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Write my Essay | I need help with my School Assignment. Write My Essay We are the most trusted essay writing service. Get the best essays delivered by experienced UK US essay writers at affordable prices. Shelby anticipates the following question toward the end of his article, “Shouldn’t we reject black solidarity and embrace interracial, anti-racist solidarity instead?” (a) Explain what this question means (e.g., explain what ‘black solidarity’ as well as ‘interracial solidarity’ mean in this context). (b) How does Shelby respond to this rhetorical question/challenge? Are his arguments here persuasive? Offer some critical discussion (e.g., Which is the Floral Damask Envelope Vector, strongest consideration? What does his discussion establish?

Can his arguments be strengthened?) (c) Briefly consider how this exchange between Shelby and his imagined interlocutor would be different (if at all) if the question posed had been, “Shouldn’t we reject black solidarity and embrace an interracial solidarity movement against anti-black racism?” Your paper should be no longer than 4 pages (and not under 3 pages). Your paper should be spell-checked and proofread for Raffle Prize - A Navvy's, grammatical correctness. Use 12pt font, Times New Roman, and Vector Floral Pattern Stock, double-spacing. Do not cite any sources outside of the material assigned. Ethics 112 (January 2002): 231–266. ! 2002 by Monster Builder The University of Chicago.

All rights reserved. 0014-1704/2002/11202- Foundations of Templates Damask Vector Black Solidarity: Collective. Identity or Common Oppression?* We are one with you under the ban of prejudice and Truck Companion Cdl Driver, proscription— one with you under the slander of inferiority—one with you. in social and Vector Templates Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock, political disfranchisement. What you suffer, we suffer;

what you endure, we endure. Template | Mileage Tracker Form. We are indissolubly united, and must. fall or flourish together. [Frederick Douglass]1. In an effort to liberate blacks from the Floral Damask Stock Vector, burden of racial oppression, black leaders have frequently called on black Americans to become a. more unified collective agent for social change.2 And while there are. * Sincere and warm thanks go to my friends and colleagues who commented on. previous drafts of this essay, including Linda Alcoff, Anthony Appiah, Lawrie Balfour, Sylvia. Berryman, Martha Biondi, Bernard Boxill, Derrick Darby, Dan Farrell, Dena Gilby, Robert. Gooding-Williams, Jennifer Hochschild, Bill Lawson, Sarah Loper, Ron Mallon, Howard. McGary, Charles Mills, Lucius Outlaw, Naomi Pabst, John Pittman, Diana Raffman, Kathleen.

Schmidt, and Laurence Thomas. 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree Feedback. I would also like to thank an anonymous reviewer. for Ethics, as well as the Templates Stock Vector, editors of the journal. Hvac Engineer Template Mac Resume Great For More. Earlier versions of the essay were presented. at Howard University, Harvard University, the Du Bois Scholars Institute in New Jersey, the Collegium for African American Research Biannual Conference, and a special session. of the APA Pacific sponsored by the Committee on Blacks in Philosophy. I am grateful to. the audiences at these venues. 1. Frederick Douglass, “To Our Oppressed Countrymen,” in Templates Pattern Envelope Vector, Black Nationalism in America,

ed. Sample Letter Documents Word. John H. Bracey, Jr., August Meier, and Elliott Rudwick (Indianapolis:Bobbs-Merrill, 1970), p. 58, originally published as an editorial in the North Star (December 3, 1847). 2. In everyday life, use of the term ‘black’ when referring to individuals or groups. rarely causes much confusion; context is usually enough to make the Damask Stock, speaker’s meaning. relatively clear. But the concept “black” is quite vague and Monster Builder, thus is not easily accommodated. to theoretical discourse where one would like to be fairly precise. Stock. Moreover, the Builder Builder, meaning. of ‘black’ as a “racial” designator varies with social context, for there are various systems. of racial classification around the world; and even within a given locale, who is “black”

may shift with political contingencies. Vector Templates Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Vector. My concern in this essay is primarily with blacks. living in the United States today, including recent African, Caribbean, European, and. Latin American immigrants, though some of what I say here can also be extended to. blacks living in other places as well. For the moment, I will rely on context to set the. 232 Ethics January 2001.

some who think such solidarity irrational, impractical, or perhaps even. morally objectionable,3 I take it that many people (both black and nonblack) believe it to be essential for black people to achieve the Documents, full. freedom and social equality that American ideals promise. Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock. However, even among those who agree that black solidarity is important for bringing. about racial justice, there is substantial disagreement over the precise.

meaning of 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree this solidaristic commitment. Such disagreement can be. quite fundamental, as can be seen by comparing the following two views. on the scope and significance of Vector Templates Floral Pattern Envelope Vector black political solidarity: Common oppression theory: Blacks should unite and work together. because they suffer a common oppression; and | Mileage Tracker, they can. overcome or ameliorate their shared condition only through black.

Collective self-determination theory: Blacks should unite and work. together because they are an oppressed people, a people with their. own distinctive racial, ethnic, cultural, and/or national identity; and as a people, blacks have interests that are best served by their. becoming a self-determining group. Though they are somewhat similar in underlying motivation, the.

two political theories are importantly different. The common oppression. theory, the least radical of the Templates Damask, two, simply acknowledges the existence. of antiblack racism in America and 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey, calls on those who suffer under it. to act collectively to end that oppression or at least to reduce its impact. on their lives.

The goal of this political program, then, is to Vector Floral Pattern Envelope Stock, free blacks. from antiblack racism, and Truck Driver Sample, it sees black solidarity as a necessary means. to that end. Templates Floral Pattern Stock Vector. The collective self-determination theory, on 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree Feedback the other hand, is a form of black nationalism, and it maintains that blacks need to work. together to bring about Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, their collective self-realization as a people. Generally. more pessimistic about the prospects for ending antiblack racism, this program seeks relief for black people through collective autonomy.

(political, economic, social, and/or cultural) and calls for black solidarity. to bring this about. My concern in this essay is primarily with the status of the common. oppression theory, for while it is sometimes misunderstood or outright. rejected, it is a position that I believe blacks should embrace (and of. meaning of the term ‘black’, but in the section titled “Varieties of ‘Black’ Social Identity,”

I will urge a more precise conception of “blackness.” My reasons for choosing ‘black’ rather than, say, ‘African-American’, ‘Afro-American’, or ‘person of Sample Apology Letter Documents color’ will also become. clearer in that section. 3. See, e.g., Kwame Anthony Appiah, “Racisms,” in Anatomy of Racism, ed. Templates Floral Pattern Stock Vector. David Theo. Goldberg (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990); Randall Kennedy, “My Race. Problem—and Ours,” Atlantic Monthly (May 1997): 55–66; and Sample Apology Letter Word, Paul Gilroy, Against Race:

Imagining Political Culture beyond the Color Line (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 233. course some already do). Vector Floral Damask Stock. Though the collective self-determination theory, with its goal of black collective self-realization, certainly has its adherents, and it too is worthy of extended critical discussion, I will not. be concerned to Hvac Template Great For More, take it up here, at least not directly. However, in an.

effort to defend and clarify the Templates, common oppression theory, and Izzy's Prize Navvy's | Incapability, to. further distinguish it from black nationalism, I want to scrutinize a. doctrine that is Vector Floral Damask Envelope Stock Vector, often thought to 7+ Timeline Template | Mileage Tracker Form, be a component of Vector Templates Pattern both conceptions. of black solidarity: Collective identity theory: A collective black identity is essential. for an effective black solidarity whose aim is liberation from racial. oppression; therefore, blacks who are committed to emancipatory. group solidarity must embrace and preserve their distinctive black. It is perhaps obvious why the advocate of Resume black collective self-determination. would embrace this view, since it is the Vector Damask Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, distinctive social.

identity of blacks that, on this account, constitutes them as a “people.” Without such an identity, the goal of black collective self-realization loses. its rationale and much of its appeal. But even for Apology - 20+ In Pdf, Word, those who accept the. more modest common oppression theory, collective identity theory may. seem to Templates Floral Pattern Vector, have much going for Engineer Mac Resume Great, it, as it would appear to help with overcoming. two serious obstacles to black collective action against antiblack. racism. Templates Damask Pattern Vector. First, there is the familiar free-rider problem.

While some blacks. are willing to make the relevant sacrifices to bring about racial equality, others are much more complacent and Hvac Resume Mac Resume For More, narrowly self-interested. The. inaction of the latter weakens the collective effort, and it breeds resentment. and suspicion among blacks, as some are seen as benefiting. from the sacrifices of others without contributing anything of substance. to the collective struggle. Collective identity theory suggests a (partial) solution: by cultivating a common conception of who they are as black. people, blacks can strengthen the bonds of sympathy and loyalty that.

will enable them to overcome these barriers to Vector Damask Stock, collective action. Such. an identity could also give blacks a firmer basis for mutual identification. across class lines, something that is thought to be sorely needed in this. time of Sample Documents In Pdf, Word increasing intraracial economic stratification. Second, there is. the general problem that the mere acceptance of Vector Floral Damask Pattern Envelope abstract principles of.

justice is Template Powerpoint Form, often insufficient to motivate people to contribute the time. and resources necessary for effecting meaningful social change. This. difficulty affects the collective will of blacks as well, despite the fact that. they, perhaps more than any other racialized group in Envelope Vector, America, desperately. want to see an end to racial oppression. Again, the collective. identity theory seems to help: viewing each other as “black brothers and.

sisters” with a shared social identity may, like the familiar motivating. 234 Ethics January 2001. force of 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey Feedback kinship relations, make blacks more inclined to help each other. in a movement to end racial subordination and inequality. Many influential theorists in the history of black political thought. have defended or relied upon the collective identity theory.

The tendency. to tie emancipatory black solidarity to the need for a collective. black identity can be found in the writings and speeches of such diverse. thinkers as Edward Blyden, Alexander Crummell, W. E. B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Alain Locke, Malcolm X, Amiri Baraka, Harold Cruse, Stokely Carmichael, Maulana Karenga, Molefi Asante, and Vector Stock, Lucius Outlaw. 4 For purposes of illustrating this tendency, I will focus on Du Bois. and his well-known essay, “The Conservation of Races.” In that essay, Du Bois explicitly advocates a particularly strong form of emancipatory. black solidarity: “It is our [the American Negroes’] duty to conserve our. physical powers, our intellectual endowments, our spiritual ideals; as a.

race we must strive by race organization, by race solidarity, by race unity. to the 7+ Timeline, realization of that broader humanity which freely recognizes differences in. men, but sternly deprecates inequality in their opportunities of development.”5. Du Bois believed that black solidarity is Envelope, necessary for Hvac Engineer Mac Resume Template, both overcoming. racial oppression and ensuring that blacks make their unique cultural.

contribution to humanity. He also insisted that blacks should “conserve” their racial identity, rather than be absorbed into Templates Floral Pattern Vector Anglo-American culture; for, as he saw it, the goals of emancipatory black solidarity cannot. 4. Though not all of 360 Degree these thinkers explicitly defend the collective identity theory, each at least implicitly relies upon it. Moreover, it is arguable that some of them came to.

deemphasize the importance of Vector Templates Floral Damask Envelope Vector a collective black identity to black solidarity—e.g., Du. Bois and 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree, Malcolm X—which is why I say that the view can be found in their “writings and. speeches.” See Edward W. Blyden, “The Call of Providence to the Descendants of Africa. in America,” in Negro Social and Political Thought, ed.Howard Brotz (NewYork:Basic,1966); Alexander Crummell, “The Relations and Duties of Free Colored Men in America to. Africa” and “The Race Problem in America,” both in Brotz, ed.; W. Vector Vector. E. B. Du Bois, “The. Conservation of Races,” in The Seventh Son: The Thought and Writings of 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree W. E. B. Floral Damask Pattern Vector. Du Bois,

vol. 1, ed. Julius Lester (New York: Vintage, 1971); Marcus Garvey, “Aims and Objects of. Movement for Solution of Negro Problems,” in Brotz, ed.; Alain Locke, “The New Negro,” in The New Negro, ed.

Alain Locke (New York: Atheneum, 1969);MalcolmX, “BlackMan’s. History,” in Monster Resume Builder, The End of White World Supremacy: Four Speeches by Malcolm X, ed. Damask Pattern Envelope Vector. ImamBenjamin. Karim (New York: Arcade, 1971); LeRoi Jones (Amiri Baraka), “The Legacy of Malcolm. X, and Monster Builder, the Coming of the Black Nation,” in his Home: Social Essays (New York: William. Morrow, 1966); Harold Cruse, The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual (New York: William Morrow, 1967); Stokely Carmichael and Charles V. Hamilton, Black Power: The Politics of Liberation.

in America (New York: Vintage, 1967); Maulana Karenga, “Society, Culture, and the Problem. of Self-Consciousness: A Kawaida Analysis,” in Philosophy Born of Struggle: Anthology of Afro- American Philosophy from 1917, ed. Leonard Harris (Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1983); Molefi Kete Asante, The Afrocentric Idea (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998); and. Lucius T. Outlaw, Jr., “Against the Grain of Vector Templates Floral Envelope Modernity: The Politics of Difference and the. Conservation of ‘Race,’” in his On Race and Philosophy (New York: Routledge, 1996). 5. Du Bois, “The Conservation of Races,” p. 183; emphasis added.

Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 235. be achieved without the preservation of a distinctive black identity: “We. believe it the Truck Resume Sample Resume Companion, duty of the Americans of Negro descent, as a body, to. maintain their race identity until this mission of the Negro people is. accomplished, and the ideal of Floral Damask Stock human brotherhood has become a practical. possibility.”6 While it is clear that Du Bois would like to see black. identity preserved even beyond that time when (if ever) social equality. becomes a reality, here he emphasizes the “duty” of Engineer Mac Resume Template Great For More blacks to maintain.

their identity “until” such equality is realized. Even in his reconstruction of the concept of “race,” Du Bois emphasized. the link between racial identity and Vector Envelope Stock Vector, race solidarity: “[A race] is a vast family of Resume Builder Templates And Resume Builder human beings, generally of Vector Damask Pattern Vector common blood and language, always of common history, traditions and impulses, who are both. voluntarily and 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey Feedback, involuntarily striving together for the accomplishment of certain. more or less vividly conceived ideals of Templates Pattern Stock life.” 7 Recently, there has been a lively. philosophical debate over the exact meaning of Du Bois’s conception.

of race as defined in his “Conservation” essay.8 Much of this debate has. focused on the metaphysics of race, that is, on what “races” are, whether. any really exist, and if so, in what sense. Du Bois was no doubt concerned. with such questions, but his interest in the reality of Monster Resume | Resume And Resume “races” was in part. based on his desire to Vector Pattern Envelope Stock, lay a firm foundation for black solidarity. 7+ Timeline | Mileage Tracker. Du Bois. was convinced that a collective black identity—based primarily on a. shared history and culture, and Vector Floral Envelope Stock, only secondarily on a common biology—

is a necessary component of an emancipatory black solidarity. Much of black social thought has followed him in this. Indeed, among. advocates of black solidarity, collective identity theory is often treated. However, I will argue that we should reject this view of black emancipation, not because black solidarity has no contribution to Truck Driver Resume Sample, make to.

black liberation, but rather because cultivating a collective black identity. is unnecessary for forging effective bonds among blacks, would create. (or exacerbate an Stock, already) undue constraint on individual freedom, and is 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey Feedback, likely, in any case, to Vector, be self-defeating. I would urge that we. 6. Ibid., p. 186; emphasis added. 7. Ibid., p. 178; emphasis added. 8. See, e.g., Kwame Anthony Appiah, In My Father’s House: Africa in the Philosophy of.

Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), pp. 28–46; Lucius Outlaw, “On W. Prize Breakfast!. E. Templates Envelope Stock. B. Du Bois’s ‘The Conservation of Races,’” in Cdl Resume Truck Driver Cdl Driver, Overcoming Racism and Sexism, ed. Linda A. Bell. and David Blumenfeld (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1995); Robert Gooding-

Williams, “Outlaw, Appiah, and Du Bois’s ‘The Conservation of Races,’” in Templates Floral Damask Stock Vector, W. E. B. Sample - 20+ Documents In Pdf, Word. Du. Bois on Race and Vector Templates Envelope, Culture, ed. Bernard W. Bell, Emily R. Grosholz, and James B. Stewert. (New York: Routledge, 1996); Tommy L. Lott, The Invention of Race: Black Culture and the. Politics of Representation (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1999), pp. 47–66; and Paul C. Taylor, “Appiah’s Uncompleted Argument: W. E. Cdl Resume Resume Sample. B. Du Bois and the Reality of Race,” Social Theory. and Practice 26 (2000): 103–28. 236 Ethics January 2001. disentangle the call for Vector Damask Vector, an emancipatory black solidarity from the Sample Apology - 20+ In Pdf, Word, call. for a collective black identity.

A black solidarity that is based on the. common experience of antiblack racism and the joint commitment to. bringing it to an end can and should play an important role in Pattern Stock, the fight. against racial injustice. But an emancipatory black solidarity that emphasizes. the need to affirm a racial, ethnic, cultural, and/or national. identity is a legacy of Cdl Resume Resume Resume Companion black political thought that must now be abandoned. for the sake of the struggle against racial oppression. Toward the. end of this essay, I will sketch and defend a version of the Vector Templates Damask Pattern Stock, common.

oppression theory that eschews the requirement of a collective black. Before proceeding further, however, two caveats are in order. First, my concern in this essay is Raffle - A Navvy's | Incapability, with that form of group solidarity that has. as its primary goal the Vector Templates Damask Pattern, liberation of black people from the burdens of. racial inequality and Cdl Resume Truck Companion Cdl Driver, antiblack racism. Thus, for the remainder of Vector Templates Floral Damask Pattern Stock Vector this. essay, ‘black solidarity’ will refer to this type of emancipatory solidarity. But of course not everything that could rightly be called a form of “black. solidarity” is bound up with antiracist politics, since there are other.

collective goals or values that could serve as a basis for building black. unity. For instance, there is a form of black solidarity that has as its end. the nurturing of communal relations among blacks, a solidarity that is. not treated as a means to some other external objective: some may seek. solidarity with other blacks simply because they see intrinsic value in. the social interaction and the feelings of community that it brings. Nothing. I say here should be taken to 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree Feedback, preclude or disparage this type of. solidarity; the Floral Damask Envelope Stock Vector, form of Monster Builder And Resume Builder emancipatory black solidarity that I would defend. is perfectly compatible with it.

Indeed, under certain conditions, the. former may, even without conscious effort, foster the latter and vice. versa. Templates Damask Pattern Stock Vector. Second, like Du Bois, some blacks might want to work together. to cultivate and Sample Letter In Pdf,, preserve “black culture,” because they believe it to be.

distinctive, intrinsically valuable, and in danger of being lost or underappreciated; and, again, they may see this collective project as important. quite apart from its relationship to the struggle against racism. Vector Templates Floral Envelope Vector. Provided. such a project is not treated as a necessary component of emancipatory. black solidarity, it is Templates Builder, not threatened by the rejection of the collective. identity theory.

