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Abhangig vom Adressat des Businessplans und des Kapitalbedarfs sind weitere Kapitel zu erganzen, beziehungsweise der Detaillierungsgrad zu erhohen. Realinsight Marketplace! Neben den Inhalten ist die Form zu beachten. Amazing Pictures - Best Examples Job! Sorgen Sie optisch fur eine gut lesbare Gestaltung. Marketplace! Formulieren Sie in 99 Best Tips On Pinterest | Resume Tips, knappen und einfachen Satzen, die sachliche Aussagen treffen. Nutzen Sie Fachbegriffe nur, wenn diese fur eine Erklarung wichtig sind und nicht um durch Fachwissen zu glanzen.
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Laura Bush, From West Texas To The White House. After leaving the Marketplace White House in Contract Form | Laywers 2009, Laura and George W. Bush returned to Realinsight Marketplace Prairie Chapel Ranch in Telcoplus Credit Union Crawford, Texas. Marketplace? Becky Lettenberger/NPR hide caption. After leaving the White House in 2009, Laura and George W. Bush returned to Prairie Chapel Ranch in Crawford, Texas. Hardcover, 456 pages. In her eight years at the White House, former first lady Laura Bush had a Mona Lisa quality to her. That smile was it one of peace, one of 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle joy, or was it a mask?
Perhaps all three. Realinsight? In her new memoir, Spoken from the Fmla Form - Best Heart, Laura Bush writes about her life, from her early years her childhood in Midland, Texas, and the night she was at the wheel when a car accident left a classmate dead to her experiences in the White House during her husband's two terms. Bush begins the book with an early memory that reflects part of Realinsight Marketplace a pervasive loss for my family. When she was 2 years old, her mother, Jenna Welch, gave birth to a baby boy who did not survive long enough to leave the Western Clinic in the family's hometown, deep in 5x7 Envelope west Texas. He was not the only baby lost to the Welch family.
My mother had three other pregnancies, Bush tells NPR's Michele Norris, and I have this very vague memory of looking at a nursery window in a hospital or in Western Clinic in Midland. I don't remember looking at a baby. Marketplace? I just knew my little brother was there. And he did live for several days. Today, with the way medicine is, of course he would have lived; he was not that premature. But then, in 1948, he just lived for Printable Employment Sample Form | Laywers a few days. Bush says that the absence of her siblings created a feeling of loss and Marketplace disappointment that the whole Welch family shared. Laura Bush Reads From Her Memoir, About The Morning She And President Bush Left The White House. Bush Tells Michele Norris About The Car Accident That Killed A High School Friend.
They wanted those children, she says. Union? And I was very aware of that, and I wanted them, too. Realinsight? I wanted those brothers and a sister. That was a very important part of my childhood and really of my whole life, because . I ended up being an only child without those siblings. Her childhood in Midland informed the Printable Sample Employment Sample Form | Laywers rest of her life. During her husband's two terms in Marketplace office, Washington, D.C., imported a Texas flair, but the Fmla Resume Examples nation got a sense of the state via the Bush family. In writing Spoken from the Heart, Laura Bush says she got a chance to share how the Midland of her childhood influenced their life together. I wanted people to get a sense for Marketplace what it's like out Airmail 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle, there: the desert, the very, very plain landscape with the big sky.
She says the land inspired sort of a plainness of Marketplace spirit. Any sort of pretensions look especially ridiculous when you're there in such a hard west Texas landscape. It was also a beautiful place to live. There was a huge sky, and watching the stars at Credit Union, night was one of the things my mother and I would do. We'd go lie on Realinsight Marketplace a blanket in the yard and look up at Business, the stars, and there were just a lot of really wonderful experiences that we could have there, in Marketplace sort of the isolated way that Midland was. It was a six-hour drive to Dallas, or on the other side a six-hour drive to Sample Employment Sample | Laywers El Paso.
So it really was in the middle of nowhere. That hard west Texas upbringing included more tragedy: At 17 years old, she was behind the wheel in a car accident that killed a classmate. In Spoken from the Heart, she writes: The whole time, I was praying that the Realinsight Marketplace person in the other car was alive too. In my mind, I was calling, Please, God. Please, God. Please, God, over and over and over again.
Then more cars pulled up, and someone must have gone for help, because eventually we heard the wail of sirens and Telcoplus Union - Loans glimpsed the rotating, flashing lights of ambulances and police cars. Laura Bush says that the typical Texan response to tragedy taught her lessons she carried with her to Washington, D.C. Laura's mother, Jenna Welch, had three children who did not survive. Bush calls their deaths a pervasive loss for my family. Courtesy of the author hide caption. There is certainly a sense . of swallowing your troubles, of not really talking about them, just going ahead, Bush says. That sort of stiff upper lip style that a lot of people in the West have, and the temperament that is calm . . I was able to not be so stressed or so thrown by tragic happenings like Sept. Realinsight? 11. On that day early in her husband's first term, she was on her way to the Capitol to meet Massachusetts Sen. Edward Kennedy, to brief the Senate Education Committee on the results of an early childhood development conference she had held earlier in Telcoplus Credit Union the year. As she got in the car to ride to the Capitol, the head of her Secret Service detail told her about the plane striking the first tower.
By the Realinsight time we got to Snoopy | Pinterest the Capitol, we knew about the second plane, so we knew when we got there that it was a terrorist attack. And I went into Sen. Kennedy's office, and he gave me a tour of his office and Realinsight pointed out 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle, mementos that were on Realinsight Marketplace his wall, including a letter that he still found very amusing from his brother Jack to Amazing Fmla Form - Best his mother, where Jack says that Teddy is getting fat he wrote it when Teddy was just a boy. He kept up this steady stream of Realinsight small talk, Bush says. Over Sen. Kennedy's shoulder, she watched on Amazing For Your a small television as the Realinsight Marketplace news came in Snoopy Schedule from New York, but she also watched Sen. Kennedy. I don't know, and I've speculated many times if this was his own way to handle tragedy because he'd had so many shocks in his own life, or if he was afraid I'd fall apart and this was a way to keep me distracted and to keep the conversation going. I'll never know. That day, America saw how the terrorist attacks changed President Bush, but she saw how it changed the man.
Laura Bush, as a teacher at Realinsight Marketplace, John F. Examples Examples And Free Builder? Kennedy Elementary School in Houston, in 1970. Realinsight Marketplace? Courtesy of the author hide caption. It changed both of us. It changed his whole presidency in Strategic Business | Plan one instant. We had both expected, when we moved to Washington, to be just working on education and tax cuts and all the things that George had campaigned on. That changed, and you know, instead it became really almost eight years of foreign policy, Bush says. But also in the responsibility that George felt and that I felt, too: to Marketplace make sure we didn't have another terrorist attack to do everything we could. And then, once we went into Afghanistan and then later into Printable Employment, Iraq, the constant worry about Realinsight Marketplace, our troops. That particular worry persisted through the rest of her time in the White House and continues today, but she says she's not worried that history will be hard on her husband's presidency.
Not at all. I think that George did really what he should have done under the circumstances that we lived in with the terrorist attack, Bush says. He kept our country safe for the whole time he was there the rest of the time he was there. He liberated two countries. Iraq, we just are watching, have had recent elections.
It looks like they are going to be able to stand up a democracy. Template? I think Afghanistan can, too. And I'm happy about that. It has been observed that after a family moves out of the White House, the period of adjustment to Marketplace a new life can feel like the air going out of a balloon. Not for her, Bush says. It's actually been very good for us. Sample Sample? I worried about George.
I was not so much worried about myself, because I had really started to anticipate the next part of Marketplace our life. I had gone to Dallas and started looking for a house to buy. Sample Form? But I knew for George the president of the United States has every problem in Realinsight the world on his desk, she says. And I knew that George would go from every problem on his desk to nothing, to a totally clean desk. And I wondered how he would handle that. But he's handled it very well, and he made a very conscious decision not to second-guess the new president.
Goodness In The Land Of The Living. Hardcover, 456 pages. Tuesday morning, September 11, was sunny and warm, the sky a brilliant cerulean blue. The day before, I had hosted a lunch for Janette Howard, wife of the Australian prime minister, while George met with her husband, John. Strategic Template Template? My friends who had come for the National Book Festival had all flown home, and even George was gone, in Marketplace Florida for a school visit. Examples | Resume? George H. W. Bush and Bar had spent the Realinsight night, but they had already left at Telcoplus - Loans, 7:00 a.m. to catch an early flight. Realinsight? And I had what I considered a big day planned. I was set to arrive at the Capitol at 9:15 to brief the Senate Education Committee, chaired by Template Template, Edward M. Kennedy, on the findings of the early childhood development conference that I'd held in July. In the afternoon, we were hosting the Marketplace entire Congress and their families for Sample Employment Form the annual Congressional Picnic. The South Lawn of the White House was already covered with picnic tables awaiting their fluttering cloths, and Tom Perini from Buffalo Gap, Texas, was setting up his chuckwagons. Our entertainment would be old-fashioned square dancing and Texas swing music by Ray Benson and his classic band, Asleep at the Wheel.
I finished dressing in silence, going over my statement again in my mind. I was very nervous about appearing before a Senate committee and having news cameras trained on me. Had the TV been turned on, I might have heard the first fleeting report of a plane hitting the North Tower of the World Trade Center at the tip of Manhattan as I walked out the door to the elevator. Instead, it was the head of my Secret Service detail, Ron Sprinkle, who leaned over and whispered the news in my ear as I entered the car a few minutes after 9:00 a.m. for the ride to the Russell Senate Office Building, adjacent to the Capitol. Andi Ball, now my chief of staff at the White House; Domestic Policy Advisor Margaret Spellings; and I speculated about what could have happened: a small plane, a Cessna perhaps, running into one of those massive towers on Realinsight Marketplace this perfect September morning. We wondered too if Hillary Clinton might decide not to attend the committee briefing, since the World Trade Center was in New York. Business? We were driving up Pennsylvania Avenue when word came that the South Tower had been hit. Realinsight? The car fell silent; we sat in Strategic Business Plan Template | Plan Template mute disbelief. One plane might be a strange accident; two planes were clearly an attack.
I thought about George and wondered if the Secret Service had already hustled him to the motorcade and begun the race to Air Force One to return home. Two minutes later, at Realinsight Marketplace, 9:16 a.m., we pulled up at the entrance to Schedule Weekly Schedule the Russell Building. In the time it had taken to Marketplace drive the less than two miles between the White House and the Capitol, the world as I knew it had irrevocably changed. Senator Kennedy was waiting to greet me, according to plan. We both knew when we met that the towers had been hit and, without a word being spoken, knew that there would be no briefing that morning. Together, we walked the short distance to his office. He began by presenting me with a limited-edition print; it was a vase of bright daffodils, a copy of a painting he had created for his wife, Victoria, and Airmail | Zazzle given to her on their wedding day. The print was inscribed to me and Realinsight Marketplace dated September 11, 2001. An old television was turned on in a corner of the room, and Schedule | Printable Weekly Schedule | Pinterest I glanced over to see the plumes of smoke billowing from the Twin Towers.
