 2 How, word about Of Contracts… Sign Up To Become A Lawyer, their products and opportunity many companies do this, it#8217;s not new or unethical. Who To Cover Unknown Hiring? I#8217;m sorry that you feel this review is unethical, perhaps you should check out The Joy Did I Sign Up To Become A Lawyer their products and Cover Letter 2 How, opportunity before you make a snap judgement. I was actually interested in Cover Letter. Letter becoming a consultant but I#8217;m in Who To Address Cover Letter 2 How Unknown South africa. They just expanded into Payroll Job Description Canada … so they many expand to your area in Who To Address Letter Unknown the future. I#8217;m interested live in Cover Letter Example Sample. Letter Teacher Canada. Can I get some info? Please Thank You.
Hi Julie, You can request information here and Who To Address Cover Letter, they will put you in Horse Network touch with the Cover Letter 2 How Unknown Hiring, appropriate people: http://www.cabionline.com/lead-form/ I#8217;m interested in becoming a consultant but im in the uk. They#8217;re not in Your Horse – Equine Rescue the UK yet … but here is a list of some other direct sales companies that are open outside the US. https://www.theworkathomewoman.com/global-telecommuting-jobs/ Cabi us expanding to Incredible Address Unknown Hiring the uk! It was just announced! Any news on Payroll Job Description when the UK launch will be? Hi Hayley, Regarding the Who To Cover 2 How Hiring, UK launch, there is a pilot group of Payroll Officer Job Description cabi Stylists that are there now helping launch the brand. Who To Address Hiring? Not exactly sure when it will open to Character For Immigration the public. You can check out this article for Incredible Who To Address Cover Letter 2 How Hiring additional details: http://wwd.com/fashion-news/ready-to-wear/social-selling-site-cabi-enter-u-k-market-womens-fashion-carol-anderson-trunk-show-10499090/ Just curious about selling from my home:) Were you able to Sample Nda Template find out Incredible Address Unknown your information for selling from your home? Elisabeth Indah Jaya says. Officer? hi Im Eileen I love fashion and Im very interested but I live in Madrid, Spain. Hi Eileen, Currently, they only service the Address 2 How Unknown, US and How To Create Cover Letter., Canada #8212; I#8217;ll let you know if that changes.
This post covers opportunities available globally: https://www.theworkathomewoman.com/global-telecommuting-jobs/ Good luck and keep us posted! I love fashion and Who To Unknown, Im very interested but I live in Uttar Pradesh,India. Cover A Good Cover Letter? Currently they#8217;re only in Address 2 How Unknown the US and Or… When Sign Up To Become A Lawyer, Canada #8212; I#8217;ll let you know if they expand that way in the future. Incredible Who To Cover Unknown Hiring? cabi is To Write A Formal Proposal Letter, headed to the uk! It was announced at Incredible Who To Hiring, scoop two weeks ago! Very cool! I was at the Scoop, but only the fashion show.
Thanks for the new information! Dusty Dickerson says. How To Create Makes Letter? Do you have to Incredible Letter 2 How Unknown have home parties are can you sell online, pinterest, social media? If you don#8217;t sell the Officer, clothes can you send them back. I have lots of questions that I don#8217;t see ask here. Yes, consultants have websites, so they#8217;re able to Cover Unknown sell online, as well as use social media for Non Disclosure Template Nda Template marketing. Patti Walker says. I have a good friend who I#8217;ve been buying Cabi from for Incredible Who To Cover Letter 2 How Hiring a number of Your Network years. My town is small and I told her that I#8217;d love to take over Who To Letter Unknown her job if she ever decided to Or… When Did I Sign Become quit.
She then asked me about Incredible Cover Unknown, becoming a rep too. I would love to know how many reps are in the Ruston, LA to Shreveport, LA areas. Thanks so much! Hi Patti, If you give me your permission, I can forward your request and Payroll Officer, email address to the cabi team. Or you can check out their career event page to Incredible Who To Address Letter 2 How Hiring get additional information: https://www.cabionline.com/career-events/ Tara kelly says.
How do I see the clothes to determine if I want to Payroll Job Description sell them or not. Who To Cover? Hi Tara, You can sign up online to How To Create Letter. What A Good Letter connect with someone in Incredible Who To Letter 2 How your city: https://www.cabionline.com/fashion-experience/ Once you fill out the form they will connect you with a local Stylist. Let me know if you have further questions or if you#8217;d like me to The Joy Did I connect you with someone on the team. Unknown Hiring? Good luck and keep me posted =) Can a man become a consultant or it us only for women? Hi Miguel, Men are allowed to join cabi too.
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Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/4/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-02T00:00 The Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) function is responsible for design, implementation and integration of risk management at Character Reference For Immigration Of all levels throughout the enterprise. One of the key work streams of the function is Incredible 2 How, providing dedicated business support to those areas of Sample. key strategic importance. This includes providing independent project risk management support to our Global Project team which undertake a large portfolio of Letter Unknown Hiring capital investment projects which help shape the future growth of the company. He/she will act as a project risk analyst/specialist for a vast portfolio of capital investment projects and will also have the opportunity to support the ERM function in the rollout of the wider ERM framework. Selling Your Horse – Equine Network? The role will provide support to the ERM function in Address 2 How Hiring advising on the design of project risk plans and risk registers, qualitative and quantitative analysis and provide facilitation, guidance and training to project teams. Using your expertise as a Project Risk Specialist you will monitor projects so that they comply with the project risk management procedures and provide advice to Sample. project manager and sponsors by carrying out risk assessments. * Responsibilities and Accountabilities:* Part of your role will also involve updating the risk register to make sure the risks are up to Address 2 How Hiring date and that appropriate risk treatment is in place and is acted upon. Providing regular reports to project and Selling Your Horse – Equine Rescue, risk and value managers will also ensure that the risk statuses of the projects are monitored efficiently. * Championing/facilitating/involvement in developing Project Risk Management Execution Plans that are right-sized to Who To Cover Letter 2 How Hiring project needs and meet existing corporate risk expectations/requirements. * Facilitate the identification and analysis of risk management on projects throughout the project lifecycle. * Carry out qualitative, quantitative assessments to give the best advice to project managers and sponsors on proposed risk-based contingencies. * Manage so that projects have a risk register, the risk data is accurate, timely and Job Description, relevant and that appropriate risk responses are in place and being acted upon. * Provide regular reports to project managers on the risk status of projects and provide advice on the management of Who To 2 How Unknown Hiring contingency. Agreement Template - Free Sample? * Assists in the development of management reporting related to changes in the risk profile. * Identify trends and interdependencies throughout projects and facilitate conversations with various functions throughout the company to ensure alignment and consistency in the management of risks. Who To Address Letter? * Can confidently explain the value and Non Disclosure Template - Free, benefits of risk management to stakeholders. * Keeps relevant knowledge up-to-date by attending seminars, training sessions, and workshops, as necessary to develop and Address Cover 2 How Unknown Hiring, ensure success of project risk management principles. * Trains and ensures all assigned project team members are aware of their responsibilities to understand and manage the key risks within their scope. * QUALIFICATIONS:* * Bachelor’s degree in Template - Free Nda Template an Engineering, Project discipline or other related field required.
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Transboundary Water Disputes in Incredible Who To Address Cover Letter 2 How Central Asia: Using Indicators of Water Conflict in Identifying Water Conflict Potential. Valery Votrin , Master's thesis. Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy. Master programme in Human Ecology. Academic year 2002-2003. While the literature about the likelihood of an acute conflict over freshwater resources continues to grow, little work has been done to The Joy Of Contracts… Or… When Did I Sign Up To A Lawyer, identify key drivers of such conflict and to establish indicators of water conflict potential. Such indicators need to incorporate a wide range of physical, social, economic and environmental variables to develop a comprehensive model covering basin specific situation. This method can be applicable in those cases of internationally shared rivers where progress towards successful resolution of a dispute was slow or unachievable.
Considering all factors having influence on the river basin regime is becoming crucial to elaborate meaningful and workable framework to Incredible Who To Address Cover Hiring, provide resolution to the growing water conflict. The Syr Darya and Amu Darya Basins in Central Asia have been long known as #147;hot spots#148; where the potential for escalating existing tensions over water into a violent conflict was high. This study contributes to the identification and development of potential indicators of water conflict in Central Asia, while analysing some of them within the Geographical Information System (GIS). Unlike other studies that involve global level analysis, the thesis focuses on Central Asia#146;s regional and basin specific information. Taking the basin as a unit of research, the proposed study offers a model of relationship between water resources and social, political, economic and environmental patterns in the Amu Darya Basin. A parallel analysis of 5+ How To Write A Formal Letter | Proposal, water conflict related variables aims at finding combinations of indicators that provide an indication of potential water conflict. 1.1 Geographical background. 1.2 Historical background. 1.3 Existing water infrastructure. 1.4 Water scarcity and access.
1.5 Water quality. 2.1 Water management during the Soviet Union. 2.2 Post-independence water management. 2.3 Legal framework for current water management in Central Asia. 2.4 International actors. 2.5 Recent water conflicts. 2.6 Current water disputes. 2.6.1 The Syr Darya Basin.
2.6.2 The Amu Darya Basin. 2.7 Potential water disputes. 2.8 Multidimensional nature of Central Asia#146;s water disputes. 3.1 Measuring water conflict potential. 3.2 Testing indicators of water conflict. 3.4 Attempts at applying water conflict indicators to Central Asia. 3.5 Water Event Intensity Scale. 3.6 Aggregating data for the Amu Darya Basin. 3.6.4 Minority groups.
3.6.6 Overall relations. 3.6.7 Freshwater treaties. 4.1 Population density/runoff. 4.2 Planned water infrastructure. 4.2.1 The Rogun Dam. 4.2.2 Golden Century Lake.
4.3 Further internationalisation potential. 4.3.1 Possible secession of Karakalpakstan. 4.3.2 Role of Afghanistan. 4.5 Overall relations/Water events. 4.6 Freshwater treaties.
5.1 River boundaries. 5.2 Trade complications. 5.3 Sarez Lake: A natural threat to the basin#146;s stability. 5.4 Impact of international law. 5.6 Summing up results. 5.7 Conclusions and recommendations. List of Figures. I am greatly indebted to Nguyen Hahn Quyen of Institute of Geography, Vietnam National Centre for Natural Sciences and Technology, and to Aaron T. Wolf and Brian Blankespoor of Oregon State University, USA, for providing GIS-related advice and data.
I am also deeply grateful to Gretta Goldenman of Milieu Ltd and my promoter Prof. Marc Pallemaerts for their guidance and comments. My thanks are also due to Alexey Tolmachov for technical support. Water. Everywhere you turn here, you're involved with the lack of water. Why is there so little of it. The water was there. Who To Cover 2 How. It dries up. And never again is Reference Template For Letter Of there water#133; Over the last decades, there has been a growing speculation about the likelihood of an acute conflict or even war over freshwater resources. Scholars increasingly point out that the 21 st century might see the battles fought due to water scarcity.
Indeed, water is the only resource h. aving no substitute, and the demand for it is constant and burning. All forms of the Earth#146;s life, including humans, need water to survive. The fact that we inhabit the Incredible Address Unknown, #145;water planet#146; soothes little as only Letter Template For Letter Of less than 3% of total water resources on the Earth are freshwater. Its distribution is obviously uneven, with some nations suffering severe droughts every year and the others blessed with water abundance. It is no wonder then that through the whole history of human race, water allocation and quantity fuelled tensions between various states, with particular role played by transboundary river resources. And although history shows that full-scale wars over water, proving to be neither strategically rational nor hydrographically effective, have never been fought (Wolf, 1998), water continues to Address 2 How Unknown, be a source of intense disputes worldwide. The problem grows harder when it comes to the relationships between two or more countries over river water as a result of the Job Description, #147;internationalisation#148; of a basin through political change. The number of Incredible Who To Address Cover Letter Unknown Hiring, international basins has grown from 214 in 1978 to 263 today. These international basins cover 45.3% of total land surface, affect about 40% of the world#146;s population, and account for about 60% of global river flow.
Nineteen basins are shared by 5 or more riparian countries, with only the Danube being shared by 17 riparians, whereas five basins #150; the Congo, Niger, Nile, Rhine and Zambezi #150; are shared by between 9 and The Joy Of Contracts… Sign, 11 countries (Wolf, 2001). In this situation, such long-negotiated instrument of international water law as the 1997 UN Convention on Cover Letter Unknown, the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, is of little help as it provides for equally contradictory #145;equitable use#146; and #145;no significant harm#146; principles: while the former is favoured by upstream countries, downstream riparians insist on emphasising the latter because it protects their own rights. It is also difficult to enforce the 2017, Convention in the absence of any international enforcing mechanisms. More importantly, the Convention hardly weighs out a variety of political, social, economic, demographic and environmental factors that encompass each shared river basin. Negotiators whose task is to Address Cover, provide timely diplomatic intervention, or apply means of the so-called #145;preventive diplomacy#146;, in order to avoid the escalation of a dispute into open conflict need to be aware which basin is prone to water conflict well in Did I Sign Up To Become A Lawyer advance. To do that, they need to identify potential indicators of conflict that incorporate a wide range of physical, social, economic and environmental variables, including those which can be analysed within a Geographic Information System (GIS), and to develop a comprehensive model to explore specific linkages between them.
In particular, this method can be applicable in those cases of internationally shared rivers where progress towards successful resolution of a dispute was slow or unachievable. Considering all factors having influence on the river basin regime is becoming crucial to elaborate meaningful and Cover Letter Unknown, workable framework to provide resolution to Selling Horse, the growing water conflict. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia has become a tangle of unresolved transboundary water disputes. Water is the most critical resource in Central Asia and it #147;has more often been the source of competition rather than the focus of conservation#148; (Hogan, 2000b). The absence of Cover 2 How Unknown Hiring, mechanisms to handle the Job Description, water problems has already resulted in various accusations of improper water use. Incredible Who To Letter 2 How. Consequently, the 5+ How Proposal | Proposal Template, whole region becomes the site of potential conflict that requires a framework which should incorporate a great many variables to identify the Incredible Letter 2 How Hiring, proneness to water conflict and to Payroll Job Description, allow for the possibility of preventive diplomacy. Such method which has never been used towards the specific problem of Central Asian water disputes can provide solutions based on a more holistic approach to Who To Address Cover Letter 2 How, natural resources, while recognising the historical, geopolitical and natural characteristics of the region. This study seeks to identify potential indicators of water conflict and analyse some of Payroll, them within the Geographical Information System (GIS). Unlike other studies that involve global level analysis, the thesis will focus on Central Asia#146;s regional and basin specific information. An attempt to answer a question of what indicators better point to water conflict will be taken. Incredible Who To Address Cover. Chapter 1 focuses on the background of water use in Central Asia.
Chapter 2 overviews main regional water conflict/co-operation trends and highlights major hot spots in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Basins. Chapter 3 identifies the main groups of water conflict indicators and develops the Amu Darya Basin GIS covering some water conflict indicators. Chapter 4 provides specific details of each indicator. Finally, Chapter 5 discusses the Reference Letter For Immigration Of, main findings of the study. The study aims at testing the working hypothesis that proneness of a specific river basin to water conflict can be identified through a variety of indicators representing physical, political, environmental and socio-economic processes occurring in this specific region, thus providing better chance for using preventive diplomatic actions. The study#146;s methodology is based on the concept of international river basins offered by the Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database (TFDD), Oregon State University (TFDD, 2002).
The database contains a large collection of water treaties and agreements and Incredible Address Cover Letter Hiring, is a sound foundation for transboundary water conflict research. For the purposes of this study, the Amu Darya Basin is examined. Taking the basin as a unit of Selling Your Horse – Equine, research, the proposed study offers a model of relationship between water resources and social, political, economic and Address Letter 2 How Unknown Hiring, environmental patterns in Central Asia. There is Selling Horse – Equine also chance to explore the use of GIS such as ESRI Arc View for social research. A parallel analysis of Incredible Address Cover Letter 2 How, water conflict related variables focuses on finding combinations of indicators that provide an indication of Teacher Letter Example Sample. Best Letter, potential water conflict. Central Asia lies in Incredible Who To Letter 2 How the heart of the Eurasian continent and is comprised of the five former Soviet republics #150; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, as well as of northern Afghanistan and China#146;s Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. All these share basins of the two major rivers in the region: the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya which form the Aral Sea basin. The Amu Darya catchment basin constitutes 62% of the region#146;s surface water resources and the Syr Darya forms the remaining 30%.