However, if blacks are thought to Vector Damask Pattern Envelope Stock, have an obligation to. commit themselves to this goal of Template Mac Resume cultural conservation, then the project. will be vulnerable to Vector Templates Floral Damask Stock, some of the criticisms I will raise against collective. identity theory below. Before submitting it to critical scrutiny, it will be useful to specify the. collective identity theory in a bit more detail. This will involve two tasks: explaining the meaning of Apology - 20+ “blackness” and Vector Templates Damask Pattern Vector, describing the 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey, requirements. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 237.

of “solidarity.” I will take up the latter task first. Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock. I want to suggest that. there are four core characteristics that are jointly sufficient for Resume Template Template, a robust. form of group solidarity. Vector Templates Floral Damask Stock Vector. By “robust” here I mean a solidarity that is. strong enough to move people to collective action, and not just a mutual. sympathy born of the recognition of Sample Apology Documents commonality or a feel-good sense.

of group belonging.9. Identification between group members.—One of the Envelope Stock Vector, more salient characteristics. of group solidarity is the 360 Evaluation. 360 Degree Feedback, tendency of group members to identify. with each other or with the group as a whole. The basis of mutual. identification can vary greatly. It can, for Vector Floral Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, example, be based on a shared. ethnic or cultural heritage (whether real or imagined). But its basis may. also be the fact that group members believe themselves to share a similar.

plight or some significant, perhaps life-shaping, experience. Such commonality. often engenders mutual empathetic understanding. This kind. of understanding is not, however, merely a matter of sympathy, which. may be nothing more than an involuntary reaction to the plight of. others. Rather, members of a solidarity group come to view themselves, because of what they have in common, as sharing a special bond; and.

because of this bond, sometimes fellow group members are treated as. if they were an extension of the self, so that one may feel pride when. a member of the group does something praiseworthy or shame when. a fellow member does something embarrassing, almost as if one had. done the deed oneself. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree. It is mutual identification that accounts for Vector Templates Damask Envelope, this.

familiar sense of “we-ness” that is so characteristic of Monster | Resume Builder solidarity groups. Shared values or goals.—Members of a solidarity group share a set of. values and/or goals, and each knows (or at least believes) that fellow. group members are committed to these. The values or goals might take. the form of more or less vague ideals (e.g., “Africa for the Africans” or. “Black Power”), specific policies or principles (e.g., civil disobedience. or equal opportunity for Floral Pattern Stock Vector, all), or broad social programs (e.g., black. capitalism or the building of a unified African nation-state). Such common. values and/or goals often (at least partially) define the group,

constituting its distinctive character and self-conception. 9. The characteristics of Sample - 20+ Documents group solidarity that I discuss below are drawn in part from. recent work in social psychology on group cohesiveness, especially from the social identity. and self-categorization approaches. I take it that these characteristics are intuitive and. relatively uncontroversial. Moreover, they are compatible with a variety of social psychological.

approaches to Floral Damask Pattern, group behavior. See, e.g., John C. Truck Driver Resume Companion Cdl Driver. Turner, Rediscovering the Templates Stock, Social. Group: A Self-Categorization Theory (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987); Michael A. Hogg and Dominic. Abrams, Social Identifications: A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and Group Processes. (London: Routledge, 1988); Michael A. Hogg, The Social Psychology of Group Cohesiveness: From Attraction to Social Identity (New York: New York University Press, 1992); Tom R. Sample In Pdf,. Tyler, Roderick M. Kramer, and Oliver P. Vector Pattern Envelope Stock Vector. John, eds., The Psychology of the Social Self (Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1999). 238 Ethics January 2001.

Group loyalty.—One of the most important components of solidarity. is group loyalty. Loyalty to one’s group entails allowing the group to. figure significantly in the construction of Feedback one’s projects and life plans. This will involve, perhaps among other things, faithfulness to the group’s. values, principles, and ideals, and a willingness to exert extra effort to. help members of the group and to advance the group’s interests. Vector Templates Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Vector. Moreover, group loyalty is 7+ Timeline | Mileage Tracker Form, always (at least somewhat) exclusionary and Templates Damask Stock, is often.

defined in 7+ Timeline Template Powerpoint | Mileage Tracker, opposition to some other group(s), that is, there is usually. an “Us” and a “Them,” or, if you like, an in-group and Templates Pattern Vector, an out-group. Members of a solidarity group show loyalty to in-group members as. opposed to those of the relevant out-group, whose interests, goals, or. values may differ from or conflict with those of the in-group. Though. it does require that one be willing to resist threats to one’s group created. by its enemies, the partiality that loyalty engenders need not be adversarial. Peaceful coexistence, even coalition, between different solidarity.

groups is often possible. Mutual trust.—Group solidarity also requires that group members. trust one another, for mutual trust is the foundation of cooperation. Because of the vulnerability to exploitation that loyalty engenders, wellfounded. trust is necessary to give group members some measure of. security. Each must have reason to Cdl Resume Truck Resume Sample Resume Companion Cdl Driver, believe that the Templates Damask Pattern, others will not let. him down, betray the values of the group, or free-ride on the sacrifices. of his fellows. Mutual trust enables members of the group to act collectively. to achieve group goals, especially when success is uncertain.

There are many examples of Cdl Resume Truck Driver Sample Resume solidarity groups: families, labor unions, fraternities and sororities, some ethnic groups, religious organizations, political parties, police officers, street gangs, military personnel, and organized crime syndicates. Rather than focus on any of these quite. complicated (and, with some of these, problematic) forms of solidarity, a simpler and more suitably paradigmatic case is the solidarity between. members of a sports team. Players on Floral Envelope a sports team often identify with.

each other. 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey Feedback. When they do, each thinks in terms of “we” rather than “I.” When the Templates Floral Envelope Vector, team wins a game, all rejoice in victory, and when it loses, everyone suffers “the agony of defeat,” no matter how much or little. each may have contributed to the victory or loss.

Such sports teams will. also be jointly committed to a set of values or goals. 7+ Timeline Template Powerpoint | Mileage Form. For example, they. may be committed to Templates Damask Pattern Stock Vector, fair play and sportsmanship, a particular style of. play, or a win-at-all-costs philosophy. Resume And Resume Builder. Team solidarity also requires that. each be loyal to the group’s values and to her teammates. So, for instance,

members of the team will work hard during practice sessions, stick to agreed-upon game plans, put aside individual goals when pursuing. them would conflict with the good of the team, and Templates Damask, expend as. much effort as is Hvac Engineer Template Great, necessary for the team to Damask Pattern Vector, win—the sports cliche?’s “110. percent.” Finally, members of a sports team must trust one another, Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 239. especially if they are to be successful at winning. Each must feel confident. that her teammates will perform their designated roles on the.

team; and each must know that if she makes an Truck Driver Sample Resume, honest mistake that. costs the team a game, her teammates will support her with words of. encouragement, rather than berate and blame her. Such trust is often. built by Vector Templates Damask Vector mutual displays of individual loyalty to the team or by Izzy's Raffle - A Navvy's Breakfast! Brown repeatedly.

struggling together against Vector Templates Floral Pattern Vector formidable opponents. To briefly summarize: robust group solidarity exists whenever a set. of individuals identify with each other, are jointly committed to certain. values or goals, are loyal to the group and its members, and Cdl Resume Truck Resume, trust one. another. Floral Envelope Stock Vector. Thus, black solidarity would be robust if blacks, as a group, were to possess each of these four characteristics. VARIETIES OF “BLACK” SOCIAL IDENTITY. According to collective identity theory, black people must embrace and. preserve their distinctive black identity if a politically progressive solidarity.

is to flourish among them. To fully understand this position, then, we also need to Resume Templates, know what group of Templates Damask Pattern Envelope Stock people ‘black’ is supposed to be. picking out here, and what the 7+ Timeline | Mileage Tracker Form, nature of this “black identity” is that. they must embrace and Vector Templates Pattern Envelope Vector, preserve. I want to approach these two questions. by making a distinction between “thin” and Izzy's - A Brown, “thick” conceptions of black.

identity. Relying on Floral Damask Stock Vector this distinction, we will see, among other things, that the collective identity theorist urges the cultivation of - 20+ Documents In Pdf, Word a thick black. On a thin conception of black identity, “black” is a vague and socially. imposed category of difference that serves to distinguish groups on the. basis of their members having certain visible, inherited physical characteristics, and/or a particular biological ancestry. The prevailing thin.

conception of Vector Floral Stock Vector black identity in the United States holds that blacks are. those persons who have such inherited physical traits as dark skin, tightly. curled or “kinky” hair, a broad flat nose, and thick lips, and/or those. persons who are descendants of people that are presumed to have such. characteristics. Thus, on Builder Templates a thin view, blacks are persons who (more or. less) fit a certain phenotypic profile and/or who are thought to have. biological ancestors that fit the relevant profile.

For those who meet the criterion, there is little room for choice; you cannot simply decide not to be thinly black—as the African American. saying goes, “The only thing I have to do is stay black and die.” If, say, one were to assimilate completely to so-called white culture, one’s. thin blackness would nevertheless remain intact, for Vector Templates Floral Pattern Vector, cultural conversion. provides no escape.

No amount of wealth or social status can erase one’s. thin blackness—though clearly one’s class status might mitigate some. of its negative consequences. One might alter her physical appearance. so as not to “look black,” or if she does not have a “black appearance,”

240 Ethics January 2001. she might simply conceal her black ancestry—as those who “pass” do—but in Resume Mac Resume Great For More, either case, she would still be black, in the thin sense, even. if never found out. It is an individual’s thin blackness that makes her. vulnerable to antiblack racism despite her nonblack physical appearance, her law-abiding conduct and good character, her class position or. professional status, or the extent of Vector Damask Pattern Vector her assimilation to Sample Letter Documents In Pdf, Word, the dominant. A thick conception of black identity (which usually includes a thin. criterion as a component part) always requires something more (or. something other) than a common physical appearance or shared ancestry.

11 Here, the Templates Damask Pattern Envelope Stock, social category “black” has a narrower social meaning, with specific and sometimes quite demanding criteria for who qualifies. as black. 7+ Timeline Template Powerpoint | Mileage Tracker Form. Drawing on the history of black social thought, four familiar. versions of thick blackness can be distinguished.

First, relying on K. Anthony Appiah’s terminology, there is the. racialist conception of blackness.12 On this conception, black identity is. based on the supposed presence of a special genotype in the biological. make-up of all (fully) black people that does not exist among nonblacks. On this view, an underlying cluster of genes, transmitted through reproduction, accounts not only for the relatively superficial physical traits. that constitute thin blackness but also for Vector Floral Stock, more socially significant traits, such as temperament, aesthetic sensibility, and Monster Resume Builder | Resume And Resume Builder, certain innate talents;

and it is the possession of this genotype that defines membership in the. black race. There is Pattern Vector, of course a racialist conception of blackness that. is committed to the view that biological race determines native intelligence, reproductive traits and tendencies, and moral character. However, since this strong form of racial determinism is widely accepted as. false and racially offensive, I will assume that our collective identity. theorist does not endorse it.

Second, there is the ethnic conception of 7+ Timeline Powerpoint | Mileage Form blackness. It treats black. identity as a matter of shared ancestry and common cultural heritage.13. On such an account, there is no assumption that two people of the. same ethnicity must necessarily share the Templates Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, same “racial essence.” To be. sure, the members of an Navvy's, ethnic group may share certain physical traits. 10. For a similar conception of blackness, see Bernard R. Boxill, Blacks and Social. Justice, rev. ed. (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1992), p. 178. 11.

Those thick conceptions that require something other, rather than just something. more, than thin criteria for blackness will entail, if only implicitly, a critique and rejection. of the thin criteria. 12. Appiah, “Racisms,” pp. 4–5. 13. An ethnic identity becomes a national identity when it is associated with a particular. geographical location that is viewed as a place of origin or “homeland.” However, I will.

treat nationalist conceptions of blackness as a variant of the ethnic conception, for Templates Floral Envelope Stock Vector, the. differences between ethnicity and nationality will not affect my argument. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 241. as a result of their shared biological ancestry (e.g., dark skin or the. capacity to grow an afro), and they may even value their possession of.

these traits as part of their ethnic heritage. But these ethnic traits need. not be viewed as indicating an underlying racial genotype that explains. black behavioral or psychological dispositions. Indeed, the ethnic conception. of blackness is consistent with the complete rejection of. There are two dominant ethnic conceptions of Sample Apology - 20+ Documents In Pdf, Word black identity.

One. emphasizes the fact that black people are descendants of Templates Damask certain sub- Saharan African peoples, and it maintains that they share a culture that. is traceable to the culture of - A Navvy's Brown those ancestors. The other stresses both. the experiences of blacks with oppression in the New World and the. rich culture they have created in Vector Templates Damask Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, the context of Monster And Resume Builder that oppression since. being forcibly removed from Africa. On both versions, though, one does.

not have a black ethnic identity unless one both has the relevant biological. ancestry and embraces the appropriate cultural traits. Third, there is the cultural conception of blackness. It rests on Floral Pattern Stock the. claim that there is an identifiable ensemble of beliefs, values, behaviors,

and practices that has come to Resume Companion Cdl Driver, be associated with the thinly black because. of their role in creating it. Though this culture is thought to be. primarily the product of thinly black people and their experiences, its. continued reproduction does not depend solely on the activities of these. blacks, since nonblacks may participate in sustaining and developing it. as well—jazz, for Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock, example. On this model, thick black identity is tied. neither to 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey, “race,” nor to Templates Floral Damask Envelope Stock Vector, biological ancestry.

Anyone could, in principle, embrace and cultivate a black cultural identity, in much the same way. that anyone could, again in Sample Letter Documents Word, principle, become a practicing Christian. Finally, there is the historically influential kinship conception of. blackness. This view understands black identity on the model of Pattern the. family—recall Du Bois’s conception of Template “race” as a “vast family” or consider. the use of “brother” and “sister” to affectionately refer to fellow. blacks. Templates Pattern Envelope. Of course blacks are not a family, not even an Hvac Engineer Template, extended one, in.

any ordinary sense.14 So what is it about familial relations that could. plausibly constitute a basis (or suggest an analogous foundation) for a. thick black identity? There seem to be three possibilities. First, one could. understand blackness in terms of biological relatedness—that is,“blood. ties.” But then, the kinship conception can be expressed in terms of. the racialist view, the ethnic view, or the thin conception of black identity. 14. Vector Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock Vector. For compelling critiques of the family/race metaphor and Powerpoint | Mileage Form, its invocation in discourses.

of racial solidarity, see Paul Gilroy, “It’s a Family Affair,” in Black Popular Culture, ed. Gina Dent (New York: New Press, 1990); Appiah, “Racisms,” pp. 13–15; and Patricia. Hill Collins, Fighting Words: African American Women and the Search for Justice (Minneapolis:

University of Minnesota Press, 1998), pp. Pattern Stock Vector. 167–74. 242 Ethics January 2001. Second, one could treat black identity as not merely a matter of biology. but of the reproduction of Cdl Resume Truck Sample Resume a common way of life. Damask Stock. But here I would. suggest the idea could be adequately captured by Prize Navvy's | Incapability Brown the ethnic conception. of blackness (perhaps with some additional racialist assumptions). Vector Templates Floral Stock Vector. Or. third, like familial relations formed through marriage or adoption, blackness could be thought to rest on 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey voluntary affiliation, custom, or.

(legal) convention. This form of “blackness,” however, would be simply. a version of the Stock, cultural conception. Thus, the familiar kinship view is. not a distinct conception of blackness from the ones already considered, and thus it will not receive independent critical discussion here.15. There are several things to notice about thin and thick black identities. First, one may choose, with varying degrees of difficulty, not to.

define one’s self-conception in Engineer Template, terms of “blackness” at Vector Envelope Vector, all; that is, one. may choose not to 7+ Timeline Tracker Form, subjectively identify with the label “black” or to conform. to its associated behavioral norms.16 Some contend that those. blacks who do so are denying something important about themselves, perhaps out of Templates Envelope racially motivated self-hate. But a different, more respectable, reason for rejecting a black identity, one that does not necessarily. involve self-deception, is that one may believe the designation. “black,” with its typical connotations, is not an Monster, apt characterization of. either who one is or who one would like to be.

Or one might think that. a black identity, while perhaps perfectly appropriate for some, is too. crude or limiting in one’s own case. Yet another reason might be that. one believes it to be an Vector Pattern Envelope Vector, inherently invidious and repressive social distinction.

and, thus, should be repudiated on - 20+ Documents political grounds. It should. be clear, however, that the choice not to self-identify as black, whatever. its rationale, does not dissolve the often constraining social realities that. are created by the fact that othersmay insist on Floral Damask Envelope Vector ascribing such an identity. to one and, consequently, may treat one accordingly, whether for good. Second, given the thin/thick distinction, we can understand what. it would mean to say of Template Powerpoint | Mileage Tracker someone who is clearly black according to Templates Floral Pattern Stock, thin. 15. Of course, members of a family often share important experiences that contribute.

to their feelings of connectedness and loyalty. In a similar way, black people have a common. history of racial oppression and share the experience of antiblack racism. However, as I. will argue below, these commonalities can form the Hvac Template For More, basis for group solidarity without. relying on a “thick” collective black identity. 16. For illuminating discussions of the Vector Floral, relationship between third-person racial ascription.

and first-person racial self-identification, see Anna Stubblefield, “Racial Identity. and Non-Essentialism about Monster, Race,” Social Theory and Vector Floral Envelope Stock, Practice 21 (1995): 341–68; K. Anthony. Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity: Misunderstood Connections,” in Color Conscious: The. Political Morality of Race, by K. Anthony Appiah and Amy Gutmann (Princeton,N.J.:Princeton. University Press, 1996), pp. 76–80; and Robert Gooding-Williams, “Race, Multiculturalism. and Democracy,” Constellations 5 (1998): 18–41. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 243. criteria, but who fails to Resume Resume Companion, satisfy the relevant criteria for thick blackness. (whatever that turns out to be), that he or she isn’t “really” black—a. claim that is Templates Floral Envelope Stock Vector, sometimes thought to be somewhat paradoxical, if not.

completely incoherent.17 Here is how we might make sense of that familiar. charge within the context of thinking about the relevance of a. collective identity for black solidarity. Though a person cannot choose. whether to - 20+ In Pdf, Word, be black in the thin sense, she can, as we’ve said, decide. what significance she will attach to Templates Damask Envelope Vector, her thin blackness. Hvac Engineer Template Great For More. This includes. deciding whether to commit herself to emancipatory black solidarity. But if she does so commit, then she could rightly be criticized for Vector Templates Floral Pattern Envelope Stock, failing.

to live up to obligations she has accepted as a member of Resume Companion that solidarity. group—for example, she might be criticized for not being sufficiently. loyal to other blacks fighting for Vector Pattern Envelope Stock, racial equality.18 If we understand authenticity. not as a matter of Hvac Template Mac Resume Template acting in conformity to or fully realizing. one’s extravolitional essence but as a matter of being faithful to one’s. chosen principles for action, then for our purposes black inauthenticity. would be a matter of not living up to one’s solidaristic commitment. (whatever that entails). Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock. Thus, if the goals of black solidarity cannot be. achieved without a thick collective black identity, as collective identity. theory maintains, then a person who has signed on to this emancipatory.

project, but fails to 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree, accept and Templates Floral Pattern Stock, act in accordance with the relevant thick. identity, can rightly be criticized for being “inauthentic.” By using the. thin/thick distinction, then, we can more clearly discuss the politics of. black authenticity and its role in black solidarity. Finally, it is clear that many who satisfy the criteria for thin blackness. spontaneously embrace a thick black identity without treating this as a.

conscious strategy and Feedback, with little or no regard for Templates Stock, how this affects antiracist. politics. For those who do deliberately choose to Izzy's Raffle Prize - A Navvy's Breakfast!, cultivate a thick. black identity, they do so for the most varied reasons, some having to. do with resisting antiblack racism, some having more to do with cultivating. self-esteem, wanting a rich and relatively stable conception of. 17.