Senator Kennedy kept his eyes averted from the screen. Instead he led me on a tour of Marketplace his office, pointing out various pictures, furniture, pieces of memorabilia, even a framed note that his brother Jack had sent to their mother when he was a child, in Airmail which he wrote, Teddy is Marketplace, getting fat. The senator, who would outlive all his brothers by more than forty years, laughed at Business Plan Template Template, the note as he showed it to me, still finding it amusing. All the Realinsight while, I kept glancing over at Airmail 5x7 Envelope, the glowing television screen. Realinsight Marketplace? My skin was starting to Cto Resume Examples Examples Resume crawl, I wanted to leave, to Realinsight find out Cto Resume | Resume And Free Builder, what was going on, to process what I was seeing, but I felt trapped in an endless cycle of Realinsight Marketplace pleasantries. Fmla Pictures Resume Examples For Your? It did not occur to me to say, Senator Kennedy, what about the towers? I simply followed his lead, and he may have feared that if we actually began to contemplate what had happened in New York, I might dissolve into Marketplace, tears.
Senator Judd Gregg of New Hampshire, the ranking Republican on the committee and one of our very good friends in the Senate Judd had played Al Gore for George during mock debates at the ranch the Amazing Form Pictures - Best Examples Job previous fall was also designated to Marketplace escort me to the committee room, and he arrived just as I was completing the tour. Senator Kennedy invited us to sit on the couches, and he continued chatting about anything other than the horrific images unfolding on the tiny screen across the room. I looked around his shoulder but could see very little, and I was still trying to pay attention to him and Sample the thread of his conversation. It seemed completely unreal, sitting in this elegant, sunlit office as an immense tragedy unfolded. We sat as human beings driven by smoke, flame, and searing heat jumped from the tops of the Twin Towers to end their lives and as firemen in Realinsight full gear began the climb up the towers' stairs. I have often wondered if the small talk that morning was Ted Kennedy's defense mechanism, if after so much tragedy the combat death of his oldest brother in World War II, the | Plan assassinations of his brothers Jack and Robert, and the deaths of nephews, including John Jr., whose body he identified when it was pulled from the Realinsight cold, dark waters off Martha's Vineyard if after all of those things, he simply could not look upon another grievous tragedy. At about 9:45, after George had made a brief statement to the nation, which we watched, clustered around a small television that was perched on Cto Resume | Resume Examples And Free Builder the receptionist's desk, Ted Kennedy, Judd Gregg, and I walked out to tell reporters that my briefing had been postponed. I said, You heard from the president this morning, and Senator Kennedy and Senator Gregg and Marketplace I both join his statement in saying that our hearts and our prayers go out to Printable Sample | Laywers the victims of this act of terrorism, and that our support goes to the rescue workers.
And all of our prayers are with everyone there right now. As I turned to exit, Laurence McQuillan of USA Today asked a question. Mrs. Marketplace? Bush, you know, children are kind of struck by all this. Plan Template? Is there a message you could tell to the nation's I didn't even wait for him to finish but began, Well, parents need to Realinsight reassure their children everywhere in our country that they're safe. As we walked out of the briefing room, the Snoopy Weekly Schedule cell phone of my advance man, John Meyers, rang.
A friend told him that CNN was reporting that an Marketplace airplane had crashed into the Pentagon. Within minutes, the order would be given to evacuate the Weekly Schedule | Printable Schedule | Pinterest White House and the Capitol. I walked back to Senator Kennedy's office and then began moving quickly toward the stairs, to Realinsight Marketplace reach my car to return to Strategic Business Plan Template the White House. Suddenly, the lead Secret Service agent turned to me and my staff and Realinsight said that we needed to head to the basement immediately. We took off at a run; Judd Gregg suggested his private office, which was in Airmail 5x7 Envelope the lower level and was an interior room. The Secret Service then told John that they were waiting for Realinsight Marketplace an Emergency Response Team to reach the Capitol. Credit Union - Loans? The team would take me, but my staff would be left behind. Overhearing the conversation, I turned back and said, No, everyone is coming.
We entered Judd's office, where I tried to Realinsight Marketplace call Barbara and 5x7 Envelope Jenna, and Judd tried to Realinsight Marketplace call his daughter, who was in New York. Then we sat and talked quietly about our families and our worries for them, and the overwhelming shock we both felt. Sometime after 10:00 a.m., when the entire Capitol was being emptied, when White House staffers had fled barefoot and sobbing through the heavy iron gates with Secret Service agents shouting at them to Run, run! my agents collected me. They now included an Airmail 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle additional Secret Service detail and an Emergency Response Team, dressed in black tactical clothing like a SWAT force and Marketplace moving with guns drawn. As we raced through the | Zazzle dim hallways of the Russell Building, past panicked staffers emptying from their offices, the ERT team shouted GET BACK and covered my every move with their guns. Marketplace? We reached the Cto Resume Examples | Resume Examples And Free Builder underground entrance; the doors on Marketplace the motorcade slammed shut, and Credit Union we sped off. The Secret Service had decided to Realinsight take me temporarily to their headquarters, located in Sample Contract Sample Form a nondescript federal office building a few blocks from the White House. Following the Oklahoma City bombing, their offices had been reinforced to survive a large-scale blast. Outside our convoy windows, the city streets were clogged with people evacuating their workplaces and trying to reach their own homes. By the time I had reached my motorcade, Flight 93 had crashed in a Pennsylvania field and Realinsight the west side of the Pentagon had begun to Credit Union - Loans collapse. Judd Gregg walked alone to the underground Senate parking garage and retrieved his car, the Marketplace last one left there.
He pulled out of the garage and headed home, across the Fourteenth Street Bridge and past the Weekly Schedule | Printable Weekly Schedule | Pinterest Pentagon, thick with smoke and flame. In the intervening years, Judd and I, and many others, were left to Marketplace contemplate what if Flight 93 had not been forced down by its passengers into an empty field; what if, shortly after 10:00 a.m., it had reached the Capitol Dome? We arrived at the Secret Service building via an underground entrance and were escorted first to the director's office and then belowground to a windowless conference room with blank walls and a mustard yellow table. A large display screen with a constant TV feed took up most of one wall. Amazing Resume Examples For Your Job? Walking through the hallways, I saw a sign emblazoned with the Realinsight emergency number 9-1-1. Had the Union - Loans terrorists thought about our iconic number when they picked this date and planned an emergency so overwhelming? For a while, I sat in a small area off the conference room, silently watching the Realinsight images on television. I watched the replay as the South Tower of the World Trade Center roared with sound and then collapsed into a silent gray plume, offering my personal prayer to God to receive the victims with open arms. The North Tower had given way, live in front of my eyes, sending some 1,500 souls and 110 stories of gypsum and concrete buckling to Strategic Business Plan Template Template the ground. So much happened during those terrible hours at Marketplace, the tip of Manhattan.
That morning, as the people who worked in the towers descended, water from the sprinkler system was racing down the darkened stairwells. With their feet soaked, for Snoopy Schedule Weekly some the greatest fear was that when they reached the bottom, the rushing water would be too high and they would be drowned. A few walked to safety under a canopy of Marketplace skylights covered with the bodies of those who had jumped. Over two hundred people jumped to escape the heat, smoke, and flames. I was told that Father Mychal Judge, the chaplain for the New York City Fire Department, who had come to | Zazzle offer aid, comfort, and last rites, was killed that morning by the body of Realinsight someone who had, in desperation, hurled himself from the upper floors of one of those towers. The early expectation was for horrific numbers of deaths.
Manhattan emergency rooms and hospitals as far away as Dallas were placed on Code Red, expecting to receive airlifted survivors. Some fifty thousand people worked inside the towers; on Fmla For Your Job a beautiful day, as many as eighty thousand tourists would visit an observation deck on the South Tower's 107th floor, where the vistas stretched for fifty miles. Had those hijacked planes struck the towers thirty or forty or fifty minutes later, the final toll might well have been in the tens of thousands. Inside Secret Service headquarters, I asked my staff to call their families, and I called the girls, who had been whisked away by Secret Service agents to secure locations. In Austin, Jenna had been awakened by Marketplace, an agent pounding on her dorm door. In her room at Printable, Yale, Barbara had heard another student sobbing uncontrollably a few doors down. Then I called my mother, because I wanted her to know that I was safe and I wanted so much to hear the sound of her voice. And I tried to reach George, but my calls could not get through; John Meyers, my advance man, promised to keep trying. I did know from the Secret Service that George had taken off from Florida, safe on board Air Force One. I knew my daughters and my mother were safe.
But beyond that, everything was chaos. I was told that Barbara Olson, wife of Solicitor General Ted Olson, had been aboard the plane that hit the Marketplace Pentagon. At one point, we also received word that Camp David had been attacked and hit. Weekly Schedule Weekly Schedule | Pinterest? I began thinking of all the people who would have been there, like Bob Williams, the chaplain. Another report had a plane crashing into Realinsight, our ranch in Crawford. It got so that we were living in five-minute increments, wondering if a new plane would emerge from the sky and hit a target.
All of us in that basement conference room and many more in the Secret Service building were relying on rumors and on whatever news came from the announcers on television. When there were reports of more errant planes or other targets, it was almost impossible not to believe them. George had tried to call me from Air Force One. It is stunning now to think that our state-of-the-art communications would not allow him to complete a phone call to Sample Contract Secret Service headquarters, or me to reach him on Marketplace Air Force One. On my second call from the secure line, our third attempt, I was finally able to contact the plane, a little before twelve noon. I was grateful just to hear his voice, to Printable Sample | Laywers know that he was all right, and to Marketplace tell him the girls were fine. From the way he spoke, I could hear how starkly his presidency had been transformed.
We remained in Form Pictures Resume Job that drab conference room for Realinsight hours, eventually turning off the repetitive horror of the images on the television. Snoopy | Pinterest? Inside, I felt a grief, a loss, a mourning like I had never known. A few blocks away, in the Chrysler offices near Pennsylvania Avenue, a group of White House senior staff began to Realinsight gather. After the evacuation, some of those who were new to Washington had been wandering, dazed and shaken, in Credit Union - Loans nearby Lafayette Park. By midafternoon, seventy staff members had congregated inside this office building, attempting to resume work, while Secret Service agents stood in the lobby and forbade anyone without a White House pass from entering. Key presidential and Marketplace national security staff and Vice President Cheney were still sealed away in | Printable Weekly | Pinterest the small underground emergency center deep below the White House. As the skies and streets grew silent, there was a debate over what to do with George and what to Realinsight do with me. The Secret Service detail told me to be prepared to Airmail 5x7 Envelope leave Washington for Realinsight Marketplace several days at least. My assistant, Sarah Moss, was sent into the White House to gather some of my clothes. John Meyers accompanied her to retrieve Spot, Barney, and 5x7 Envelope Kitty.
Then we got word that the president was returning to Washington. I would be staying as well. Late in the afternoon, I spoke to George again. At 6:30 we got in a Secret Service caravan to drive to the White House. I gazed out the window; the city had taken on the cast of an abandoned movie set: the sun was shining, but the streets were deserted. We could not see a person on the sidewalk or any vehicles driving on Realinsight Marketplace the street. Weekly | Printable? There was no sound at all except for the roll of our wheels over the ground. We drove at full throttle through the gate, and the agents hopped out. Heavily armed men in Realinsight Marketplace black swarmed over the grounds.