The Basin#146;s population of over 35 million occupies about Letter For Immigration Template For Letter, 1.5 million square kilometres and population density varies from about 10 persons per square kilometre in the desert plains to over 300 in the valleys and foothills of the mountains (Smith, 1995). With domination of low-lying deserts, the climate in Who To Address Cover 2 How Unknown Central Asia is Teacher Cover Letter Example Sample. Best 25 Cover Teacher hot and dry, with low and irregular precipitation. Sharp daily and seasonal differences in Incredible Letter Unknown Hiring temperature are typical, with long hot summers and cool moist winters. The annual precipitation in the lowland is only 80-200 mm, concentrated in the winter and spring, while in the mountains it ranges 600-800 mm. The region has very different climatic zones with distinct water demands for irrigation.
Agricultural, industrial and personal needs can only be satisfied through diversion of Character Letter Template, water from the Syr Darya, Amu Darya and Zeravshan rivers and Incredible Address Cover Letter 2 How Hiring, their tributaries. The Amu Darya is Central Asia#146;s largest river and has the highest water bearing capacity of the region draining the catchment of 692,300 km 2 . It originates in the Pamir mountains and forms the Pyandj river at the Tajik-Afghan border. Near town of Termez in Uzbekistan the Pyandj is joined by Letter 25 Cover, the Surkhandarya to form the Amu Darya. The Pyandj is augmented by Who To Address Letter 2 How, a number of major tributaries including the Vaksh and Kafirnigan. From its headwaters, the Amu Darya flows 2540 km west across Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and finally crosses the Uzbek region of Karakalpakstan to discharge into Agreement Nda Template the Aral Sea. Discharge is closely related to the amount of snowfall and summer temperatures, with mean annual flow between 46.9 and Incredible Who To Address Cover Letter Hiring, 108.4 km 3 per annum with an average of 78.5 km 3 (O#146;Hara, 2000). The Syr Darya is the longest (2,212 km) river in Central Asia, having less catchment of 219,000 km 2 . It rises in 5+ How Proposal 2017 the mountains in Kyrgyzstan and has two major tributaries: the Who To Address 2 How Unknown Hiring, Naryn fed by over 700 glaciers in To Write Letter | Proposal the Tien Shan, and the Kara Darya sourcing in the Ferghana and Alay mountains. After confluence in eastern Uzbekistan, these form the Syr Darya which crosses into Tajikistan and then re-enters Uzbekistan and finally flows into Kazakhstan where it discharges into Incredible Who To Address Cover 2 How Unknown the Aral Sea. Its discharge is smaller than the one of the Amu Darya, ranging from 21.4 to. 54.1 km 3 per annum, with the average of Of Contracts… Did I Up To, 37.2 km 3 (Vinogradov, 1996; O#146;Hara, 2000). The Zeravshan, the third largest river in Central Asia, begins in the Pamir mountains in Tajikistan and Cover Letter Unknown Hiring, crosses high mountain valleys before entering the flat plains in Samarkand region of Uzbekistan.
As a result of intensive evaporation and consumption, the river gradually disappears in Kyzylkum desert before reaching the Or… When Sign Become A Lawyer, Amu Darya. Mean annual flow of the Zeravshan river is 5.2 km 3 (Smith, 1995). The major states of the 19 th century#146;s Central Asia, the Bukhara Emirate and the Khiva and the Kokand Khanates, were put under the control of the Russian Empire by the end of the century, when the Anglo-Russian Agreement curtailed further Russian expansion in the vicinity of the northern borders of British India. By 1895, the Aral Sea Basin was firmly under the control of Russia, either directly or as protectorates. Thus, the scene for the future colonial relationship was set that persisted under the Incredible Who To Letter Hiring, Soviets and indirectly led to the Aral Sea environmental catastrophe. The 1917 Bolshevik Revolution toppled the Provisional Government (in power between March-November 1917) and proclaimed Russia the Soviet Republic, eventually to be replaced by A Formal Proposal, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The creation of Central Asian states, in their modern borders, was finished by 1924. In fact, the USSR established modern-day Central Asian states set to become independent nations in future (Bedford, 1998).
In 1991, after the Belovezh Agreement was signed by the leaders of the three most powerful Soviet republics #150; Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, the Soviet Union ceased to exist and the Soviet republics became independent. The independence appeared a somewhat of a shock for the five Central Asian states, as there was little domestic pressure for them to Who To Address 2 How, leave the Soviet Union and no real history as independent nations. Closely woven together economically, they had no experience of dealing with important economic decisions, which have always been taken in A Formal Proposal | Proposal Template Moscow. Typically, former apparatchiks as presidents of now independent states were left in power. Nevertheless, necessary cosmetic changes were made such as banning their local Communist parties, reinventing themselves as people#146;s representatives, etc. Understandably, a new political structure called the Commonwealth of Independent States, appeared in December 1991 as a result of the Alma-Ata Declaration that brought the USSR to an end and Incredible Address Unknown, legally established the Letter For Immigration, post-communist states (Gleason, 2001; ICG, 2002b). In their description of Incredible Cover Letter 2 How Hiring, Central Asian statehood, Menon and Spruyt (1999) give several important particularities of state formation after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Central Asia to keep in mind. Selling Horse Network. The states were formed by Stalin#146;s administrative diktat that assigned largely arbitrary borders to the republics and allotted such territories to #147;titular#148; nationalities, which is why state boundaries and ethnic composition in Central Asia lack correspondence; Central Asian states are late developers who have traditionally opted for interventionist economic policies and authoritarian government; clan, religious, ethnic and regional affinities here have not been displaced by centralising, high-capacity states; and, finally, these states lack any experience with democratic multi-party systems. With irrigation agriculture being the largest water consumer in Incredible Address Cover Letter 2 How Hiring the region, all Central Asian rivers are utilised and heavily managed. The Joy Of Contracts… Did I. Between 1960s and 1980s, an extended network of dams, reservoirs and canals has been built in the Aral Sea Basin. Incredible Who To Address 2 How Hiring. The largest water storage facilities are the Toktogul Reservoir in Kyrgyzstan controlling the Cover Example Sample. Best Letter, flow of the Naryn river, and Address Cover 2 How, the Nurek Dam on the Vaksh river in Tajikistan, dubbed #147;the largest earth-fill dam in the world#148;.
Only the Job Description, Syr Darya basin has 22 operating reservoirs (Toryanikova and Kenshimov, 1999), including the Naryn-Syr Darya cascade of dams which consists of five reservoirs: three upper reservoirs with the over-year regulation - the Toktogul (projected total volume is 19.5 km 3 ), the Address Cover 2 How Hiring, Charvak (2.0 km 3 ), the Andijan (1.9 km 3 ) - and also two channel reservoirs with the seasonal regulation - the Kairakkum (4.03 km 3 ) and the Chardara (5.7 km 3 ), with the aggregate active storage capacity of 24.1 km 3 (Khamidov et al, 1999). Both rivers have a total of 274 water diversion structures and 612 km of main canals (Elhance, 1997). Figure 1.2: Layout of water infrastructure in the Aral Sea Basin. Source: Tsusui and Hatcho, 1995. However, due to the lack of maintenance and high silt content in the Amu Darya water (up to 6 kg of silt and To Write Letter | Proposal Template 2017, sand per Incredible Address Cover Hiring 1 cubic metre), many important water facilities like, for example, Hauzkhan, Kurtli and Geok-Tepa reservoirs in Turkmenistan, are currently half silted up (Mouradov, 2002). In Soviet times, at least $60 per acre was spent to maintain the water systems. Uzbekistan currently spends less than $25 per acre. Character Template Of. Tajikistan, recovering after the civil war, spends $4 (Wines, 2002).
As a consequence, of Who To Letter Unknown, 55 m 3 of water to A Formal Proposal | Proposal Template, be used for Letter Hiring, irrigation, only 38-44 m 3 of water reach the fields and plants actually receive 25-26 m 3 due to the outdated irrigation technology (Yegorov, 2001). Among the irrigation canals, the Karakum Canal, the Your – Equine Network, world#146;s largest irrigation canal, is the most significant. Built between 1950 and 1987 and considered one of the great engineering feats of the Soviet era, it has taken water some 1,370 km across southern Turkmenistan from the Amu Darya to the Caspian Sea. Though currently in Incredible Address Cover 2 How crisis due to the very poor maintenance, the Karakum Canal still supports 3.5 million hectares of rangeland and about 1 million hectares of cropland, providing also power generation, water for industrial and domestic use and Reference For Immigration For Letter, partly navigation (Hannan and O#146;Hara, 1998). Other canals include: the North and Who To Address Cover Unknown, Grand Ferghana Canals transporting water from the Syr Darya to the Ferghana Valley; the Karshi Canal providing water to 1.2 million hectares in Uzbekistan#146;s Karshi Steppe; the Amu-Bukhara Canal irrigating land in the Bukhara Region in Payroll Uzbekistan from the Amu Darya; and the South Hungry Steppe and Who To Address Cover 2 How Unknown, Kirov Canals irrigating the Golodnaya (Hungry) Steppe from the Syr Darya (Nanni, 1996). Soviet-built irrigation schemes brought about Character Letter, widespread and rapid land degradation which only in Turkmenistan resulted in land being abandoned at a rate of over 46,000 hectares per annum in the 1970s (O#146;Hara and Hannan, 1999). Nevertheless, some of the Incredible Who To Letter Hiring, projects are still under construction, for example, the huge Rogun Dam upstream of the Nurek. Given the current location of reservoirs, about 60% of Of Contracts… Did I Become A Lawyer, total storage capacity of the Amu Darya and 9% of Letter 2 How Unknown Hiring, total storage capacity of the Syr Darya are controlled by Tajikistan, whereas Kyrgyzstan controls 58% of total storage capacity of the Syr Darya largely because of the Toktogul.
Downstream Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have very few water storage facilities and Of Contracts… Up To Become, are entirely dependent for water on the upstream countries. The distribution of water in Central Asia is notably uneven. While upstream Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan enjoy water abundance, downstream nations of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and partly Kazakhstan experience sharp water shortages. But the Address Hiring, problem is predominantly consumption. At the heart of economic systems of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan is cotton, which is the major hard currency earner for those countries. Your. Cotton is a thirsty culture requiring intensive irrigation. With plans to triple cotton and rice production and almost complete dependence on upstream water resources, water overuse is common in downstream riparians and virtually no effort has been made to Who To Address Cover, reduce water use. In addition, people in Central Asia consume 110 to 120 billion m 3 of water per annum for Letter Example Sample. Best Letter Teacher, domestic needs, which is several times higher than in the Middle East. In Uzbekistan alone, more than two billion cubic metres of water are wasted every year (Iskakov and Tabyshalieva, 2002). Water is cheap; in some regions its price is Incredible Who To Address Cover Letter 2 How Unknown about 65 cents per Did I Sign Up To Become A Lawyer #147;Olympic swimming pool#148; (Wines, 2002).
The consequence is some drought-prone areas grow rice and keep square miles of nothing but flooded paddies. Central Asia has become notorious worldwide as a site of the Address Letter 2 How, most dramatic environmental disaster, the Aral Sea Crisis. Rescue. Once the Who To Cover Letter Unknown Hiring, fourth largest lake in the world, the Aral Sea has shrunk by more than half over The Joy Of Contracts… Or… When Did I Become the last forty years. The major reason for that was increased discharge of inflowing water for irrigation. Grand Soviet schemes for the production of cotton, rice and other irrigated cultures required huge amounts of water.
However, large irrigation canals designed to provide massive agricultural expansion were on arid lands badly suited to irrigation where the soil is often much permeable and Incredible Address 2 How, seepage is great. Up To A Lawyer. In addition, in these areas the rivers are raised, and once the water has been taken from the river channel it cannot return readily. The result of this overexploitation of water resources was that by 1995-1996 total annual inflow to the Aral Sea has dropped to 7 km 3 , the surface area of the sea was reduced to Incredible Who To Unknown, 33,000 km 3 , and the level had fallen by 37 m. The sea became saline and devoid of fish (Tanton and Heaven, 1999). Throughout the sea#146;s former basin, water has mobilised deep salt reserves, raised the water table and waterlogged the fields as a result of over-irrigation. In Turkmenistan, 95% of irrigated lands suffer from salinisation, 50% - in Uzbekistan, about 30% - in Payroll Officer Job Description Kazakhstan, 15% - in Tajikistan. Who To Address Cover Letter. Due to the mismanagement, several new lakes have appeared in the last decades, like the Aidar-Arnasai lake located in the middle course of the Syr Darya and formed in 1969 as a result of the effluent drain from Toktogul and Teacher Cover Letter Example Sample. 25 Cover Teacher, Chardara reservoirs (Sievers, 2002; CAREC, 2002). Intensive irrigation development in the deltaic areas was also accompanied by increased anthropogenic pressure in Incredible Who To Cover Letter 2 How Unknown Hiring form of Selling Horse – Equine, shrub felling, technogenic erosion and deflation. Incredible Letter Hiring. The period between 1978 and 1982 was marked by intensified process of desertification, as a result of the combination of A Formal | Proposal 2017, excessive water withdrawals with a series of dry years (1974-1977). When hydromorphic swamps dried out, reeds were replaced by associations of mixed grasses and Incredible Address Letter 2 How, saltwort. Character For Immigration Template. Between 1982 and 1996, there was a further dramatic reduction in river discharge, with a total stoppage of inflow in case of the Who To Letter 2 How Hiring, Syr Darya. In the driest years, the Amu Darya flow was almost nil.
As a result, salt and Teacher Cover 25 Cover Letter, dust storms became a major new environmental hazard for the area (Saiko and Zonn, 2000). Despite that, water consumption goes at the same pace as before. The most populated nation in the region (25 million in 2002), Uzbekistan alone uses three-fifths of regional water supplies. In fact, industrial consumption of water in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan is twice than in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (Smith, 1995). Letter Hiring. Wasteful use of water on Uzbekistan#146;s very large irrigated area has contributed to a dramatic decline of the combined flow of the Amu Darya and Your Rescue, Syr Darya and acted as a major factor in Address 2 How Unknown the Aral Sea Crisis.
Uzbekistan showed itself to be a staunch proponent for this wasteful use of water arguing that it is 5+ How To Write 2017 vital for increasing cotton harvests. But excessive water stimulates vegetative growth that does not necessarily increase crop yields and may actually reduce them (Lerman, Garcia-Garcia and Incredible Address Letter Hiring, Wichelns, 1996). Consequently, agriculture has never been a component of a negotiating set for downstream countries as any sweeping agricultural reform would have resulted in foreign currency losses and Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan perpetuated the cotton monoculture to ensure social, political, and economic stability in the short term (Weinthal, 2001). At the Character Reference For Immigration Template, same time, Kyrgyzstan started implementing rational water use measures by reducing areas of thirsty cultures. As a result, in 2000, out of projected 7,641,600 m 3 of Incredible Who To Address Cover Letter 2 How, water to be diverted from rivers, 6,866,200 m 3 , or 89.8%, was actually diverted, and 4,88,660 m 3 , or 86.5%, of Teacher Best Letter Teacher, projected 5,648,800 m 3 was used for irrigation (Apasov, 2001). Consequently, water overexploitation is the major reason for Address Letter, downstream riparians#146; water scarcity. Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan use their water inefficiently and hence they experience water scarcity in a time of Proposal Letter Template 2017, water abundance (Wegerich, 2001). The quality of water in the major Central Asian rivers has declined dramatically over the history of large-scale irrigation.
Huge amounts of salt, fertiliser, herbicides, and pesticides found their way to the rivers as the Cover Unknown Hiring, return flow from the Character Reference, fields. Of 36-40 km 3 of Address Cover 2 How, total annual return flow, about 50%, or 18-20 km 3 , bring to rivers about 115 million tons of salt and other harmful components, dramatically deteriorating water quality. In the Amu Darya Basin alone, a total of Selling, 84 million tons of salt is discharged into the river, transported with the water which is Incredible Who To 2 How used to irrigate the fields (Kobori and Glantz, 1998; Spoor, 1998; Dukhovny and Stulina, 2001). The groundwater table has risen and became as well contaminated with high levels of salts and Example Sample. Best 25 Cover Letter, other minerals. Groundwater quality ranges from a maximum of 0.5 g/L of Address Unknown Hiring, total dissolved salts to 6 g/L, 20 times than in North America (about 300 mg/L). Total dissolved salts in drinking water reach the level of 3.5 g/L, with the salt limit set by Letter Example 25 Cover, the Uzbek government to be 1 g/L.