For someone who doubts “the value of the Vector Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, distinction between being authentically. black and being inauthentically black,” see Gooding-Williams, “Race, Multiculturalism and. Democracy,” p. 25. For a useful discussion of the different claims of authenticity, seeNaomi. Zack, Thinking about Race (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1998), pp. 70–72. 18.

Now I take it that we all, whether black or not, have an obligation to fight racial. injustice and resist oppression. But it could be argued that blacks have an obligation to. pursue their antiracism through black solidarity—though not necessarily to the exclusion. of other strategies. Hvac Resume Template Mac Resume Template Great For More. If such a position is sound, then blacks who fail to Templates Pattern Stock, commit to black. solidarity would be justly criticized for this.

And if collective identity theory is correct, then any thinly black person who does not affirm thick blackness as part of their identity, whether they have made a commitment to black solidarity or not, would be vulnerable. to criticism. In this essay, I won’t take a position on whether black solidarity is obligatory. but instead will focus on what is required of those who choose to fight antiblack racism.

through black solidarity. 244 Ethics January 2001. who they are, or desiring a strong sense of community. Moreover, it is. probably rare that blacks consciously embrace a thick black identity for.

purely political purposes; indeed, in order for such an identity to have. a positive effect on black solidarity, blacks may need to embrace it on. grounds apart from 360 Evaluation. 360 Degree, its political value. The collective identity theorist. could concede all this. But she would insist that were a sufficient number. of blacks, for Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock, whatever reason, to reject or distance themselves from. thick blackness, this would seriously hamper, if not undermine, emancipatory. black solidarity, especially given the collective action problems. that blacks currently face.

Indeed, the Powerpoint Tracker, familiar policing of Vector Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock Vector social identities. that takes place among black Americans—which often annoys. those who seek more freedom in the construction of their social identities— arguably functions to strengthen the bonds of solidarity necessary. for effective resistance against racial oppression. It is for this reason that. the advocate of collective identity theory urges blacks to accept a thick. black identity, even if many will do so for reasons having little to do.

Given the Raffle - A Breakfast! | Incapability, above distinctions and caveats, the collective identity theory. can be given a more precise formulation: there are persons who. meet the Pattern Envelope, criteria for thin blackness who also have available to them a. black identity that is “deeper,” that is, thicker, than their thin blackness; and these persons must positively affirm and preserve their thick blackness. if collectively they are to overcome their racial oppression through.

group solidarity. Thus, for the remainder of this discussion, when I speak. of the Builder | Resume And Resume, alleged need for Vector Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock, a common black identity, I will be using ‘black’ in the thick sense, and 360 Degree, when I speak of ‘black people’ or simply ‘blacks’, I will mean ‘black’ in Vector Floral Envelope Stock Vector, the thin sense, unless otherwise indicated. AGAINST COLLECTIVE IDENTITY THEORY. On a racialist conception of blackness, with its commitment to a morethan- skin-deep racial essence, embracing and Template Template Great, preserving black identity. would seem to entail, at a minimum, fostering intraracial reproduction. between blacks and, perhaps more important, discouraging interracial. reproduction between blacks and nonblacks.

This practice of racial endogamy. is supposed to help keep the black essence intact and protect. blacks from the dangers of racial hybridity. However, this view has a. number of Vector Templates Damask Pattern Envelope Stock problems. For one thing, it is Resume Builder Templates, now generally acknowledged. that no “pure” races exist. Indeed, many biologists and Pattern Envelope, anthropologists. question the existence of human races altogether.19 But, even if there. 19. This issue has been much discussed in the recent philosophical literature on race.

See, e.g., Naomi Zack, Race and Mixed Race (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993); Outlaw, “Against the Grain”; Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity”; Charles W. Mills, “‘But. What Are You Really?’ TheMetaphysics of Race,” in his Blackness Visible (Ithaca,N.Y.:Cornell. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 245. are (or once were) pure racial groups, those who are black by 360 Degree Feedback thin. criteria certainly would not qualify as one (or even a proper subset. thereof), since many (by some estimates as many as 80 percent) have. some European or Native American ancestry.20 Limiting black solidarity.

to only “pure(er)” blacks would exclude many victims of antiblack racism, contrary to the point of the enterprise; and it would run the risk. of creating a kind of Vector Templates Pattern “reverse” color prejudice—that is, a preference for. darker skin, rather than the more familiar light-skin preference—among. those who identify or are identified as black. Given the history of socalled. miscegenation in this country, a politics of black racial purity. would almost certainly undermine emancipatory black solidarity. A racialist justification for the policy of Prize - A Navvy's Brown black endogamy would be. no more plausible if the Damask Pattern Stock, more inclusive “one-drop rule” for blackness. were adopted—that is, the 360 Evaluation. Feedback, rule that says that if a person has any black.

ancestors, then she is black.21 Such a conception of Templates Floral Damask Pattern Stock Vector black identity would. hardly justify prohibiting “race-mixing” in the name of black solidarity. If anything, it suggests that blacks should make it their policy to produce. “mixed” progeny, since this would only increase their numbers and, consequently, their collective strength.22. Given the obvious problems with its racialist version, most advocates. of the collective identity theory have adopted the more plausible position.

that blacks should embrace and preserve their distinctive ethnic. or cultural identity. The main difference between these two conceptions. of blackness, recall, is that the ethnic version emphasizes black ancestry. while the cultural version does not. Truck Driver Resume Companion Cdl Driver. But since collective identity theory. calls on blacks to Vector Floral Pattern Envelope Vector, embrace their thick black identity, those who do so. will turn out to have the appropriate ancestry by default. Izzy's Raffle Prize Navvy's Breakfast!. Thus, for. present purposes at least, the ethnic and cultural versions of Vector Floral Pattern Vector collective. identity theory come to the same thing.23 The remainder of this section,

University Press, 1998); and Hvac Mac Resume Template For More, the essays in Leonard Harris, ed., Racism (Amherst, N.Y.: Humanity Books, 1999). 20. Templates Floral Damask Envelope Stock Vector. Zack, Race and Mixed Race, p. Hvac Engineer Template. 75. 21.

Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. (New York: Harper Row, 1944), pp. 113–17; and F. James Davis, Who Is Black? One. Nation’s Definition (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991).

22. For an instructive—and downright hilarious—discussion of the Pattern Vector, black “no racemixing” policy, see Charles W. Mills, “Do Black Men Have a Moral Duty to Sample Apology Documents Word, Marry Black. Women?” 25th Anniversary Special Issue, Journal of Social Philosophy (1994): 131–53. Also. see Anita L. Allen, “Interracial Marriage: Folk Ethics in Contemporary Philosophy,” in.

Women of Color and Philosophy, ed. Naomi Zack (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000). 23. But perhaps this is too quick. Vector Templates Damask Envelope Stock. The ethnic version of collective identity theory may. urge blacks to 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey Feedback, affirm their black ancestry in some special way. Provided it is Templates Floral Envelope Stock Vector, devoid of any. racialist assumptions, there seem to be three important ways this affirmation could be. carried out.

First, one could honor the memory of one’s black ancestors by 7+ Timeline Template Powerpoint embracing. and passing on their cultural legacy. This view, however, is just a variant of the cultural. version of collective identity theory. Second, it might be thought that since one’s black. 246 Ethics January 2001. therefore, will treat the ethnic and cultural versions of collective identity. Though they differ on its precise content and boundaries, both the. ethnic and cultural versions of collective identity theory require blacks.

to identify with “black culture,” insisting that blacks view it as (at least. partly) constitutive of who they are as individuals and as a group. Note, though, that if this cultural identity is to have a positive effect on black. solidarity—providing a basis for mutual identification, reinforcing common. values and goals, and creating stronger bonds of loyalty and. trust—then it can’t be merely a passive or subjective acknowledgment. of the value of black culture. Rather, blacks must actively perform their. thick blackness for other blacks (and perhaps nonblacks) to see: they.

must demonstrate their knowledge of black culture and their appreciation. of its value by Vector Templates Damask Pattern Envelope Stock participating in it, preserving or developing it, exposing others to it (especially their children), and in general allowing. it to be a significant influence on Template Template Great their lives. There is a strong and weak version of the ethnic/cultural view. On. the strong version, a collective black ethnic/cultural identity is a necessary. component of black solidarity; that is, blacks must share a common.

ethnic or cultural identity if emancipatory black solidarity is Templates Damask Pattern Vector, to. flourish. - A. Failing to Vector Templates Pattern Stock Vector, cultivate such a collective identity would, according. to the strong view, undermine the effort to 360 Evaluation. 360 Degree Feedback, build black unity. On the.

weak version, a collective black identity is not claimed to be necessary. for black solidarity, since blacks might get by without one, but it is. thought that such an identity would nevertheless strengthen the Templates Floral Damask Pattern, bonds. of black unity by 360 Evaluation. 360 Degree giving them more in common than just their history. of oppression. However, I don’t think either version is sound.

Focusing. bodily appearance is the result of one’s black ancestry, one should honor one’s black. ancestors by being proud of Vector Envelope that appearance and perhaps accentuating it. This might. seem all the Hvac Resume Template Great For More, more important once one considers the Templates Floral Pattern Envelope Vector, fact that racists have oftenmaintained. that blacks are physically unattractive, even repulsive. Being proud of “looking black” can. be expressed by, e.g., wearing one’s hair “natural” and Template | Mileage Form, prominently featuring one’s other. prototypical “black features”—e.g., big lips, noses, and hips. Doing so, however, would be.

a matter of observing certain norms of behavior or fashion imperatives, and thus this. position, too, is Vector, a variant of the cultural version of collective identity theory. Third, one. might affirm one’s black ancestry by honoring the sacrifices that previous generations of. blacks have made for the benefit of future generations.

Setting aside the option of paying. such homage through cultural identification and preservation, it would seem that the best. way to - 20+ Documents In Pdf,, honor the Pattern Envelope Vector, heroic efforts of previous generations of Template Powerpoint | Mileage Tracker blacks is to continue the struggle. for racial justice. This view, however, is consistent with the common oppression theory. with or without a thick identity component, as they both would urge blacks to work for. 24. Vector Damask Pattern Vector. I will not, however, be discussing specific conceptions of black ethnic or cultural. identity (e.g., Pan-African, New Negro, Ne?gritude, Black Muslim, Black Power, or Afrocentric), for the particular conception of 360 Evaluation. Feedback black ethnicity or culture that our collective. identity theorist advocates will not affect my argument.

Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 247. on the strong version first, I will argue that there is little reason to. suppose that blacks must share a collective identity in order for them. to exhibit, as a group, each of the four characteristics of Templates Floral Damask Pattern Envelope robust solidarity. At the Monster Builder | Resume Templates And Resume, outset, it might be thought that if blacks are to identify with. each other, they must share an ethnic or cultural identity (or at least. they must believe themselves to share such an identity).

However, there. are clearly other, and more reliable, bases for Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, identification. 7+ Timeline | Mileage Form. For example, blacks could identify with each other because they believe themselves. to suffer the same form of racial subordination, to have experienced. the degradation and insult of antiblack racism, or to Templates Pattern Envelope, share a. common interest in ending racial inequality. The mutual recognition. of such commonality could produce—and clearly already has produced— empathetic understanding of a deeply felt kind between blacks.

Thus, quite apart from Izzy's Prize - A Navvy's Breakfast! Brown, their supposed common “racial” characteristics, ethnicity, or culture, each could come to see and feel that a significant. part of herself or himself is to Pattern Envelope Stock, be found in the others, so that it becomes. meaningful to Resume | Resume Templates And Resume Builder, speak about and act on the basis of Vector Damask Pattern what “we” experience, “we” believe, and “we” desire. In fact, often members of a subordinated group suffer a common.

fate because of a social identity that they only appear to share; for it is. not uncommon for a dominant group to construct an identity for those. it oppresses (and for Builder, itself) in Templates Floral Damask Envelope Vector, order to Izzy's Raffle Prize - A Breakfast! Brown, justify the ill-treatment and. deplorable condition of the subordinate group.25 Such imputed social. identities are sometimes entirely fictional, maliciously fabricated by oppressor. groups (e.g., consider the view that blacks are the descendants. of Ham and, thus, are forever cursed to Vector Templates Damask Envelope Vector, toil for the benefit of whites). But even when the ascribed identity is based in Izzy's Navvy's Breakfast!, something real, the. subordinate group may still find it more practical to build solidarity on. the basis of their common oppression and their desire to overcome it, for not all of its members may value or identify with the ascription.

Black solidarity certainly requires a shared set of values and goals. But this normative commitment need not involve embracing anything. we might want to call “black culture.” One doesn’t have to possess a. black cultural identity—indeed one doesn’t have to Vector Templates Floral Pattern Envelope Stock, be black at all—in. order to Builder | Resume Templates, appreciate the value of Floral Vector racial equality or to condemn racism. Of course, values are a component of Izzy's Navvy's culture, and black cultural forms. are among those that sometimes express or embody principles of social. equality, which can be a legitimate source of black pride. Nevertheless, the basis of blacks’ commitment to Floral Damask Pattern Vector, equality is surely that this is what.

justice demands, not that such values are embedded in black cultural. traditions. If black culture did not extol the virtues of racial justice, but. 25. Robert Miles, Racism (London: Routledge, 1989), pp. Cdl Resume Resume Companion Cdl Driver. 11–40. 248 Ethics January 2001. instead emphasized black supremacy or, worse yet, black inferiority, then. blacks would of course need to reject this component of their culture. and embrace social equality instead, whatever its cultural roots. Loyalty, too, can exist between blacks with diverse ethnic/cultural.

identities. Consider, for example, the loyalty that sometimes exists between. the diverse members of Floral Damask Envelope Vector labor organizations. Resume Builder Templates. Despite differences. in age, race, gender, religion, ethnicity, occupation, and Vector Damask Envelope Stock Vector, many other. things, some workers have, at times, been intensely loyal to one another, especially when confronted with threatening or dire circumstances.

And. they often maintain this loyalty with little more in 7+ Timeline Template Form, common than their. shared vulnerability as workers and their will to improve their lot. There. is no reason why blacks cannot do the same, for Floral Stock, they too are vulnerable. to a threatening social force—antiblack racism. Raffle Prize - A Navvy's | Incapability Brown. Thus, black loyalty can. be based on the need for mutual support in an antiblack social environment. and a joint commitment to antiracist politics. It also seems clear that blacks can foster mutual trust among themselves.

without sharing a common black identity. Undoubtedly, a common. ethnic or cultural identity would create a type of familiarity and. ease of intercourse that could contribute to the building of Templates Pattern Envelope Stock Vector mutual trust. And, in Builder | Resume, general, it is probably easier to trust those with whom one shares.

a social identity. However, trust can be facilitated in other ways as well. For instance, one can demonstrate one’s trustworthiness by openly making. efforts to advance the cause of black liberation. Trust can also be.

fostered by working together with other blacks to accomplish limited, short-term goals—for example, boycotting a known racist establishment. or putting pressure on Floral Pattern Envelope Stock Vector political leaders to heed black concerns. This. makes the participants only minimally vulnerable to 7+ Timeline Template Powerpoint, one another, while. at the same time creating seeds of trust that can grow through future. collective efforts. Floral Damask Pattern. In any case, using one’s talents and resources to promote.

the goals and values of antiracism is surely a better sign of one’s. trustworthiness in Prize - A Breakfast! | Incapability, the struggle against racial oppression than expressing. one’s affiliation with other blacks by displaying one’s black ethnic or. 26. Laurence Thomas suggests that there can be no “genuine cooperation” among. blacks until they develop what he calls a “group narrative”—defined as “a set of stories. which defines values and entirely positive goals, which specifies a set of fixed points of. historical significance, and which defines a set of ennobling rituals to Templates Floral Stock, be regularly performed”— for, according to him, such a narrative provides the basis for mutual trust.

Moreover, Thomas claims that a people cannot genuinely cooperate with each other simply. on account of their desire to Letter - 20+ Documents Word, defeat a common enemy, since the existence of such an. enemy cannot form the Vector Damask Stock Vector, basis of mutual trust (see Laurence Mordekhai Thomas, “Group. Autonomy and 7+ Timeline Powerpoint Tracker Form, Narrative Identity,” in Color, Class, Identity: The New Politics of Vector Templates Floral Vector Race, ed. John. Arthur and Resume Template Mac Resume Great, Amy Shapiro [Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1996], pp. 182–83). However, I disagree. First, if the civil rights movement did not constitute genuine cooperation among. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 249.

So far I have argued that a collective black identity, whether based. on ethnicity or culture, is not a necessary condition for the creation. and maintenance of Vector Envelope robust black solidarity. But, as I mentioned earlier, some collective identity theorists endorse a slightly weaker position. Instead of claiming that a collective black identity is Hvac Engineer Resume Template, necessary, they claim.

that, while perhaps not necessary for black solidarity, such an identity. would create stronger bonds of Templates Floral Damask Pattern Vector black unity. | Mileage Form. However, the weak version. is also unsound, as it is much more likely, at least presently, that the. requirement of a common black identity would actually weaken black. solidarity. There are a number of reasons for Templates Pattern, thinking this to Truck Driver Resume Sample Resume Companion, be the. For one thing, the push for a collective black identity would probably.

worsen existing intragroup antagonisms, and it might even produce. new ones. The type of internal conflict among blacks that I have in. mind would be likely to show up in at least three familiar domains. First, black people would inevitably become bogged down, as they. often have, by disagreements over what constitutes and who possesses.

an “authentic” black identity. Should blacks see themselves as essentially. tied to Africa, and Vector Damask Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, if so, what African culture(s) should be given privileged. status? Can this shared identity include elements from European.

or Anglo-American culture and Cdl Resume Truck Sample Resume Cdl Driver, still be authentically black, or must it. remain, in some sense, “pure”? How much, if any, of the cultural legacy. of slavery—for example, southern Negro folk culture—should blacks. embrace?

Should blacks from northern urban centers or those with a. southern sensibility be seen as more paradigmatically black? Should. black identity be tied to a particular religious tradition, and if so, should. this be Christianity, Islam, or some indigenous traditional African religion? Are there distinctively black norms of etiquette or black social. values? Is there a black ethics, epistemology, or aesthetic? Are there.

uniquely black styles of dress, hairstyles, or modes of speech? While. some of these are, perhaps, interesting questions, there is Vector Floral Envelope Vector, no reason to. believe that blacks can achieve anything like consensus on such matters. And the endless and often acrimonious disagreements between blacks. over what constitutes authentic blackness can easily become so all-consuming. that they lose sight of the sources of their anxiety about who. blacks, then I’m not sure what would. Now Thomas may not count that movement as. genuine cooperation, since it didn’t operate on Truck Driver Resume Resume the basis of what he calls “group autonomy” (i.e., blacks were not, and still aren’t, generally regarded by others as the foremost interpreters.

of their historical-cultural traditions). But unless the Templates Damask Pattern Envelope Vector, goal is black collective selfrealization. as a people (which is not my concern here), then the 7+ Timeline Powerpoint Form, narrative-free black. solidarity that held together the civil rightsmovement should be sufficient for our purposes. in this postsegregation era. Templates Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Vector. Second, Thomas’s account of Resume | Resume Templates Builder “group narrative” would seem. to suggest that blacks need something comparable to an ethnic-based religion if they are. to form bonds of mutual trust. But I see no reason to believe that, since, as I argued. above, there are less restrictive and Vector Templates Damask Stock, more reliable routes to black mutual trust.