Before I got out, one of my agents, Dave Saunders, who had been driving, turned around and said, Mrs. Bush, I'm so sorry. I'm so sorry. He said it with the Snoopy Weekly | Printable Weekly greatest of Realinsight Marketplace concern and a hint of emotion in his voice. He knew what this day meant for us. I was hustled inside and downstairs through a pair of big steel doors that closed behind me with a loud hiss, forming an airtight seal. I was now in one of the unfinished subterranean hallways underneath the White House, heading for the PEOC, the Presidential Emergency Operations Center, built for President Franklin Roosevelt during World War II.
We walked along old tile floors with pipes hanging from the ceiling and all kinds of Business | Plan mechanical equipment. The PEOC is Realinsight, designed to be a command center during emergencies, with televisions, phones, and communications facilities. I was ushered into the conference room adjacent to the PEOC's nerve center. It's a small room with a large table. National Security Advisor Condi Rice, Counselor to the President Karen Hughes, Deputy Chief of Staff Josh Bolten, and Dick and Lynne Cheney were already there, where they had been since the morning. Lynne, whose agents had brought her to the White House just after the first attack, came over and hugged me. Then she said quietly into Business Plan, my ear, The plane that hit the Realinsight Pentagon circled the White House first. I felt a shiver vibrate down my spine.
Unlike the major monuments and even the Sample Employment | Laywers leading government buildings in Realinsight Washington, the White House sits low to the ground. It is a three-story building, tucked away in a downward slope toward the Potomac. When the White House was first built, visitors complained about the putrid scent rising from the Telcoplus Credit river and the swampy grounds nearby. From the Realinsight air, the White House is hard to see and hard to Business Plan reach. A plane could circle it and find no plausible approach. And that is what Lynne Cheney told me had happened that morning, a little past 9:30, before Flight 77 crossed the Realinsight river and thundered into the Pentagon.
At 7:10 that night, George strode into Business Plan | Plan, the PEOC. Early that afternoon, he had conducted a secure videoconference from Realinsight Offutt Air Force Base in Nebraska with the CIA and FBI directors, as well as the military Joint Chiefs of Telcoplus Union Staff and the vice president and his national security staff, giving instructions and getting briefings on the latest information. Marketplace? Over the objections of the Secret Service, he had insisted upon returning home. We hugged and talked with the Cheneys a bit. Then the Secret Service detail suggested that we spend the night there, belowground. They showed us the bed, a foldout that looked like it had been installed when FDR was president.
George and Telcoplus Union - Loans I stared at it, and we both said no, George adding, We're not going to sleep down here. We're going to go upstairs and you can get us if something happens. He said, I've got to get sleep, in our own bed. George was preparing to speak to the nation from the Realinsight Marketplace Oval Office, to reassure everyone and to Telcoplus Union show that the president was safely back in Washington, ready to respond. By 7:30 we were on our way up to the residence. I have no memory of having eaten dinner George may have eaten on Realinsight Marketplace the plane. He tried to call the girls as soon as we were upstairs but couldn't reach them. Strategic Plan | Plan? Barbara called back close to Realinsight Marketplace 8:00 p.m., and then George left to make remarks to the nation. We did finally climb into our own bed that night, exhausted and emotionally drained. Outside the Union - Loans doors of the residence, the Secret Service detail stood in their usual posts.
I fell asleep, but it was a light, fitful rest, and I could feel George staring into the darkness beside me. Then I heard a man screaming as he ran, Mr. President, Mr. President, you've got to get up. Realinsight Marketplace? The White House is under attack. We jumped up, and I grabbed a robe and stuck my feet into my slippers, but I didn't stop to put in my contacts. George grabbed Barney; I grabbed Kitty. Strategic Plan Template Template? With Spot trailing behind, we started walking down to the PEOC. George had wanted to take the elevator, but the agents didn't think it was safe, so we had to descend flight after flight of stairs, to the state floor, then the ground floor, and Realinsight Marketplace below, while I held George's hand because I couldn't see anything. My heart was pounding, and all I could do was count stairwell landings, trying to count off in my mind how many more floors we had to go. When we reached the PEOC, I saw the outline of a military sergeant unfolding the ancient hideaway bed and putting on some sheets.
At that moment, another agent ran up to us and said, Mr. President, it's one of our own. The plane was ours. For months afterward at night, in bed, we'd hear the military jets thundering overhead, traveling so fast that the ground below quivered and shook. They would make one pass and Cto Resume | Resume then, three or five minutes later, make another low-flying loop. I would fall asleep to Realinsight Marketplace the roar of the fighters in the skies, hearing in my mind those words, one of our own. There was a quiet security in that, in Telcoplus Union knowing that we slept beneath the watchful cover of our own. Waking the Realinsight next morning, I had the Business Plan Template sensation of knowing before my eyes opened that something terrible had happened, something beyond comprehension, and I wondered for a brief instant if it had all been a dream. Then I saw George, and I knew, knew that yesterday would be with us, each day, for all of our days to Realinsight come.
From Spoken from the Heart by Laura Bush. Copyright 2010 by Laura Bush. Telcoplus - Loans? Excerpted with permission by Marketplace, Scribner, a Division of Simon Schuster, Inc.
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Nike Inc.: Cost of Capital Essay Sample. In this report we focus on Nike’s Inc. Cost of Capital and Marketplace its financial importance for the company and future investors. The management of Strategic Business Plan | Plan, Nike Inc. Marketplace. addresses issues both on Airmail 5x7 Envelope top-line growth and operating performance. The company’s cost of capital is a critical element in such decisions and it is important to estimate precisely the weighted average cost of capital (WACC). In our analysis, we examine why WACC is important in decision making and we show how WACC for Nike Inc. is calculated correctly. Marketplace. Also, we calculate the company’s cost of Strategic Template | Plan, equity using three different models: the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) and the Earnings Capitalization Model (EPS/ Price), we analyze their advantages and disadvantages and finally we conclude whether or not an investment in Realinsight Marketplace, Nike is recommended. Our analysis suggests that Nike Inc.’s common stock should be added to | Resume the North Point Group’s Mutual Fund Portfolio. I. The Weighted Average Cost of Capital and its Importance for Nike Inc. The Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) is the average of the costs of a company’s sources of financing-debt and equity, each of Marketplace, which is weighted by its respective use in the given situation. By taking a weighted average, we can see how much interest the company has to pay for every marginal dollar it finances.
A firm’s WACC is the overall required return on the firm as a whole and, as such, it is often used internally by company directors to determine the economic feasibility of expansionary opportunities and mergers. Cto Resume | Resume Examples And Free Resume Builder. Also, WACC is the appropriate discount rate to Realinsight use in stock valuation. II. Calculation of Nike’s WACC. The calculating methodology for Nike’s Inc. WACC seems to be inconsistent with the principles1 that should be followed when estimating this measure.
These are our points of disagreement with the calculations in Snoopy | Printable Weekly Schedule | Pinterest, Exhibit 5: – Calculation of the cost of debt by Realinsight, taking the Printable Sample Employment Form | Laywers, total interest expense for the year 2001 dividing it by Marketplace, the company’s average debt balance, which is not appropriate for the WACC estimation. – Use as tax rate the sum of state and statutory taxes instead of the firm’s marginal tax rate. – Use of the Book Value of equity rather than the market value which is Telcoplus, suggested as it gives more precise results. – Calculation of the cost of equity using long time period for risk free rate and risk premium. In order to make our justifications more comprehensive we need the formula for estimating WACC: WACC= Wd*Kd(1-T) + We*Ke. First, we reexamine the cost of debt (Kd) which in this case is the yield to maturity (YTM) on the bonds. The YTM is a good estimate for Marketplace the cost of debt if a company had issued debt in the past and the bonds are publicly traded just as in Nike’s case. Our calculations for Nike’s yield to maturity based on the given data showed that Kd= 7.16%.c1 (See Appendix for Employment Contract Sample | Laywers detailed calculations)
The second variable that should be noted is T or the tax rate. In her calculations, Joanna Cohen added the 3% state taxes to the 35% statutory tax where in WACC calculation the marginal rate should be used. The marginal tax rate generally refers to the “federal income tax that is levied onto the additional dollar earned” and usually is about 40%. The weights of the Marketplace, costs, Wd and We, are very important in calculating WACC as they show the company’s capital structure. In calculating that part of the equation, Joanna Cohen used the book values of debt and equity where the market values are suggested as they provide more accurate results. As book and market values of debt and equity may differ a lot, market values of Form Pictures Resume Examples For Your, debt and equity give a closer estimation of the capital structure2. Realinsight. We calculate the enterprise value (P0*#shares outstanding = $11,427.4357m). For debt, the book value gives a close estimation for the current value, whereas the same doesn’t hold for Cto Resume | Resume Examples And Free Builder the value of equity. Realinsight. Thus, debt is equal to $1,296.6m (current portion of L-T debt + notes payable + L-T debt). In finding the weights, the Amazing Fmla Form - Best Examples, previous explanation shows that equity is 88.65% whereas debt is 11.35% unlike Cohen’s calculations, which were based on book values (debt 27% and equity 73%).
There are three ways to calculate the cost of equity (Ke), which we will examine later. In our calculations of Marketplace, WACC we use the Amazing Pictures - Best Examples For Your Job, Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), as it is considered to Realinsight Marketplace be the most complete model for estimating the cost of equity. CAPM Equation is: Ke=Krf+ ?(Km-Krf)c2, where Ke is the cost of equity, ? is - Loans, beta that measures the Realinsight Marketplace, tendency of a stock to move up and down with the market, Km is the required return of the market, Krf is the Credit Union - Loans, risk free rate and (Km – Krf) is equal to Realinsight Marketplace the market risk premium. For the Krf (risk free rate), we used the current yield on 10yr bond (5.39) U.S. treasuries, instead of the 20yr, as the Amazing Fmla - Best Examples, 10yr matches the duration of cash flows for the Nike’s investment project (Exhibit 2) and because it is relatively less exposed to unexpected changes in inflation and the liquidity premium when compared to the longer 20 yr bond3. For the market risk premium, Km – Krf, we used the Realinsight, arithmetic mean (7.5%). We used the arithmetic mean of historic risk premiums to estimate the current risk premium on the assumption that the future will resemble the past regarding the premiums. Credit. If this assumption is reasonable, then the annual arithmetic average is the theoretically correct predictor for the next year’s risk premium4.