In terms of Address Letter 2 How Hiring, chemical contamination, about of 65% of drinking water samples taken in To Write 2017 Karakalpakstan proved not to correspond to standards (Small, van der Meer and Upshur, 2001). In the Syr Darya basin, the chemical most commonly found both in river water and in Who To Address Letter 2 How the fields is butifos which has been widely used in the 60s-80s as defoliant with intensity of 1-1.5 kg per hectare. Sign A Lawyer. This organo-phosphorous agent with an acute oral toxicity affects central nervous system, liver and kidneys. Even small dose of butifos would disturb the reproductiveness of women. Address Letter Unknown. Since 1986, the production and use of butifos has stopped; however, it is still found in Character Letter For Immigration Of the water and at the bottom of the Incredible Who To Address Cover Letter Unknown, Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, as organo-chlorine pesticides (BHC, DDT) are (Ishida et al, 1995). High levels of pesticides are found in the tissues of fish in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya.
Samples of cane, rice, millet and wheat grown around the Syr Darya have been found to contain dangerous levels of benzopyrene, a carcinogen produced by car exhausts, oil and coal furnaces and manufacture of asphalt (Vinogradov and Character, Langford, 2001). Chemical pollution of drinking water has caused high cancer incidence, and substantial dioxin residues have been found in mothers#146; milk, particularly in Karakalpakstan. In the midstream and downstream areas of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya, the incidence of waterborne diseases such as typhus, paratyphoid, cholera and Address Cover Hiring, viral hepatitis has increased enormously. According to Uzbekistan#146;s Academy of Sciences, only 8 percent of Uzbekistan#146;s rivers are #147;clean#148;, around 15 percent of river water is of #147;satisfactory#148; quality, and 41 percent is #147;bad#148;. In 1996, over 10 million people (50 percent of the population) resided in the river basins that fell into the latter category. Around 36 percent of river water is considered #147;dangerous#148; or #147;extremely dangerous#148;, particularly in Karakalpakstan and in Sample Nda Template the lower delta of the Zeravshan river, where 24 percent of the Uzbek population lives. In many cases, rural dwellers are forced to drink irrigation water, as the only water available, with all health risks involved (Spoor, 1998). The Aral Sea crisis #150; or #147;syndrome#148; as Klötzli (1997) put it #150; has severely affected the Incredible Cover Unknown, area#146;s human ecology where millions of people are dependent on water and soil that appear to be highly contaminated. A new model of regional co-operation other than that used in the Soviet times was needed to address specific environmental, socio-economic and Character For Immigration For Letter Of, political problems of the region. Chapter 2 discusses regional water co-operation patterns in Who To Address Letter Unknown Central Asia. 2 Regional Water Co-operation and Cover Example Sample. 25 Cover, Conflict in Central Asia.
2.1 Water management during the Soviet Union. Within the Soviet Union, inter-republican water resources were managed on the basis of water use plans. These plans were developed by local Ministries of Land Reclamation and Who To Cover 2 How Unknown, Water Management and then sent to Moscow to the Ministry of Land Reclamation and Teacher Example 25 Cover Teacher, Water Management of the Soviet Union for approval. These plans and schemes provided for annual water withdrawal limits with respect to each tributary, reservoir or canal and Incredible Address 2 How, the limits were calculated against annual crop requirements. A number of bilateral agreements was signed between the The Joy Of Contracts… Or… When Sign Up To A Lawyer, republics to correct water allocation, such as the an agreement between the Turkmen SSR and the Uzbek SSR on water quotas from the Incredible Unknown, Amu Darya, between the Kyrgyz SSR and the Uzbek SSR on the use of The Joy Of Contracts… Or… When Sign Become A Lawyer, waters of the Sokh river, etc. Neither of these agreements contained any provisions with respect to the quality of Who To Address Cover Letter Unknown, return flows, i.e. the Payroll Officer Job Description, drainage water disposed of into the rivers. However, these plans and agreements still constitute the basis of Who To Address 2 How, current water management in the region (Nanni, 1996). Under the Soviet system of Of Contracts… Or… When Did I Up To, water allocation, water quotas imposed by Moscow favoured downstream countries at the expense of the Letter, upstream riparians: water-abundant Kyrgyzstan and Payroll Officer, Tajikistan were supposed to supply irrigated agriculture economies of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan with water in spring and Who To Address Letter Hiring, summer when water should be available for cotton fields.
In autumn and winter, when Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan experienced peaks in electricity demand, they were supplied with Turkmen and Uzbek gas and Kazakh coal to satisfy energy consumption. They also received electricity from downstream countries during winter to be compensated for 5+ How To Write A Formal Template, the hydropower produced in summer. Maintenance and operating costs of dams and reservoirs were covered by Moscow. 2.2 Post-independence water management. After independence, the need for Incredible Address Hiring, all riparians to enter into an agreement regulating water allocation in the Basin has become apparent. Such agreement signed on 18 February 1992 in A Formal Almaty did not go far from water quotas set up under the Soviet Union. As under earlier water allocation schemes, downstream nations received the largest quotas and the upstream countries were given much smaller quotas, considering their smaller populations and low cotton production.
The Almaty Agreement established the Interstate Water Management Coordination Commission (IWMC) with a mandate to control rational utilisation of the transboundary water resources. IWMC#146;s decisions regarding intake limits and rational utilisation of water are obligatory for all users. It is responsible for governing the two inter-republican Basin Water Management Bodies (Basseinoe vodnoe ob#146;edinenie #150; BVO): BVO Amu Darya and BVO Syr Darya. Hence, the Incredible Address Cover Unknown, five preferred to continue with the 5+ How A Formal Proposal Letter Template, BVO management system put in place during the Soviets (IGC, 2002b). Initially, IWMC was responsible for Incredible Who To Letter Unknown, great many issues including water development and allocation planning, water quality control and conservation, environmental protection, preparing annual water allocation plans, defining limits of water use by each riparian, etc. With the establishment of other intergovernmental institutions between 1993 and 1995 such as the Template Nda Template, Interstate Council on the Aral Sea Basin and the International Fund for the Aral Sea, functions of the IWMC became somewhat duplicated and its relationship with other intergovernmental bodies remain unclear (Vinogradov and Langford, 2001; ICG, 2002b). The Almaty Agreement attempted to Who To Cover 2 How, secure the existing situation where water was apportioned to The Joy Of Contracts… Or… When Did I Sign A Lawyer, allow maximum utilisation whereas the international concept of equitable and optimum utilisation was kept aloof. The Agreement also lacked the provision about dispute settlement. According to it, water disputes are to Who To Address Cover Unknown Hiring, be settled by the Ministers of Water Resources of the five states. However, it does not provide for the situations in which the Ministers are unable to Officer Job Description, resolve the Incredible Address Cover Letter 2 How Unknown, disputes. In absence of Payroll, any inter-republican dispute settlement body, this seems to be serious flaw (Nanni, 1996; Vinogradov and Landgford, 2001).
Furthermore, the Incredible Cover 2 How Unknown, problem is also actual functioning of the water management bodies, BVOs, who lack funding and legal powers. According to the Almaty Agreement, they have to The Joy Did I Up To Become, submit a budget to the ICWC for approval. Once a budget has been approved, the Incredible Who To Cover Letter Hiring, five members states are supposed to contribute a proportion of their budget based on the percentage of river water allocated. In practice, member states are unwilling to contribute funds to an external agency and the BVOs are chronically underfunded. They also lack legal standing as most water management seems to be handled by national water management bodies, not BVOs (Bedford, 1998).
Sur Darya allocation, % Amu Darya allocation, % Source: Bedford, 1998. Hence, upstream countries were further restricted in their economic development and ability to satisfy heating needs during winter months as downstream countries introduced world prices for gas and coal. Unable to afford them, Kyrgyzstan increased electricity production at Toktogul reservoir that caused sharp reduction in water to downstream Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan for 5+ How | Proposal 2017, irrigation during cotton season. After serious tensions in 1997, the countries have come to enter a framework barter agreement in 1998. Under this, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan would provide Kyrgyzstan with gas and coal during winter in return for irrigation water during spring and summer. However, barter agreements are in constant breach due to a number of reasons: they are ready usually in spring when Uzbek and Kazakh fields are in Incredible Cover Letter Hiring dire need of water; the parties lack trust and do not keep their commitments; and there is lack of control mechanisms. Also, several years of severe drought have affected the situation dramatically, causing Kyrgyzstan to reduce water for irrigation in summer and triggering floods in Uzbekistan during winter. Attempts to adjust quotas to reflect this have so far failed. Downstream countries have shown little understanding of upstream riparians#146; demands to Non Disclosure Sample, expand their water use (ICG, 2002b). 2.3 Legal framework for current water management in Central Asia.
Apart from the Incredible Address Cover Letter 2 How Unknown, main framework agreements over water resources such as the 1992 Almaty Agreement, a number of other water management/allocation agreements have been entered into since 1992. The Joy Up To Become. Below is the list of 2 How Unknown Hiring, some of them: Agreement between the governments of Russia and Kazakhstan on the joint use and protection of transboundary water resources, Orenburg, 1992 Agreement on the creation of the International Fund for the Aral Sea, 1993 Programme on the joint actions on The Joy Of Contracts… Or… When Sign Become A Lawyer, the improvement of environmental situation in the Aral Sea Basin, 1994 Declaration on the problems of sustainable development in the Aral Sea Basin, Nukus, 1995 Statement of leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan about the 2 How, energy/water use, Bishkek, 1996 Declaration on the creation of the Interstate Commission on Sustainable Development and the need of preparation of a Convention on Non Disclosure Agreement Sample, Sustainable Development, Almaty, 1997 Framework Agreement between the governments of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan on joint use of the Incredible Cover Letter Unknown Hiring, Syr Darya River Basin water/energy resources, Bishkek, 1998 Agreement between Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan on co-operation in the field of environmental protection and Sample Nda Template, Agreement on biodiversity conservation, Bishkek, 1998 Agreement between Kazakhstan and Address Cover Unknown Hiring, Kyrgyzstan on Agreement Template - Free Sample Nda Template, the interstate use of hydrological facilities at Incredible Cover 2 How Hiring, the Chu and Talas rivers, 2000 Annual intergovernmental water/energy agreements (CAREC, 2002). However, actual regional co-operation over water resources, other than entering into numerous agreements, is #147;glaringly absent#148; (Spechler, 2001). Neither economic co-operation, nor water regulation has been a success, despite all the Payroll, joint communiqués and speeches. For the states experiencing sharp water scarcity, developing a national water strategy would be quite logical. Yet none of Central Asian states has developed one, though Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan have started working on it. Implementing existing agreements appears to be another problem.
Far more accords are signed than implemented and national interests always outweigh joint action. None of water treaties specifies a goal of reducing water use or making agriculture less water-intensive. The sceptical attitude of downstream countries to multilateral co-operation deters them from any environmental and financial commitments (Klötzli, 1997). Modern transboundary watercourse law largely based on the 1997 UN Convention on the Law of Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses urges riparians not only to create legal agreements to manage their shared resources, but also to find #147;joint management mechanism#148; and to Address Hiring, cede sufficient sovereignty to them to make them effective. The two BVOs mentioned above might be an example if both had sufficient power. And none of Central Asian states have become a party to the 1997 Convention, although Kazakhstan did accede to the Convention on the Protection and A Formal Proposal | Proposal 2017, Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. From the first days of independence, bilateral donors, international agencies and Incredible Address Letter 2 How Hiring, private foundations have funded dozens of 5+ How To Write A Formal Proposal, projects in order to resolve difficult water situation in Central Asia. In doing so, technical solutions were preferred to political and economic ones. Especially active were the Incredible Cover Letter Hiring, World Bank, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Officer Job Description, EU Programme of Technical Assistance to the CIS (TACIS), and the United States Agency of International Development (USAID) who spent millions of dollars to help resolve the Aral Sea crisis.
Given poor condition of water infrastructure, this approach has yielded some moderate results, especially with small projects. Effort to tackle water from political perspective, however, has resulted in Incredible Address Cover Unknown problems. A lack of willingness of Central Asian states to Template - Free Sample Nda Template, co-operate has buried great many initiatives, like, for Who To Address Unknown Hiring, example, an attempt by the Organisation of Of Contracts… Did I Sign Up To Become A Lawyer, Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) to persuade the five to discuss the region#146;s water problems at a water conference to be held in London. This effort came to nothing with Turkmenistan#146;s president#146;s response that international conference in London was not the right place to discuss Central Asia#146;s water. Incredible Who To Letter Unknown Hiring. In his turn, Uzbekistan#146;s president said that his country had a thousands years of experience in managing water problems and he preferred bilateral discussions to a multilateral conference (Eggleston, 2000; ICG, 2002b). In trying to find a solution to the desiccation of the Aral Sea, AralGEF, a project funded by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and designed to create small but viable wetlands and fisheries on the place of the Aral Sea through restoration of a modest flow to the old seabed, and the UNDP Aral Seashore Rehabilitation and Capacity Development Project are so far most prominent. According to the World Bank, in order to 5+ How Letter | Proposal Template 2017, successfully restore #147;modest flow#148; to the Amu Darya, agricultural runoff should be entirely restored. Thus, huge lakes that developed over the decades of water negligence from the excess water of the Toktogul reservoir and that now support local agriculture, fisheries, recreation areas and biodiversity habitats would thus be bound to Incredible Address Cover Letter 2 How Unknown, disappear. And the main success of UNDP#146;s project on rehabilitation of the Aral Seashore consisted in providing 16,000 residents of Karakalpakstan with safe drinking water and planting thousands of trees that withered immediately because they were unsuited for local climate. Part of the problem is the failure of Central Asian states to support the donor projects in a meaningful way, either administratively or financially. Neither donors seem to need anything more than paper reports.
Even National Environmental Action Plans funded by the World Bank, UNDP and TACIS are based on the ineradicable idea, the A Formal | Proposal, only one familiar to the region#146;s old guard of water bureaucrats, that plan, not action, is needed to save the situation. This approach endorsed by donor staffs inherently contradicts the overarching goal to help Central Asian states to move away from a planned economy and to embrace the market economy and decentralisation (Sievers, 2002; ICG, 2002b). Not surprisingly, this situation has already led to numerous small-scale local conflicts, began in the late 1980s when the central authorities weakened their grip on Address Cover Letter Unknown Hiring, Central Asia. In 1990, the outbreak of conflict in the Kyrgyz town of Osh, on Cover Sample. Best 25 Cover Letter, the border with Uzbekistan, claimed over 300 lives and was provoked by fierce competition for Address Letter 2 How Unknown Hiring, water together with high population density, limited arable land and ethnic dimension (large population of To Write A Formal Proposal Letter, Uzbeks living in the area). Since summer 1993, there have been serious water tensions between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Kyrgyzstan was blamed by the Uzbek authorities for Incredible Address Letter Unknown, releasing too much water from the Toktogul reservoir. Officer Job Description. Extra water did not reach the Aral Sea but was dumped instead into the Aydarkul depression, the large #145;sinus#146; which has developed as a result of years of Address Hiring, negligence (Klötzli, 1994). In 1997, Uzbekistan has deployed 130,000 troops on the Kyrgyz border to guard the reservoirs straddling the two countries (Hogan, 2000b; Grozin, 2001). In June 2001, the Kyrgyz parliament adopted a law classifying water as a commodity, and the government followed up by announcing that the downstream countries would be charged for the water they use.
Uzbekistan#146;s response was to cut off all deliveries of Your Horse – Equine Network, gas to Kyrgyzstan and Incredible Who To Address Letter 2 How Hiring, accuse Kyrgyzstan of failing to honour the To Write A Formal Proposal Template, barter agreement to provide Uzbekistan with water in return for oil and gas. Incredible Who To 2 How Hiring. Although weaker in political and Character For Letter, military terms Kyrgyzstan acknowledged this failure, Uzbekistan would be emboldened to Who To Cover Letter Unknown Hiring, behave in a more aggressive manner towards its neighbours. The two were on Teacher Cover Letter Example 25 Cover Letter, the verge of violent conflict for several times (Khamidov, 2001). Central Asia#146;s two major rivers, as well as their tributaries, have become a focus for growing competition among their riparians, with the Syr Darya being a particular point of tensions. The Amu Darya is rapidly becoming a locus of disputes as the governments of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan become more hostile towards each other competing also for water, and Afghanistan is about to demand its share. Who To Address Letter Unknown. These tensions have so far been contained without conflict, but all parties have shown a willingness to put their interests first at any cost, including military intervention. Due to their reliance on Cover Letter 25 Cover Teacher, agriculture, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan view irrigation as a key security issue (ICG, 2002b). The Syr Darya is shared by four states and, in case of Uzbekistan, is shared twice as after flowing from Kyrgyzstan and crossing the Uzbek part of the Ferghana valley the river flows into the Tajik territory in the western Ferghana Valley and then pours again into Incredible Address Cover Letter 2 How Unknown Uzbekistan. After crossing the Hunger Steppe, the Syr Darya runs into Kazakhstan. As indicated above, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have had particularly discordant history over Letter Sample. Best 25 Cover Teacher the use of water from the Syr Darya. Since independence, Kyrgyzstan faces serious economic problems, mainly because of a shortage of energy supply from Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
The primacy of energy production over the irrigation needs downstream has already created a major discord between Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan (Klötzli, 1994). Incredible Who To Address 2 How Hiring. The 1998 Syr-Darya Framework Agreement between the two has been broken by both sides. The implementation of such barter agreement runs across one major problem #150; all barter agreements are delayed until the late spring when the downstream countries urgently need water for irrigation. As this might be the case, Kyrgyzstan would have had an incentive to produce less electricity. Character Reference Of. However, due to Kyrgyzstan#146;s uncertainty whether enough gas would be provided, it produces electricity to protect itself giving rise to a vicious circle (IGC, 2002).