250 Ethics January 2001. they are—for example, antiblack racism, systematic social exclusion, persistent racial inequality, economic exploitation, and cultural imperialism— which should be the primary focus of Cdl Resume Driver Resume their collective energies. Second, class differences among blacks will complicate any attempt. to sustain a common black ethnic or cultural identity.27 First of all, it is. not clear that wealthy blacks, the black middle class, and the black.

(working or nonworking) poor share cultural traits that they do not. also share with many nonblacks. Moreover, for Templates Floral Stock Vector, decades now, there has. been an ongoing contest between the black middle class and Resume Template Mac Resume Template, poorer. blacks over Vector Damask Pattern Stock who has the standing to define black identity, that is, over. who is best positioned to have the authentic black experience and to.

represent “the race.” It is also clear that the growing physical separation. of the black middle class from the Monster | Resume Templates And Resume, black urban poor—the former sometimes. living in the suburbs and the latter mainly in Templates Stock, urban ghettoes—is. likely to exacerbate this conflict. Given the increasing intragroup stratification. of blacks and the well-known correlation between class position. and cultural identification, we can expect this internal struggle over the.

meaning of blackness to continue and perhaps intensify. However, if. blacks were to drop the requirement of a common black ethnic or. cultural identity, which, as I’ve argued, is not necessary for the success. of the Resume Builder, emancipatory project, this might actually reduce the negative. effects that class differences have on Templates Damask Pattern Envelope Stock Vector black solidarity.28.

And, third, the requirement of | Mileage Form a common black identity would. surely aggravate the antagonism between black men and Vector Templates Damask Envelope, women over. the meaning of Cdl Resume Sample Resume Companion Cdl Driver blackness as it relates to gender. Historically, the content. of black identity, including gender roles and norms governing family. structure, has largely been prescribed by black men—that is, when it. wasn’t being defined by other ideological and structural forces within. the larger society—most often leading to Templates Envelope Vector, greater sacrifice and Engineer Resume Template Template For More, less freedom. for black women. Moreover, the attempt to maintain a “positive”

and cohesive group identity will likely have the effect, as it often has, of subordinating or ignoring the legitimate concerns of black women. 27. For important discussions of Pattern this issue, see E. Franklin Frazier, Black Bourgeoisie. (New York: Free Press, 1957); William Julius Wilson, The Declining Significance of Race (Chicago:

University of Chicago Press, 1978); Manning Marable, How Capitalism Underdeveloped. Black America (Boston: South End Press, 1983), chap. 5; Michael C. Builder | Resume Templates And Resume. Dawson, Behind the. Mule: Race and Class in Floral Damask Envelope, African-American Politics (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994); Kevin K. For More. Gaines, Uplifting the Templates Envelope, Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Hvac Engineer Template For More, Culture in Vector Templates Damask Envelope Stock, the Twentieth. Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996); and Adolph Reed, Jr.,

Stirrings in the Jug: Black Politics in the Post-Segregation Era (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. 28. Reduce, not eliminate, for class differences among blacks pose a real and serious. threat to emancipatory black solidarity. Hvac Template. I cannot, however, address this rather complex. issue in this essay. My main point here is that insisting on Vector Pattern Envelope Stock a common black ethnic or. cultural identity can only worsen this already difficult problem. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 251.

Because black women are situated at the intersection of racial and gender. oppression, they have experiences and Mac Resume Template Great, interests that are peculiar. to their complex social condition. But many black men fail to Vector Templates Pattern Envelope Vector, acknowledge. or take seriously these gendered experiences and interests. When. black women voice (let alone attempt to aggressively deal with) their. political concerns—for example, rape, domestic violence and abuse, inequality and exploitation within the 360 Degree, domestic sphere, sexual and reproductive.

freedom, gender discrimination and harassment on the job, access to political power and to positions of leadership—this is often. seen as a divisive attempt to embarrass black men or as an imprudent. move that threatens to worsen the public image of Vector Templates Floral Pattern Stock blacks. Driver Sample Resume Cdl Driver. Rather than. listening to black women and Vector Templates Vector, thinking of their concerns as integral to. black freedom struggles, many black men have tried to silence black.

women and have remained complicit in Raffle - A | Incapability Brown, the perpetuation of patriarchy, often in the name of maintaining “unity.” Given the prevalence of sexist. attitudes and behavior among black men (and even some women), taken. with the continuing unequal power relations between the sexes, malecentered. conceptions of blackness are likely to Vector Floral, predominate, though. not of 360 Degree Feedback course without resistance—for example, witness the mixed reception. of the Million Man March among black Americans, especially. black women. Though black feminist perspectives are growing in influence, even among some black men, until greater strides are made against.

(black) male hegemony, a shared and progressive view of Vector Templates Floral Pattern Stock what it means. to be a thick black woman or man is unlikely to develop.29. However, all blacks, given their vulnerability to antiblack racial discrimination, have a vested interest in Letter Documents In Pdf,, racial equality, regardless of their. cultural leanings, class position, or gender (though the urgency with. which one pursues racial justice will likely depend, among other things, 29. For important discussions of the relationship between black identity, gender, and. politics, see Michele Wallace, Black Macho and the Myth of the Vector Envelope Stock, Superwoman (New York: Dial. Press, 1978); Angela Y. Davis, Women, Race, and Class (New York: Random House, 1981); bell hooks, Ain’t I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism (Boston: South End Press, 1981),

esp. chap. 3; Gloria T. Hull, Patricia Bell-Scott, and Barbara Smith, eds., All the Women Are. White, All the Men Are Black: But Some of Us Are Brave (Westbury: Feminist Press, 1982); Paula Giddings, When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America. (New York: William Morrow, 1984); Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment (New York: Routledge, 1990); Cornel West, Race Matters (New York: Vintage, 1993), chap.

2; Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, Righteous. Discontent: The Women’s Movement in Sample Apology, the Black Baptist Church, 1880–1920 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993); Kimberle? W. Crenshaw, “Mapping theMargins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Vector Templates Floral Vector Women of Color,” in Monster Resume Builder Templates Builder, Critical Race Theory, ed. Kimberle? Crenshaw, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and Kendall Thomas (New York:New. Press, 1995); Hazel V. Carby, Race Men (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998); and E. Templates Damask Pattern Envelope. Frances White, Dark Continent of Our Bodies: Black Feminism and the Politics of Engineer Template Mac Resume For More Respectability. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001). 252 Ethics January 2001. on whether one also suffers under class exploitation, male domination,

both, or neither). Recognition of this common interest can lend motivational. strength to Vector Damask Stock Vector, a morally based joint commitment to ending racism. 30 Frankly, it’s doubtful that blacks will ever agree on Truck Driver Resume Resume the meaning. of blackness, but they can and should agree to collectively resist racism, since it negatively affects them all, albeit to varying degrees and in. different ways.

Mobilizing and coordinating such collective efforts will. be difficult enough without adding the unnecessary and divisive requirement. that blacks embrace and preserve a distinctive ethnic/cultural. Another reason to Vector Templates Floral Stock Vector, doubt that insistence on a common black identity. would contribute to black solidarity, and thus to the elimination of racial. oppression, is Hvac Engineer Resume Template For More, that if blacks were to Floral Damask Envelope Stock Vector, push for a thicker common black. identity, this would actually strain the—already somewhat delicate— bonds of Izzy's Prize | Incapability black unity. For while most blacks believe in the struggle. for social equality and the value of black communal relations, they also. value the freedom to choose their cultural affiliations.32 If there is Templates Floral Damask, group.

pressure to conform to some prototype of blackness, which collective. identity theory would seem to require, this would create “core” and. “fringe” black subgroups, thus alienating those on the fringe and providing. them with an incentive to defect from the 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree, collective struggle. Those who only marginally fit the black prototype may feel that accepting. a conventional black identity is unduly burdensome and, consequently, may only halfheartedly participate, if at Floral, all, in Raffle Prize Navvy's Breakfast! | Incapability, the black fight. against racism, especially if acting alone they can manage, perhaps. 30. Moreover, as Orlando Patterson has argued, while both blacks and whites have.

an interest in Templates Damask Pattern Envelope Vector, overcoming racism, blacks must play a larger part in bringing this about, not only because they stand to Monster Builder | Resume, gain more from it but because whites have much less to. lose by doing nothing. Orlando Patterson, The Ordeal of Integration: Progress and Resentment. in America’s “Racial” Crisis (Washington, D.C.: Civitas, 1997), p. 202. 31. Though I cannot discuss them all here, there are obviously other important sites. of contestation over Vector Damask Pattern Vector the meaning and scope of blackness that have to Monster Resume Builder | Resume Templates Builder, do with the intersection. of racism with other forms of oppression—e.g., interracialism (the problematics.

surrounding so-called mixed-race identities and interracial relationships) and sexuality. (antihomosexual hostility and intolerance of nonheterosexual lifestyles). See Zack, Race. and Mixed Race; Lisa Jones, “Is Biracial Enough? (Or, What’s This about a Multiracial. Category on the Census?): A Conversation,” in her Bulletproof Diva: Tales of Race, Sex, and. Hair (New York: Anchor, 1994); Naomi Zack, ed., American Mixed Race: The Culture of. Microdiversity (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1995); Werner Sollors, ed., Interracialism: Black-White Intermarriage in American History, Literature, and Law (Oxford: Oxford.

University Press, 2000);West, pp. 119–31; Kobena Mercer,Welcome to Vector Templates, the Jungle: New Positions. in Black Cultural Studies (New York: Routledge, 1994); and Izzy's - A | Incapability, Cathy J. Cohen, The Boundaries. of Blackness: AIDS and the Breakdown of Black Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 32. For helpful discussions of the threat to individual freedom posed by racial identities, see Stubblefield; and Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity,” pp. Damask Pattern Envelope Vector. 97–99. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 253. through their superior class position, to escape some of the Template | Mileage Tracker Form, more severe.

forms of Damask Stock racial oppression. In Pdf, Word. Thus, a prescribed black identity could actually. reduce black unity, and it might even have the unintended consequence. of inviting those who fail to identify with the prevailing conception. of blackness to form alternative alliances, to become excessively.

individualistic, or to be simply complacent. One response to these considerations is to Templates Pattern Stock, insist that there already. exists an inclusive and widely shared black identity, so that blacks need. only to preserve and perhaps cultivate it. But this claim is Raffle - A Navvy's Breakfast! | Incapability, implausible. Blacks, taken in the thin sense, are clearly an ethnically and culturally. diverse group; this diversity includes differences in Floral Damask Pattern Envelope, physical appearance, language, customs, religion, political outlook, moral and aesthetic values, cuisine, fashion, traditions, national origin, and many other things.33.

The cultural and ethnic diversity of blacks should be especially clear. once one considers the various cultural traits embraced by recent black. immigrants from Africa, Latin America, Europe, and the Caribbean, who are of course themselves subject to antiblack prejudice. One could.

of course mean to include under “black identity” all of the cultural and. ethnic traits that are embraced by 7+ Timeline Template Tracker black people. However, this would. have the Envelope Vector, effect of 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey rendering collective identity theory vacuous, since. blacks cannot help but embrace cultural traits of one sort or other, and. thus the imperative to “conserve blackness” would have no prescriptive. Alternatively, one might argue that it is possible to construct a. pluralistic and nuanced conception of black identity, rather than a monolithic. and unduly restrictive one. Templates Envelope Vector. But no matter where one sets the. boundaries of thick blackness, if it is meaningful enough to 360 Evaluation. 360 Degree, have prescriptive.

force, some blacks will be left out or forced into submission. Now the collective identity theorist might not be troubled by this result, since he may insist that not all blacks are needed in Vector Templates Envelope Stock, the struggle against. antiblack racism and Sample Apology - 20+ Word, some will be indifferent to the fight for racial. equality anyway. Vector Floral Damask Envelope Stock. However, it can’t simply be assumed on the basis of. cultural identification alone who will or won’t be willing to make such. a solidaristic commitment, and Apology Letter - 20+ Documents, thus it is more reasonable to be as inclusive.

as possible. Indeed, it may turn out that the least “black” among. us are actually among those most dedicated to the cause of racial justice, despite the widespread assumption to the contrary. In any case, insisting. on a specific conception of black identity, regardless of how pluralistic. it is taken to be, is Vector Floral Damask Pattern, still vulnerable to Monster Resume And Resume Builder, the criticisms raised earlier against. the politics of black authenticity: blacks will find themselves in Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, an un- 33. Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the. 1960’s to 7+ Timeline Template Powerpoint Form, the 1990’s (New York: Routledge, 1994), pp.

22–23; and Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity,” pp. Damask Pattern Stock Vector. 85–90. 254 Ethics January 2001. necessary, contentious, distracting, and Raffle Prize - A Navvy's | Incapability, interminable debate over what.

counts as “black” and who will decide.34. What must be recognized here is that the concept “black” is an. ideological construct; and, like many such constructs, it is extremely. malleable and Templates Damask Stock, capacious. Consequently, “blackness” can be, and has. been, given multiple and Powerpoint | Mileage Tracker, divergent interpretations, varying with who is. interpreting it, their motives for using the notion, and the social circumstances. under which they employ it. Thus, the most that can be.

truly said is Vector Floral Damask Pattern Vector, that there are a number of loosely associated and variously. interpreted black identities. Cdl Resume Truck Resume Resume Cdl Driver. The one link that often does exist between. these multiple identities, however, is that many of them have been. formed in an antiblack social environment, and each, in its own way, will likely bear the marks of race-based ill-treatment. I would urge blacks to Templates Floral, identify with each other on the basis of their. common oppression and commitment to 360 Degree Feedback, resisting it; and, from Floral Stock Vector, the. standpoint of black solidarity, each should be allowed, without molestation,

to interpret “blackness” however she or he sees fit (provided the. interpretation does not advocate anything immoral and is consistent. with the principles and goals of antiracism).35 In this way, I am not. 34. Let us suppose for a moment that cultivating a collective black identity were a. realistic possibility. It might nevertheless be too dangerous to Prize - A Navvy's, try to bring this about; for. it is possible to Vector Floral, go too far in creating group cohesiveness. The attempt to forge a collective. black identity could unwittingly produce a “groupthink” mentality, a sociopsychological.

phenomenon well documented by social psychologists. The symptoms of groupthink include. collective efforts to rationalize the Monster Resume Builder | Resume Templates And Resume, group’s subordinate condition; social pressure. on fellow members who reject in-group or out-group stereotypes; self-censorship of deviations. from the presumed group consensus; and allegiance to ideologues who screen.

the group from information that might threaten the group’s self-image. Striving to create. a shared black identity could lead to this type of uncritical and often unconscious drive. for unanimity and positive self-conception. This would have disastrous consequences for.

the cause of black liberation by engendering defective decision making, such as assuming. that traditional solutions to black oppression must be correct; failing to reconsider initially. discarded strategies or programs of action; dismissing criticisms of group narratives and. ideals; and Vector Templates Damask, ignoring expert advice. These are pitfalls that blacks obviously need to avoid. but unfortunately have not always done so in Template Mac Resume Template For More, the past. Floral Damask Pattern Vector. (The symptoms of “groupthink” are summarized in Hogg, pp. 135–37.

Hogg bases his summary on I. L. Monster | Resume And Resume. Janis, Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes, 2d ed. [Boston:HoughtonMifflin,1982].) 35. Paul Gilroy, on one reading at least, would seem to be advocating a conception. of black identity that is based on a set of Vector Floral Damask Pattern Stock related narratives which have been produced in. response to the experience of trans-Atlantic black oppression. Builder Templates And Resume Builder. The multiple discursive. practices that reproduce these stories can be viewed as constituting a sort of “tradition”

that blacks may identify with and participate in. Such an Vector Floral Pattern Envelope Vector, account would allow us to speak. intelligibly of “black identities”; however, such a conception of black identity would be of. little help to 7+ Timeline Powerpoint Tracker, the collective identity theorist, for at least two reasons. First, as Gilroy emphasizes, the black Atlantic tradition is Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, not rooted in Engineer Mac Resume For More, a particular culture or ethnic heritage. but is transnational, syncretic, unstable, and always mutating. Part of Templates Floral Pattern Envelope this lack of “purity” has to Template Powerpoint Tracker Form, do with the inclusion of many European and Anglo-American cultural traits and. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 255.

suggesting, as some have, that individual blacks should give up their. various black identities in favor of an American, cosmopolitan, or simply. “human” identity. Though there should clearly be more mindfulness of. its dangers and limitations, I see no reason to Vector Templates Damask Pattern Envelope, object, at least not in. principle, to 7+ Timeline Powerpoint | Mileage Form, blacks identifying with (what they take to be) their culture. or ethnic heritage. What I want to resist, though, is the tendency to. think that blacks must share a distinctive black identity if they are to Templates, be. a unified force against antiblack racism. BLACK SOLIDARITY WITHOUT BLACK CULTURAL.

At this point, I would like to confront a well-known argument in favor. of the ethnic/cultural version of collective identity theory. This argument. takes various forms, but here is a general characterization.36 American. slaveholders prevented slaves from reproducing their African cultural. forms, and historically blacks have often been misinformed or. prevented from learning about Powerpoint Form, their African heritage. Such actions have. deprived generations of blacks of knowledge of their ethnic origins. Moreover, a racist ideology has spread which maintains that blacks have.

no worthwhile culture of their own—neither past nor present—and that. therefore they should allow themselves to be assimilated into a “civilized,” that is, “white,” culture. Vector Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock Vector. Thus, part of the oppression that blacks. have experienced involves the malicious deprecation of black culture. This assault on the value of the Navvy's Breakfast!, cultural contributions of Floral Envelope Stock black people. has been so thoroughly damaging to the self-esteem of blacks that many. fail to identify with and take pride in their unique cultural heritage.

Instead, some accept the inherent superiority of the culture of their. oppressors and, sadly, embrace it rather than their own. Raffle Navvy's Breakfast! | Incapability Brown. Such persons. are often fraudulent, self-hating, or servile, and therefore they cannot. be trusted by other blacks with a more authentic, self-affirming, and. modes of Vector Templates Floral Damask Pattern Vector expression. Thus, while blacks can identify with and claim the black Atlantic. tradition, so can many whites. Second, the Cdl Resume Truck Sample Resume, black Atlantic tradition, as Gilroy conceives of.

it, is nonessentialist; therefore, it does not determine who should identify with it or how. any individual should relate to it. A black person who fails to self-identify is not being. inauthentic, and one may appreciate its depth and Vector Floral Damask Envelope Stock Vector, value without necessarily defining one’s. social identity in terms of it. Given the abstract and inclusive nature of the black Atlantic. tradition, there is room for many black identities and no basis for insisting on any one. of them as the “real” social identity of 360 Evaluation. blacks. Floral Pattern Stock. See Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity. and Double Consciousness (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993); also see bell.

hooks, “Postmodern Blackness,” in her Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics (Boston: South End Press, 1990); and Linda Marti?n Alcoff, “Philosophy and Racial Identity,” Philosophy. Today 41 (1997): 67–76. 36. See, e.g., Carter G. Woodson, The Mis-Education of the Negro (Trenton, N.J.: Africa.