On the other hand, the geometric average is a better predictor of the Realinsight, risk premium over a longer future interval such as, for the next 20 years. For ? we used the historic average of the past 6 years (0.8). After we calculate the cost of equity with CAPM (Ke= 11.39%), we plug our results in the given formula of Cto Resume Examples And Free Resume Builder, WACC and we get WACC=10.59c3. III. Alternative Methods of Calculating the Cost of Equity. Although, CAPM approach is considered to be an accurate and precise estimate of Ke, there are two other models used by those analysts who do not have complete confidence in CAPM. These approaches are the Dividend Discount Model (DDM), which compares dividends forecasted for the next period with the current share price for Marketplace the firm and then adds the growth rate of the firm and the Earnings Capitalization Model (ECM), which compares forecasted earnings for the next period over the current share price. Our calculations, which are analyzed in the Appendix (c4 and c5 respectively), gave us the following results: Using DDM: Ke= 6.7%
Using ECM: Ke= 9.88% We can see that the Weekly, three different methods of calculating the Marketplace, cost of equity produced widely varied estimates. In such situations the Union - Loans, financial analyst has to use his/her judgement as to relative merits of each estimate and Realinsight then choose the estimate which seemed more reasonable under the Strategic Template, circumstances. Comparing the already discussed methods, we found that the main advantage of CAPM approach is that it takes into Realinsight, consideration a company’s market risk as the most relevant risk to stockholders, hence to determine the effect of the new activities and projects of the company on stock price. Snoopy Schedule Weekly Schedule | Pinterest. This method can be applied to Marketplace firms that do not pay dividends as well as new firms, by using betas for similar firms (e.g., other firms in the industry). Amazing Pictures Resume Examples Job. However, with CAPM all our projections are based on historical data onto the future, because of the estimate of Realinsight, Beta we use.
Also, CAPM is based on simplifying assumptions about markets, returns and investor behaviour. The dividend discount model (DDM) is a simple model for Telcoplus Credit Union - Loans valuing equity. It is considered to Realinsight Marketplace be a good thinking exercise as it forces the investors to Business Plan Template Template begin thinking about different scenarios in relation to how the market is pricing the stock. On the other hand, dividend discount model requires an enormous amount of speculation in trying to forecast future dividends. Meaning that a model is only as good as the assumptions it is based upon. Furthermore, it is quite difficult to establish a proper growth rate, especially when the company’s past growth has been abnormally high or low or there are general economic fluctuations, so the analysts do not project the historic growth rates in the future. Finally there are no direct adjustments for risk in Realinsight, this method. The earnings capitalization model (ECM) is a simple model and easy to understand.
However, it is Weekly Weekly Schedule | Pinterest, considered poor in estimating equity costs for growing firms, so it is used as reasonable only for Realinsight no growth firms. IV. Is Nike a Good Investment for the time being? The Discounted Cash Flow Analysis (Exhibit 2) showed that at Schedule Schedule the discount rate of 12%, Nike was overvalued at its current share price of Realinsight, $42.09. However, the sensitivity analysis revealed that Nike was undervalued at discount rates below 11.2%. We estimated WACC, the appropriate discount rate, at 10.59% which is less than 11.2%. This shows that Nike is Cto Resume Examples | Resume Resume Builder, undervalued at the discount rate equal to WACC, which makes Nike a good investment. However, as the North Point Large Cap Fund invests mostly in Fortune 500 companies with an emphasis on value investing we calculated Nike’s Economic Value Added (EVA)c6. Our results give a positive EVA for Nike at $304.5 which means that the Realinsight Marketplace, company adds to Union - Loans its shareholders’ value. As Nike’s common stock is undervalued and Realinsight Marketplace the company has a positive EVA, it should be added to the North Point Large Cap Fund.
1. Mistakes to Avoid when Calculating WACC. Use of the current cost of debt. The relevant pre-tax cost of debt is the interest rate the firm would pay if it issued debt today. Use of Business Plan Template, historical average return on stocks with the current risk free rate. A case could be made either using the historical risk premium or the current one, but it is wrong to Realinsight subtract the current risk free rate from the Schedule Schedule | Pinterest, historical rate of return on the market. Use of book values of debt and equity to estimate their weights in WACC. Although debt may have close market and book value, the market value of Realinsight Marketplace, equity may differ significantly. 2. Adjusting the Cost of Capital for Risk. Nike is planning to focus mainly on two projects in the next year: To develop more athletic-show products in mid-priced segment and to push its apparel line which has already done extremely well. It seems that these two projects have different risks: mid-priced athletic shoes could be treated as a “new” product for Nike while apparel is already successful and both projects are in different business segments.
Also, Nike provides plenty of other products. We can say that the use of multiple costs of capital, especially for the new project, is Airmail 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle, reasonable. However, we do not have enough data to support such approach. 3. Realinsight Marketplace. Estimating the Market Risk Premium for CAPM. The market risk premium RPM=kM – kRF can be estimated either on the basis of ex-post or historical data or on a basis of ea-ante or looking forward data. Although, historic risk premiums are results of Printable Sample Employment Contract Sample | Laywers, a very complete and accurate study (available from Realinsight Marketplace, Ibbotson Associates) are usually treated with low confidence from the investors. Ex-ante risk premiums use forecasts of the market return and the assumption that markets are in equilibrium. Also, financial services companies publish regularly forecasts on Sample Employment Contract Sample Form | Laywers the expected rate of market risk premium. Marketplace. However, there are potential problems as well.
Many consider these forecasts the analysts and not the investors’ expectations-although this probably is not a major problem as many studies have shown-and that there are many financial companies that give different forecasts, so a potential investor needs to take the average from several forecasts. 4. Use of Historical Arithmetic Mean of Business Template, Risk Premiums. Although we did extended research to Realinsight find Value Line’s forecasts for the rate of return on the market or the risk premium for 2001, we did not find anything due to limited access on relevant data. We decided to use the arithmetic mean based on the reasons we gave above but we still believe that the Union - Loans, use of current values is Realinsight, better when estimating CAPM. c1. Cost of Examples | Resume And Free Resume, debt (Kd): As we mentioned is the Yield to Maturity of Realinsight, publicly traded Nike Bonds. (Values inserted in financial calculator) Pmt: 6.75/2= 3.375 (as it pays semiannually) > i* = 3.5813 semiannually, so, I/Y=(i*) * 2 > i: 7.1627% = YTM= Kd= 7.16% c2.
CAPM for Nike’s cost of equity. c3. WACC = Wd*Kd(1-T) + We*Ke. = 0.1135 * 7.16% (1-.4) + 0.8865 * 11.39% c4. Dividend Discount Model (DDM) for Nike’s cost of equity (Ke) g = 5.5% (Value Line’s estimation) So, Ke = 0.564/ 42.09 + .055= 6.7% c5. Earnings Capitalization Model (ECM) for Nike’s cost of equity (Ke) Where, E1 = (1+g) * E0 / # of share outstanding.
and g = Retention ratio * ROE. We used this estimation for g, instead of the Value Line’s forecast (5.5%) that we used in DDM, as the earnings and dividends are not expected to have the same growth rate. Nike’s management reiterated as earning growth rates targets above 15%, while dividends are expected to grow 5.5% From the available data we have, Retention Ratio = Retained Earnings / Net Income = 3194.3/ 589.7 = 5.42. ROE = Net Income / Total Shareholders’ Equity = 589.7/ 3494.5= 16.88%
That gives: g=5.42*0.1688=0.914. E1 = (1+g) * E0 / # of share outstanding = [(1+ 0.914)* 589.7 / 271.5] =4.1572. c6. EVA = NOPAT – (Operating Capital*WACC) NOPAT = Operating Income (1 – Tax) = 1,014.2 (1-0.35) = 659.2. Total Operating capital = Net Operating Working Capital + Operating L-T Assets. NOWC = (Cash + Acc. Receivables + Inventories) – (Acc. Payables + Accruals) = (304 + 1,621.4 + 1,424.1) – (432 + 472.1) = $2,445.4.
Operating L-T Assets = $1,618.8. Operating capital = 2,445.4 + 1,618.8 = $3,349.5. So, EVA= 659.2 – (3,349.5*0.1059)= 304.488. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Nike Inc.: Cost of Capital. essay editing for only $13.9 per Snoopy Weekly Schedule | Printable Schedule | Pinterest page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!
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acceptance essay nyu EssayEdge offers all users free access to over 100 admissions essays accepted by the United States' top undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs. The following Sample Admissions Essays were accepted by Marketplace Stern and NYU. Sample MBA Admissions Essays - Accepted by Stern and NYU (Courtesy of 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle EssayEdge ) 1. Think about the decisions you have made in your life. Describe the following: PAST: What choices have you made that led you to Realinsight Marketplace, your current position? PRESENT: Why is a Stern MBA necessary at Printable Employment Contract Sample | Laywers, this point in your life? FUTURE: What is your desired position upon graduation from the Stern School? I like options, I like security, and I like power.
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After almost three years at Bernstein, I am once again seeking career advancement. My education and work experience have provided me with an Realinsight, excellent introduction to business, and they have sparked my interest in | Plan, finance. Taking into consideration my foundation and my interests, graduate business school is the Realinsight Marketplace next logical step. At this point in my life, I consider a Stern MBA to be necessary since I need to gain a broader understanding of finance and to sharpen my analytical skills in order to be successful in corporate finance. Stern’s MBA program will allow me to concentrate in finance, strengthen my global business perspective, and Sample Employment Sample | Laywers, provide me with the Realinsight Marketplace opportunity to study with and learn from people with varied backgrounds.
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When the lobstering season ended that year, I took a job at a grocery store bagging groceries. I saved enough money to build a boat and to buy fifty lobster traps; I was on my way. The following summer I continued to Marketplace, work as a sternperson, and I also fished my own traps. I continued lobstering throughout the rest of Printable Sample Employment Sample Form high school and college, and Realinsight, it helped me finance my college education. In addition to being ambitious and motivated enough to put my heart into | Plan Template even mundane, low-level tasks, I am also extremely organized.
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Though I am an excellent team player, in business school I would like to sharpen my managerial skills. I have found that I need to overcompensate for my “soft” appearance in Marketplace, order to Strategic Template, get my point across. I hope to improve my negotiating skills and to gain more experience in getting group members to carry their own weight. At the same time, I do not want to become a tyrant. To be effective, it is Realinsight Marketplace important for a manager to maintain the proper balance of power and Union - Loans, compassion. Only in this way, will I be able to Realinsight, lead a team of people to realizing the goals of Telcoplus - Loans a firm. (Optional) Please provide any additional information that you would like to bring to the attention of the Admission Committee. If you are unable to submit a recommendation from Realinsight, a current employer, please give your reason here. To satisfy my desire for success, I must continue my education. Of the six business schools to which I am applying, the Stern School is my first choice.
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Essay: Using Humor in Realinsight the Teaching-Learning Process To Improve the Students’ Speaking Skill. It is important for English techniques and strategies to help enhance students’ speaking abilities, among other English skills they also need to develop. Furthermore, realizing that speaking is very important for English learners, it is essential for English teachers to encourage the students to Strategic Business Template | Plan Template speak. Realinsight? They seem to have difficulties in deciding what material must be used and how to teach speaking appropriately. Moreover, they must be able to find out the ways of how to make speaking easier and introduce the fun activities for the students to learn. In this case, teachers have responsibilities to Airmail | Zazzle guide the students during the learning process and to give motivation to them to improve their English especially in the speaking skill. Realinsight Marketplace? Teachers’ effective use of humor is Credit - Loans, generally viewed as a positive factor in the classroom (Check 1986:5). It may even influence the effectiveness of Realinsight Marketplace teacher power and compliance-gaining strategies. Wheeless, Stewart, Keamey, #038; Plax (1987) note that compliance is an Credit Union enactment of power. Likewise, if teachers exert humor in the classroom, they will be seen as more powerful by their students. Possibly, teachers could gain more compliance from students through the utilization of humor.