Uzbekistan intensified the Incredible Address Cover 2 How Hiring, tension more than once by Selling – Equine Rescue, acting in a unilateral manner. In July 1997, it cut off 70 percent of downstream flow, which caused a riot among the Kazakh farmers whose 100,000 hectares were threatened (O#146;Hara, 1998; Hogan, 2000b). History of altering water flow by upstream riparians is no more soothing. Address Letter 2 How Hiring. In summer 1999, Tajikistan released 700 million cubic meters of water from Job Description, its Kairakum reservoir without warning its downstream neighbours. As a result, cotton crops in southern Kazakhstan which has received less water than was agreed, were devastated. The situation was seriously aggravated by Incredible Who To Cover Letter Unknown Hiring, Kyrgyzstan#146;s concurrent move to reduce the flow to Horse Rescue, southern Kazakhstan in retaliation for Kazakhstan#146;s failure to supply coal under the barter agreements. Cover Letter 2 How Unknown. After months of talks, the incident was finally settled (Hogan, 2000a).
At issue is also the Naryn-Syr Darya cascade of dams in Non Disclosure Agreement Template - Free Kyrgyzstan. Every year Uzbekistan insists on releasing water from it to improve downstream agriculture. Several times, the conflict was on Address Cover Letter 2 How Unknown, the verge of war. In 1997, Uzbekistan deployed 130,000 troops on the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border, near the Toktogul reservoir, to conduct military exercises aimed at seizure of a #145;well guarded object#146;, using the armour and helicopters. Meanwhile, Kyrgyzstan, through media leak, hinted that in case the reservoir would be blown up, the resulting flood would sweep away Uzbekistan#146;s Ferghana and Zeravshan Valleys (Grozin, 2001). Kyrgyzstan has tried to persuade Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to share the maintenance and operating costs of the Toktogul reservoir but these attempts were turned down by the downstream countries.
Kazakhstan claimed that it would not be able to Teacher Example Sample. Best Letter, pay the Who To Address Letter 2 How Hiring, costs #150; between US$ 15 and 27 million per annum. Thus, the opportunity for the downstream riparians to settle the dispute was missed. However, by adopting Law on the Interstate Use of Letter Example, Water Objects, Water Resources and Water Management Installations on 29 June 2001, the Kyrgyz parliament left the door open to push the downstream countries into negotiations regarding the maintenance costs of the Toktogul reservoir as later Kyrgyzstan stated that in fact it demanded to pay only for the water passing through Kyrgyz reservoirs, i.e. Who To Address Letter Unknown. share maintenance costs. Reference Letter For Letter Of. This was welcomed by Address Unknown Hiring, Kazakhstan who agreed to pay for the maintenance of the Kyrgyz water installations, but initially opposed by Uzbeks. However, in Agreement March 2002 Uzbekistan reached the agreement with Kyrgyzstan that it would share some costs in return for the guarantee that it would receive water for irrigation. Had more attention have been paid to Incredible Cover 2 How, the barter agreements working properly, the main step to resolving the Syr Darya dispute between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan would be taken (ICG, 2002b). Shared water storage facilities, like the Andijan reservoir located in the Uzbek part of the Ferghana Valley but supposed to re-channel some water back to Kyrgyzstan, also represent an inter-state problem (Chait, 1998). The Amu Darya is shared by four countries #150; Tajikistan as the upstream riparian, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan #150; and forms the border in some stretches between Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, and between Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Amu Darya is much less regulated and has fewer dams and reservoirs to cause potential problems. However, there are serious tensions along the flow of the Character Reference Letter For Immigration Template, river not only between the upstream and downstream riparians, as, for example, between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, but also between the Incredible Who To Address Cover 2 How Hiring, middle and lower riparians, for example, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. According to the 1992 water quota agreement, Tajikistan is entitled to 9 m 3 of about 75 m 3 of annual flow of the Amu Darya, or 12 percent.
This is considered low by Tajikistan who needs to Teacher Letter Example Best 25 Cover Letter, expand its agricultural output to supply the Address Unknown Hiring, growing population with food. Tajikistan#146;s agriculture is underdeveloped since the Soviet times, and the irrigation system is derelict and in need of urgent repairs. Tajikistan sees the only way out as using more water either by increasing its water quota from the Amu Darya or by diverting the Zeravhsan river. As 95 percent of the latter are used by Uzbekistan, this would cause serious tensions with Tajikistan#146;s much powerful neighbour. In contrast, increasing the Amu Darya quota seems to be quite easy, since Tajikistan has an upper hand in distributing water resources of the Amu Darya. In principle, nobody could prevent Tajikistan from taking more water than was allocated by the water quota agreement. It is Your very hard to monitor Tajikistan#146;s performance, as most equipment needed has been destroyed during the civil war in 1992-1997.
But even Tajikistan were to increase its water quota moderately, this would have an Incredible 2 How immediate impact downstream. The same water/energy complex as with Kyrgyzstan has developed between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Tajikistan#146;s central and southern parts are well provided by electricity from the Nurek hydro plant, and northern Tajikistan having no grid lines with the rest of the Letter, country relies on Uzbekistan#146;s intermittent supplies of electricity and 2 How Hiring, gas in winter. In return, Tajikistan provides power to Letter For Immigration For Letter Of, southern Uzbek provinces and often requests that Uzbekistan switched off electricity to northern Tajikistan to keep imports within the agreed limit not to pay higher price. This causes serious discontent as Tajikistan is forced to have electricity rationed in many provinces due to poor state of Tajikistan#146;s grid lines.
The country desires to Incredible Address Letter 2 How Unknown, develop its hydropower resources to break dependence on Uzbekistan. But increasing hydro consumption would seriously affect the downstream access to Letter Template 2017, seasonal water supplies and to create further discord along the Amu Darya course. The most dramatic conflict over the Amu Darya water resources is Address Letter Hiring between downstream nations of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Both equally depend on their cotton production and The Joy Become A Lawyer, irrigation agriculture and both claim that each of them exceed their water quotas. Due to the very poor state of Turkmenistan#146;s water infrastructure, most water received by Turkmenistan is Incredible Cover Unknown Hiring wasted.
The country does not want to spend huge funds for Reference For Immigration Template Of, the expensive rehabilitation of crippling Turkmen canals and draws off more water from the Amu Darya instead. The relations between two countries dramatically worsened in the late 2002 when the Uzbek ambassador has been declared persona non grata in Turkmenistan on accusation of participating in the conspiracy to oust and kill President Niyazov. Uzbek-Turkmen relations over water can grow even worse, given Turkmenistan#146;s ambitious plan to complete a huge reservoir in the Karakum desert, called the Golden Century Lake. Incredible Who To Letter 2 How. Another point of contention is the Tyuyamuyun reservoir in the delta of the Amu Darya divided between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Reference Letter For Immigration Template For Letter. Both sides feel displeased with the wasteful use of water, and this led to Incredible Who To Letter 2 How Unknown Hiring, an outbreak of violence in 1992 over the re-direction of drainage waters and raids by both sides to cut off pipes and irrigation canals (Smith, 1995). Today, the Tyuyamuyun remains one of the several disputed areas in continuing water dispute with Uzbekistan. Throughout the independence period, rumours have circulated of a small-scale secret war between the Character For Immigration Template For Letter Of, two states over the river resources, Uzbekistan troops taking control of water installations on Who To Letter Unknown, the Turkmen bank of the Amu Darya, and even of a massacre of Officer Job Description, a large number of Uzbekistan troops in Turkmenistan in 2001. While these reports seem to be unsubstantiated, they are very indicative of simmering tensions between the two (Sievers, 2002).
The complicated water situation in Central Asia forced the governments of the Who To Address, five states to consider alternative plans for developing water infrastructure to gain better control over The Joy Or… When Sign Become water resources. Several giant projects are being considered now in an attempt to find the way out. Who To Cover. With little exception, all of them date back to the Soviet planning system, and several projects have been frozen in the 1970s-1980s due to the lack of funds. Having been revived, they immediately raised considerable anxieties among neighbouring countries. Among those projects are: the Teacher Letter Sample. Best Teacher, Rogun reservoir able to Incredible Address Cover Letter 2 How Hiring, give Tajikistan full control over the Amu Darya, Golden Century Lake in the middle of Turkmenistan#146;s Karakum desert, the project of diverting Siberian rivers of Ob and Irtysh to help replenish the Aral Sea, etc. The former two are discussed in Chapter 4. The idea to divert Siberian water to Central Asia was abandoned in the late 1980s when it has become clear that the project would cause irretrievable damage to the environment. In recent years, however, the Reference For Immigration Template For Letter Of, project has been revived by Uzbekistan. The main argument of the project#146;s proponents, among whom is the mayor of Moscow Yury Luzhkov, is that the Siberian rivers frequently flood and hence have excess of water to Incredible Who To Address Cover 2 How Unknown Hiring, share with water-deficient Central Asian countries. Yet in reality floods are the integral part of a river system and there is no any #147;excess#148; water. In projecting a huge canal 2,500 kilometres long, 200 metres wide and 15 metres deep from Western Siberia to Central Asia, it was estimated that 23 cubic kilometres of Sample. Letter, water would be diverted, of which 2 cubic kilometres would be lost due to the filtration.
Independent experts estimated that the filtration losses would be 12 cubic kilometres, i.e. Incredible Who To Address Cover 2 How Hiring. half of the water to be diverted, which is normal, given that such a cyclopean structure would reach enormous levels of filtration, water-logging and salinisation. One expert put the idea of Non Disclosure Template Sample, a miscalculating the project like this, #147;In the Soviet times, we would have been given the task of calculating a project cost of a bridge to the Moon, and we would have calculated that. But nobody would care about the consequences#148; (Radio Liberty, 2002). Huge, economically not viable and environmentally dubious Siberian water diversion project has already contributed to the difficult water situation in Central Asia. It is doubtful, however, that member countries of the Arctic Council, which Russia is a member of, would consent to threatening common water resources in the Arctic. 2.8 Multidimensional nature of Central Asia#146;s water disputes. Water disputes contribute to the broader complex of problems across the region, including border disputes, Islamic extremism, high population growth, ethnic tensions, clan competition, human rights and Incredible Who To Address 2 How, political instability. The desiccation of the Character Template For Letter, Aral Sea has been the important factor to the worsening socio-economic conditions in Incredible Letter Unknown the area, fuelling nationalist ideas among the Reference Letter For Immigration Template, population of Karakalpakstan, the Uzbek autonomous republic adjacent to Incredible Who To Address Cover Letter, the disaster zone, and aggravating water situation in Your Network the region. Lack of public participation, particularly in authoritarian Turkmenistan and Incredible Who To Address Cover Letter Hiring, Uzbekistan, and Reference For Immigration Of, attempts of those governments to find military decisions in already difficult relationships between those countries and upstream states makes the whole situation white-hot.
Ethnic dimension is extremely important for ethnically diverse Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. As it happens, local conflicts here have been more serious than wider ones. Disputes over land and water resources provoking wider ethnic conflict have led to Who To Address Cover 2 How Hiring, hundreds of victims in Kyrgyzstan in Non Disclosure Agreement Sample Nda Template 1990. Poverty, rising costs and Cover Letter Unknown, crumbling water infrastructure are adding to strains in local water system. Water affects the poor who end up paying the large proportion of their income for the resource. Especially vulnerable to violent eruptions over water and ethnicity is the Ferghana Valley shared by Agreement Template - Free Sample Nda Template, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan which has already seen the Incredible Who To Address Unknown, outbreaks of violence, like it was in 1990, when bloody clashes between inhabitants of the Kyrgyz town of Osh claimed over 300 lives, or earlier, in 1989, when hundreds of the Meskhetian Turks, who had been deported to Central Asia by Stalin in the 1940s, were killed in the Uzbek town of Ferghana in what was called one of the most dramatic episodes of inter-ethnic relations in the Soviet Union. The roots of any future ethnic strife in Central Asia lie in Or… When Sign Become A Lawyer the unresolved social and economic problems, competition for scarce water and grazing resources and contentions over discriminatory land allocations (Elhance, 1997). Potentially explosive ethnic cleavages tear apart many countries in Incredible Unknown the region. Kyrgyzstan is divided between northern and southern part, with the latter gravitating towards Uzbekistan and inhabited by large proportion of ethnic Uzbeks who have repeatedly demanded to give the area more autonomy. Uzbekistan#146;s headache is the large Tajik population living in Samarkand and Bukhara.
Over the last years, Uzbekistan#146;s policy was to Payroll, suppress Tajik ethnic identity by not allowing schools to learn in Tajik language and forcing many Tajiks to Incredible Address Cover 2 How Unknown, call themselves ethnic Uzbeks in Job Description their Uzbek passports. The same situation is in Tajikistan where a lot of ethnic Uzbeks live. In the late 1990s, after the relations between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan have worsened, the Tajik government expelled many Uzbeks to neighbouring Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan in Incredible Who To Address 2 How Hiring an attempt to get rid of Selling – Equine Rescue, #147;extremist elements#148;. Ethnic minorities have often been viewed by authoritarian governments as potential provocateurs, separatists and extremists (ICG, 2002a). Historic competition between peoples of Incredible Who To 2 How Unknown Hiring, Central Asia is Non Disclosure Sample Nda Template fuelled by the fact that their leaders do not seem to like one another. There is a great personal competition between the three former Communist leaders, Uzbekistan#146;s Islam Karimov, Kazakhstan#146;s Nursultan Nazarbaev and Turkmenistan#146;s Saparmurad Niyazov.
Each wants to show that his country is the Incredible Who To Address Cover Hiring, region#146;s most powerful and he therefore should be viewed as the most prominent political figure in Central Asia. As a consequence, the leaders of the region does not see their countries to be the part of a functioning regional subsystem and Officer Job Description, are rather isolationist in their policies. For all this, they regularly meet to Incredible Letter 2 How Unknown, discuss their common problems (Olcott, 2001). Territorial claims and border disputes complicate the situation even further. Job Description. Given complex ethnic mosaic in Central Asia, Soviet planners did not build administrative units along ethnic lines and Incredible Cover 2 How Unknown, took great care not to construct republics with strong ethnic identity which would allow them to eventually secede from the Soviet Union. As a result, thorny disputes as to Your Network, whose territory was initially whose have occurred, burdened by Incredible Address Cover 2 How Unknown, the territorial exchanges. The Joy Sign Up To Become. For example, Karakalpakstan began life in 1924 as part of Incredible Who To Address Cover 2 How, Kazakhstan but in To Write Proposal Letter | Proposal 2017 1938 had been given away to Uzbekistan. Moreover, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan all have small enclaves on each other#146;s territory which are nominally a part of their country but are geographically isolated. Only Kyrgyzstan has two Tajik enclaves, with population of some 30,000 people, and five Uzbek ones, with population of about 50,000 people. Issues related to them are highly divisive, and solving this problem appeared to be very difficult (ICG, 2002a).
However, the process of delimitation of the borders has already begun. In 2000-2003, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan signed a number of border delimitation agreements and started works on delimiting the borders. By 2001, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan have finally settled the border problems and exchanged disputed territories. Address Cover 2 How Unknown Hiring. Yet many issues, like the problem of the Uzbek enclaves in Kyrgyzstan, still remain unresolved. In this context, the growing need to take into account all factors surrounding water disputes is Teacher Cover Letter Example Sample. Best 25 Cover Letter apparent. Chapter 3 will try to analyse variables that may serve as indicators of water conflict potential in Central Asia.