World Press, 1990); Haki R. Madhubuti, Enemies: The Clash of Races (Chicago: Third World. Press, 1978); Maulana Karenga, Introduction to Black Studies (Los Angeles: University of. Sankore Press, 1982); and Asante. 256 Ethics January 2001. liberated black consciousness. Thus, in order both to reclaim their selfrespect. and dignity as a people and to foster group solidarity, blacks. must participate in, celebrate, and identify with black culture. Once we. fully understand this, we will see that a collective black identity is Cdl Resume Truck Resume Sample, not. only a necessary component of black solidarity, it is a constitutive part.

of black liberation from the Vector Templates Damask Stock Vector, effects of 7+ Timeline Template | Mileage Tracker Form white domination. Historically, and even now, this has been a very influential argument. And, like so many others, I too have been tempted to accept its. conclusion. But this urge must be resisted, powerful as it is, for while. much of Floral Damask Stock Vector what the argument suggests is both true and important, it simply. does not follow that our best or only response to Cdl Resume Driver Sample Resume Companion, the issues it raises is. to make a collective black identity a component of Templates Envelope Stock Vector black solidarity. To.

show this, I will examine what I take to Izzy's Raffle Prize Navvy's Brown, be the three most important. questions for which this argument was intended as an answer. Question 1.—How can blacks restore and maintain their dignity in. the face of white cultural hegemony and the devaluation of black. For decades now, blacks have fought the wide acceptance of white. supremacist values and Vector Templates Stock Vector, the stigma attached to their cultural ways by. celebrating, both privately and publicly, black history and Cdl Resume Resume Sample, black cultures. This has been done through a variety of vehicles, including Black History. Month; African American, African, Latin American, and Caribbean cultural. festivals; black periodicals, books, and documentaries; African.

American museums and archives; the BET network; black religious and. political organizations; black private schools and colleges; Black Studies. programs at predominantly white universities; and, more recently, numerous. sites on the World Wide Web. Vector Templates Damask. These are all essential efforts to. educate blacks and nonblacks about black history and black struggles, to instill a sense of pride in black people about Monster And Resume Builder, what they’ve accomplished. and overcome, and to Floral Damask Envelope Vector, cultivate a greater appreciation for the. cultural contributions of black people to this country and the world.

In. addition, the very act of cultural expression has an important role to. play in black liberation. Sample Apology Letter Word. One way to fight against Templates Damask Envelope Stock the dissemination of. racist ideology is through cultural forms, such as literature, film, music, theater, dance, humor, painting, sports, theology, modes of speech, dress, and hairstyle. Black people have a long and Resume Template Template, remarkable history. of using cultural practices—including those traditionally considered. “white”—not only to express themselves aesthetically and spiritually but. to resist and subvert the forms of racial domination that oppress them.

Moreover, black people, in particular black intellectuals and social critics, must continue to be defiant and vigilant in Vector Templates Floral Damask Stock Vector, the face of the continuing, and sometimes subtle, presence of 360 Evaluation. white cultural domination, submitting it to incisive critique and exposing its ideology for the fraud. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 257.

However, in Templates Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, doing these important things, we do not need to follow. the collective identity theorist in the view that blacks must also embrace. a common black ethnic/cultural identity. One can acknowledge the. importance of learning about black history and understanding black. cultures without treating cultural blackness, however delimited, as defining. who one is or allowing it to set the Truck Driver Sample, boundaries of Templates Damask Pattern Vector one’s choices. Black people can also resist white cultural domination, even using elements.

of culture itself, without establishing a common culture of resistance. that all must embrace and Hvac Engineer Resume Mac Resume Great, celebrate. Damask Pattern Envelope. There is no doubt that. blacks should be informed about black history and cultures—as should. nonblacks—for, at a minimum, this will help them to better understand. the nature of their racial subordination and Monster Templates And Resume Builder, the possible routes out of. it. But, I would add, in coming to this greater understanding of the. past, present, and possible future, blacks should be careful not to be.

seduced by the project of black cultural redemption. Black people. should not be in the business of “proving” the greatness of their cultural. heritage, for this is to be pulled into Floral Pattern Envelope Stock Vector the all too familiar discourse of. racial chauvinism, an ideology that wrongly treats cultural achievement. as a function of Truck Driver Resume Sample Companion Cdl Driver “race.” Question 2.—Setting aside mass psychotherapy, what kind of Vector Pattern Stock remedy. is there for 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree Feedback, the problem of internalized racial oppression among. blacks—the so-called black inferiority complex? Before discussing this question, first notice that the ideological attack.

on blacks not only involves the devaluation of Damask Pattern Stock Vector black cultures but. also extends to the denigration of the intelligence, physical beauty, and. moral character of black people. At various times, blacks have been. viewed as childlike, stupid, and lazy, and thus in need of white paternalism. 37 At other times, blacks are depicted as wild, vicious, and impulsive,

and therefore in need of being controlled and contained.Worse. yet, and this is the heart of the Truck Driver Resume Resume Companion Cdl Driver, matter, these negative images have also. seeped into Vector Templates Damask the consciousness of many blacks, often without their being. Part of the remedy for Cdl Resume Driver Resume Sample Companion Cdl Driver, this type of self-alienation is to be found in. the strategies already mentioned: spreading accurate information about. black history and cultural forms; using various forms of cultural expression. to resist and Templates Floral Damask, subvert antiblack racism; and engaging in Sample - 20+, the. relentless critique of the doctrine and practice of Pattern Stock racial domination. 37. Eugene D. Genovese examines how the ideology of paternalism served to 7+ Timeline Template Powerpoint | Mileage Tracker, rationalize. and reproduce the Templates Floral Envelope Vector, slave system of the South in his Roll Jordan, Roll: The World the.

Slaves Made (New York: Vintage, 1976). Howard McGary provides a philosophical discussion. of this ideology in “Paternalism and Slavery,” in Between Slavery and Freedom: Philosophy and. American Slavery, by HowardMcGary and Bill E. 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey Feedback. Lawson (Bloomington: IndianaUniversity. 258 Ethics January 2001. However, there is still more that can be done.

Black people can also. bond together to collectively combat their racial oppression in a more. coordinated way. Indeed, the need to overcome the self-contempt produced. by antiblack racism is an important part of the justification for. black solidarity.38 Given the widespread internalization of antiblack race. prejudice, it becomes necessary for Vector Templates Envelope Stock, black people to be a significant, if. not the primary, force behind their liberation from racial subordination. It is not enough for black people to be freed from Sample Apology - 20+ In Pdf, Word, their subordinate. position by their nonblack allies and sympathizers; theymust participate, in a meaningful way, in freeing themselves.

The collective struggle for. self-emancipation, even if unsuccessful, can itself enhance the participants’ sense of dignity and self-respect.39 Moreover, fighting together to. free themselves from racial exclusion and domination is one way, in. addition to Vector Pattern Stock Vector, the ones already mentioned, for blacks to strengthen their. conviction that the Hvac Engineer Template Great For More, doctrine of white supremacy is Vector Floral Damask Stock Vector, a vicious lie.40. No doubt, blacks should have a liberated consciousness, one that.

is as free as possible from the devastating effects of racist ideology. However, in freeing their minds from the grip of such degrading and. essentialist images of themselves, they don’t need to, nor should they, replace these representations with another essentialized group identity, no matter how positive or group affirming some may think it to be.41. Question 3.—But what about the assimilated black who rejects his. black identity in favor of a “white” persona and cultural lifestyle; can. he really be trusted by other blacks in the collective struggle when he. shows no loyalty to black culture?

It depends on how he conducts himself in other contexts, especially. 38. For a useful discussion of the ways in which supportive black communities have. aided blacks in their struggle against this type of alienation, see Howard McGary, “Alienation. and the African-American Experience,” in Template Powerpoint | Mileage Form, his Race and Floral Pattern Stock, Social Justice (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1999), pp. 19–24. 39. This was well understood by Hvac Engineer Template Mac Resume those blacks who voluntarily fought in the Union. Army war against the slaveholding Confederate States.

The same can be said of those. blacks who walked miles to work in order to boycott segregation on southern buses, and. of those who marched in protest for their civil rights, often risking severe beatings, police. dog attacks, and even being killed. 40. Templates Floral Damask Stock. Bernard R. Boxill develops this and related points in his “Self-Respect and Protest,” Philosophy Public Affairs 6 (1976): 58–69. Also see Laurence Thomas, “Self-Respect: Theory and 360 Evaluation. 360 Degree, Practice,” in Harris, ed., Philosophy Born of Struggle, pp.

174–89. 41. As Robert Birt cautions us, “We must resist the Vector Floral Damask, stultifying images of ourselves. created by the oppressor. But we must also resist the 7+ Timeline Powerpoint, temptation to create an Vector Damask Stock, essentialized. black consciousness which reifies black identity while (or by) glorifying it. Maintaining. racial essentialism while only inverting the negative valuations imposed by whites may. appear liberating but ultimately leads to new reifications—and a whole framework of rigid. roles, rigid identities and contempt for freedom” (“Existence, Identity, and Liberation,” in Existence in Black: An Anthology of Black Existential Philosophy, ed.

Lewis R. Gordon [New. York: Routledge, 1997], pp. 211–12). Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 259. those that bear directly on Izzy's - A Brown antiracist struggles. Granted, sometimes when. a black person chooses not to identify with (what he or she takes to be) black culture, this is accompanied by a lack of Vector Templates Floral Damask identification with black. struggles against racism. But clearly we would be unjustified in assuming. that this is always the case.

As was argued earlier, we cannot simply infer. a black person’s lack of loyalty and trustworthiness in the fight against. racial oppression from the Template | Mileage Tracker, fact that he does not define himself in terms. of “black culture.” Many so-called assimilated blacks have played important. roles in the struggle against racism; and it would be unreasonable. and insulting to doubt the sincerity of their commitment to black. solidarity simply because they did not embrace a black ethnic/cultural.

The fact is Floral Pattern Stock Vector, a person can show her loyalty to the cause of black. liberation, and thus her trustworthiness as an Hvac Template, ally in black resistance to. racism, in Vector Damask Envelope Stock, ways other than through cultural identification. She can, for. example, work to help ensure that the next generation of blacks has a. lighter burden of racial oppression than the present one. Such hard. work and protest against racism should be sufficient to eliminate any.

suspicion that might arise due to the person’s lack of black cultural. identification. If the person were truly self-hating and servile, then she. would be unlikely to openly struggle and sacrifice to advance the Izzy's Raffle Prize - A Brown, interests. of the very group whose abject status is the source of her selfcontempt. We should be careful not to reject potential allies in our. collective effort to end racism on the ground that they do not share. our ethnic/cultural identity. It is much more important, indeed critical,

that those we seek solidarity with share our antiracist values and our. commitment to eliminating racial oppression and Templates Floral Damask, the social problems. COMMON OPPRESSION AS A BASIS FOR BLACK SOLIDARITY. The conception of black solidarity advocated in this essay is hardly new. Though it is often conflated with similar positions (including various. forms of black nationalism) and at times wrongly thought to require a.

thick black identity, it is, I believe, widely held among blacks. Indeed, in the later part of Powerpoint | Mileage Form his life, Du Bois himself comes around to something. like this view. In Dusk of Dawn, Du Bois reflects on his deeply felt tie to. Africa, which he “can feel better than [he] can explain”:

But one thing is sure and that is the fact that since the fifteenth. century these ancestors of mine and their other descendants have. had a common history; have suffered a common disaster and have. 42. As Boxill wisely reminds us, “It is false and vicious to infer that every assimilated. black, or every black-skinned writer or poet who does not display ‘soul,’ is Templates Damask Pattern Envelope Vector, imitative and. servile” (Blacks and Social Justice, p. 360 Evaluation. Feedback. 181).

260 Ethics January 2001. one long memory. The actual ties of heritage between the individuals. of this group, vary with the Vector Floral Damask Envelope Vector, ancestors that they have in. common and many others: Europeans and Semites, perhaps Mongolians, certainly American Indians.

But the physical bond is least. and the Raffle Prize Navvy's Brown, badge of color relatively unimportant save as a badge; the. real essence of Vector this kinship is its social heritage of slavery; the. discrimination and Izzy's Prize, insult; and this heritage binds together not. simply the children of Africa, but extends through yellow Asia and. into the South Seas. It is this unity that draws me to Africa.43. Of course Du Bois is Vector Templates Damask Pattern Stock, here describing a Pan-African vision of black solidarity, which is beyond the scope of black solidarity defended here. But.

he does root this broader conception of Cdl Resume Truck Driver Sample Resume Companion Cdl Driver black solidarity, not in a thick. collective identity as he does in his “Conservation” essay, but in the. common experience of racialized oppression throughout the world. In the space remaining, I want to Vector Floral Damask Envelope, briefly summarize the common. oppression conception of black solidarity that I have been defending. here and anticipate a few objections to it. As I’ve emphasized, themutual. identification between blacks, that familiar sense of Raffle Prize Breakfast! “we-ness,” can be. founded on the shared experience of antiblack racism. That common.

experience, made possible by our racial ascription as “black” people, includes such things as bearing the weight of the stigma attached to. looking and acting “black”; being subject to Stock Vector, the vicissitudes of a racially. segmented labor market; suffering discrimination on Izzy's Raffle | Incapability the basis of presumed. incompetence; enduring the systematic exclusion from certain. neighborhoods, schools, and social circles; recognizing that one is Damask Pattern Envelope Vector, often. the object of unjustified hatred, contempt, suspicion, or fear; feeling. powerless to change one’s inferior racial status; functioning as the perennial. scapegoat for social problems and Monster | Resume Templates And Resume, economic crises; and living. with the Vector Templates Damask Pattern Envelope, knowledge that one is vulnerable to Hvac Resume Template Mac Resume Great, being victimized, at almost.

any time, by an antiblack attitude, action, social practice, or institutional. As an emancipatory solidarity group, blacks must be committed to. social equality and respect for group differences, which means rooting. out racism wherever it exists, even within our own ranks. For while we. identify with each other because of our common suffering under antiblack. oppression, our stance against our oppressors must be a principled. one if our indignation and resentment are to be justified. It is. important to see that an oppression-centered black solidarity is not a.

matter of being antiwhite, or even problack, but of being antiracist. Consequently, solidarity with other racially oppressed groups, and even. with committed antiracist whites, is not precluded by it. Thus, progres- 43. W. E. B. Du Bois, Dusk of Templates Envelope Dawn: An Essay toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept.

(New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1997), p. 117. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 261. sive individuals, regardless of their “race,” ethnicity, cultural identifications, or national origin, have no reason to oppose black solidarity, once its basis and point are properly understood. Group loyalty and mutual trust can be cultivated through our individual. and collective struggles against racial domination and inequality. Those we most seek solidarity with, then, are not necessarily.

those who most exhibit a thick black identity but rather those who stand. firm against all forms of racism, regardless of their racial or cultural. identifications. Rather than being rooted in “race,” ethnicity, or culture, the group’s self-conception is grounded in 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey Feedback, its antiracist politics and its. commitment to racial justice. There must be room within an emancipatory black solidarity for. disagreement over the precise content of our antiracist politics. The. ideals of racial equality and Templates Damask Pattern Envelope Vector, respect for group difference are open to Tracker, a.

variety of interpretations, and Damask Envelope Stock, reasonable people can disagree over both. the appropriate strategies for overcoming racial oppression and the. exact meaning of “black liberation.” Some of these disagreements may. run deep (say, between radicals and Feedback, conservatives), and thus it is unlikely. that we can reach consensus on a comprehensive political program.

However, we know that we all want to live in a society where being. (thought to be) “black” is not a disadvantage or stigma and where all. can live with dignity and self-respect regardless of their so-called race. These somewhat vague ideals and goals can provide black solidarity with. a roughnormative guide, which can bemademore precise and Pattern Envelope, complete. through open-ended dialogue about where to go from Cdl Resume Truck Driver Resume Resume, here and how. to get there. Vector Templates Damask Vector. Though there will inevitably be, perhaps intense, disagreement. among blacks over the details of our antiracist politics, we. should debate these matters with open minds and without allowing. ourselves to be sidetracked by the irresolvable controversy over what it.

means to be “really” black. Should it happen that our bonds begin to. fracture because of the Sample Apology - 20+ Documents In Pdf, Word, depth of our political disagreements—and perhaps. that time is now, again, upon us—we each should remind ourselves. and each other, as Frederick Douglass urged long ago, that the mutual. recognition of our common subordinate position and our collective will.

to rise above it are the bases of our unity. Some might wonder why black solidarity is Vector Floral Pattern Envelope Vector, needed at all, especially. since racism is not unique to Template Powerpoint Form, the experience of blacks and, as was conceded. earlier, solidarity between antiracist blacks and nonblacks is both. possible and desirable. Shouldn’t we just reject black solidarity and embrace.

interracial, antiracist solidarity instead?44 While I certainly would. 44. Appiah raises a similar objection against Vector Templates Envelope Vector the later Du Bois’s conception of “race” (see his In My Father’s House, p. 42). While Appiah’s criticismof Du Bois’s Pan-Africanism. is quite telling, it has little force against the version of black solidarity defended here, for. 262 Ethics January 2001.

strongly encourage blacks to work with antiracist nonblacks against racism, I do not see why blacks must give up their solidaristic commitment. to each other in 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree, order to do so. There is room for Templates Floral Damask Stock, nested and overlapping. forms of antiracist solidarity, just as there is space for more or less. exclusive and Sample Apology Letter Word, inclusive collective struggles at other sites of oppression— for example, class, gender, sexuality, and Vector Templates Floral Damask Stock Vector, their intersections. However, though broader forms of antiracist solidarity should be cultivated, there are at least three reasons why it is prudent for blacks to Izzy's Raffle Prize - A | Incapability Brown, hold on. to this narrower commitment as well, at least for the time being.

First, antiblack racial oppression (like anti-Semitism, anti-Asian racism, and the oppression of Native Americans) has features that make. it unique as a formof racial subjection. The peculiar content of antiblack. racist ideology (with its images of blacks as lazy, stupid, hypersexual, and disposed to acts of aggression), the enslavement and brutal treatment.

of Africans in Templates Pattern Stock, the New World, and Resume Template, the subsequent exclusion of. blacks from the Templates Floral Damask Stock Vector, mainstream of American civic and 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey Feedback, social life have combined. to give antiblack race prejudice a distinctive character among. American forms of racism. Vector Templates Floral Envelope. There are also severe social problems—for.

example, joblessness, high rates of incarceration, concentrated poverty, failing schools, a violent drug trade—that plague some black communities. and that are partly the result of (past and Sample Letter, present) racial discrimination. against black people in particular.45 While a joint commitment. to fighting racial injustice in all its forms can help create interracial. solidarity, it is often the common experience of specific forms of racial. oppression that creates the strongest and most enduring bonds among. victims of racism. Second, the Vector Templates Damask Pattern Envelope, black experience with racism in America makes it difficult. for many blacks to Powerpoint Form, fully trust nonblacks when it comes to fighting. against racism, for Vector Templates Envelope Stock Vector, they have too often been victimized by the racism.

of nonblacks, even by Sample Companion some who are racially oppressed themselves. Add. to this the fact that other “racial” minorities have solidaristic commitments. of their own (e.g., Jews, Native Americans, and Vector Floral Pattern Stock, some Asian. groups), and it should be clear that many blacks justifiably feel the need. to protect themselves against Truck Companion the dangers that may result from competing. group loyalties and interests. A unilateral laying down of Templates Damask Pattern Vector solidaristic. arms, as it were, would increase black vulnerability to.

that version, in contrast to Du Bois’s, does not rely on the doctrine of Prize Breakfast! racialism, it does. not presuppose a common “black culture,” and Floral Envelope Vector, it is rooted in the specificity of black. oppression in America. 45. See William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor. (New York: Knopf, 1999); and Douglass S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton, American Apartheid:

Segregation and the Making of the Underclass (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 263. And, third, the Hvac Resume Template Mac Resume Great, common experience of antiblack racism has for. centuries now provided a firm and well-recognized basis for Vector Pattern Stock Vector, mutual. identification between blacks, and this shared experience partially accounts. for the Template Mac Resume Template, solidarity between them that continues to exist today. As. we seek to form interracial coalitions in our fight against racism, we. should not underestimate or devalue this social bond. Historically, it.

has been a great source of strength and Vector Templates Floral Damask Pattern Vector, hope for blacks, and a highly. effective means for creating greater social equality. I believe that it can, and should, continue to Hvac Resume Template For More, do so. In saying this, however, I am not suggesting. that black collective action, founded on an oppression-centered. black solidarity, would be sufficient to eliminate racism.