1.1Statement of the problem. Teachers come in two types: Boss teacher and Realinsight lead teacher. Boss teacher is Telcoplus Credit Union, substantially known as authoritative, imposing, demanding, dominant, and Marketplace oriented. Undoubtedly, these characteristics lead to learners’ misbehavior, poor self-esteem, and low learning motivation. Conversely, lead teacher is Snoopy Weekly, known as democratic, open-minded, facilitator and most importantly motivator and friendly; He plays up the emotional growth of learners in Marketplace an effective classroom environment. Students are entirely influenced by classroom setting, the Telcoplus Credit Union, content of the syllabi and especially the way they are presented.
This means that the more inappropriate learning conditions occur the less enjoyable lessons; and the more bored the students will be. Hence, teachers should be aware of how to harmonize students with EFL learning, and Realinsight hasten to look for the suitable strategy that allows them to Examples And Free enhance learning especially speaking skill. Because teachers at Abbes Laghrour university face many obstacles in English language teaching and as for the students, they lack confidence to speak English with their teachers and classmates because most the of them complain about such difficulties in pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, psychological obstacles as shyness, fears, hesitation They also lack of opportunity to use English in their daily lives.for learning and helps them feel at ease, secure, increases their sense of The study is a suggestion to use humor as a pedagogical and psychological strategy in classroom which makes students influenced positively to raise their desire belonging to the class. Realinsight? So that allows them to be engaged and get involved into the lesson, creates friend-ship between teacher and learners; as well as, facilitates communication between them. Students certainly will get rid of anxiety and boredom; they will get ready to receive information and enhance learning in Business Plan Template | Plan Template general and Marketplace speaking skill in particular. 1.2.
The aim of the | Printable Weekly Schedule | Pinterest, study. The researcher aims in this study to interview EFL learners by increasing their level of speaking skill. Admitting the fact that students need to enjoy learning to progress, the Realinsight Marketplace, study attempts to attest to the effectiveness of humor as a pedagogical and Plan Template psychological strategy through investigating its positive effects on learning. In order to check the validity of the hypothesis, the following questions should be answered: A- Does the use of humor in Realinsight Marketplace the English foreign language classroom facilitate the students’ speaking skill? B- How can teachers use humor in the teaching process? C- What guidelines can be made for the use of humor in English as a foreign language? 1.3. The Hypothesis. This work attempts to test the following hypothesis:
Teaching English by Weekly | Pinterest using humor can improve the students -speaking skill. Humor is a powerful tool needed by teachers to create a multi-harmony relationship: teacher-teaching, teacher-students, students -students, students-learning. It represents the effectiveness of Realinsight communicative classroom since it helps avoid classroom monotony and anxiety as well as it allows students’ self-esteem and self-confidence to arise. Humor not only Telcoplus Credit - Loans, establishes students’ engagement and involvement in the lesson, but also develops students’ productivity in Realinsight Marketplace EFL through providing positive learning atmosphere. Teachers’ mood is one of the Business Plan Template | Plan, major factors that impacts students’ attitudes toward learning.
Harmer (1998) claims that teachers’ characteristics like being fed up and in a bad-humor negatively influence their learners, so they should look for enjoyable and Marketplace invigorating strategies. Humor, for instance, is a pedagogically effective strategy that can be used to 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle avoid the negative impact of the negative characters of teachers since “students enjoy being entertained and amused”(Harmer, 1998, p.1).In other words, the Realinsight, happier learning students feel; the more successful they will be. Humor is defined by saying what makes the others amused.(Vossler, Sheidlower, 2011)say that in classroom, humor is Fmla Form Pictures - Best For Your Job, not only being funny or saying what is laughable, but also is giving the impression of being friendly and having affinity with learners .Gatt (2000) defines Humor as follows: It is the Realinsight Marketplace, ‘breathing-out of the soul’. When during the lesson the students only listen to the teacher, who may be teaching in the same tone, then it is as if they only breathe in Pictures - Best Resume Examples For Your and have no opportunity to breathe out. They need humor, which the teacher can find in very different places. Therefore the teacher must bring in humor during his lessons and this humor should result from the vitality and momentum of the lesson. Students prefer being in classroom situation that stimulates them to learn.
Leonard (1968) asserts that the best environment for learning is the interactive (as cite in Wrench, 2008, p.46) where students participate rather than being merely receptive (Jones #038; Jones, 1981, as cited in Wrench, 2008, p.46).As for the fundamental role humor plays in classroom, it creates active students in a communicative environment. The smooth running of lessons ensues. Furthermore, (Morrison, 2008) describes humor by tonic for effective teaching. She states that the Marketplace, purposeful use of | Plan Template humor ignites students’ boredom, stress, depression, shyness, fear, and anger. Humor is the best “brain food”. It is the link between brain and Realinsight Marketplace learning; it rings the brain’s bell to activate “memory” to start storage to push them up for Template exchange information’ to speak out loud without any fears. Marketplace? So, information presented humorously is extremely memorable. Berk, also, notes that Humor can create an unforgettable image if it is accompanied by | Printable Weekly Schedule the use of” your words plus your physical expressiveness in your eyes, face, hands and arms, and the rest of your body”(2003, p. 64). Realinsight Marketplace? Sylwester assumes that emotions are considered as the Plan | Plan, stimulus of learning; they attract the attention which is required to learn (as cited in Morrison, 2008, p.2).Emotions can be presented by humor. When teacher uses humor, students become enthusiastic to attend the class for a long time, and feel interested in Marketplace what is being said by the teacher. Humor does not only prepare successful learners but also successful speakers whereas, the pronunciation is the most important goals of learning languages.
As for teaching, it is necessary to use humor since it retains students’ attendance, improves trust between teacher and learners, and provides positive energy. This latter maintains high morale and makes flexible learners; it enables them to Airmail 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle be up to different situations and changes by evaporating stress when facing obstacles. Humor is Realinsight Marketplace, “catalyst for creativity”. It allows thinking critically which results producing and combining new ideas. Those ideas are necessarily demanded for Credit - Loans managing problems-solving .Correspondingly, Morrison (2008) states that humor gives an “optimistic energy” that increases confidence so as to respond to stress and Marketplace adapt to difficulties. She distinctly mentions humor is the paramount source of creativity and imagination. Humor positively affects the brain.
It enables learners create various ideas. Loomans #038; Kolberg #038; Weston #038; Allen go further, arguing that what makes somebody laugh may be is not for another since humor differs according to gender, generation and culture. However, some forms of humor are universal. Therefore, teachers should apply that latter to suit all learners (2002).Moreover, they confirm that teachers necessarily have positive attitudes toward what they do to Cto Resume Builder fulfill their satisfaction and enthusiasm in order to, at the end, lighten the class. Being humorous as well is one of the essential basics for much more lightened class; it permits learning to be a “joyous experience not a dread one”. Loomans categorized humor benefits. Social benefits: it sparks creativity, improves the likelihood of belonging to teams, and decreases conflicts.
Physical benefits: it contacts the internal organs and sends them messages to reduce stress, as well as regulates blood pressure. And most importantly, benefits for learning: it reinforces many learning skills such as critical thinking skill, communication skill, and cooperative learning skill. 1.5. Research method. In this study, the researcher has been looking for a correlation between two variables humor and Realinsight Marketplace students’ speaking skill achievements. Airmail 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle? In other words, this study examines whether humor is an effective pedagogical, and psychological strategy or not; it is a students’ requirement or not. The method adopted has been based on two questionnaires delivered to Marketplace the first year English LMD students and teachers at Abbes Lagrour University. The students’ questionnaire results reveal the importance of humor in EFL process as a students’ requirement and Snoopy Weekly | Printable Schedule | Pinterest its importance to Marketplace improve their speaking skill achievements. Business | Plan? The second questionnaire delivered to English teachers of the same students. Researcher has been based on students and their teachers requirements, needs and point of view about the Marketplace, research topic as they considered the main sides of the teaching- learning process .Analysis and the discussions of the results of both questionnaires to decide whether humor is an effective teaching-learning tool to enhance the speaking skill or not.
1.6. Limitation of the study. It is important to indicate some difficulties when collecting background data. Looking for references especially books was the Cto Resume Examples Examples, main obstacle the researcher faced. Gathering information for Marketplace the review of literature took time what hindered the Sample Form, progress of the study conducted. First, this research is conducted through the use of two questionnaires as one procedure which is oriented toward students and teachers only. Classroom observation procedures needs a long period of time to collect information and to watch thoroughly what is going on in the classroom and pay attention to the sudden changes that may take place in order to guarantee its reliability. Second, the term humor is very assorted that makes the Realinsight, researcher has been obliged to use the term humor in its general meaning without precise one kind at the expense of another, in some times the researcher use terms as (laugh, amusement), as a synonyms of the term humor. Chapter 1 (theoretical part) Section 1 Humor.
Humor is the Weekly Schedule | Printable Weekly Schedule | Pinterest, link between effective teaching and Marketplace successful learning. A side from being a social behavior and an integral part of our humanity, humor is a powerful teaching tool that promotes non threatening learning environment, and breaks the ice down between teacher and students. Weekly Schedule Weekly? Then rapport and trust Relationship between them are evolved. In that sense, Tom Davis says: “The job of the teacher is to get students laughing, and when their mouths are open, to give them something on which to chew”. Marketplace? Why humor is solidly related to teaching? “Attitude and behavior are a key part of your role as a tutor, since they can be so influential”(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. Printable Contract | Laywers? 141). Being boring is one of the major sins in teaching (powers, 2005) as boredom and dullness can kill students motivation and negate their desire to learn (Deiter, 2000). In addition, content is firmly connected to pedagogy; what is taught is as important as how it is taught(Chickering #038; Gamson, 1987);the teacher should be able to present the Marketplace, lesson in engaging way (Flanagan, 2007) Humor is the Weekly Schedule | Printable, demanded strategy. It helps “to your subject knowledge with influencing social interactions and shaping the climate and motivations of students”(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. 141).Appropriate and timely humor in the classroom can foster cognitive processes, affective and Realinsight Marketplace emotional processes (Berk, 1996), as well as contribute to Business Template over all teaching effectiveness (Kher #038; Molstad #038; Donahue, 1999). Although humor is valuable teaching tool, many teacher underutilize it (Deniere, 1995), and Marketplace challenge its use in classroom (Berk, 1998).Gravely said, ??This is a time in school history when humor is vanishing and in some instances has disappeared altogether” (Morisson, 2008, p.71).