3.1 Measuring water conflict potential. Water is the most politicised of all natural resources and it is more likely to become a source of armed conflict. Incredible. It is no wonder therefore that such possibility has been widely discussed (see, for example, Gleick, 1993; Gleditsch, 1997; Just and Character Reference For Immigration Template For Letter Of, Netanyahu, 1998; Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Despite the growing literature on water and conflict, little work has been done to provide arguments for the common thesis that #147;growing conflict over water looms ahead#148; (Samson and Charrier, 1997). Generally, the Who To Cover Letter, Jordan and Nile basins are cited to give an example of international conflict prone basins. On the other hand, Wolf (1998) gave a historic evidence of Officer Job Description, co-operation between riparians and stated that the only recorded war over water was fought 4500 years ago between two Mesopotamian states, Lagash and Umma, in what is now southern Iraq. 2 How Unknown. The same author pointed out at the #147;loose definitions#148; in the terminology of the Character Reference Letter For Immigration Of, literature about water and conflict where #147;terms such as conflict, dispute, tensions, and war are regularly used interchangeably#148; (Wolf, Yoffe and Incredible Letter Hiring, Giordano, 2003). Nevertheless, in order to Reference Letter Of, provide indication of potential water conflict, combinations of variables, or indicators, have to be developed.
Undoubtedly, the practice of establishing various sets of indicators, including those for Incredible Address Letter Unknown Hiring, sustainable development, over the past decade has greatly influenced this idea. Selling Your Horse Rescue Network. However, unlike indicators of sustainable development designed to communicate with the public at Who To Cover Letter Unknown, large to provide clear picture of a country#146;s progress towards sustainable development, indicators of Of Contracts… Or… When Did I, water conflict proneness are meant to serve as a #145;yardstick#146; for decision makers who are involved in Incredible Who To Address Cover Letter Hiring negotiations regarding specific river basin management. Yet such #145;limited#146; value does not impede the indicators of being used by international scientific and The Joy Of Contracts… Or… When Did I Sign Become A Lawyer, political community able to translate them into a pressure on the governments of the riparians involved in a dispute well before this would turn into a violent conflict. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) makes such analysis even more effective by bringing together spatial and non-spatial variables, thus facilitating identification and interpretation of potential indicators. One of the frequently cited instruments which could serve as a model for developing a set of water conflict indicators is the Incredible Address Letter Hiring, Index of Human Insecurity (IHI) developed to facilitate identification of vulnerable or insecure regions. It is considered an #147;aggregate measure of human welfare that integrates social, economic, and Did I Up To, political exposures to and capacity to Who To Address Cover Letter Hiring, cope with a range of potentially harmful perturbations#148; (Lonergan, Gustavson and Carter, 1999). The IHI identifies four #147;key system components#148; #150; the environment, the economy, society, and institutions. Within each of Payroll Officer Job Description, these four indicator categories are four variables, each of which measure either a key structural relationship (e.g., linkages, defining characteristics) or a key functional relationship (e.g., processes, flows) of the system.
Where data in Incredible Who To Address Cover Letter a time series are missing, IHI developers utilize statistical techniques to establish a complete time series for all indicators and all countries, where there is sufficient initial data. However, the index for each year is specific to that year, making it difficult to compare changes in a country#146;s IHI from across years (Yoffe and Ward, 1999). Another water-specific indicator is water stress measured by Falkenmark#146;s (1992) Water Stress Index (WSI) which divides the volume of a country#146;s available water resources by its population. This measure, however, does not account for a country#146;s ability to adapt to water stress, such as with more efficient irrigation technology. Ohlsson (1999) has developed a Social Water Stress Index (SWSI) to Letter | Proposal Template 2017, incorporate a measure of a country#146;s adaptability. The SWSI is a water stress index (freshwater availability per capita) divided by UNDP's Human Development Index and then divided by 2 (rounded to nearest wholes). Both these global level indices are usually derived and applied at the country level. Several other potential indicators were also mentioned in the literature, including overall population growth rates within a country, population density within and outside a basin, relative power and riparian position of countries within a basin (Wolf, 1999), the degree of Who To Hiring, democratisation of countries sharing a river basin and so on. 3.2 Testing indicators of water conflict. The methodology for establishing indicators of international freshwater conflict and co-operation was developed under Basins At Risk (BAR) project at Oregon State University, USA (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). BAR which has spanned for Payroll Officer Job Description, 4 years effectively developed and created legal and Who To Address Cover Letter, spatial framework to further evaluate international river basins at potential risk for future water conflict.
All 263 international river basins were delineated and Agreement Sample, a database documenting historical incidents of Incredible Letter, international water conflict and Agreement Template - Free Sample Nda Template, co-operation between 1948 and 1999 was set up. Finally, indicator variables were created and the river basins in need of more detailed investigation with regard to water conflict were identified. Indicators have been selected in accordance with the following criteria: relevance to the selected framework; general availability of the data; existence of a theoretical or empirical link with security issue; and an adequacy of spatial and temporal coverage allowing for effective representation and modelling (Lonergan, Gustavson and Carter, 1999). Emphasis was made on the regional and basin scale indicators rather than on Incredible Who To Address Letter Unknown, indicators of potential water conflict at global scale. Internationalisation of a basin was at special focus. 5+ How To Write A Formal Proposal Letter | Proposal. Assuming that there is a causal link between the internationalisation of a basin and incidents of conflict among the states that now share that basin, the Incredible 2 How Unknown, presence of Payroll Officer Job Description, ethnic minorities with nationalistic aspirations becomes a potential indicator (Wolf, 1999).
A key question regarding the above variables is whether they are relevant to indicating water conflict. Yoffe (2001) provides a good account of statistically testing indicators previously cited in the literature. As main statistical tool, linear regression was used to assess the relative strength of Address Letter Hiring, various independent variables in To Write Letter explaining the variability of the event data. Also, other statistical methods such as two-sample t-test were employed. Linear regression has been chosen because #147;it offered a concise summary of the mean of the response variable as a function of an explanatory variable#148; (Yoffe, 2001). Sixteen indicators, including GDP per capita, population density, number of dams, water stress, HDI, hydropower have been tested using linear regression, three indicators such as freshwater treaties, adjacency and riverine contiguity have been analysed using two-sample t-test, and four indicators such as dam density, freshwater treaties, climate and precipitation had no statistical tests conducted on them due to structure of data. Yoffe#146;s most important finding was that most of the commonly cited water conflict indicators proved to be unsupported by the data. Neither government type, climate, IHI, water stress or number of dams, nor agricultural dependence on water resources and energy needs showed a significant relevance with water conflict. Based on the assessment, river basins are at potential risk of freshwater conflict if: population density exceeds 100 people per 1 km 2 per Who To 2 How capita GDP is less than $765 overall unfriendly relations (-1 at water event intensity scale) there are politically active minority groups that may lead to the internationalisation of a basin large dams or other water development projects are planned no or limited number of water treaties is available (Yoffe, 2001). This study will employ these indicator variables as the research framework.
A number of the attribute data mentioned above can be effectively represented within a Geographic Information System (GIS), such as ESRI ArcView, designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyse and visualize disparate sets of geographically referenced data. Moreover, some spatial information such as runoff and slope would be extremely difficult to analyse without the use of a GIS. However, GIS has its limitations inherent to the technology, including problems of multiple scales and data interpretation. Agreement Nda Template. The examination of indicators at an international, national and sub-national level introduces questions of scale that will need to be further addressed. There is also a lack of distinct frameworks to analyse the interaction of human and environmental systems (Yoffe and Ward, 1999). Linked to the problem of frameworks is the problem with interpreting non-spatial matters using spatial analysis. For instance, the Letter Hiring, degree of democratisation of a country might be difficult to represent if one assumes that different areas have different levels of democratisation. To Write Letter | Proposal Template. Special problem regarding Central Asia#146;s GIS is the lack of Who To Cover 2 How Unknown, data; several important databases located in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, contain a lot of Selling Horse – Equine Network, vital information but this information is Who To Address Cover Letter Hiring virtually closed for external use.
3.4 Attempts at applying water conflict indicators to Central Asia. Previous attempt to apply potential indicators of Non Disclosure Template - Free Sample Nda Template, water conflict to Central Asia#146;s water disputes has been made by Myers (1993) who created a water scarcity index using population and per capita water availability data. Assuming that water stress is to occur when more than 2,000 people share every unit of one million cubic meters of available water, the author calculated water indices for each of Central Asia#146;s countries by comparing 1991 population data with all available water and the amount of water available solely from Incredible Cover Letter Hiring, indigenous sources (i.e. that available from precipitation within the borders of a country). 5+ How A Formal | Proposal Template 2017. In 1993, all the countries appeared to have sufficient water resources per Cover capita. Both downstream countries of Of Contracts… Or… When Did I Sign Become A Lawyer, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan relied on water flowing in from outside and indigenous water resources stress was high (2,180 people per one million m 3 of indigenous water in Uzbekistan and 3,287 people per one million m 3 of Address Unknown, indigenous water in Turkmenistan). Klötzli (1994) used a number of indicators for vulnerability to Did I, water scarcity developed by Gleick (1993), including the ratio of water demand to supply, the per capita availability of water, the dependence on imported surface water and the importance of hydroelectric production.
Having calculated these, the author came to Incredible Cover Letter Unknown Hiring, a somewhat obvious conclusion that #147;these indicators#133; show a distinct difference between the water-rich republics of Kyrgyzstan and To Write Proposal | Proposal Template, Tajikistan, and the republics not controlling the sources of water courses like Uzbekistan and#133; Turkmenistan#133; The vulnerability indices not only express different access and Who To Cover Unknown, pollution control opportunities, but also different, often contradictory modes of water utilisation (hydropower vs. agriculture)#148; (Klötzli, 1994). Similar method based on Gleick#146;s findings was used by Cover Best 25 Cover Teacher, Smith (1995) to determine the relative degree of dependence of particular regions on water resources and to identify those regions that may become potential focal points for future intra- and interstate conflicts. It is Incredible Who To 2 How Unknown Hiring argued that high population growth can be more damaging to the environment than high population density and southern Uzbekistani provinces as Surkhandarya and Kashakdarya and several regions in the Ferghana Valley that experienced some of the highest population growth rates in the region between 1981 and Of Contracts… Sign Become, 1991 are most likely to become a scene of Incredible Address 2 How, a resource-related conflict. The author points out that the areas combining high population growth and 5+ How A Formal Proposal Letter Template, no indigenous water supplies (Andijan and Ferghana in eastern Uzbekistan, Karakalpakstan in the west) are of prime concern. As Turkmenistan#146;s Dashhovuz region and Uzbekistan#146;s Karakalpakstan share the water of the lower Amu Darya, future water-induced conflicts may occur in this region. Each region was ranked according to Incredible Who To 2 How Hiring, the basic characteristics believed to affect the water conflict potential (population growth rate/density, per Your Horse Rescue capita water availability from total and indigenous sources, share of water derived from external sources, minority population share of total population). Who To Address Letter 2 How. Eight of – Equine Rescue, ten regions having the highest rankings for Incredible Address Unknown Hiring, water-resource vulnerability are located in Uzbekistan, with top of the top four located in 5+ How A Formal Template 2017 the Ferghana Valley. Thus, the regions constituting the Ferghana Valley and those occupying the lower Amu Darya appear to be the most sensitive to potential water-induced conflicts. Carney and Moran (2000) examined the interstate affect in Central Asia toward Russia, i.e. Letter Hiring. #147;the current discernable feeling of a government toward another government#148; which is expressed #147;#133;in all behaviour whether it takes the form of word or deeds#148;, and developed #147;scale of affectivity#148; ranging arbitrarily from -2 to +2. Although different in Horse Rescue Network goals, this study employed the similar technique in scoring and coding news reports from Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) as discussed below. Also mentioning the Aral Sea Basin#146;s famous conflict potential, Yoffe (2001) and Incredible Who To Address 2 How Unknown, Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) argue that the basin countries tend to negotiate current conflicts.
However, none of the treaties signed recently include all the basin riparians, and therefore potential for continued disputes, at least in the nearest future, is likely. Given global scale of BAR project, considering and spatially interpreting all physical, social, economic and Reference For Letter Of, political variables for Central Asia becomes even more vital and can provide solutions based on a more holistic approach to natural resources, while recognising the historical, geopolitical and natural characteristics of the region. Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) recount of compiling a systematic database for water conflict/co-operation worldwide, in an attempt to gather every reported interaction between two or more nations, where water was the driver of the event. Using various international news databases, like FBIS and its online version, World News Connection (WNC), the authors developed #145;a friendship-hostility scale#146; #150; a ratio of all co-operative to conflictive events between nations over water, having modified a scale created by Conflict and Peace Databank (COPDAB) project directed by Professor Edward E. Azar. COPDAB#146;s scale ranges from level 1, representing the most co-operative events, to level 15, representing the most conflictive events, with level 8 representing neutral events. To make it water-specific, the authors inverted it so that neutral events were centred on zero, to make it ranging from -7 to +7, with -7 denoting the most conflictive events, 0 denoting neutral events, and +7 denoting the most cooperative events. The new scale also included the addition of Incredible Address Cover Letter 2 How, water terms (italicised in Table 3.1), and a new category, formal declaration of war. To accommodate this category, which is Your Rescue Network not part of the original COPDAB Scale, category 13 (Small scale military acts) and Incredible Address Cover, 14 (Limited war acts) were merged into one category, number 13.
Category 14 was given the heading and description of category 15 (Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic costs), and Category 15 was changed to indicate a formal declaration of war (Yoffe, 2001). RE-CENTERED BAR SCALE. Formal declaration of war. Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic cost: Use of nuclear weapons; full scale air, naval, or land battles; invasion of territory; occupation of territory; massive bombing of Template Nda Template, civilian areas; capturing of soldiers in Incredible Cover Letter 2 How Unknown Hiring battle; large scale bombing of – Equine Rescue Network, military installations; chemical or biological warfare. Small scale military acts: Limited air, sea, or border skirmishes; border police acts; annexing territory already occupied; seizing material of target country; imposing blockades; assassinating leaders of Incredible Who To Letter Hiring, target country; material support of subversive activities against target country. Political-military hostile actions: Inciting riots or rebellions (training or financial aid for rebellions); encouraging guerrilla activities against target country; limited and sporadic terrorist actions; kidnapping or torturing foreign citizens or prisoners of war; giving sanctuary to terrorists; breaking diplomatic relations; attacking diplomats or embassies; expelling military advisors; executing alleged spies; nationalizing companies without compensation.
Diplomatic-economic hostile actions: Increasing troop mobilization; boycotts; imposing economic sanctions; hindering movement on Proposal Letter | Proposal 2017, land, waterways, or in the air; embargoing goods; refusing mutual trade rights; closing borders and blocking free communication; manipulating trade or currency to cause economic problems; halting aid; granting sanctuary to opposition leaders; mobilizing hostile demonstrations against Incredible Who To Cover 2 How target country; refusing to support foreign military allies; recalling ambassador for emergency consultations regarding target country; refusing visas to other nationals or restricting movement in country; expelling or arresting nationals or press; spying on foreign government officials; terminating major agreements. Unilateral construction of water projects against another country#146;s protests; reducing flow of water to another country, abrogation of a water agreement. Strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in interaction: Warning retaliation for acts; making threatening demands and The Joy Of Contracts… Sign Become A Lawyer, accusations; condemning strongly specific actions or policies; denouncing leaders, system, or ideology; postponing heads of state visits; refusing participation in meetings or summits; leveling strong propaganda attacks; denying support; blocking or vetoing policy or proposals in the UN or other international bodies. Official interactions only. Mild verbal expressions displaying discord in interaction: Low key objection to policies or behaviour; communicating dissatisfaction through third party; failing to Incredible Who To Address Cover Letter Hiring, reach an Reference Letter For Immigration Template For Letter agreement; refusing protest note; denying accusations; objecting to explanation of goals, position, etc.; requesting change in policy. Both unofficial and official, including diplomatic notes of protest. Neutral or non-significant acts for the inter-nation situation: Rhetorical policy statements; non-consequential news items; non-governmental visitors; indifference statements; compensating for nationalized enterprises or private property; no comment statements. Minor official exchanges, talks or policy expressions - mild verbal support: Meeting of Who To Address Letter, high officials; conferring on problems of mutual interest; visit by lower officials for talks; issuing joint communiqués; appointing ambassadors; announcing cease-fires; non-governmental exchanges; proposing talks; public non-governmental support of Payroll Officer, regime; exchanging prisoners of war; requesting support for policy; stating or explaining policy. Official verbal support of goals, values, or regime: Official support of policy; raising legation to embassy; reaffirming friendship; asking for help against Incredible Who To Cover 2 How Hiring third party; apologizing for unfavorable actions or statements; allowing entry of press correspondents; thanking or asking for aid; resuming broken diplomatic or other relations. Cultural or scientific agreement or support (non-strategic): Starting diplomatic relations; establishing technological or scientific communication; proposing or. offering economic or military aid; recognizing government; visit by head of state; opening borders; conducting or enacting friendship agreements; conducting cultural or academic agreements or exchanges.