Indeed, it could. turn out Vector Floral Pattern Stock, that nothing we do, even with the Raffle Breakfast! Brown, help of members from other. “racial” groups, will end racism, especially antiblack racism.46 Perhaps. the most that can be hoped for, at least in Vector Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, the foreseeable future, is. that black solidarity will afford blacks a limited form of collective selfdefense.

against some of the more burdensome forms of racial oppression. But this, I should think, would be sufficient to make the effort. An oppression-centered black solidarity does not, however, require. a common black identity. Though black oppression may be based on, or rationalized in terms of, an ascribed black identity, this ascription.

need not be well founded in Hvac Engineer Resume Template Mac Resume Great For More, order for the oppression to be real or for. bonds of Vector Damask Envelope Stock Vector solidarity among the racially oppressed to form. The advocate of collective identity theory might here object: surely. an oppression-centered black solidarity must at 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree Feedback, least require that blacks. identify with their thin blackness; for without such a common identity, they will lack a stable foundation for mutual identification. This objection. fails, however. Floral Envelope Stock. To see why, consider the Izzy's - A Breakfast! | Incapability, following variant of the.

well-worn but still instructive witch analogy.47 The trial and subsequent. punishment of alleged “witches” was ostensibly based on the claim that. the accused had communed with the Damask Vector, forces of the underworld. Though. this accusation was most certainly unfounded, these so-called witches. nevertheless suffered a common fate. But now let’s suppose for a moment. that some of the accused really did practice witchcraft, that is, that they engaged in “sorcery,” sought to conspire with the Devil, surreptitiously.

corrupted good Christians, and 7+ Timeline Powerpoint | Mileage, so on. Vector Floral Pattern Envelope Stock. Suppose further that, at various points, some of their number, for Raffle | Incapability Brown, whatever reason, ceased. 46. See Derrick Bell, Faces at Vector Templates Pattern Envelope, the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism (New York: 47. While philosophers often invoke the “witch” as an example of a nonexistent entity, I think Appiah was the first to use the witch analogy in Hvac Resume Mac Resume Template Great, the context of the metaphysics of. race.

See, e.g., his article on “race” in Africana: The Encyclopedia of African and Vector Templates Envelope Vector, African- American Experience, ed. Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Jr. (New York: 264 Ethics January 2001. practicing witchcraft and no longer identified themselves as “witches.” And, finally, suppose that at least some of these practitioners of witchcraft. believed that some among them were frauds, that is, not “really”

witches, according to some commonly accepted criteria for being a witch. or according to some more controversial and strict criteria. Now despite. all this, it seems clear that all of these former, pseudo-, and would-be. witches could share bonds of 7+ Timeline Template Form solidarity with each other, not based on. their common “witch identity” (for ex hypothesi the existence of a. shared identity was in doubt), but based on their common persecution. They simply could have put aside the question of who is and who is not. an authentic witch and focused their attention and energy on overcoming.

their common plight. Black solidarity could have, and Vector Floral Envelope, should have, an analogous foundation. Attachment to their thin black identity is not the basis of the. group’s solidarity, but rather the shared experience with antiblack racism. and the joint commitment to ending it. Blacks need only recognize.

that part of the reason they often suffer mistreatment is that others see. them as thickly “black” (their thin blackness being merely a “sign” of Engineer Template Template Great For More a. deeper difference); and this “racialized perception” leads their oppressors. (sometimes unconsciously) to Vector Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, treat them as a devalued “other.”48. Identification between members of the racially oppressed group can. therefore be based on their mutual recognition of Apology Letter - 20+ Word this sad and disturbing. fact.

It would not undermine black solidarity if, apart from Vector Floral Damask Envelope Vector, the. unjust treatment that they engender, the characteristics that constitute. their thin blackness were to | Incapability, have little or no significance for the members. of the united oppressed group. Once liberation is achieved, thin. blackness may in Templates Damask Pattern, fact (though it need not) lose all social and political. But now some might suggest that even this stripped-down common. oppression theory commits itself to a version of the collective identity. view, for it nevertheless endorses the cultivation of a thick collective.

black identity: it urges blacks to see themselves as racially oppressed. This shared identity is not based on “race,” ethnicity, or culture, but on. the common experience of 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey Feedback antiblack racism. Thus, those blacks who. are united by ties of solidarity will still have a collective identity, and. one that is not reducible to their political principles or antiracist politics. This identity might aptly be described as “victims of antiblack racial. 48. For illuminating discussions of the Floral Damask Envelope Vector, subtle workings of the Powerpoint | Mileage, “racial gaze,” see Adrian. M. Templates Floral Damask Envelope Stock. S. Truck Driver Resume Companion Cdl Driver. Piper, “Higher-Order Discrimination,” in Vector, Identity, Character, and Morality: Essays in.

Moral Psychology, ed. Owen Flanagan and Amelie Rorty (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990); and Linda Marti?n Alcoff, “Towards a Phenomenology of Racial Embodiment,” Radical Philosophy 95 (1999): 15–26. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 265. We could of course respond to this objection by simply conceding. it; that is, we could accept that the Resume And Resume Builder, one “thick” collective black identity. that continues to be a realistic possibility is constituted by our victim. status in Templates Envelope, an antiblack world. Monster Builder And Resume. This approach to the meaning of Vector Templates Floral Damask Pattern Stock Vector blackness. is not self-defeating or divisive like the other conceptions we considered,

since the vast majority of blacks rightly accept that antiblack racism. continues to exist (though of course they have no wish to preserve the. conditions under which an oppression-based identity would be advantageous. or desirable).49 Such an identity would not gratuitously add to. individual unfreedom, for it is nonracialist and perfectly consistent with. cultural/ethnic diversity. Moreover, we should not have to go to great. lengths to cultivate this identity, for there is more than enough antiblack. sentiment and discrimination still around to sustain it—though, admittedly,

it may be necessary to convince people of the depth of the. problem.50 But this view of “blackness” would not give the Template Mac Resume, (typical) collective identity theorist all that he wants, for the search for a collective. black identity has generally been a struggle to Floral Damask Pattern, discover or construct a. positive social identity, one that could be a basis for Hvac Engineer Mac Resume Template Great, pride, dignity, and. collective self-affirmation.

A common identity based on Templates Floral Vector nothing more. than our shared experience of racism cannot provide such an identity, for this would, perversely, treat victimhood as something of which to be. proud—which is not of Hvac Engineer Resume Template Mac Resume Template Great course to say that it is Templates Envelope Stock Vector, something of which we. should be ashamed.51. 49. Jennifer L. Hochschild, Facing Up to the American Dream: Race, Class, and Sample Apology Letter - 20+ Word, the Soul. of the Templates Floral Pattern Vector, Nation (Princeton. N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995). 50. According to Orlando Patterson (p.

61), “all things considered, it is reasonable. to estimate that about 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree Feedback, a quarter of the Euro-American population harbors at least mildly. racist feelings toward Afro-Americans and that one in five is a hard-core racist.…However. one may wish to Vector Templates Damask Envelope, quibble over 7+ Timeline Powerpoint Form the meaning of attitude surveys and Templates Floral Pattern Vector, other data, this is real. progress, an enormous change from the fifties and Powerpoint Tracker, sixties, when the great majority of.

Euro-Americans were openly racists, measured by Vector Templates whatever means. Nonetheless, when. roughly a quarter of all Euro-Americans are racists, it still remains the case that for every. two Afro-American persons there are three Euro-American racists. In spite of 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey all the. progress among Euro-Americans, this is still an outrageous situation for any Afro-American.” See also Howard Schuman, Charlotte Steeh, Lawrence Bobo, and Vector Pattern Stock, Maria Krysan, Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations, rev. ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard. University Press, 1997); David O. Sears, Colette van Laar, Mary Carrillo, and Rick Kosterman, “Is It Really Racism?

The Origins of White Americans’ Opposition to Race-Targeted. Policies,” Public Opinion Quarterly 61 (1997): 16–53; and David O. Sears, Jim Sidanius, and. Lawrence Bobo, eds., Racialized Politics: The Debate about Racism in America (Chicago: University. of Chicago Press, 2000). 51. Some might argue that a collective identity constituted by our oppressed condition. can be seen to be positive and group affirming if we view it from Templates And Resume Builder, a black theological. perspective (whether Christian or Muslim). On this view, God embraces blacks because. they are oppressed; and He is concerned to help them liberate themselves from their evil.

oppressors. (See, e.g., James H. Cone, A Black Theology of Liberation [Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 266 Ethics January 2001. If the arguments presented in this article are sound, then black solidarity. can survive the now well-known critique of racial/ethnic essentialism; it can be sustained despite the loss of “race” as a viable biological concept; it can flourish despite the cultural and ethnic diversity of black. people; and it need not unduly constrain individuality or our freedom. to construct a pluralistic identity. However, this reconstructed black solidarity. will have to Templates Floral Envelope Stock, be sustained without the demand for a collective. black identity, for this requirement can only impede the collective struggle.

that lies ahead. 1990]; and Elijah Muhammad, Message to the Blackman in America [Atlanta: Messenger Elijah. Muhammad Propagation Society, 1997].) However, the positive dimension of 360 Degree this kind of. “blackness” is surely derived, not from the Vector Damask Stock, oppression itself, but from the virtue associated. with the Cdl Resume Resume Sample Resume Companion, steadfast pursuit of truth and justice despite being oppressed and/or from Vector Templates Damask, the.

promise that, through faith and collective struggle, we will ultimately be delivered from. that oppression. If God did not love what is good and hate what is evil, or if He could. help liberate us from undeserved domination but did not, then we could hardly take. much pride in being “chosen” by Him.

But even if black theology could find in Apology Letter - 20+ Documents In Pdf, Word, black. oppression something of Pattern Envelope Vector which to Feedback, be proud, it is clear that a religious narrative of this. sort is not one that will resonate with all blacks, since not all of us are religiously inclined. At best, then, “victims of Vector Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock Vector antiblack racial oppression” will be a positive identity for some, though not all, black people. Is this question part of your Assignment?

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45,000 caught cheating at Britain#039;s universities. As cases of 'academic misconduct' rocket, computer programs able to identify plagiarism are being overtaken fast. The Independent Online. Using a mobile phone is one way to Damask Pattern pass your exams, but notes on the arm will do Jason Alden. Tens of thousands of students in Apology - 20+ Documents In Pdf,, universities across Britain have been caught cheating in exams and coursework – and the trend is on the rise, according to a investigation by Templates Damask Envelope Stock The Independent on Sunday . Over the 360 Degree Feedback, past three years, more than 45,000 students at 80 institutions have been hauled before college authorities and found guilty of academic misconduct ranging from bringing crib-sheets or mobile phones into exams to paying private firms to write essays for them. Some 16,000 cases were recorded in the past year alone, as university chiefs spent millions on software to identify work reproduced from published material, or simply cut and pasted from the internet. Vector Floral? But officials last night warned they were fighting a losing battle against hi-tech advances – which means it is becoming increasingly difficult to 7+ Timeline | Mileage detect the cheats.

Tessa Byars, an Vector Templates Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Vector, advice services manager at Anglia Ruskin University Students' Union, warned that advances in technology had made it nearly impossible for universities to keep up. It's only going to Engineer Resume Template Mac Resume get worse, she said. From next September we expect to see cheating incidents rise. The introduction of Vector Pattern Envelope Vector, tuition fees will increase pressure and Engineer Resume Template Mac Resume Template Great For More, anxiety to get a good degree. They're all worried about their employment prospects. University bosses blame the Vector Templates Floral Damask Pattern Envelope, financial crisis for raising the Template | Mileage Tracker Form, stakes in higher education, making many students willing to do anything to secure good grades – or just to Vector Templates Damask Pattern stay on their degree courses. A number of experts claim that Tony Blair's flagship policy of 7+ Timeline Template | Mileage Tracker Form, increasing access to higher education has left thousands of Vector Damask Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, young people starting university without all the practical and intellectual skills required. Ministers have now been urged to step in to 7+ Timeline Template help institutions defend standards against increasingly sophisticated methods, particularly agencies that produce customised essays for students – often for fees of hundreds of pounds.

The Liberal Democrat peer Lord Willis, who led an inquiry into the state of Britain's universities three years ago, said ministers must gain control over the essay-writing companies whose products are almost impossible to detect. Vector Damask Pattern Envelope Vector? The former headteacher said ministers should impose a register of all companies offering professional advice on writing essays. Lord Willis said: We were disappointed that the last government ignored our recommendations on Navvy's Breakfast! Brown, making these firms liable for Vector Templates Pattern Envelope Stock criminal prosecution. Something needs to be done to bring them into line. Under the Freedom of Information Act, The IoS obtained answers from more than 80 institutions. The responses revealed a catalogue of offences, including individuals caught taking exams for 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey someone else, using concealed notes or taking mobile phones into Floral Damask Pattern examination halls and colluding with fellow students to Engineer Resume Template Template For More produce identical coursework. Floral Damask Envelope Vector? Hundreds were kicked off their courses, while many more have been fined, had their marks downgraded, or been sent for Resume And Resume Builder counselling. The Oxford University Proctors' Office report listed 26 cases last year, including two students who were expelled for offences including plagiarism and further fines on two students who took mobile phones or BlackBerrys into exams. The IoS has established that at Vector Damask Stock least 45,000 students at more than 80 UK institutions have been hauled before the authorities and Truck Driver Cdl Driver, found guilty of Vector Templates Pattern Stock Vector, misconduct in their exams or coursework over the past three years. Builder? The toll last year was almost 16,000, an increase on two years before, despite attempts to persuade undergraduates to stay on the straight and narrow.

Greenwich University, with more than 900 cases, was the worst in the country, but 12 others reported more than one cheat every day. The high rate of Pattern Stock, cheating has also been blamed in part on the tens of thousands of international students who, Ms Byars said, come from countries with different practices and cultures. Others said the recent huge increase in undergraduates meant there were many students at new universities who were not adequately prepared to complete degrees. Geoffrey Alderman, professor of history and Resume Resume Companion Cdl Driver, politics at the University of Buckingham, said the cheats had moved on from Type 1 fraud – mainly cutting and pasting material from the internet – as that could now be detected easily. Professor Alderman, who has complained about a decline in university standards, added: If a student who I know to be mediocre in class suddenly produces a brilliant essay, I will have them in for an oral examination to see whether they can reproduce that work.

I'm not sure all universities do that. Templates Floral Damask Envelope Stock Vector? I will not allow a student's nationality or ethnic background to excuse cheating. The Government should use the criminal law to stop this happening – it's fraud and it devalues the currency of all degrees. Sally Hunt, general secretary of the University and College Union, said politicians had to share the blame for the rising tide of Builder | Resume, cheating. She said: Cheating is wrong, and students need to understand that and the consequences that come with it if they are tempted to explore unscrupulous ways of completing their work. However, successive governments are also partly to Templates Damask Pattern Envelope blame. Hawking degrees around like any other commodity, using graduate-earning premiums as a selling point, has changed the nature of life on campus. London Metropolitan, which had the highest number of cheating offences in the country in 2009-10, recorded the second-highest last year, behind Greenwich. They were followed by Sheffield Hallam, Leeds Metropolitan and Template Powerpoint Form, Wolverhampton. A spokeswoman for Greenwich University said the figures demonstrated a particularly robust approach to Vector Envelope Stock academic misconduct. She added: Staff are highly vigilant, and we use a number of techniques that are not in use throughout the whole sector.

Increasingly, universities are taking a defensive stance – insisting it is complicated by a growing number of students who enter university unfamiliar with the correct procedures of citation or who do not have a good command of English. Niall Hayes, a lecturer at Lancaster University Management School, said: People come to us without experience of Resume Mac Resume For More, extended writing or formulating arguments and building on other's ideas. That's something we have to deal with and it's why we can't necessarily identify it as cheating. Jon Elsmore, dean of students at Wolverhampton, said: Sometimes plagiarism can occur unintentionally, and if problems are identified early in a student's career they can be helped to develop their academic skills and avoid more serious consequences if they do not change their approach. Vector Templates Envelope? There are hundreds of internet sites offering everything from presentations, short-form essays and even a PhD thesis written to order. Some are based in the UK while many exist only online.

Posing as a student with an urgent deadline, we used a company called All Writing Source purporting to be based in Surrey. Essays can be ordered using a drop-down menu, with prices determined by length, time of delivery and desired mark. We stipulated a Guaranteed First Class Degree (sic) at 1,500 words and delivered by e-mail within 24 hours. The title we set was: Did Tony Blair lie in making the case for military action in Iraq? The total cost came in at ?143.70. The sales assistant, Kevin, refused any textbooks, insisting the Raffle - A Navvy's Brown, firm would get in touch if they needed more information. The reason is that we have our own in-house writers who do the job for us. free from all plagiarisms, he wrote. Templates Damask Pattern Envelope Stock? He promised to deliver the essay in under 24 hours. The next day, 10 minutes before the deadline, we were told the essay was ready.

The paper passed flawlessly through Turnitin, one of the leading plagiarism checkers, and had even cited seven sources in the bibliography. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey Feedback? But was it really the Guaranteed First Class that we were promised? We gave it to John Rentoul, a visiting fellow at Queen Mary, University of London, for marking. Professor Rentoul's verdict: Some evidence of knowledge of the Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, subject, but: 1. Very poor grammar and style, unintelligible in places (reads as if it has been translated by Sample Google from another language); 2. Very poor sources and sourcing. All four books cited are polemical anti-war works. No primary material cited at Vector Damask Envelope Stock all; 3. Argument, analysis and narrative weak and Cdl Resume Truck Sample, unsupported by evidence. Much too polemical rather than historical in style. The question needs to be defined and then the evidence for and against needs to be cited and weighed.

Please see me for further advice. Mark: 42 (Third Class marks: 40-49) We returned to the company the next day, explaining that we were from The Independent on Sunday . The firm denied it was encouraging cheating and offered to improve the essay based on the examiner's comments. The company's website disclaimer reads: AllWritingSource.co.uk is a custom research/writing/rewriting service that provides proper references too for assistance purposes only. Templates Stock Vector? It is Resume Template Mac Resume Great necessary to use every paper with appropriate reference. Vector Templates Floral Damask Envelope Stock Vector? The papers provided serve as model papers for - 20+ Documents In Pdf, students and are not to be submitted as it is. These papers are intended to be used for Templates Stock research and reference purposes only.

Ollie (surname withheld by The IoS), 22, studied at Glasgow Caledonian University. Resume Templates Builder? The computer science student was accused of Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, cheating after a professor spotted similarities between his and a friend's work. It was the night before a programming assignment was due and I convinced someone on my course to let me see their coursework. I tried to Truck Driver Resume change some details and I thought it would be enough. But when the marker looked over the code it was clear that the origins of both our work was similar. Vector Floral Damask Vector? We were called in on separate occasions to explain the Cdl Resume Truck Driver Resume Companion Cdl Driver, code outline, how it worked, in Pattern Envelope Stock, order to Truck Driver Resume Sample Cdl Driver try to work out which of us was cheating.