Then, a contradiction has arisen between what is discovered, about humor, by scholars and what really happens in classroom. In general, humor is saying something or acting in a way that makes the others amused. To Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary, since the late 16th century, humor takes the Airmail 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle, following definition: ‘the quality in something that makes it funny or amusing; the ability to Realinsight laugh at things that are amusing’. In Latin, the term derived from ‘umor’ which refers to ‘bodily fluid’ (control human health and emotion). Similarly, in ancient Greek, humor derived from ‘humors’ that means ‘the balance of Telcoplus Union fluids in Realinsight the human body’. Printable Sample Employment | Laywers? Webster’s Dictionary defines humor as “quality of imagination quick to Realinsight Marketplace perceive the ludicrous or to Credit Union express itself in Realinsight an amusing way; fun; caprice; disposition; mood; state of mind.”(As cited in Shade, 1996, p. 9) Apart from tending to provoke laughter and provide amusement, humor has been differently defined by many authors. Business Plan Template | Plan Template? According to Levine (1969), ‘humor is Realinsight, regarded as trifling, destructive and degrading force to morality, religion, and art. Seen differently, it is Plan | Plan, liberating, socially constructive, and even ennobling art’ (p.1).Morrison believes that our cognitive emotional growth is mainly influenced by Marketplace the use of humor in our lives (2002, p.23).Humor is Snoopy Weekly Schedule | Printable Schedule, ‘an amusing communication that produces positive emotions and cognitions in the individual or in Realinsight the group’ (Romero #038; Cruthirds, 2006, p. 59).However, Hurren thinks that humor is Amazing Fmla Form Resume Examples For Your, any message, verbal or non verbal, communicated by the teacher and makes the students feel amused (2006). ‘At its basic level, humor is an intended or unintended message interpreted as funny’ (lynch, 2002, p423).
Vossler #038; Sheidlower go deeper , claiming that humor, at its heart, it is not the behavior of telling jokes, but it is that strategy used to create rapport between teacher and students in Realinsight a way makes them feel closer to their instructor (2011) since ‘ laughter is the Weekly Schedule | Pinterest, shorter distance between two people’ (McGhee, 2002 as cited in Role, 2011, p. 4)May ,Humanistic Psychologist states that Humor is the capacity to Realinsight Marketplace perceive, appreciate, or express what is funny, amusing, incongruous, ludicrous, etc. It is ‘the healthy way’ that keeps you away from problems; it provides you with the appropriate mood needed to perceive and solve problems (as cited in Lyons, 2005, p. 3). Humor is a basic part of ‘humanity’s unique capacity for language’. It is considered as a universal human experience (Kruger, 1996). 2- Basic theories about Schedule | Pinterest humor. 1.2. Realinsight Marketplace? Theories of Humor. The different definitions of humor reveal the distinct perspectives the authors rely on Business Template Template when expounding humor and what social function it serves.
Those perspectives respond to diverse theories that facilitate the process of explaining humor in Realinsight Marketplace more organized way (Martin, 2007) because it is crucial to Snoopy Weekly | Pinterest understand theories of humor rather than erect its definition (Brooks, 1992). Realinsight? Although each theory focuses on a certain area of Weekly Schedule | Printable Schedule humor, the Realinsight Marketplace, pioneers allege that their theory is the most reliable. 1.2.1. Superiority Theory. “Everything is funny as long as it’s happening to Examples someone else!” The superiority theory of humor traces back to Realinsight Marketplace Plato and Aristotle. They believe that our feeling of superiority over people we laugh at gives us the pleasure of humor.
Cornett (1986) cites that humans feel joy at being superior to others. They laugh at Cto Resume Examples Resume Builder, inferior people mistakes which they never do and at their own past follies since they feel superior to who they were in the past. He adds that what may be funny can be represented by clowns, caricatures, puppets, and Realinsight Marketplace impersonators. Amazing Fmla Form Resume Examples Job? Also, ‘Defects in others are humorous as long as they are not harmful to the victims’ (p. 26). Monro (1988) asserts that ‘humor is Realinsight, derisive’.
Pleasure derives from feeling superior at those who have ‘failing’ or ‘defect’; ‘laugher always looks down at Template Template, whatever he laughs at’. He claims that the originator of this theory named ‘Thomas Hobbes’ (1588- 1679) who states that laughter results from ‘vainglory’, i.e. we laugh at others ‘misfortunes’ or ‘infirmities’, at Marketplace, our past mistakes. Monro cites laughter definition according to Bregson (1859-1941), supporter of superiority theory of humor: ‘laughter is society’ defense against the eccentric who refuses to adjust himself to its requirements’. In other words, humor is a reaction to what considered inexplicable. Laughing at inferior and Employment Contract Form | Laywers ugly people primarily is caused by feeling superior over them. Hill (1988) indicates ‘We laugh maliciously when we possess superior knowledge over the people we ridicule.
We laugh at people who have an inferior moral character or at people who are uglier or distorted than ourselves’ (p. 40). This type of humor elevates inequality in society. Differences in religions, nationalities, races, and occupations lead some people to feel superior at others. The superiority is the core of finding pleasure when laughing at inferior people. 1.2.2. Incongruity Theory.
According to this theory, humor is perceived at the moment of realization of incongruity between what really happen and Marketplace what is expected to happen. Berk (2005) voices that incongruity can be called ‘contrast resolution’. Cto Resume And Free? It is “the juxtaposition of the ‘expected’ with the ‘unexpected'”. Deckers #038; Kizers (1975) maintain that the condition for humor takes place is the divergence between what is Realinsight, expected to happen and what really happens. Kerr (2001, p. Amazing Pictures - Best Examples For Your? 2) notes that “Having a sense of humor is about having a sense of balance, perspective and proportion. A sense of humor is the ability to recognize the Realinsight Marketplace, incongruities and - Best Resume For Your Job absurdities that confront us on a daily basis. In other words, it is the Realinsight Marketplace, ability to look at Printable Sample Form, the same thing as everyone else and Realinsight see something just a little different”. Shade (1996) suggests that successful humor is the outcome of the abrupt changes which occur incongruously. It mainly derives from ‘jokes’ and 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle ‘riddles’ in which incongruity may be presented by Realinsight Marketplace ‘contradiction’, ‘understatement’, ‘exaggeration’, ‘surprise’, ‘reversal’, ‘ludicrous’. He adds that the incongruity in humor results when there is: first a discrepancy between the Resume Builder, punch line and the body of a joke, and second a violation of Realinsight Marketplace expectancies.
These may involve: a) Two conflicting sets of Union rules, b) Two different frames of reference, or c) The reversal of figure and ground. (p.11) Degrading a value is an essential feature of incongruity theory. Monro (1988) states “humorous incongruity consists in Realinsight Marketplace degrading something exalted by bringing it into contact with something trivial or disreputable”(p. 351). Examples | Resume Examples And Free? This idea is supported by Realinsight Spencer (1820-1903) (as cited in Monro, 1988, pp. 352, 353). Snoopy Weekly Schedule? Spencer defines humor as “descending incongruity”. Nevertheless, he confirms that incongruity, not degradation, is the paramount source of humor. German philosophers Kant (in 1790) and Schopenhauer (in 1819), the Realinsight, developers of this theory, proclaim “The basis of this theory is Snoopy | Printable Weekly, that humor is created when we expect one thing and is (sic) suddenly presented with another .Humor, then, is the result of these unexpected connections” (as cited in Shade, 1996, p. 11). For Schopenhauer (1788-1860) (as cited in Monro, 1988, p.352), humor is the Realinsight, pleasure that derives from the “unexpected connections between ideas”.
Kant (1724-1804) (as cited in Strategic Business Monro, 1988, p.351) identifies incongruity by ??frustrated expectation”. He believes that humor comes up when the concept you expect would happen ends into nothing i.e. Realinsight Marketplace? humor derives from your recognition that your expectation have not realized. In his point of view, humor is ‘penetrating’ as long as it connects two completely different attitudes, or it makes a reversal of values. Incongruity encompasses both the intellectual and Printable Contract Sample | Laywers emotional elements. Kant #038;Schopenhauer phrase that the mental component of humor realized when the Marketplace, unexpected connections between two things come about.
Differently stated, pleasure arises as a result of Fmla Form Pictures Resume For Your “the rigors of logic, reason, and thinking”. Shade asserts that humor has another imperative component ‘the emotional element’. ‘Attention’, ‘anticipation’, ‘tension’, ‘surprise’ help humor crop up (1996, p. 11). Furthermore, Spencer declares “laughter is an overflow of Realinsight Marketplace nervous energy, and that the abrupt transition from Airmail 5x7 Envelope a solemn thought to a trivial or disreputable one leaves us with a fund of Realinsight nervous energy which needs to be expended in laughter”. It means that emotions we feel as sudden changes take place released by humor. 1.2.3. Relief Theory. In this theory, humor is seen as catharsis. It is the Business Plan Template Template, preferable strategy used to challenge pent- up emotions. Seaward (2006) regards humor as a response to Marketplace stressful situations .Monro (1988) highlights that relief is the Telcoplus Credit - Loans, core of humor. People laugh as strain removed. He defines humor as the Realinsight, temporary way adopted to get released from the restraint of the conventional social requirements (pp.
353, 354). Freud (1856-1939), the originator of release theory, mentions that through humor, we can trick the ‘censor’, the internal inhibitions, that handicap the achievement of our ‘natural impulses’. He considers his humor theory and Resume Examples Job his theory of dreams interpretation similar. Humor, exactly like dreams, can beguile censor. Suppressed wishes then may come true. Realinsight? Through humor, we give ‘vent’ to Airmail our ‘repressed desires’ (as cited in Marketplace Monro, 1988, pp. 354, 355). For Shade, laughter gives us some temporary freedom from the numerous restrictions, such as constrains of conventionality and the rigidity of Amazing Pictures - Best Resume For Your Job logic, under which we live our daily lives. This theory focuses on the social and Marketplace behavioral elements of humor. Laughter helps elude the dictatorial social conventions .For example “when someone at a meeting uses humor to add a little levity to Telcoplus Credit - Loans a tense situation or discussion.
This allows everyone to Realinsight Marketplace laugh for a moment, break away from the topic at hand for a minute or two, regroup their thoughts, and begin addressing the | Resume And Free Resume, issue, perhaps with a new perspective” The most noticeable thing about these theories is that each theory has its own perspective and area of focus which means that no theory can fully explain the nature of Realinsight Marketplace humor and its social functions. 3-Kinds (types) of humor. Humor is in huge variety of more than 20 types .The research focuses on the famous only as below: Types of humor Definitions Examples. idiom a form of expression peculiar to a language, especially one that has significance other than its literal one. He was as mad as a cut snake means that he was angry. irony a figure of speech or literary device in which the literal meaning is the opposite of that intended Exclaiming, ‘What a beautiful day for a picnic!’ in Credit Union the middle of a thunderstorm. joke something said or done to excite laughter or amusement; a playful mischievous trick or remark.
What does a storm cloud wear under its coat? parody humorous or satirical imitation of a serious piece of literature or writing; to Realinsight imitate in such a way as to ridicule. Scieszka , Jon, The true story of the three little pigs. Munsch, Robert, The paper bag princess. pun the humorous use of a word in such a manner as to bring out different meanings or applications, or of Examples And Free Resume words alike in sound but different in meaning; a play on words. Police were called to a daycare centre where a three-year-old was resisting a rest. a puzzling question, problem, or matter David was out for Realinsight Marketplace a walk when it started to rain. He did not have an umbrella and he wasn’t wearing a hat. His clothes were soaked, yet not a single hair on his head got wet. Form? How could this happen? spoonerism a slip of the tongue whereby initial or other sounds of words are transposed My dunny fog is maned Nitsy is Marketplace, a spoonerism for My funny dog is Resume, named Mitsy.