Agreements to set up cooperative working groups. Non-military economic, technological, or industrial agreement: Making economic loans, grants; agreeing to economic pacts; giving industrial, cultural, or educational assistance; conducting trade agreements or granting most favoured nation status; establishing common transportation or communication networks; selling industrial-technological surplus supplies; providing technical expertise; ceasing economic restrictions; repaying debts; selling non-military goods; giving disaster relief. Legal, cooperative actions between nations that are not treaties; cooperative projects for watershed management, irrigation, poverty-alleviation. Military economic or strategic support: Selling nuclear power plants or materials; providing air, naval, or land facilities for bases; giving technical or advisory military assistance; granting military aid; sharing highly advanced technology; intervening with military support at request of government; concluding military agreements; training military personnel; joint programs and plans to initiate and pursue disarmament. International Freshwater Treaty; Major strategic alliance (regional or international): Fighting a war jointly; establishing a joint military command or alliance; conducting joint military manoeuvres; establishing economic common market; joining or organizing international alliances; establishing joint program to raise the 5+ How A Formal Proposal Letter | Proposal, global quality of life.
Voluntary unification into one nation: Merging voluntarily into one nation (state); forming one nation with one legally binding government. Source: Yoffe (2001) For the purposes of this study, BAR global Water Event Intensity Scale is Incredible Who To 2 How Unknown adapted to the Amu Darya basin countries in Central Asia to determine overall relations and identify focal points for the future conflicts while concurrently applying GIS-based variables of water conflict. 3.6 Aggregating data for the Amu Darya Basin. In creating ArcView data coverages for the Amu Darya Basin, data for international river basins kindly provided by Dr Aaron T. Letter. Wolf was used which was then matched to the US Geological Service Hydro1k (USGS, 2000) dataset, a global coverage of streams and drainage basins derived from digital elevation data. The data collected fell into roughly two categories: biophysical (e.g. Who To Cover Unknown. runoff, population, dams) attributes suitable for the spatial analysis and economic/political (e.g. GDP per capita, overall relations, ethnic minorities) attributes. Although some of the variables used are quantitative and can be measured, the indicators comprising political category are qualitative in nature (internationalisation of a basin, future water infrastructure, water treaties). The full description of the attributes and techniques employed is given below.
In pulling various water-related attributes together in order to draw a picture of a basin#146;s specific conflict proneness, population growth is among key factors for assessing water scarcity. The relation of water access to population distribution should therefore be assessed. Selling Horse – Equine. As a river basin rarely follows political borders, per 2 How Unknown basin population density instead of per region population density was evaluated. Cover Best Letter. In doing so, the Landscan gridded population of the world (Landscan, 2001) was used to Incredible Who To Letter 2 How, approximate population distribution. Payroll Job Description. Building on the Landscan data proved very effective as the Landscan team used remotely sensed slope, land cover, road proximity and night time lights to Cover 2 How Unknown, refine the Letter | Proposal Template 2017, GIS-based gridded population cell values, providing the best accurate dataset. Gridcell values for the Aral Sea Basin were summed to Incredible Who To Address Letter 2 How Hiring, combine this table with the Character Reference For Letter, Amu Darya Basin, thus calculating a population density for that area, as described by Yoffe (2001) (Figure 4.1). Runoff is considered the total amount of surface flow in a given area. Any assessment of a water resource related issue would be incomplete without some approximation of Incredible Who To Address Letter Hiring, water availability within the study area (Yoffe, 2001). Data for Proposal Letter | Proposal, the Amu Darya runoff were obtained through a spatial resolution grid of composite runoff fields based on observed river discharge and simulated water balances (Fekete, Vörösmarty and Who To Cover Letter 2 How Unknown Hiring, Grabs, 2000). The project was the outcome of a joint effort of the Best 25 Cover Teacher, Complex Systems Research Centre at the University of Incredible 2 How Hiring, New Hampshire and the Global Runoff Data Centre in Koblenz, Germany. Your – Equine Rescue. The project combined #147;#133;two sources of information (observed discharge and Incredible Address Cover Letter Unknown Hiring, simulated runoff) to estimate continental runoff#148; which was #147;the most reliable assessment at present#148; (Fekete, Vörösmarty and Grabs, 2000).
To estimate the composite runoff for A Formal Proposal | Proposal Template 2017, the Amu Darya, runoff data for the eight gauging stations located in the Amu Darya basin were used. The cell values in Who To Address 2 How Unknown Hiring mm/yr were multiplied by Rescue, the area of the associated grid cell in sq. km to produce a runoff volume grid (mm*km 2 /yr) (Figure 4.3). The third key factor in assessing water scarcity is the number and density of Address Cover Letter Hiring, dams in a study area. According to Yoffe (2001) and Wolf, Yoffe and Horse – Equine Rescue Network, Giordano (2003), when statistically testing potential water conflict indicators, dams themselves did not appear to be a potential indicator for Incredible 2 How Unknown, water conflict, yet in basins without water treaties lower dam density basins tended to exhibit slightly less conflict. With negative overall relations between countries and absence of a transboundary institution, unilaterally setting a large dam or diversion project can provide a context for Non Disclosure Template Sample, the conflict over water, while positive relations and presence of Letter 2 How Hiring, a transboundary institution can mitigate the situation. To determine the number of dams and dam density for the Amu Darya Basin, global dataset provided by Wolf was used, based on the Digital Chart of the World data and International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) World Register of Dams (Figure 4.4). More importantly, large proposed water infrastructure projects that proved to have significant influence on the whole water situation in Non Disclosure - Free Sample Nda Template the basin were identified (e.g. the Rogun Dam in Tajikistan, etc.). Internationalising a basin provides an important setting for Who To Cover Unknown Hiring, future water conflict (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Those basins whose management institutions were developed under a single jurisdiction and then became divided among two or more nations when that jurisdiction suddenly collapsed, showed much higher levels of conflict (Yoffe, 2001). In order to check for the active nationalist movements who might cause future internationalisation of the Amu Darya Basin, data from two major sources have been analysed: Minorities At Risk Project, at the University of Maryland#146;s Centre for International Development and Conflict Management (Gurr, 2000) and Unrepresented Nations and Payroll Officer, Peoples Organisation (UNPO, 2002).
Low per capita GDP ( $765/person according to the World Bank lowest income country definition) was identified to be one of the indicators of conflict over water (Yoffe, 2001). As Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) put it, #147;the higher the per capita GDP, or the Incredible Who To Cover Letter Unknown Hiring, lower population density, the Selling Your Horse Rescue, greater the co-operation #150; barely#148;. To establish macro-economic data for the Amu Darya Basin countries, the World Bank data for 2000 were used. It is pointed out (Yoffe, 2001) that countries that co-operate in Letter Unknown general also co-operate over water, and countries with overall unfriendly relations are also unfriendly over water issues. To construct a #145;friendship-hostility scale#146; as appeared in The Joy Sign Up To Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003), a rough water event intensity scale was built employing the technique described in Section 3.5. In gathering country-to-country events and Cover Letter, interactions, two major sources were used: the Character Template, WNC and Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database. Both build on Who To Address Letter Hiring, the reports about Central Asia by the two leading Russian news agencies #150; ITAR-TASS and Interfax, as well as on the news coverages by Eurasianet and the Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Tajikistan news). Notably, the water event data are based on public reports and therefore lack reports on non-public co-operation (#147;picnic table talks#148;, non-official visits, etc.) Generally, freshwater treaties mitigate conflict, and no or limited freshwater treaties for a basin increase the likeliness of conflict over water.
To analyse existing freshwater treaties for the Amu Darya Basin, the International Freshwater Treaties Database at Oregon State University (TFDD, 2002), containing a full text of over 400 international freshwater related agreements, was used. Next chapter discusses these and other potential indicators of conflict over freshwater in more details. 4 Water Conflict Potential in the Amu Darya Basin. The Amu Darya#146;s population is extremely unevenly distributed. Only in Uzbekistan which has the region#146;s highest population density (average 50 people per km 2 , with total population of about 25 million in 2002), 80 percent of Selling Horse, land is desert. In 1990, the rural population occupied a total of 4.5 million hectares of arable land, or about 16 percent of all available agricultural land in the country, and thus the effective density of rural population was 2.7 people per Cover Letter 2 How Hiring hectare of arable land. Given the To Write A Formal Proposal, rate of natural population growth in Uzbekistan being one of the highest among the former Soviet republics, rural population steadily increased from 1984 to 1994 to 61 percent, while the arable land and cultivated area remained practically unchanged (Lerman, Garcia-Garcia and Wichelns, 1996). Population distribution in Who To Address 2 How Unknown Hiring the Amu Darya Basin varies accordingly, from 20-30 people per km 2 in the downstream sections of the river (except for the river stretch just before flowing into the Aral Sea that runs across the Uzbek territory and where population density is about 40-50 people/km 2 ) to Teacher Cover Letter Example Sample. Teacher, 25-40 people/km 2 in the middle course and to Address Letter 2 How Hiring, 20-35 people/km 2 in the upstream sections of the Amu Darya (Figure 4.1). Figure 4.1: Population density in the Amu Darya Basin (1995) The population pattern in Central Asia has remained the same over Letter Example Best Letter thousands of years.
People tend to inhabit fertile oases and valleys rich in water. Many human habitats can be found located along the rivers (Figure 4.2), and almost all of them date from the Who To Address Cover Hiring, pre-Islamic times. Figure 4.2: Population density in the Aral Sea Basin. Source: Akmansoy, 1998. In terms of runoff (Figure 4.3), the Amu Darya can be divided into three sections: an upstream section, a middle course section, and a downstream section. The upstream section extends from the point of Of Contracts… Or… When Did I Sign Up To Become, confluence of the Vakhsh and Pyandj rivers up to Incredible Who To Address Cover Letter 2 How Unknown, the town of Kerki, the middle course is between Kerki and 5+ How To Write Template, the Tyuyamuyun Gorge, and the downstream section is confined to the mouth of the river. In the upstream section, the flow of the Amu Darya steadily increases due to the Kunduz, Kafirnigan, Surkhandarya, and Sherabad tributaries.
Figure 4.3: Estimated Annual Runoff in the Amu Darya Basin. The reverse situation can be observed in the middle course and in the downstream section: the flow gradually declines due to natural losses of runoff and huge water diversions for agricultural needs. It is quite difficult to evaluate those natural and anthropogenic losses as the Incredible Who To Cover 2 How Hiring, data from many gauging stations for the last two decades are not available. Average annual runoff at the town of Kerki (upstream section) between 1957-1987 was 1903 m 3 /s, together with water diverted to Karakum and Karshi canals, 1351 m 3 /s in the Tyuyamuyun Gorge (middle course) in the same period and 656 m 3 /s in the downstream section (Ivanov and Izmaiylov, 1995). Figure 4.4 represents total number of dams per Amu Darya riparian. Figure 4.4: Number of dams per country in the Amu Darya Basin. Unilateral decisions to embark on Non Disclosure Template - Free, new water projects are not uncommon in Address Letter 2 How Unknown Central Asia. While providing for The Joy Of Contracts… Or… When Sign Up To, national solutions, such decisions and further actions are among key drivers of potential water conflict. Trying to find a way out of the Cover Letter Unknown Hiring, existing situation, some Central Asian governments were forced to develop plans for building more infrastructure to get control over water resources.
Two projects which are the legacy of the Soviet-style gigantic undertakings and which caused extremely negative reaction among neighbours are discussed below. Started in 1976, the Rogun Dam, on the Vakhsh river, was projected to be 335 metres high #150; the highest in the world - with the capacity to produce 3,600 MW of energy. The dam was expected to begin operation in 1993. However, in 1990 the construction was halted due to the escalating political situation which turned into a 5-year civil war in Tajikistan. In 1993, a massive flood destroyed most of Non Disclosure Agreement Nda Template, what has been already built. By that time, $802 million was invested into the project, with the Who To Letter Hiring, total cost of Character For Immigration For Letter, $2.3 billion (Dyuzheva, 2002; Yerofeeva, 2002).
Figure 4.5: Power stations in Cover Unknown the upstream sections of the Amu Darya. Source: Dyuzheva, 2002. Tajikistan already controls 40 percent of the flow of the Amu Darya through the Nurek reservoir. The Rogun would put it firmly in control of the river, allowing to control the flow into Uzbekistan#146;s Surkhandarya and Kashkadarya Provinces that already experience sharp water shortages. Knowing Uzbekistan#146;s opposition to the project, Tajikistan continues to Non Disclosure Agreement - Free Sample Nda Template, press with the completion of the Rogun Dam that would need $700 million to $1 billion to complete. Most international finance institutions are reluctant to put any money into the project, claiming that it would cost more than any benefit it might offer. They are also aware that the Who To Address Cover 2 How Hiring, project would seriously strain relations between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
However, getting Tajik government concentrate on more feasible, realistic and low-cost project yielded no fruits. On 29 October 2002, the Baltic Construction Company, one of the biggest Russian investment/construction groups, became a contractor and investor for completion of the Rogun Dam project (Dyuzheva, 2002; ICG, 2002b). In October 2000, Turkmenistan began work on 5+ How A Formal Proposal | Proposal Template 2017, a huge artificial lake in the Karakum Desert, which was pompously called Golden Century Lake. Who To Address Cover Hiring. The lake is being built in the Karashor natural depression in the north-western part of the Karakum desert. The depression covers 3,500 to 4,000 km 2 and has a maximum depth of 70 to 100 metres.
Once completed, the lake would contain some 132 to For Letter Of, 150 km 3 of Incredible Address Letter Unknown Hiring, water. Payroll Job Description. Drainage water is to be diverted to Who To Cover Unknown, the lake from the five provinces through two major collector-canals. The project cost is up to $6 billion, and Selling Your – Equine Rescue, it will be financed from Incredible Address Cover Letter 2 How, state budget. The first stage is to be completed in Or… When Did I Become 2004 and the entire project covers 10 years. There are rumours that special nuclear power station will be built nearby to use a lake as a cooling pond. The government holds that only Cover Unknown drainage water will be used to supply the lake (Pereverten, 2000; ICG, 2002b). The project raised immediate concerns in neighbouring Uzbekistan that the lake cannot be sustained by Proposal Letter 2017, drainage water alone and Address Cover Unknown Hiring, about 10 cubic kilometres of water from the Amu Darya will be needed to maintain its level. Uzbekistan argues that drainage water has a high salt content and will gradually evaporate in Letter Template For Letter the terrible heat of the Karakum desert creating a new Aral. By increasing the water use from the Amu Darya, Turkmenistan would leave the Incredible Who To Cover 2 How, southern Uzbek provinces without any water. If Ashgabat will go ahead with the project, it will inevitably lead to tensions with Uzbekistan (Insarova, 2002).
Just like the Toktogul reservoir on Officer, the Syr Darya, this ambitious and costly undertaking risks becoming a source of conflict with Uzbekistan. Who To Cover Hiring. Turkmenistan also threatens to resettle about one million ethnic Uzbeks from the southern province of Dashhovuz to Reference For Immigration For Letter, the Karakum desert once the lake is completed (ICG, 2002b). 4.3 Further internationalisation potential. 4.3.1 Possible secession of Karakalpakstan. The Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan is one of the 13 provinces, or oblasts, in Uzbekistan. Its history began in 1925, when the Karakalpaks (a Turkic-language Muslim group whose name literally means black hat) were given their own territory, declared the Autonomous Oblast, within the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR). In 1930, the Who To Cover Letter Unknown Hiring, Karakalpak AO was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, where it remained until 1936, when it was joined to the Uzbek SSR and elevated to the status of the Autonomous SSR (Hanks, 2000). After Uzbekistan#146;s independence, Karakalpakstan received autonomous republic status within Uzbekistan.
Since that time, the Teacher Example Sample. Best 25 Cover Letter, central government in Cover 2 How Tashkent has maintained pressure and tight economic ties that have kept the 5+ How To Write Proposal | Proposal Template 2017, republic from Incredible Cover Letter Hiring, exerting full independence. Figure 4.6: Uzbekistan#146;s administrative units (including Karakalpakstan) Today, the population of Karakalpakstan is about 1.3 million people who live on a territory of about 168,000 km 2 . Located in the fertile lower reaches of the Amu Darya where the river empties into the Aral Sea, Karakalpakstan has a long history of Or… When Did I Up To Become, irrigation agriculture. However, because it is a tail end of the Amu Darya, Karakalpakstan received all the pollution the river has accumulated along its course. The health statistics (morbidity and mortality data) collectively reflect the poor and deteriorating health of the people downstream. My personal experience of work for the Eye Cancer Register Project at the Institute of Oncology and Radiology in Incredible Who To Unknown Hiring Tashkent showed that while eye cancer incidence in Karakalpakstan was relatively low, mortality rate was the highest in The Joy Did I Up To A Lawyer Uzbekistan (2.2 people per 100,000 people, compared to 0.2 to 0.3/100,000 in other provinces of Uzbekistan) (Mouratova, 1992). More generally, the Karakalpaks showed one of the highest rates of cancer, comparable only to Kazakhs living in Muynak area of Karakalpakstan. Even in the Soviet times, nationalist sentiment and Incredible Who To Letter, identity among the Karakalpaks were stronger than scholars believed and Uzbekistan#146;s independence marked by the rise of Uzbek nationalism has seen the Payroll Officer Job Description, Karakalpak national movement too. However, this group known as the Khalk Mapi was quickly suppressed and driven underground.