I thought I could get away with it, but it was clear that the work was alien to me. But it was also obvious that I had grasped the theory, even though I hadn't done the Vector Floral Damask Envelope Stock Vector, work myself, so I think they were more lenient. The assessment was counted as a fail and I was made to resit the assignment. In the 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree, end, I took the blame. If anything, the experience has taught me not to attempt things I can't explain and never to use other people's coursework. Clare Trayner, 23, was a geography student at Royal Holloway who was accused of Templates Floral Pattern, cheating after anti-plagiarism software flagged up her essay.

Everyone was emailed to 360 Degree collect their essay, but mine was held back. Vector Floral Envelope Stock? I was then told to Truck Sample Resume Companion attend a formal meeting as I had been caught committing plagiarism. I knew I hadn't cheated but I wasn't clear on what the Templates, problem was. I was told one paragraph had been flagged up as resembling the content on an internet site. 360 Evaluation. 360 Degree? Eventually I was found guilty of Templates Floral Damask Envelope Vector, plagiarism but as it was my first time I would be only 7+ Timeline Tracker Form marked down by 10 per cent on Vector Envelope Stock, that module.

My mark for Resume Builder | Resume Templates And Resume Builder the module went from a high 2:1 to Floral Damask Stock a 2:2. Interviews by Tabby Kinder. We use cookies to enhance your visit to our site and to bring you advertisements that might interest you. Read our Privacy and Cookie Policies to find out more. We've noticed that you are using an ad blocker. Advertising helps fund our journalism and keep it truly independent.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. We're about to dive deep into Vector Templates Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock, the details of that least beloved* of SAT sections, the Hvac Engineer Resume Template Mac Resume Template For More SAT essay . Prepare for a discussion of the Vector Floral Pattern Envelope Stock Vector SAT essay rubric and how the SAT essay is graded based on that. I'll break down what each item on the rubric means and what you need to do to meet those requirements. On the SAT, the last section you'll encounter is the (optional) essay. 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey! You have 50 minutes to read a passage, analyze the author's argument, and Vector Damask Pattern Envelope Vector write an essay. Sample Apology Letter - 20+ Documents! If you don’t write on Floral Stock the assignment, plagiarize, or don't use your own original work, you'll get a 0 on your essay. Otherwise, your essay scoring is done by two graders - each one grades you on a scale of Resume Builder Templates, 1-4 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing, for Stock, a total essay score out of 8 in 7+ Timeline Template Powerpoint | Mileage Tracker each of those three areas . But how do these graders assign your writing a numerical grade? By using an Vector Floral Pattern Stock Vector, essay scoring guide, or rubric. *may not actually be the least beloved.

The Complete SAT Essay Grading Rubric: Item-by-Item Breakdown. Based on the CollegeBoard’s stated Reading, Analysis, and Cdl Resume Driver Resume Companion Cdl Driver Writing criteria, I've created the Vector Damask Pattern Stock below charts (for easier comparison across score points). For the purpose of going deeper into 360 Evaluation. Feedback, just what the SAT is Vector Floral Pattern Envelope Stock Vector looking for in your essay, I've then broken down each category further (with examples). The information in all three charts is taken from the College Board site. The biggest change to the SAT essay (and the thing that really distinguishes it from the ACT essay) is Apology Letter - 20+ Documents In Pdf, Word that you are required to Vector Floral Envelope Stock Vector, read and Raffle Prize - A Navvy's | Incapability analyze a text , then write about your analysis of the author's argument in your essay. Your Reading grade on Templates Floral Damask Envelope Stock the SAT essay reflects how well you were able to Izzy's Prize - A Breakfast! | Incapability, demonstrate your understanding of the text and the author's argument in your essay. The response demonstrates little or no comprehension of the source text. The response fails to show an understanding of the text’s central idea(s), and may include only details without reference to Templates Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock, central idea(s). The response may contain numerous errors of fact and/or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes little or no use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating little or no understanding of the Builder source text.

The response demonstrates some comprehension of the Templates Envelope source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) but not of Sample Apology - 20+ Word, important details. The response may contain errors of fact and/or interpretation with regard to Templates Floral Damask Pattern Vector, the text. The response makes limited and/or haphazard use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating some understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes appropriate use of Letter In Pdf, Word, textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text.

The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and Vector Templates Floral Damask how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. You'll need to show your understanding of the text on two different levels: the surface level of getting your facts right and the deeper level of Template Powerpoint Form, getting the relationship of the details and the central ideas right. One of the most important ways you can show you've actually read the passage is making sure you stick to what is said in the text . Vector Floral Pattern Vector! If you’re writing about Izzy's Raffle - A things the Vector Floral Envelope author didn’t say, or things that contradict other things the author said, your argument will be fundamentally flawed. For instance, take this quotation from a (made-up) passage about why a hot dog is not a sandwich: “The fact that you can’t, or wouldn’t, cut a hot dog in half and eat it that way, proves that a hot dog is once and for all NOT a sandwich” Here's an example of a factually inaccurate paraphrasing of this quotation: The author builds his argument by 7+ Timeline Powerpoint | Mileage Form, discussing how, since hot-dogs are often served cut in half, this makes them different from sandwiches. The paraphrase contradicts the passage, and so would negatively affect your reading score. Vector Templates Damask Pattern Stock Vector! Now let's look at an accurate paraphrasing of the quotation:

The author builds his argument by discussing how, since hot-dogs are never served cut in half, they are therefore different from sandwiches. It's also important to be faithful to the text when you're using direct quotations from the passage. Misquoting or badly paraphrasing the author’s words weakens your essay, because the evidence you’re using to support your points is faulty. Higher Level: Understanding of Central Ideas. The next step beyond being factually accurate about the passage is showing that you understand the central ideas of the text and how details of the passage relate back to this central idea. Why does this matter? In order to be able to explain why the Engineer Resume Template Mac Resume Template Great For More author is persuasive, you need to be able to explain the structure of the argument.

And you can’t deconstruct the author's argument if you don’t understand the central idea of the passage and how the details relate to it. Here's an Vector Vector, example of a statement about Monster Templates our fictional hot dogs are sandwiches passage that shows understanding of the central idea of the Pattern Vector passage: Hodgman’s third primary defense of 7+ Timeline Template Tracker Form, why hot dogs are not sandwiches is that a hot dog is Templates Floral Damask Envelope Stock Vector not a subset of any other type of food. He uses the analogy of asking the question “is cereal milk a broth, sauce, or gravy?” to Cdl Resume Resume Sample Resume Companion, show that making such a comparison between hot dogs and sandwiches is Floral Envelope Stock patently illogical. The above statement takes one step beyond merely being factually accurate to explain the relation between different parts of the passage (in this case, the relation between the what is cereal milk? analogy and the hot dog/sandwich debate).

Of course, if you want to Template Powerpoint | Mileage, score well in Templates Damask Vector all three essay areas, you’ll need to do more in your essay than merely summarizing the author’s argument. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree! This leads directly into the next grading area of the SAT Essay. The items covered under this criterion are the most important when it comes to Pattern Stock Vector, writing a strong essay. You can use well-spelled vocabulary in sentences with varied structure all you want, but if you don't analyze the author's argument, demonstrate critical thinking, and support your position, you will not get a high Analysis score . The response offers little or no analysis or ineffective analysis of the source text and demonstrates little or no understanding of the analytic task. The response identifies without explanation some aspects of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the Resume Builder And Resume student’s choosing, Or numerous aspects of the response’s analysis are unwarranted based on the text. The response contains little or no support for claim(s) or point(s) made, or support is largely irrelevant.

The response may not focus on features of the text that are relevant to Vector Templates Floral Damask Vector, addressing the task, Or the Resume Cdl Driver response offers no discernible analysis (e.g., is largely or exclusively summary). The response offers limited analysis of the source text and Floral Pattern Stock Vector demonstrates only partial understanding of the analytical task. The response identifies and attempts to describe the Hvac Template Great author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the Vector Envelope Stock Vector student’s own choosing, but merely asserts rather than explains their importance, or one or more aspects of the response’s analysis are unwarranted based on the text. The response contains little or no support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response may lack a clear focus on those features of the text that are most relevant to Letter Documents In Pdf, Word, addressing the task.

The response offers an Vector Templates Damask Pattern Envelope, effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the Cdl Resume Truck Resume Sample Resume Companion Cdl Driver analytical task. The response competently evaluates the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the Templates Floral Vector student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant and Raffle Navvy's Breakfast! | Incapability Brown sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an Floral Pattern Vector, insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task.

The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the Apology author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and Vector Damask Pattern strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the 360 Degree Feedback task. Because this category is so important, I've broken it down even further into its two different (but equally important) component parts to make sure everything is as clearly explained as possible. Critical thinking, also known as critical reasoning, also known as logic, is the skill that SAT essay graders are really looking to see displayed in Vector Templates Floral Pattern Vector the essay. You need to Raffle | Incapability Brown, be able to Templates Damask Pattern Vector, evaluate and analyze the claim put forward in the prompt. This is Truck Driver Resume Sample Resume where a lot of students may get tripped up, because they think “oh, well, if I can just write a lot, then I’ll do well.” While there is some truth to the assertion that longer essays tend to Vector Damask Pattern Vector, score higher, if you don’t display critical thinking you won’t be able to get a top score on your essay. What do I mean by Template Powerpoint Tracker, critical thinking? Let's take the Vector Templates Damask Envelope previous prompt example: Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to Resume Template, persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich.

An answer to this prompt that does not display critical thinking (and would fall into Templates Damask, a 1 or 2 on the rubric) would be something like: The author argues that hot dogs aren’t sandwiches, which is persuasive to Prize, the reader. While this does evaluate the prompt (by providing a statement that the author's claim is persuasive to the reader), there is no corresponding analysis. Templates Floral Envelope! An answer to this prompt that displays critical thinking (and would net a higher score on the rubric) could be something like this: The author uses analogies to hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. Because the readers will readily believe the first part of the Monster Resume Builder Templates And Resume Builder analogy is true, they will be more likely to accept that the second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is true as well. See the difference? Critical thinking involves reasoning your way through a situation (analysis) as well as making a judgement (evaluation) . Templates! On the SAT essay, however, you can’t just stop at Template Powerpoint Form, abstract critical reasoning - analysis involves one more crucial step.

Part II: Examples, Reasons, and Other Evidence (Support) The other piece of the puzzle (apparently this is Templates Floral Damask Envelope Vector a tiny puzzle) is making sure you are able to Cdl Resume Truck Resume Sample Resume Cdl Driver, back up your point of Vector Templates Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, view and critical thinking with concrete evidence . The SAT essay rubric says that the best (that is, 4-scoring) essay uses “ relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. ” This means you can’t just stick to abstract reasoning like this: The author uses analogies to hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. Letter - 20+ In Pdf,! Because the readers will readily believe the first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to accept that the second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is true as well. That explanation is Vector Damask Pattern Envelope Vector a good starting point, but if you don't back up your point of view with quoted or paraphrased information from the text to support your discussion of the Builder | Resume Templates Builder way the author builds his/her argument, you will not be able to get above a 3 on the Analysis portion of the essay (and possibly the Reading portion as well, if you don't show you've read the passage).

Let's take a look of an example of how you might support an Templates Damask Pattern Vector, interpretation of the author's effect on the reader using facts from the passage : The author’s reference to the Biblical story about Sample Apology Letter Documents In Pdf, King Solomon elevates the debate about hot dogs from a petty squabble between friends to Templates Damask Pattern Stock, a life-or-death disagreement. The reader cannot help but see the parallels between the Builder Templates And Resume two situations and thus find themselves agreeing with the author on this point. Does the Vector Floral Damask Stock author's reference to King Solomon actually elevate the debate, causing the reader to Apology Letter Documents In Pdf, Word, agree with the author? From the Templates Floral Envelope Stock sentences above, it certainly seems plausible that it might. While your facts do need to be correct, you get a little more leeway with your interpretations of Sample Letter In Pdf, Word, how the author’s persuasive techniques might affect the audience. As long as you can make a convincing argument for the effect a technique the author uses might have on Vector Damask Pattern Envelope Vector the reader, you’ll be good. Say whaaat?! #tbt by tradlands, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped and color-adjusted from original. Did I just blow your mind? Read more about the secrets the SAT doesn’t want you to 360 Evaluation. 360 Degree Feedback, know in Floral Damask Envelope this article.

Your Writing score on the SAT essay is not just a reflection of your grasp of the conventions of written English (although it is that as well). You'll also need to be focused, organized, and Cdl Resume Resume Resume precise. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and inadequate skill in the use and control of language. The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea. The response lacks a recognizable introduction and conclusion.

The response does not have a discernible progression of ideas. The response lacks variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive. The response demonstrates general and vague word choice; word choice may be poor or inaccurate. The response may lack a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a weak control of the Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock conventions of standard written English and may contain numerous errors that undermine the quality of writing.

The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and limited skill in the use and control of Driver Resume Companion, language. The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea or may deviate from the Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock claim or idea over Template Powerpoint, the course of the response. The response may include an Vector Templates Floral Damask Envelope, ineffective introduction and/or conclusion. The response may demonstrate some progression of ideas within paragraphs but not throughout the response. The response has limited variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive. The response demonstrates general or vague word choice; word choice may be repetitive.

The response may deviate noticeably from a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a limited control of the conventions of standard written English and contains errors that detract from the quality of writing and Builder | Resume Builder may impede understanding. The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in Vector Templates Floral Pattern Envelope Stock Vector sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone.

The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay.

The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. Hvac Resume Mac Resume Template Great For More! The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of Vector Damask Pattern Envelope Stock Vector, errors. Because there's a lot of different factors that go into calculating your Writing score, I've divided the discussion of this rubric area into five separate items: One of the Powerpoint Tracker Form most basic rules of the SAT essay is that you need to express a clear opinion on Vector Pattern Vector the assignment (the prompt) . While in school (and everywhere else in life, pretty much) you’re encouraged to take into account all sides of a topic, it behooves you to NOT do this on the SAT essay. Cdl Resume Truck Resume Companion Cdl Driver! Why? Because you only have 50 minutes to read the passage, analyze the Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock author's argument, and write the essay, there's no way you can discuss every single way in which the author builds his/her argument, every single detail of the passage, or a nuanced argument about what works and what doesn't work. Instead, I recommend focusing your discussion on a few key ways the author is successful in persuading his/her audience of his/her claim.

Let’s go back to the assignment we've been using as an Documents In Pdf,, example throughout this article: Write an Templates Floral Pattern Envelope Vector, essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an 360 Degree Feedback, argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich. Your instinct (trained from many years of schooling) might be to answer: There are a variety of ways in Vector Damask which the author builds his argument. This is a nice, vague statement that leaves you a lot of 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey Feedback, wiggle room.

If you disagree with the author, it's also a way of Vector Templates Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock, avoiding having to say that the author is 360 Degree persuasive. Don't fall into Vector Floral Damask Stock, this trap! You do not necessarily have to Monster Resume Builder, agree with the author's claim in order to analyze how the author persuades his/her readers that the Templates Floral Pattern claim is true. Here's an example of a precise central claim about the example assignment: The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by using logic, allusions to history and mythology, and factual evidence.

In contrast to the vague claim that There are a variety of Cdl Resume Truck Driver Companion, ways in which the author builds his argument, this thesis both specifies what the author's argument is and the ways in which he builds the argument (that you'll be discussing in the essay). While it's extremely important to Vector Floral Damask, make sure your essay has a clear point of view, strong critical reasoning, and support for your position, that's not enough to get you a top score. You need to make sure that your essay demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the Raffle - A Navvy's Breakfast! | Incapability Brown essay. What does this mean? Part of the way you can make sure your essay is well organized has to do with following standard essay construction points.

Don't write your essay in one huge paragraph; instead, include an introduction (with your thesis stating your point of view), body paragraphs (one for each example, usually), and Vector Templates Damask a conclusion. Resume Builder Templates And Resume Builder! This structure might seem boring, but it really works to keep your essay organized, and the more clearly organized your essay is, the easier it will be for the essay grader to understand your critical reasoning. The second part of this criteria has to do with keeping your essay focused, making sure it contains a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas. You can't just say well, I have an Templates Damask Pattern Stock Vector, introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion, so I guess my essay is 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree organized and expect to get a 4/4 on your essay. You need to Templates Floral Damask Vector, make sure that each paragraph is also organized . Recall the sample prompt: “Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich.” And our hypothetical thesis: The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by Documents Word, using logic, allusions to history and mythology, and Vector Templates Damask factual evidence. Let's say that you're writing the paragraph about the author's use of logic to persuade his reader that hot dogs aren't sandwiches.

You should NOT just list ways that the author is logical in support of his claim, then explain why logic in general is an effective persuasive device. 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree! While your points might all be valid, your essay would be better served by connecting each instance of logic in the passage with an explanation of how that example of logic persuades the reader to agree with the author. Above all, it is imperative that you make your thesis (your central claim) clear in the opening paragraph of your essay - this helps the grader keep track of your argument. There's no reason you’d want to make following your reasoning more difficult for Vector Floral Stock, the person grading your essay (unless you’re cranky and don’t want to do well on the essay. Template Powerpoint | Mileage Tracker! Listen, I don’t want to tell you how to live your life). In your essay, you should use a wide array of vocabulary (and use it correctly). An essay that scores a 4 in Writing on the grading rubric “demonstrates a consistent use of Floral Stock Vector, precise word choice.”

You’re allowed a few errors, even on a 4-scoring essay, so you can sometimes get away with misusing a word or two. In general, though, it’s best to Resume, stick to using words you are certain you not only know the meaning of, but also know how to use. If you’ve been studying up on vocab, make sure you practice using the words you’ve learned in sentences, and have those sentences checked by Templates Pattern Stock, someone who is good at writing (in English), before you use those words in an SAT essay. Creating elegant, non-awkward sentences is the | Resume Templates And Resume Builder thing I struggle most with under time pressure. For instance, here’s my first try at the previous sentence: “Making sure a sentence structure makes sense is the thing that I have the most problems with when I’m writing in a short amount of time” (hahaha NOPE - way too convoluted and wordy, self). As another example, take a look at these two excerpts from the hypothetical essay discussing how the author persuaded his readers that a hot dog is Vector Pattern not a sandwich:

Score of 2: The author makes his point by Hvac Engineer Resume Template Template Great For More, critiquing the argument against Pattern Envelope Stock Vector him. The author pointed out the logical fallacy of saying a hot dog was a sandwich because it was meat sandwiched between two breads. The author thus persuades the reader his point makes sense to be agreed with and Izzy's Raffle Prize Navvy's convinces them. The above sentences lack variety in structure (they all begin with the words the Vector Templates Damask author), and Resume Template Mac Resume Template For More the last sentence has serious flaws in its structure (it makes no sense). Score of 4: The author's rigorous examination of Vector Damask Pattern Stock, his opponent's position invites the reader, too, to consider this issue seriously. By laying out his reasoning, step by Resume And Resume Builder, step, Hodgman makes it easy for the reader to follow along with his train of thought and arrive at the same destination that he has. This destination is Hodgman's claim that a hot dog is not a sandwich. The above sentences demonstrate variety in Templates Floral Envelope Stock sentence structure (they don't all begin with the same word and don't have the Cdl Resume Truck Driver Resume Sample Resume Cdl Driver same underlying structure) that presumably forward the point of the Floral Damask Pattern Stock Vector essay. In general, if you're doing well in all the other Writing areas, your sentence structures will also naturally vary.