4- Forms of Humor in Classroom. Humor in the classroom can take many forms. A study of humor in the college classroom, done by Bryant, Chomsky, and Zillman (1979), leaks that humor in lectures can be classified as jokes, riddles, puns, funny stories, humorous comments. Cartoons and comic verse have been discovered as other creative ways to Realinsight incorporate humor in classes (Kher et al., 1999). Riddle is Printable Employment Contract Sample, a question that is difficult to Realinsight Marketplace understand, and that has a surprising answer, that you ask somebody as a game. The term riddle derives from the old English word “radels” or “radelse; it is related to Dutch “raadsel” and German “ratsel” (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2008). It is a word game; an enigma; a puzzling fact, it is similar in nature to a joke but with a specific format (a question- answer format).
For instance, ‘Matt: How do you keep fish from smelling? Jenny: Cut off their noses’. Riddles are preferably related to Form Pictures - Best Examples For Your Job subject matter. The main objective for utilizing riddles is to teach students how to analyze and discuss ideas (Shade, 1996). For example, ‘Imagine that you are in a boat, in Marketplace the middle of the sea.
Suddenly you are surrounded by Telcoplus Credit hungry sharks, just waiting to feed on you. How can you put an end to this’? (The answer is: stop imagining). Such humorous riddle brings students to use their higher order thinking in order to solve it. Additionally, riddles may aim to teach vocabulary, spelling, even phonology. Shade suggests the use of letter puzzlers: Build on a letter to make a word: What comes after L? Bow (elbow) What comes after E? Z (easy) What comes after B? 4 (before) Pun is the clever or humorous use of a word that has more than one meaning, or words that have different meaning but sound the same (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary).Partingtone describes pun by the “creative use of language” (2006, p. 110). He stresses that pun never play with merely one word but with group of words. In the Realinsight, same line of thoughts, Koestler explains “The pun is the dissociation of Cto Resume And Free Builder a single phonetic form with two meanings ‘ two strings of thought tied together by an acoustic knot”(1964, p. Realinsight Marketplace? 65).
Pun should occur intentionally, Ritchie (2004) holds that spontaneous puns are not very funny and Telcoplus Credit - Loans are rarely kept to be used later. According to Partingtone, puns can take the form of: ‘ Reversals, such as spoonerism, for example, a half- warmed fish (i.e. half formed wish) ‘ Blending (or porte-manteau words) for example; anecdotage (anecdote _dotage, that is, how the aged ramble on) ‘ Anagrams, for example, Mother-in-law ‘ Woman Hitler; Election results ‘Lies, let’s recount. ‘ Re segmentation or meta-analysis, for example, four candles ‘ fork handles. ‘ Reverse Coinages, for Realinsight Marketplace example, speakable (from unspeakable), underwhelmed (from overwhelmed) ‘Not-as-They-Seems, for example, a cat burglar (stole our best mouser). He further clarifies that puns can be categorized into homonymy puns and homophony puns. Homonymy puns means words alike in sound and spelling. Union - Loans? For example ‘club’ refers to two homonyms: ‘association of people’ and ‘heavy weapon’. Marketplace? Whereas, homophony puns are words alike in Resume For Your sound only.
For instance, ‘leek’ and ‘leak’. The pleasure takes place when one meaning reinterpreted by the other meaning. Joke is something to say or to do to make people laugh. Marketplace? The term ‘joke’ emerged in late seventeenth century. It is originally slang; it derives from Latin ‘jocus’ which means ‘jest’ or ‘wordplay’ (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2008). It is seen by (Morrison, 2001, p. 160) as “a short story or short series of words spoken or communicated with the Cto Resume Examples Examples Resume Builder, intent of being laughed at or found humorous by Realinsight Marketplace the listener or reader”. To be perceived laughable, jokes need comprehending the multiple meaning of Amazing Pictures Resume Job words, idioms, and metaphors; discovering ambiguity, perceiving and ultimately comprehending the incongruity; and appreciating the unexpected or sudden change of Realinsight perspective (Shade, 1996, p. 3).According to (Schmitz, 2002, p.93), jokes can be classified into three classes: universal jokes, culture jokes, and linguistic jokes. Universal jokes refer to Schedule Weekly | Pinterest “humor that is obtained mainly from the context and the general functioning of the world; ?? in other words, they are jokes which any one can laugh at.
For example, Teacher: Gwen, come here and point out Africa from this globe. Gwen: here. Teacher: Correct! John, who discovered Africa? Class: Gwen!. Marketplace? Cultural jokes need cultural background knowledge; jokes teller and Cto Resume Examples Resume listener should share the same culture, or at least, the joke- teller should be aware of the listener culture. For instance, “What do you call a dog at the beach?””A hot dog”. Linguistic jokes “based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages”, such as, Grammar teacher: Sam, can you tell me any two pronouns? Sam: Who, me? Teacher: Good answer, Sam! Shade illustrates this class the following examples: ‘ Lexical based on multiple- meanings of words; Dave: What has 18 legs and catches flies.
Lynn: A baseball team. ‘ Deep structure involves alternative interpretation for a word or phrase; Sam: What animal can jump higher than a house. Marketplace? Chris: Any animal. Houses can’t jump. ‘ Metalinguistic focuses on Cto Resume Examples | Resume Examples the language form instead of the language meaning; Kathy: What’s at the end of Marketplace everything? Tim: the letter g. ‘ The phonological based on the phonological structure of Business Template Template words; Rebecca: What is Realinsight Marketplace, this? Waiter: it’s bean soup. Rebecca: I don’t care what it’s been.
What is it now? (1996, p. Telcoplus Credit Union - Loans? 3.4). Berk (1996; 2002) mentions that teachers may present humor in form of funny quotations, questions, examples, skits/dramatizations, exercises and Realinsight Marketplace problems. ‘ Humorous questions: they are often used in all courses. The teacher asks series of serious questions followed by funny questions in Telcoplus Credit Union - Loans order to Realinsight capture the students’ attention. Printable Sample Sample | Laywers? For example, a. How many of you think this one is the Realinsight Marketplace, correct answer? b. How many of you think this one is the correct answer? c. How many of you don’t care? d. How many of you want to go back to bed’? Humorous examples: they are the Weekly | Printable, easiest way the teacher uses to illustrate concrete or abstract content in the subject area. ‘ Humorous problem sets: they may replace the serious textbook problems and Realinsight practiced as problem- solving exercises or homework. ‘ Skits/ dramatization: they are the best warm- up practice.
They can be presented by music, Masterpiece Theater. ‘ Humor forms are sorted into larger groups. (Chee, 2003) identifies four main forms: textual, pictorial, verbal, action/ games. – Textual examples: stories, jokes. – Pictorial examples: cartoons, comics. – Verbal examples: puns, word games, acronyms. – Action/ games examples: theater, video, role play, contests. ‘ Disparately, (Shade, 1996, p.2) classifies them into distinct forms: verbal, figural, visual and Airmail auditory. – Verbal humor includes jokes, puns, riddles, anecdotes, wit. – Figural humor includes comic, cartoons and caricature. – Visual humor includes impersonation, impression.
– Auditory humor includes mime, impersonation, practical jokes, and Marketplace sight gags. 5-Benefits of humor. 5.1. Psychological benefits. John F. Kennedy was reported to have said, “There are three things which are real: God, human folly, and laughter. Weekly | Printable Weekly | Pinterest? The first two are beyond our comprehension.
So we must do what we can with the third” (Hunsaker, 1988). One of the Realinsight Marketplace, things which can be done with humor is to take advantage of its coping mechanism or psychological benefits. For example, humor is seen as reducing discomfort and easing tension, a way of mitigating failure or coping with defeat (saving face), a way of disarming an aggressor, coping with adversity, or to make the serious and less interesting more palatable (Linstead, 1985).Humor can serve as an outlet (though temporary) for frustration, apathy, resentment, hostility and anger; it can offer an escape from the Telcoplus - Loans, harshness of reality and lighten the burdens present in the classroom (Weaver, 1987). The psychological benefits of humor are supported by Realinsight Marketplace several theories. The Anxiety Reduction Theory purports the level of humor arousal is directly associated with the anxiety level of 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle students which, if true, further buttresses the case for the use of humor as a release valve in the classroom (Herbert, 1991). The Psychoanalytic Theory contends that humor is a socially acceptable expression of Marketplace forbidden impulses, often with a release of tension through laughter (Coleman, 1992). Another theory of humor, the Arousal Theory, illustrates the Business Plan Template, stress-reducing effects of humor. Marketplace? This theory explains the function or laughter as that of reducing built-up tension and energy (Lefcourt #038; Martin, 1986).
In accordance with this theory is Martin and Lefcourt’s ( 1988) and Wilson’s (1979)contention of humor as an effective implementation device for reducing stress, anxieties ,and hostilities encountered in everyday life situations. Martin and Amazing For Your Job Lefcourt (1988) contend that nurturing children’s sense of Realinsight humor may arm them with a coping skill to combat the stresses of Airmail | Zazzle life. Freud (1960) labeled humor as, “the highest of the defensive processes (i.e., defense mechanisms).” In his analysis in 1932, Freud went on Realinsight to explain humor as a reflection of the confidence to reduce stress to a manageable state (Rains berger, 1994). Similarly, laughter was seen as a means of burning off extra energy or tension (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1986). Martin and Lefcourt attribute this stress reducing effect of humor to its capability of allowing people to put distance between themselves and the problem at hand. Korobkin, (1988); believes that humor may be a classroom advantage by Examples Examples And Free Builder reducing fears and anxieties of students. Korobkin (1988) also found that humor decreases academic stress and Marketplace anxiety toward the subject matter. Another related theory relevant to the use of humor in the classroom is the Relief Theory.
Meyer (1990), a proponent of the Relief Theory, suggests that reduction of Snoopy Schedule | Printable Schedule tension and anxiety is its central element. Sullivan (1992) contends that by reducing classroom anxiety through the use of humor, test anxiety may be reduced simultaneously. There also exists evidence from a study conducted by Sarason (1960) that highly anxious students perform better on tests when humor is introduced into the testing situation (Gibbon, 1988). Another psychological implication of humor is the enhancement of Marketplace learners’ self-esteem (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). A successful learning process involves the Amazing Pictures - Best Resume Examples For Your Job, assumption, “I can do it.” Humor, or taking oneself lightly, can encourage students in the learning process, which often involves risk-taking, temporary setbacks, and embarrassing exposure. Low self-esteem limits a student in the ability to take risks beyond the narrow role of perceived competency (O’Connell, 1996). By using humor and the skill of laughing at oneself, a student can be more self- forgiving, thereby allowing him or herself to become lost in the learning process. 5.2. Sociological benefits. The sociological implications of Marketplace humor are equally telling. The social theory of humor explicates the means both for Fmla Pictures Examples For Your establishing better group interactions and Marketplace transmitting cultural mores (Coleman, 1992).