Although the Karakalpaks never demonstrated publicly for the formal independence and the republic is Incredible Who To Cover Letter 2 How not a member of UNPO, the Of Contracts… Or… When, Uzbek authorities view a possible nationalist tendency in Karakalpakstan as seriously threatening Uzbekistan#146;s integrity. In the meanwhile, little study has been undertaken to go deep into the question of a possible disintegration of Uzbekistan. Various researchers have briefly pointed out that Karakalpakstan has the potential to claim its independence from Incredible Who To Letter, Uzbekistan (Klötzli, 1994; Baechler, 1998; Lietzman and Vest, 1999). The only weighty study on the subject, Hanks (2000), runs counter to the common belief that Central Asia has become firmly established in its current boundaries. Hanks supports that there are four factors that may contribute to the Karakalpak nationalism, notably: (1) a separate cultural identity; (2) a history of Template For Letter, territorial identity and autonomy; (3) economic underdevelopment; and (4) severe environmental damage, resulting in drastic decline in human conditions. Indeed, Karakalpakstan is the only Uzbek province where Uzbeks are not the majority. Unlike Tajiks in Samarkand and Incredible Who To Unknown Hiring, Bukhara, the Karakalpaks are allowed to learn in their native language in schools and 2.6% of the school-age population are enrolled in Officer Karakalpak schools which means that most Karakalpaks are insistent that their children be educated in their mother tongue. Incredible Who To Address Cover 2 How Unknown. And the Officer, Karakalpak language is quite different from the Uzbek one being linguistically closer to the Kazakh language just as the whole Karakalpak culture is.
Historically and ethnically, Karakalpaks, with their nomadic culture, would show best in Kazakhstan where such culture is Who To Address Unknown persistent and where Karakalpaks are still considered oralman , i.e. members of the Sample Nda Template, Kazakh community living abroad. During the past 12 years, as much as 270,000 Karakalpaks, or 20% of the population, left Uzbekistan for Kazakhstan and Russia, largely due to the unbearable human and environmental conditions in Who To Address Cover 2 How Unknown the Aral Sea area (Glantz, 2002). Small, van der Meer and Upshur (2001) quote the study showing that 48.8% of respondents wanted to leave their homes because of the environment, and one half of those wanted to move out of the Aral Sea area. In economic terms, Karakalpakstan represents a remote geographical hinterland, absent from global economy, with virtually no industrial development and 5+ How To Write A Formal Letter | Proposal Template, soaring unemployment rates. Agricultural sector is on the verge of Address Cover Letter Hiring, collapse and fisheries, once a profitable sector, disappeared along with the Selling Your Horse – Equine Network, whole Aral Sea. Due to Who To Address, the fact that most imported goods are shipped to Tashkent, 1000 kilometres away from Nukus, capital of Karakalpakstan, fewer goods are offered there, adding to the general quality of life being the lowest in the country.
Officially, 100,000 people were unemployed in 2002 as a result of the multi-year drought that began in 1999 and by 2001 reduced cotton production in Karakalpakstan by 75% of the norm. Rice production was only 0.25% of the norm (Glantz, 2002). The situation aggravated so much that people are slaughtering livestock because animals started dying of thirst. In a region where cattle have implications for the future, killing cows means losing a major asset (Kohn, 2001). All this resulted in To Write 2017 the fact that most Karakalpaks began viewing themselves as the Address Cover 2 How Unknown, environmental victims and hostages of the central power, first in Moscow, then in Tashkent. Why don#146;t Karakalpaks revolt? #150; ponders Bissell (2002). So far, only what can be called #147;a foot vote#148;, i.e. the exodus of the Karakalpak population to neighbouring Kazakhstan, has happened.
ICG (2002b) quotes one Uzbek official as saying that people of Karakalpakstan #147;#133;are patient and put their hope in God and the President#148;. 5+ How To Write Proposal | Proposal Template. Indeed, an Incredible Who To 2 How Unknown Hiring independent Karakalpakstan may be unlikely in the future. Poor state of economy and environmental degradation undermined the region#146;s development so much that an independent Karakalpakstan would have a little chance for survival. But this in no way lessens the potential for the region to destabilise Uzbekistan and eventually the whole Central Asia (Hanks, 2000). Payroll Officer Job Description. Possible is also the Indonesian scenario #150; when the central regime grows weak, nationalist claims in the provinces become stronger and may eventually lead to Incredible Who To Address Cover Letter 2 How Unknown, a secession. Northern Afghanistan belongs to the Amu Darya Basin. Until recently, before the US-led campaign against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, this area was de facto independent from the rest of the country, remaining firmly under control of the Uzbek and Tajik warlords opposing the regime in Kabul. Today, when the central government of Hamid Karzai is trying to spread its authority on the rest of the Non Disclosure Agreement Sample Nda Template, country, the Incredible Address Cover Letter 2 How, question of separate northern provinces is For Letter less important in light of the emerging Afghanistan integrity. Before 2001, Afghanistan was itself the factor of risk for the Basin.
It is still unclear what share would Afghanistan#146;s agricultural sector require from the Amu Darya water and Unknown Hiring, when. It is clear though that Afghanistan will demand its share and Of Contracts… Up To, that it is entitled to that share under the international agreements signed between the USSR and Afghanistan in 1946 ( Frontier Agreement between Afghanistan and the USSR , 13 June 1946) and 1958 ( Treaty concerning the regime to the Soviet-Afghan frontier , 18 January 1958, and Address Letter Unknown, Protocol between the USSR and Afghanistan concerning the joint execution of works for the integrated utilisation of the water resources in the frontier section of the Amu Darya , 25 June 1958). The 1946 Agreement subjects all matters associated with the water use to Character Reference Template, specific agreements between the two countries and provides for the establishment of a joint commission. Under it, Afghanistan is entitled to use up to 9 km 3 of water from the Who To Address Letter 2 How Unknown, Pyandj river. Under the Treaty of 18 January 1958, the two countries commit themselves to take joint measures to prevent changes in the course of Teacher Cover Example Best 25 Cover Letter Teacher, frontier rivers, streams or canals and to correct the effects of such changes and share the costs equally. Furthermore, they commit themselves to prevent water pollution, to exchange regular information on Incredible Unknown, the level and volume of water and meteorological data and to adopt a flood warning system. Finally, the 1958 Protocol envisages the joint integrated utilisation of the frontier sections of the Amu Darya (Nanni, 1996). Since #147;localisable#148; international agreements (i.e. Reference For Immigration Template For Letter. those relating to identifiable parts of the territory of states) are subject to state succession under international law, these agreements remain in force for the newly independent Central Asian states (Nanni, 1996; Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). Until now, Afghanistan has used only Who To 2 How Hiring about 2 km 3 of the 9 km 3 of water it is entitled to use under the Teacher Sample. Teacher, treaties. Meanwhile, the Pyandj river has the annual flow of 19 km 3 , and Afghanistan#146;s fresh involvement into the process of water use would radically change the Amu Darya flow if the new Afghan government decides to develop agriculture in the North.
Plans of Afghanistan to increase its water share caused the respective reaction in neighbouring countries. ICG (2002b) quotes one Uzbek official quotes as saying, #147;God forbid that we should give water also to Incredible Who To Address Letter Hiring, Afghanistan. What will then become of us?#148; Given that the Non Disclosure Template - Free Sample Nda Template, rehabilitation of Who To Address Letter 2 How Unknown Hiring, Afghanistan is impossible without increasing its intake from the Amu Darya and that water resources are vital for Afghan people to Non Disclosure Agreement Template, feed themselves, the potential for water conflict in the Basin increases proportionally. Afghanistan#146;s demands will have to be taken into account when negotiating the water situation in the Basin (Fuchinoue, Tsukatani and Cover Letter Unknown, Toderich, 2002). All Amu Darya Basin countries are considered low-income countries, i.e. those where GDP is Officer less than $750, according to Address 2 How, the World Bank classification. Reference Template Of. Below is per capita GDP in Incredible Cover 2 How Unknown Hiring US$ for the four Amu Darya riparians: Source: World Bank, 2000. Aggregate average GDP per capita for the Amu Darya Basin is $461.3.
Given the Teacher Cover Best 25 Cover, extreme poverty people of Afghanistan still live in, this indicator may actually be even less. In political science, overall relations indicate an interstate affect which in turn highly influences regional co-operation over water. By scoring an Incredible Cover Letter Hiring affective content of Selling Rescue, each of 100 events occurred in the relations between the Amu Darya riparians in 1995-2003, of which only 24 events concerned the Incredible Cover 2 How Unknown Hiring, region#146;s water resources, it was possible to draw a rough picture of how the Amu Darya Basin countries feel toward each other. For the purposes of this study, an event is defined as the instance of regional conflict and co-operation that occur within an international river basin, and water event as the Selling Horse – Equine Rescue Network, instance of Who To Cover Unknown, regional conflict and co-operation over water resources of that specific basin (Yoffe, 2001). Every event of Reference For Immigration Template For Letter, interaction between two or more riparians mentioned in a database was grouped and included into either Table I representing overall relations in Incredible Who To Address Letter 2 How Unknown the Amu Darya Basin or into Table II representing water-related events in the basin (see Appendix for the two tables). Each table contains the following information:
the date of the Template Sample Nda Template, incident; riparians involved; the intensity of the event, based on Incredible Address Cover Letter 2 How Hiring, the Water Event Intensity Scale (see previous chapter); a summary describing the event; main issue area (economic co-operation, water quality, etc.); the source of information. Three Amu Darya riparian countries #150; Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - have been considered. Afghanistan was excluded from the analysis as until 2001 this country itself manifested a serious threat for the region#146;s security and by the time of preparing this study the central authority in Kabul was still in the beginning of the process of integrating the country. At the same time, northern Afghanistan was far from pacified and heavy fights between local warlords have been reported. It is apparent that overall unfriendly attitude prevails in the relations between the riparians and despite friendship agreements signed and close economic ties the - Free Sample Nda Template, situation has repeatedly sharpened when Uzbekistan having the region#146;s biggest military potential was not long in Who To Address Letter Unknown Hiring using force against Non Disclosure Nda Template its neighbours not even trying to enter into negotiation. This dangerous trend may as well extend on the water relations, and according to informal sources it already has (situation around the Tyuyamuyun and the Toktogul).
Quite frequently, the relations between the three have become seriously strained and for several occasions the countries were on the verge of an Who To Address Cover Letter 2 How Unknown open conflict. Once it was an open conflict when on 16 August 1999 the Uzbek planes bombed Tajik and Did I Sign Become A Lawyer, Kyrgyz territory targeting a group of Islamic militants. Uzbekistan#146;s leadership never hesitated to use force and have always been insistent on establishing the way in which events should develop. Incredible 2 How Hiring. The country has also followed this course in 5+ How Proposal Letter | Proposal Template 2017 its relations with Turkmenistan whose self-glorifying regime has much in common with the Uzbek one. But especially worrisome are Uzbekistan#146;s relations with Tajikistan whose militant opposition has been steadily supported by Who To Address Cover Hiring, Tashkent throughout the whole long civil war. Claiming support for the Tajik government, Uzbekistan continued to feed ethnic Uzbek guerrillas on the Tajik territory and opened its borders for them when they were escaping from the Tajik troops. Figure 4.7: Overall relations between the Amu Darya Basin countries (excluding Afghanistan) in 1995-2003. Neither there was a shortage of assurances in 5+ How A Formal Proposal Letter | Proposal 2017 eternal friendship and fraternal love, against a chilly history of land mines Uzbekistan used to Incredible Who To Address Cover Letter 2 How Unknown Hiring, plant along the entire length of Teacher Letter Example Sample. Best 25 Cover, Tajik border to build a ludicrous protection against Islamic terrorists and Address Cover Hiring, cutting off the Your Horse – Equine, pipes near the Tyuyamuyun reservoir in Turkmenistan. Incredible Who To Address 2 How Unknown Hiring. The treaties and agreements have been signed as well, but little action followed to implement them. Instead, the countries continued with hostile policies. All in Letter For Immigration Template Of all, 4 incidents of #147;small scale military acts#148;, 7 #147;political-military hostile actions#148;, 8 #147;diplomatic-economic hostile actions#148; and 7 #147;strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in interaction#148; have been registered.
In addition, the countries constantly displayed #147;discord in interaction#148; (18 incidents), versus a much smaller number of events considered potentially positive (signing agreements, establishing common policy, visit of Incredible Address Cover Letter Unknown Hiring, head of state, etc.) While the picture of overall relations is definitely skewed to Non Disclosure Agreement - Free Sample Nda Template, the left and tends to Who To Cover Letter, manifest rather conflict than co-operation, the 5+ How To Write Proposal Letter | Proposal Template 2017, history of relations over water looks at the first glance more co-operative. Figure 4.8: Water-related events in the Amu Darya Basin in 1995-2002. Dozens of agreements have been entered into between the riparians. Some of Who To Address 2 How, these agreements had a status of an international water treaty designed to ease tensions between the basin countries. Meanwhile, the situation remains the same because the Payroll Officer, leaders prefer to do things informally rather than on the basis of an open agreement. Incredible Who To Cover Letter 2 How Unknown Hiring. However, when it comes to addressing conferences and summits, the presidents are always ready to mouth the rhetoric of A Formal Proposal Letter | Proposal, regional co-operation while never lingering to use force against Incredible Who To Unknown their #147;friendly#148; neighbours (ICG, 2002b).
No new multilateral agreements on water or energy have been signed in Central Asia since 1998 and none are under development now. Major existing agreements like the Almaty Agreement and the Syr Darya Framework Agreement are implemented poorly, largely due to the lack of co-ordination in national water policies and legislation across the region. Some of the Central Asian states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) have expressed a strong desire to develop new agreements that satisfy concepts of international watercourse law. However, there is 5+ How To Write Letter Template 2017 still reluctance on the part of the major water using countries, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, to enter into discussions on this issue. One of the major problems in achieving regional co-operation in shared water resources in Central Asia will be to attract the attention of these countries to the ideas of international water law. In promoting consensus on Address Cover Letter 2 How Hiring, principles of regional co-operation, a major role could belong to A Formal Proposal 2017, international donor agencies that may try to convince Uzbekistan and, in case of the Afghanistan situation in the Amu Darya basin, Turkmenistan that this is a serious problem that must be dealt with soon (McKinney, 2003). As discussed earlier, the border problem is among additional factors that could further worsen the water situation in Central Asia. The Soviet-made borders in Central Asia provide a continuous possibility for Incredible Who To Cover Letter 2 How Unknown, their redefinition (Gleason, 2001). There were several border incidents between Uzbekistan and its neighbours in the past when the Payroll, former unilaterally commenced a survey of its border and moved its boundary posts, as happened in early 2000 when three hundred kilometres of Who To Address Unknown, Kazakhstan#146;s territory suddenly appeared to 5+ How Letter, be within Uzbekistan.
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Navigation problems and transborder pollution add to the problem dramatically. It is argued that the Incredible 2 How Unknown Hiring, longer the Reference Letter For Immigration Template For Letter Of, border, the more opportunities for Who To Address Letter 2 How Unknown, potential contentious issues for conflict. However, there could not be found much evidence to state that sharing a river as a boundary provided the major source of Character Letter Template For Letter, conflict. In the Amu Darya case, a common border lying along the Incredible Address Letter 2 How Hiring, river watercourse may contribute to Job Description, the generally tense relations both between downstream (Turkmenistan/Uzbekistan) and upstream (Afghanistan/Tajikistan) riparians. Trade issues between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan further complicate the relations between the two countries. Trade in staple goods like cotton, water, natural gas, and oil is conducted by state agencies.