If you're really worried that your sentences are not varied enough, however, my advice for working on demonstrating meaningful variety in sentence structure (without ending up with terribly worded sentences) is 7+ Timeline Template Tracker twofold: Read over what you’ve written before you hand it in and change any wordings that seem awkward, clunky, or just plain incorrect. Vector Floral Damask Pattern Vector! As you’re doing practice essays, have a friend, family member, or teacher who is good at (English) writing look over your essays and point out any issues that arise. This part of the Writing grade is Resume And Resume all about the nitty gritty details of writing: grammar, punctuation, and Templates Damask Envelope Vector spelling . It's rare that an 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey Feedback, essay with serious flaws in Templates Floral Damask Envelope this area can score a 4/4 in Reading, Analysis, or Writing, because such persistent errors often interfere with meaning (that is, persistent errors make it difficult for the grader to understand what you're trying to get across). On the other hand, if they occur in small quantities, grammar/punctuation/spelling errors are also the things that are most likely to Monster Resume Templates Builder, be overlooked. If two essays are otherwise of equal quality, but one writer misspells definitely as definately and the other writer fails to Vector Floral Damask Envelope Stock Vector, explain how one of Template, her examples supports her thesis, the first writer will receive a higher essay score. It's only when poor grammar, use of Vector Floral Envelope Stock, punctuation, and spelling start to make it difficult to understand your essay that the graders start penalizing you. My advice for working on this rubric area is the 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey Feedback same advice as for Floral Pattern Vector, sentence structure: look over what you’ve written to double check for mistakes, and 7+ Timeline | Mileage Tracker Form ask someone who’s good at writing to look over your practice essays and point out your errors. If you're really struggling with spelling, simply typing up your (handwritten) essay into a program like Microsoft Word and running spellcheck can alert you to problems.

We've also got a great set of articles up on our blog about SAT Writing questions that may help you better understand any grammatical errors you are making. How Do I Use The SAT Essay Grading Rubric? Now that you understand the SAT essay rubric, how can you use it in your SAT prep? There are a couple of different ways. Use The SAT Essay Rubric To. Shape Your Essays. Since you know what the SAT is looking for Vector Templates Floral Damask Stock, in an essay, you can now use that knowledge to guide what you write about in your essays! A tale from my youth: when I was preparing to take the SAT for the first time, I did not really know what the essay was looking for, and assumed that since I was a good writer, I’d be fine. Not true! The most important part of the SAT essay is Resume Template Mac Resume Great using specific examples from the passage and Templates Floral Stock explaining how they convince the reader of the author's point.

By reading this article and realizing there's more to the essay than being a strong writer, you’re already doing better than high school me. Change the object in that girl’s left hand from | Mileage Form a mirror to a textbook and Vector Pattern Stock you have a pretty good sketch of what my junior year of high school looked like. Use The SAT Essay Rubric To. Grade Your Practice Essays. The SAT can’t exactly give you an answer key to Companion, the essay.

Even when an example of an Vector Templates Floral Damask Envelope Stock, essay that scored a particular score is provided, that essay will probably use different examples than you did, make different arguments, maybe even argue different interpretations of the text. making it difficult to compare the two. The SAT essay rubric is the next best thing to an answer key for the essay - use it as a lens through which to view and Template | Mileage assess your essay. Of course, you don’t have the time to Pattern Stock, become an 360 Evaluation. 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey 360 Degree Feedback, expert SAT essay grader - that’s not your job. You just have to Floral Damask Pattern, apply the rubric as best as you can to your essays and work on fixing your weak areas . For the sentence structure, grammar, usage, and Cdl Resume Driver Sample Resume mechanics stuff I highly recommend asking a friend, teacher, or family member who is Vector Pattern Envelope Stock really good at (English) writing to take a look over your practice essays and point out the mistakes. If you really want custom feedback on your practice essays from Hvac Template experienced essay graders, may I also suggest the PrepScholar test prep platform? I manage the essay grading and so happen to know quite a bit about the essay part of this platform, which gives you both an essay grade and custom feedback for each essay you complete. Damask Pattern Envelope! Learn more about Sample Apology Letter Documents In Pdf, how it all works here. Are you so excited by this article that you want to Templates Floral Vector, read even more articles on the SAT essay? Of course you are. Don't worry, I’ve got you covered.

Learn how to write an SAT essay step-by-step and read about the 7+ Timeline Powerpoint | Mileage 6 types of SAT essay prompts. Still not satisfied? Maybe a five-day free trial of our very own PrepScholar test prep platform (which includes essay practice and Templates Floral Pattern Stock Vector feedback) is just what you need. Trying to figure out whether the old or new SAT essay is better for you? Take a look at our article on Sample Letter - 20+ Documents the new SAT essay assignment to find out! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. Vector Floral Pattern Envelope Stock! If you liked this Essay lesson, you'll love our program.

Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out Template Powerpoint | Mileage, our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and Vector Pattern Envelope Stock earned a Master's degree in Cdl Resume Truck Driver Sample Companion Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. Vector Floral Damask Pattern Envelope! She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school.

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How To Write A Resume Summary: 21 Best Examples You Will See. What is the Pattern Stock Vector best way to start a resume? The Ladder's research found that recruiters spend an average of 6 seconds looking at your resume! Yeah, you read that right. That means you've got to give recruiters what they want to see in the blink of an Cdl Resume Driver Cdl Driver eye . But how? A little something called a resume summary . Vector Templates Floral Envelope! A good resume summary puts the Resume Template information recruiters are looking for first. In this article, I will explain how to write a resume summary that gives recruiters what they want most . And I will explain how to Vector Vector showcase that information so that it catches the employer’s attention. A great resume summary goes at Izzy's Raffle Prize - A Breakfast! | Incapability Brown, the top of the page - in the most prominent position. Use it to attract recruiters' attention. Here is Vector Floral Damask Vector, a template from our resume builder (create your resume) . See how the resume summary sample stands out?

A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction highlighting your career progress and skill set. An example of a resume summary looks like this: Administrative Assistant with +3 years of Cdl Resume Resume Resume Companion Cdl Driver, experience in a sensitive corporate environment. Templates Floral Damask Pattern Stock! Outgoing and Letter - 20+ Documents Word, detail-oriented, I am proficient at building and Templates Envelope Stock, maintaining professional relationships. Have an Associate's Degree in Office Administration. Administrative Assistant seeking meaninful work in a corporate environment where I can learn and develop my skills.

A resume summary is also known as: Think of it as an “elevator pitch” or “sales pitch” that you can use anytime someone says: Pro Tip: If you're looking for Letter - 20+ In Pdf, Word, samples of resumes and summaries for specific professions, you may also want to take a look at our resume examples section. Resume Summary vs. Objective: What’s the Difference? The difference between a general resume summary and a resume objective looks like this: You are at a party.

Let’s call you Robert. Your wingman approaches the girl you like. Robert likes girls and wants to leverage his skills to marry one. Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to Vector Floral leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Has an MA in hand holding and Izzy's Raffle Navvy's, a license to cook romantic dinners. Which wingman is Templates Floral Damask Envelope Stock Vector, going to get Robert the Builder Builder girl? The resume objective was acceptable a long time ago when dinosaurs roamed the Earth.

All you had to Templates Floral Damask Pattern Vector do at the beginning of Sample Apology Letter - 20+, a resume was write a one-liner that told the recruiter: 2. That you want the job. Then a meteor came and smashed into the Earth, and all the Vector Templates Damask Pattern Envelope Stock Vector resume objectives died. Resume objectives are still extremely useful for certain types of job seekers. So, Who Should Use a Professional Resume Summary? Resume summaries are for people with years of experience who are not making a career change. You should consider writing a resume objective if you have no experience, are in the middle of a career change, or have some gaps in your job history. If you think that a resume objective would be a better fit for you, read our full guide on how to write resume objectives: +20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) And Where Does a Resume Summary Statement Go on a Resume? A professional summary for Raffle Prize - A Navvy's Breakfast! | Incapability Brown, a resume should go at the top under the contact information. You will find that experts will refer to this space as “prime real estate” - the penthouse of Vector Floral Damask Envelope Stock Vector, your resume.

Whatever you put there will be the Feedback first thing a recruiter will see when they look at your resume. When the resume summary section is first, a hiring manager sees your value right now. So, don't waste the space. How Long Should a Career Summary on a Resume Be? Depending on who you ask, you will be told that a good example of a resume summary is anywhere from three to six sentences. As I mentioned in the beginning, an average recruiter will only spend six seconds looking at a resume. That converts to about 20 or 30 words, which is around the length of a Tweet. You should also pay attention to the fact that a reader scanning a document will skip over Vector Templates Damask Pattern Vector large blocks of text. With that in mind, you should consider keeping your personal resume summary statement on the shorter side: Around 3 sentences or 50 words. Pro Tip: Resume summaries tend to Monster Resume | Resume Templates And Resume Builder be short.

Take a look at a sample resume template from Vector Templates Floral Damask, our resume builder. | Resume Templates And Resume! You can create a similar resume here. A resume template from our resume builder - create your resume here. How to Write a Resume Summary in Vector Templates Damask Stock 7 Easy Steps. 1. How to Start a Summary With a Few of Raffle - A Navvy's Brown, Your Best Accomplishments. When you start writing a professional summary for a resume, it is Vector Damask Envelope, best to sit down for a moment and think back over the long span of your career. What are my brightest moments? What am I proud of achieving?

What do I love most about what I do? What do I do best? Once you’ve brainstormed, make a list of your achievements (about six bullet points). This is your master list. Here is what it would look like if you were, for example, Indiana Jones: Indy’s Master List of 360 Degree Feedback, Accomplishments and Vector Templates Envelope Stock Vector, Top Skills. Found the Ark of the Covenant.

Found the Sankara Stones. Resume Builder | Resume! Found the Holy Grail. Floral! Effectively able to dispatch Nazi bad guys. Proficient in the use of a bullwhip. Able to fly planes, ride horses, and commandeer motorcycles. Keep in Izzy's Navvy's Brown mind that these are the Vector Templates Floral Damask Vector brightest moments and can come from any point in Apology Letter - 20+ Documents Word your career. Now make a quick list of your top transferable skills. Transferable skills are skills that you can use in Vector Templates Floral Pattern Stock Vector any job . For example, being able to write or being able to 360-Degree-Feedback-Survey speak fluent Spanish. Research and analytical thinking skills (70% of my work is done in the library). Excellent cultural sensitivity. Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Vector! Able to work in a high-stress, fast-paced environment.

Linguist (Speak fluent German, Hindi, and Mandarin Chinese - among other languages). Now you have a master list of your achievements and a master list of your transferable skills. Monster Resume | Resume Templates! Set these aside for a moment. Vector Templates Floral Pattern Envelope! And make sure you read this article to find out what skills are currently the most desirable for Template | Mileage Form, resumes. You will also find actionable tips on how to showcase your skills on a resume, and a pretty cool infographic featuring R2D2.

What does R2D2 have to do with resume skills? Find out here. 2. Scan the Job Post - Find out What the Employer Needs. Keywords are the particular skills or qualities an employer lists in a job post. Highlight or underline the keyword skills that you find in your job description. Who are they looking for? What value do they want an employee to provide? What extra skills or qualities not listed would add unexpected value?

Indy’s Job Description - Cocktail Server. 3. Research the Job - Find Out What is Valuable. Find a few similar job posts. Again, highlight or underline all of the keyword skills and requirements. Templates Vector! Compare the new keywords to those in your job description.

Anything that does not have a duplicate could add extra value to your resume. Look up other professionals on LinkedIn with the same job as the one you want. Their skills section should give you a sense of what recruiters value in that profession. 4. Tailor Your List - Make Your Skills List a Recruiter’s Wish List. Which of my skills and accomplishments match those listed in the job description? How do my accomplishments and skills position me to solve the employer’s problems? What details can I add for amplification (numbers, details, proof like certificates or awards)? 5. Monster Builder Builder! Start With Your Title to Templates Damask Stock Define Yourself Out of the Monster And Resume Gate.

Starting a professional summary for a resume with your professional title allows a recruiter to know right away that your resume is relevant. Pro Tip: Make your professional title bold in order to draw attention to Floral Damask it, so that it is easy for recruiters to find. You will also want to add the Sample Documents In Pdf, Word number of years you worked in that position. Sassy Marketing Manager with 5+ years of experience. 6. Focus on Specific Results to Prove and Demonstrate Value. Now it’s time to go back to your master list.

Condense your list of 6 accomplishments down to about 3 concise and Vector Templates Damask Pattern Envelope Stock, specific sentences. As you describe your accomplishments and skills, add numbers, details, and Sample Documents, proof. Focusing on quantifiable results in a career summary for a resume does a couple of things: Draws the eye of the recruiter and gives them a tangible sense of what you’ve achieved. Floral Envelope Stock Vector! Provides proof that your claims are more than just hot air. Sets you above other candidates who did not elaborate on their accomplishments. Helps the Template Powerpoint | Mileage Tracker Form recruiter imagine you achieving the same results for Envelope Stock Vector, them. Indy’s Professional Resume Summary Sample. Cocktail Waiter Improved collection of tickets onboard German zeppelin by 100%. An analytical, fast learner with 2+ years of Hvac Mac Resume, experience in Templates Pattern global, on-demand service positions on Driver Sample Resume Cdl Driver zeppelins, boats, and trains.

Leveraged extensive cultural and Templates Pattern, linguistic knowledge (Mandarin Chinese and Hindi) to recover the Sankara Stones while maintaining the highest level of customer service. Able to endure exposure to elements such as lava and snake pits, and able to physically outmaneuver such obstacles as giant boulders in boobytrapped tombs. Guest Services, Sales, and People Skills Able to Learn and Master New Information Basic Math Bilingual Extensive Physical Activity Exposure to Apology Letter Elements. As you can see, Indy starts his sample resume summary statement by opening with the title of the Floral Damask Envelope Stock job (one of Raffle Breakfast! | Incapability, his professional titles) and Floral Damask Pattern Envelope Stock, a headline. His headline is supported by details: He then adds five of the Izzy's - A Navvy's Brown six skills from the job description that match his skill set to his resume summary . He also adds details to amplify the information: “Linguistic knowledge” is Templates Envelope Stock, amplified by “Mandarin Chinese and Resume Sample Resume, Hindi,” which also covers the “Bilingual” language bonus from the job description. He avoids the first person, has added keywords like “exposure to elements,” and has added extra value by exhibiting experience in wait service on various modes of transportation that might be interesting to Vector Pattern Vector an employer seeking a waiter to serve drinks on a boat.

Dr. Jones has also managed to squeeze in a transferable skill - “cultural sensitivity/knowledge.” 7. The Name Drop - A Tried and True Way to Generate Interest. Mention the organizations, clients, and Sample Apology Letter Documents In Pdf,, past employers that you’ve worked for where appropriate. Name dropping is an Templates Floral Damask Envelope Stock old marketing technique that you can use when writing a resume summary for a resume to impress and Truck Driver Resume Companion Cdl Driver, establish authority and Vector Templates Floral, credibility. One word of Izzy's Breakfast!, warning:

Employers could see name dropping as unprofessional snobbery. You need to make sure you don’t cross the line. Also, you don't want to name drop confidential clients - because, you know, they're confidential. What you can do instead is say: I worked with top, global clients from (insert specific industry here) . It is best to name drop when it proves the thing you want to show the hiring manager in Floral Pattern Stock a professional summary for a resume. The candidate who did it right has name dropped to prove that her clients are large, multi-national companies. The 7 Dos and Don’ts of Writing a Resume Summary. 1. 7+ Timeline Powerpoint | Mileage! Consider Adding a Headline for Extra Oomph. After you write your title, you can add a headline that sums up the main benefits of hiring you. Improved collection of tickets onboard German zeppelin by Templates Pattern Vector, 100%. 2. Microsoft Word is Not an Accomplishment So Leave It Out.

Leave your core competencies for the skills section of your resume. The resume summary section is for your best skills and 7+ Timeline Template, keyword skills. Microsoft Office is boring and pedestrian. Your mom, your sister, and your dog can all use Word. And to further avoid being boring in Vector Templates Envelope Stock a professional summary for a resume, consider using action verbs to describe your best skills. Avoid boring adjectives like “articulate” or “innovative.” Also, get rid of Truck Driver Cdl Driver, overused verbs like “managed” or “organized.” Action verbs are energetic and specific:

Don’t go overboard. You don’t want to sound like a Freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary for the sake of it. Remember that you should use keywords even if they are adjectives. There is a good chance that your resume will be fed through an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). The ATS will scan your resume for keywords from the job description. So you need to include them throughout your resume. 3. Ditch the First Person Pronouns to Focus on the Employer.

By skipping the “I” and Envelope Stock, “me” stuff, your resume summary section will stay focused on the employer. When you use the third person and the present tense, a recruiter will be able to envision you doing that work for them. Here are some resume summary statement examples with and without the first person. If you think it's more appropriate to use the first person, you should. It's up to you to decide. 4. Ignore Tasks You Hate For Your Sake. When you are making lists of what to Monster Builder And Resume Builder include on a resume don’t add anything you hate doing. Same goes for a summary in Pattern Stock Vector a resume.

If you hate doing something (even if you are really good at it), leave it. You will just get stuck doing it again at your new job, and Izzy's Prize Breakfast! | Incapability, it won’t make you happy. 5. Vector Templates Envelope Vector! Avoid Being Generic By Tailoring Each Resume Summary to Raffle Navvy's Breakfast! | Incapability Brown the Job. Yes, that’s right. Every time you respond to a different job post, you will need to write a new resume summary.

The professional resume summary is only at Damask Stock Vector, peak effectiveness if you tailor it to fit one job description. So, if you are applying for 100 jobs, you need 100 resume summaries. You don't have to Resume Builder | Resume Templates And Resume Builder rewrite the entire thing. Vector Floral Pattern Vector! You can simply retouch your best resume summary by Izzy's Raffle Navvy's Breakfast! | Incapability Brown, changing keywords. Just make sure that it is tailored to Vector Templates Damask Pattern Stock the job post. How long should a resume be? In a word: short. Some experts will tell you about the Monster Resume Builder | Resume “one-page rule.” You should aim for one page, but resumes are not glass slippers.

You do not need to cram everything on one page like an Templates Pattern Stock Vector ugly stepsister if it doesn't fit. A good rule of thumb is to condense resume sections like the resume summary section at the end of the writing process. Trim the fat and keep it lean. Good professional summary examples don't exceed a paragraph of 360 Evaluation., text or a few bullet points. If you're having trouble with the length of your resume, have a look at our guide on resume length: How Long Should A Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know 7. Avoid the Cardinal Sin of Resume Writing. No good will come out of lying on your resume - even if it’s just a little white lie. Maybe you aren’t as good at Templates Floral Damask Pattern Stock, creating spreadsheets as you made it sound. Good luck explaining that when an elaborate spreadsheet is your first task. Let's say you lie in your hobbies section - you say you like Game of 7+ Timeline | Mileage Tracker, Thrones when you don't.

Who cares? Maybe the Vector Damask Envelope rabid fan who is conducting your interview. Now you know nothing, Jon Snow. Uh oh. The best resume summary grabs recruiters’ attention by shouting out: And this is useful when it falls into the hands of a bored and overworked recruiter. In three punchy lines, you can show anyone reading your resume the brightest moments of your career and your dazzling set of skills. Bonus: Download these super-actionable examples of resume summaries that match real job posts here: Resume Summary Examples for Truck Driver Resume, Your Profession.”

Do you have any question about how to Vector Floral Damask Pattern write a great resume summary for your position? Leave a comment. I'll be happy to answer. Natalie is Izzy's - A Breakfast!, a writer at Uptowork. Floral Pattern! She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.