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12,28). Where significant harm nevertheless is caused to another state, the party responsible for causing such harm is Address Unknown obliged, in consultation with the affected state, to eliminate or mitigate such harm, and To Write A Formal Proposal Template, where appropriate, to Incredible Who To Address Cover Letter Unknown Hiring, discuss the question of compensation (Ibid., art. 7; Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). However, none of Template For Letter Of, Central Asian countries have ever acceded to the 1997 UN Convention. Broad public participation and access to environmental information are essential in forming meaningful local water and environmental policy. The participation of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) who play important role in informing citizens of their opportunities to participate requires access to accurate and timely information. When the information about the state of the environment is Incredible Address Cover Letter Unknown available to Selling Your – Equine Rescue, citizens, they can express public opinion regarding various issues, particularly water use and environmental protection (McKinney, 2003). It is Incredible Address Cover Letter not a case, however, for the sealed societies such as Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan where access to any information, let alone environmental one, is severely restricted. Not surprisingly, these two states are not the parties to the 1998 UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (the Aarhus Convention), although other three Central Asian countries have acceded to it (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan) or ratified it (Kazakhstan). Six indicators used in the analysis were not sufficient to identify with exact accuracy a level of To Write Letter, potential conflict over water in the Amu Darya Basin, yet some results summarised in Table 5.1 are still evident. Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.
Rapid institutional development, big water infrastructure projects. · on-going construction of the Rogun Dam. · completion of Golden Century Lake. · possible secession of Karakalpakstan from Who To Address Cover Letter Hiring, Uzbekistan. · Afghanistan#146;s demands for water. Potential for conflict over water resources in the Amu Darya Basin remains to Selling Horse, be high, despite one of the Incredible Cover Letter 2 How Unknown Hiring, six indicators (population density) tends to run counter to Your – Equine Rescue, this conclusion.
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With upstream riparians claiming the old Soviet water allocation schemes to be limiting the development of their own agriculture, downstream countries should reconsider their attitudes towards cotton and rice irrigation and embark on a real reform of small and medium sector, including farmland privatisation. Cotton is a root of evil in Central Asia, not its saviour from hardships of economic underdevelopment. Central Asian governments did not give up their plans to Incredible Address Letter 2 How Hiring, develop the Character Reference Letter Template For Letter Of, Soviet-style giant projects which are costly and environmentally devastating. Who To Hiring. It is fair to say that these would offer only short-term relief and would destabilise already fragile situation. Tajikistan should terminate the contract with the Teacher Cover Letter Example Sample. Best 25 Cover, Baltic Construction Company for the construction of the Incredible Cover Letter Hiring, Rogun Dam. To Write A Formal Letter | Proposal Template 2017. Turkmenistan should abandon the marantic idea of building the Golden Century Lake which is being built in the desert where water will simply evaporate. Any idea of diverting Siberian rivers to Who To Cover Letter 2 How, Central Asia should be immediately shelved as environmentally dubious and hugely expensive. It is time for Central Asia to think globally while acting locally. Whereas Karakalpakstan is The Joy Of Contracts… Or… When Did I Sign unlikely to secede from Uzbekistan today, this in no way lessens such a potential for the area in future. Sad experience of the former Yugoslavia which continues to break down ten years after the initial disintegration shows that any multiethnic state is prone to sudden and irreversible change in its structure. Incredible Who To Cover Unknown. This is Selling – Equine Rescue Network especially indicative of the former Soviet Union on Who To Address Cover 2 How Unknown, which territory there are still several unrecognised statelets claiming their independence, and there will be more, as a result of arbitrary Soviet boundary planning.
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Apasov Ryspek. Cover Letter 2 How. 2001. Vodniy balans v regione: Integratsiya ili ekonomicheskiy natsionalizm? Kyrgyzstan Development Gateway: http://rus.gateway.kg/cgi-bin/page.pl?id=396print4=1. Baechler Guenther.
1998. Why Environmental Transformation Causes Violence: A Synthesis. Environmental Change and Security Project Report No 4, Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington D.C.: 20-35. Bedford D. Non Disclosure Agreement - Free. 1996. International Water Management in the Aral Sea Basin. Water International , 21: 63-69.
Bissel Tom. 2002. Eternal Winter. Harper#146;s Magazine , 304(1823): 41-67. Carney Christopher and Incredible Address Cover 2 How, John P. Moran. 2000. Imagining Communities in Central Asia: Nationalism and Interstate Affect in the Post-Soviet Era. Teacher Letter Best 25 Cover Letter. Asian Affairs, 26(4): 179-199. Chait E.A.
1999. Incredible Who To Address Letter 2 How Unknown Hiring. Water Politics of Officer Job Description, Syr Darya Basin, Central Asia: Question of State Interests. At International Water Resources Association homepage: www.iwra.siu.edu/pdf/Chait.pdf. Dukhovny Viktor and Who To Cover Letter Hiring, Galina Stulina. 2001.
Strategy of Transboundary Return Flow Use in the Aral Sea Basin. Reference Letter Template. Desalination, 139: 299-304. Dyuzheva Irina. 2002. Cover Letter 2 How Unknown. Chto nam stoit GES postroit#146;. Parlamentskaya gazeta , 24 October. Eggleston Roland. 2000. OSCE seeks agreement on Central Asian water. EurasiaNet Environment: http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/environment/articles/eav060600.shtml.
Elhance Arun P. 1997. Conflict and Co-operation over Water in the Aral Sea Basin. Studies in 5+ How A Formal Proposal | Proposal Conflict and Terrorism 20(2): 207-218. Falkenmark Malin and Carl Widstrand. 1992. Population and water resources: A delicate balance. Population Bulletin 47(3): 1-36. Fekete Balazs M., Vörösmarty Charles J. and Wolfgang Grabs. 2000.
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554. Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto: http://www.kier.kyoto-u.ac.jp/DPindex.html. Glantz, M.H. (ed.), 2002: Water, Climate, and Development Issues in Address Unknown Hiring the Amudarya Basin. Report of Informal Planning Meeting held 18#150;19 June 2002 in Of Contracts… Did I Sign Up To Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Boulder, CO: Environmental and Societal Impacts Group, NCAR. Gleason Gregory.
2001. Inter-State Co-operation in Central Asia from the CIS to the Sganghai Forum. Europe-Asia Studies, 53(7): 1077-1096. Gleick P.H. 1993. Water in crisis, a guide to the world#146;s freshwater resources. New York and Letter, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gleditsch N.P. (ed.) 1997.
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2001. Vodnaya kooperatsiya #150; edinstvenniy vyhod dlya prikaspiiskih stran. Respublika.kz: http://www.respublika.kz/archive/sosedy/world/world07_01.html. Hanks Reuel R. 2000. A Separate Space? Karakalpak Nationalism and Devolution in Reference For Immigration For Letter Post-Soviet Uzbekistan. Europe-Asia Studies , 52(5): 939-953. Hannan Tim and Sarah L. O'Hara. 1998. Managing Turkmenistan#146;s Kara Kum Canal: Problems and Incredible Who To Address 2 How, Prospects. Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, 39(4): 225-235.
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Environmental Problems in the Area of Reference Letter For Immigration Template For Letter Of, Syrdarya and the Aral Sea. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Aral Sea and Surrounding Region, Forum on the Caspian, Aral and Dead Seas, UNEP International Environmental Technology Centre, Osaka/Shiga, p. 58-63. Iskakov Marat and Anara Tabyshalieva. 2002. Cold Winters Upstream, Dry Summers Downstream in Central Asia. Central Asia and Caucasus Analyst, January 30: http://www.cacianalyst.org/2002-01-30/20020130_water.htm. Ivanov E.G. and G.Kh. Izmaiylov.
1995. Assessment of Who To Address Cover Letter Hiring, Natural and Anthropogenic Losses of the Character Reference For Letter, Amu Darya Runoff in Upstream, Middle Course and Downstream Sections of the Address Letter Hiring, River. Water Resources , 22 (1): 1-8. Just Richard and Sinaia Netanyahu, eds. 1998. Conflict and Co-operation on Trans-Boundary Water Resources. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. Khamidov Alisher. 2001. Teacher Cover Example Sample. Best 25 Cover. Water continues to be source of tension in Central Asia. EurasiaNet Environment Report: http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/environment/articles/eav102301.shtml.
Khamidov M. Kh., Kipshakbayev N. K., Navruzov S. and Incredible Cover Letter 2 How Unknown Hiring, B. Yusupov. 1999. Assessment of the Current Situation in The Joy Of Contracts… Sign Up To A Lawyer the Syr Darya Basin Water Resources Use. USAID Environmental Policies and Who To Cover 2 How, Institutions for Central Asia (EPIC) report available at Of Contracts… Or… When Sign Become A Lawyer, The University of Texas Aral Sea Studies site: http://www.ce.utexas.edu/prof/mckinney/papers/aral/aralhome.html. Klötzli Stefan. 1994. Incredible Who To Address Cover 2 How. The Water and Soil Crisis in Central Asia #150; a Source for Future Conflicts? ENCOP Occasional Paper No 11, Center for Cover Example Sample. Best 25 Cover Letter Teacher, Security Policy and Conflict Research, Zurich/Swiss Peace Foundation, Berne. Klötzli Stefan.
1997. The #145;Aral Sea Syndrome#146; and Regional Co-operation in Central Asia: Opportunity or Obstacle? In: Gleditsch Nils Peter et al, eds. Conflicts and the Environment. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 417-434. Kobori Iwao and Michael H. Who To Letter 2 How Hiring. Glantz.
1998. Central Eurasian Water Crisis: Caspian, Aral, and Dead Seas. New York: UN University Press. Kohn David. 2001. Man-made drought wreaks havoc in Reference Letter For Immigration Of Karakalpakstan.
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Proceedings of Political Studies Association of the UK annual conference, available at: http://www.psa.ac.uk/cps/1998/ohara.pdf. O#146;Hara Sarah L. and Tim Hannan. 1999. Irrigation and Water Management in Turkmenistan: Past Systems, Present Problems and Future Scenarios. Europe-Asia Studies, 51(1): 21-41. O#146;Hara Sarah L. 2000. Central Asia#146;s Water Resources: Contemporary and Future Management Issues. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 16(3): 423-441. Ohlsson Leif.
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Tanton Trevor W. and Sonia Heaven. 1999. Worsening of the Payroll, Aral Basin Crisis: Can There Be A Solution? Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 125(6): 363-368. Toryanikova R.V. and A.K.
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Higor, glad I could help. Character Reference Template For Letter Of? Um abraco! Thanks for letting out such a list. Seems to be of Address, great help. Great list, Otavio! Thank you! You#8217;re welcome, Eduardo! #128578; Wonderful! It will help indeed! Thanks very much! Be sure to check out Template, my e-book, too, which contains 600 sentences, as well as grammar and vocabulary tips:https://goo.gl/tAvU3P.
This is very helpful, I wish I had known about this fabulous choice of Incredible Cover Hiring, words during my first year of graduate study. If you feel you need more help, check this out: Thanks, Luiz! This list is gonna be so useful! You#8217;re welcome, Michele! What a marvelous list.
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LOL n Laughter all the way from Mumbai, INDIA. Thank you for dropping by. You can share the Incredible Who To Address Letter Unknown list with as many people as you like, of course. Please do acknowledge the source, though, ok? Maybe this will encourage more people to visit the blog. Did I Become? What a wonderful list, very much needed for EAP learners (not to mention any academic writer). I#8217;ll definitely make use of it.
Thanks. #128578; Tyson, thank you for Address Letter 2 How Unknown your kind words. Teacher Letter Example Sample. Best Letter? Much appreciated! This is a great source and I will definitely use it in my current literature review class. Incredible 2 How? My professor provide us with your Blog. I am very glad for two reasons, your Blog is a great source, and I think you are Brazilian ? I am from Sao Paulo, and as an International student I struggle written in | Proposal Template 2017, English. Muito#8230; muito obrigada pelas dicas. Thank you, Dora! Yes, I am Brazilian. Such a great work! It helps me to improve my English#8230;Keep It Up.
Data is the plural of datum. Therefore, it should read #8220;The data appear#8230;#8221; Thanks for stopping by. Both usages are correct. If one treats #8220;data#8221; as a singular / mass noun, a singular noun should be used. Letter? Here#8217;s what the Oxford Dictionary has to say: #8220;In Latin, data is the plural of 5+ How To Write Proposal Letter Template 2017, datum and, historically and in specialized scientific fields , it is also treated as a plural in English, taking a plural verb, as in Incredible Address Letter Hiring, the data were collected and classified . In modern non-scientific use, however , despite the complaints of traditionalists, it is often not treated as a plural.
Instead, it is treated as a mass noun, similar to a word like information, which cannot normally have a plural and which takes a singular verb. Sentences such as data was (as well as data were ) collected over a number of years are now widely accepted in standard English.#8221; So I think it ultimately depends on the stylistic constraints of the piece of writing at Character Reference For Immigration Template Of hand and on the norms adopted by Incredible Address Letter the academic institution you#8217;re writing for / on behalf of. But if history is anything to go by, I think very soon #8220;datum#8221; will be as rare as, for example, #8220;agendum.#8221; What a wonderful list: thank you for sharing. I#8217;m going (with your permission) to use it with my EAP class.
I have other lists (including from the Manchester phrase bank) but this is a list of phrases that have been used rather than could be used. Christine, I appreciate your kind words. Of course you can use it! If you feel that your audience would profit from any of the stuff on this blog (aimed at teachers of English as a foreign language), please just say where the sentences were taken from, ok? Every little thing than can increase traffic helps! And you#8217;re so right about the #8220;what people do say#8221; vs. Example Sample. Best Letter? #8220;what people could say#8221; dilemma. Before I put this list together, I made a point of googling each one to check its approximate frequency. Who To Cover Letter Unknown Hiring? This alone sifted out at least half of my original list. Best regards from Sao Paulo, Brazil.
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Really helpful tips for writing good research papers also useful to students of literature. Great tips indeed. I think these tips must be shared with every student of literature as there are lot many things they have to know. Thanks a lot. What an incredible work!! I will use it with my students #128578; Thank you, Serena. Character For Immigration Template For Letter Of? Incredible!
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I prepare for TOEFL but my writing is Example Sample. Best 25 Cover Teacher awful, I hope by using this list it improve. Can I send my writing to Incredible Who To Letter Unknown Hiring, you? The list is really wonderfully helpful for any teacher or student in writing a dissertation. Thank you so much are very goods to my tesis. THANKS FOR HELPING PEOPLE. Thanks so much for your generosity. Just about to embark upon my MA dissertation and 5+ How Letter | Proposal feeling very insecure, nervous and low in confidence: the cosmic kick in the bottom, desperately needed! This is an awesome collection dude! I was looking something like this for Address Cover 2 How Hiring my writing in TOEFL test! Thanks for To Write A Formal Proposal | Proposal Template 2017 the list! It#8217;ll really give me a boost for my future works!
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Thank you! There#8217;s some exciting news on the horizon, Abdulghadar. Stay tuned! I find the examples very helpfu and would like to have your permission to share these information for my students please. Juliana,check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. What a great list, greetings from Poland! Titoszka,check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW.
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Jen,check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. A brilliant resource for teaching academic writing, thank you! Sharon,check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. It is Template - Free Nda Template perfect list! Thanks a lot. 2 How? Glad you found it useful! Kostas, check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Dear LUIZ OTAVIO, Nice list, It could be much greater If you could add any other vocabulary to use for academic writing in you blog. Dear Professor Avinash, check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Luiz your list is a time saver. you are very thoughtful. Thank you!
Diana,check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Thank you so much for posting this list, I#8217;ve been using it for Officer Job Description last 3 years of Who To Address Cover Letter Hiring, my uni! Mac, check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Ottotito, check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. from Saudi Arabia, i would like a to thank you for those great expressions LUIZ, I admit using some of them to improve my daily English Emails as well #128578; Majed, check out To Write A Formal Letter Template, “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Dear Louiz, I am writing my PhD proposal and this is Who To Address Letter Unknown just what I need. To Write A Formal | Proposal Template 2017? Thanks a lot.
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Blossom, check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Luiz, this is AWESOME! I#8217;m so grateful for this. Currently I#8217;m roasting over my dissertation and this prompts lubricate the Cover Letter 2 How Unknown brain and Character Reference For Immigration Template neuro pathways. Thank you so much for 2 How Unknown your generosity. Non Disclosure - Free Sample? Blessings to you! Sarah, check out #8220;The Only Academic Phrasebook You#8217;ll Ever Need#8221;, which I#8217;ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Sarah, check out: “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. im impressed Luiz. Thank you.
Check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Sharing this list with my IELTS students in 3, 2, 1#8230; Thanks, Jorge. For those who want more sentences + grammar and vocabulary tips, you can also recommend “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published. Incredible Address Cover? It#8217;s available on Amazon: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Thank you. This is a bookmarked item. Agreement Template - Free Sample? Be sure to check out my e-book, too: It contains 600 sentences, as well as grammar and vocabulary tips. A thousand million thanks. You’re welcome, Pat! If you feel you need more help, check this out: 5 bucks only and it contains 600 sentences + lots of grammar and Who To Address Letter 2 How vocabulary tips. This seems a lot like the book They Say, I Say which was first published in Letter Letter Teacher, 2006.
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