One of the major functions of schools is socialization: To acculturate knowledgeable, understanding, compassionate, and empathic new members to Strategic Business Plan society (Callahan, Clark, #038; Kellough, 1992). Effective teachers are individuals, according to Realinsight Marketplace Hageseth (1995), who can “take themselves lightly, but take their work and life seriously as they encourage others to do likewise.” They are individuals who can modulate a tense, difficult situation into an intriguing challenge, who can interject an uplifting gesture into a stressful moment. As such, teachers can encourage students to appreciate the universality of the human condition, that all are here to make the world work by complementing one another (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997).Teachers can model achieving power through knowledge and equality, not through exploitation, manipulation, and one-up man ship .Through teaching, teachers facilitate learning through enthusiastic, generous sharing, laughing at 5x7 Envelope, their own foibles, and their encouragement to take risks in the safe environment of the learning situation. The socialization process involves learning how to be with oneself, with others, and with life’s adversities and challenges. Students learn this valuable skill by Realinsight Marketplace using humor as a tool of Airmail | Zazzle growth and wisdom. Realinsight? Humor can be used as a binding force through which group members share common experiences, develop group cohesiveness, and play and work together toward common goals (Duncan, 1984). Humor can help bond relationships or be used as the Telcoplus Credit, lubricant for healthy competition within or between groups (Herbert, 1991). In general, humor, when used appropriately, can be an effective tool for socialization and interpersonal relations. 5.3. Educational benefits. Humor serves many educational (communication) functions as well.
Maslow, after all, defines humor and Marketplace laughter as “education in Airmail 5x7 Envelope a palatable form” (Weaver #038; Cotrell, p. Marketplace? 168).Colwell and Resume Builder Wigle (1984) further believe that humor strengthens teacher-student rapport by enabling students to see teachers have “well rounded personalities”. Other proponents of humor in Realinsight the role of fostering a strong, positive rapport between student and teacher are Ackerman and | Zazzle Dummer, (1982); Bryant, (1979); and Wilson (1979). Realinsight? A teacher who shares a warm, genuine sense of humor with the Plan, class portrays oneself as being human just like the students (Herbert, 1991). Pollak and Freda (1997) ask “If a teacher cannot laugh at what he or she does not know, then how can students be expected to recognize their own educational needs and be truly willing, even anxious to learn?” For example, if an Realinsight Marketplace English teacher puts a sentence on the board to label parts of speech and a student points out a mistake the teacher has made in labeling one of the more complicated components, that teacher has several options. One is to deny the mistake; another is to pretend the mistake was made on Airmail 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle purpose; another is to own the error, thereby revealing his or her humanness and Realinsight Marketplace ability to recover. Students are endeared to that teacher because of the willingness of the “authority figure” to dethrone him or herself to model the learning process in its reality. The reality of learning is that trial and error, stumble and recovery, are not only - Best Resume Examples For Your Job, inevitable but crucial for real learning to take place. If a teacher can laugh at Realinsight, himself or herself and 5x7 Envelope laugh with (never at) students, the teacher is well on the way to Marketplace establishing a positive climate and eliminating much of the Union - Loans, stress that is often present in classrooms today. Students may never give a teacher the Realinsight Marketplace, chance to Fmla Form Pictures - Best Resume Examples share knowledge or brilliant insights if rapport is Realinsight Marketplace, not first established. Perhaps Weaver and Cotrell (1987) best summarize the educational role that humor plays in the classroom:
A warm, genuine, sense of humor can reveal humanness- a comfortable, secure attitude with themselves as instructors, with their course material (knowledge), with their students, and with their relationship with students. Union - Loans? Certainly, one of the important benefits of Realinsight Marketplace humor is that it breeches the broad gap between instructors and students. It brings them closer together-joining them, in a sense, in a quest for knowledge. When teachers confront negative students with humor, they often find that this use of humor is an effective way to reduce the Examples | Resume Examples And Free Resume, students’ anger and hostility (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). Humor is a powerful tool in education and can be used within the Marketplace, classroom to put the students at ease and make the learning process more enjoyable.
As educators become active participants in their students’ laughter, they will have an opportunity to become engaged with them (Ackerman #038; Dummer, 1982). A humorous response exerts a powerful force over a tense situation. Students, as a result, feel more comfortable in situations in Amazing Pictures - Best Examples For Your Job which they are not entirely in control of their own feelings. Realinsight Marketplace? Weaver and Cto Resume Examples Examples And Free Builder Cotrell (1987) encourage teachers to establish a climate of reciprocal humor. Asking students for humorous material encourages class interaction and a more “give-and-take” classroom atmosphere. Marketplace? Humor “…has a central place whether as a natural product or as a life-saving response to the exigencies of the institution – boredom, ritual, routine, regulations, oppressive authority” (Gibbon, 1988). Printable Employment Contract Sample | Laywers? Essentially, the primary value of humor in the classroom is to “stimulate, illustrate, motivate, and ease tension” (Kelly, 1983). The reduced tension affects and creates benefits in other areas as well (Rainsberger, 1994). Harris (1989) contends that frequent laughter in a classroom creates an environment in which the Marketplace, students feel safe to try new things.
Students are not bound by the confines of rigorous expectancies, but have freedom from these boundaries to experience true knowledge for its own sake. - Best Resume Examples Job? Kelly (1983) believes that a large reason for increased enjoyment of school is the positive attitude and learning climate created as a result of the reduced stress level. Classrooms with decreased tension and reduced stress foster greater creativity and imagination and Marketplace contribute to an enjoyable classroom setting in which students portray a positive attitude conducive to enthusiastic learning. By reducing stress, humor can make learning more enjoyable, which leads to a relaxed atmosphere as well as a positive attitude about school in general. Neu liep, (1991); Korobkin, (1988); Perret, (1984); Long, (1983); Ziv, (1976); Ziv, (1983); and Bergen (1990) propose that creativity, imagination, and ideas are encouraged and enhanced by an enjoyable classroom where the Schedule | Printable Schedule | Pinterest, students eagerly await new challenges. Evidence suggests that asking students to use humor in answering test questions improves creativity scores (Ziv, 1983).Creative thinking, a necessary tool for problem solving can also be facilitated by the use of humor. When employing brainstorming techniques, for example, if a teacher offers a thought that is Marketplace, “incongruous or unexpected or incompatible” (Fry #038; Allen, 1996), that input can help students see a situation in two very rational but drastically different perspectives. Coleman (1992) finds that humor, creativity, and cognition were closely related and like Fry and Allen (1996) determine that the use of Telcoplus Credit Union verbal, incongruous humor increases the likelihood of students developing more creative thinking processes. The essence of creative thinking therefore, is that ability to perceive situations from various points of Realinsight view.
Humor is an effective device in interpersonal communication skills. Victor Borgeonce stated that “laughter is the 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle, shortest distance between two people” (Sullivan, 1992).One knows that communication and interpersonal skills are extremely important tools in the academic classroom. These tools can be effectively implemented when students feel comfortable or non-threatened. Many scholars argue that the use of humor aids in creating an Realinsight Marketplace open communication climate in the classroom (Herbert, 1991; Korobkin, 1988; Perret, 1984; Long, 1983; Ziv, 1983; Mogavero, 1979; Ziv, 1976; Dixon, 1973; Gilland #038; Mauritsen, 1971; and Coser, 1960). Laughter can help ensure a rapturous reception of the instructor’s forthcoming prophetic lecture. In addition, laughter is seen to coordinate human interaction as a turn-taking cue, approval and invitation for Cto Resume Examples the hearer to respond in kind, an invitation to elaborate, and a resource in affiliation (O’Donnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983).Power struggles often surface in classrooms .When two sides come into conflict, humor can be used to relieve the pressure to provide both opponents with the opportunity to cool off (Iapoce, 1990).
In such situations, humor provides the teacher with the Marketplace, chance to re think the Employment | Laywers, situation and react with a rational consequence as opposed to a punishment established out of stress and anger (Curwin #038; Mendler, 1990). Such a rational response spares the Marketplace, child’s self-esteem. As a result of the ability to diffuse tension in Printable Contract Sample such situations, humor actually enhances relationships and brings people closer together.”When humor is shared, people feel close and warm with each other” (Chenfeld, 1990). Sullivan (1992) believes the bottom line is Realinsight, that utilizing humor to reduce stress makes school a more enjoyable experience for both teachers and students. 6- Guidelines of using humor in teaching process. Humor can be a liberating force, or it can be a destroying one. Some guidelines to ensure that humor has a positive effect may include: beginning class with an amusing thought or joke; the use of 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle humorous stories and anecdotes; relating student-oriented activities that often contain comic material; and taking “commercial breaks”(O’Donnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983). The aim here is to actively involve students on an intellectual and emotional level- to assume an involved, interested stance .Stat (1988) writes, “To involve your audience emotionally, you must create a drama- comedy (humor) is often the best tool to use.” There are situations in which humor can prove counterproductive. If used at the wrong time, it has the ability to Realinsight cause distraction.
If used in excess, it may become uncontrollable and Airmail | Zazzle transform the classroom into a circus. If used inappropriately, it may potentially damage self-esteem, or cause embarrassment (Bariaud, 1988). Considering the potential of humor to be abused, there is clearly a need for guidelines concerning its use in the classroom. Bryant and Zillman (1988) cite that teachers’ use of humor must be perceived as natural, or else it may backfire. Teachers who normally feel uncomfortable using humor must be wary of Realinsight Marketplace attempting to force it into their classrooms.
If humor is irrelevant to the subject matter, valuable class time may be wasted and the class may become unruly, thereby contributing to poor classroom management (Sullivan, 1992). Bryant and Zillman (1983) suggest that teachers of children, especially young children, should refrain from using humor unless they are certain that the | Zazzle, children have the faculties and knowledge to understand it. For example, irony and other forms of “distortion humor” can confuse children and create faulty ideas that are difficult to correct. The basic component of Realinsight Marketplace some humor is Cto Resume Examples Builder, ridicule. Some researchers suggest that sarcasm and other forms of ridicule may be useful as a behavior management technique , although most strongly discourage it .Collins (1986) notes that sarcasm is brutal by Marketplace nature and can severely damage students’ self-esteem, as well as teacher-student relationships. - Loans? Bryant and Realinsight Marketplace Zillman (1988) suggest that although sarcasm and ridicule may serve a corrective function, the long-term consequence of diminished esteem in the eyes of students may make the immediate gains in terms of behavioral correction not worth the costs. In addition to the guidelines previously discussed, a number of researchers offer other suggestions. Sullivan (1992) cautions that: (1) teachers must recognize when humor is not appropriate; (2) teachers should never joke about a student’s name because of the potential damage to Examples | Resume Examples And Free Resume the student’s self-esteem; and (3) teachers should not simply tell jokes in class, but should keep their humor relevant to the instruction since telling jokes reduces valuable class time and may result in sexist and Realinsight racist humor that will create problems. The use of non-relevant humor, or that which is not at Pictures - Best, all related to the subject matter at Realinsight, hand, is shown to be an | Resume Examples especially effective aid in information acquisition for younger children, those of preschool to Realinsight early primary school age (Zillman #038; Bryant, 1983). The effectiveness of non-relevant humor diminishes with age so that by adulthood, non-relevant humor is not only acceptable, but can even hinder the Airmail 5x7 Envelope, acquirement of information.
It is also crucial that a student never feels that he or she is being made the object of ridicule. Although the teacher may dominate the student for the moment, often deep and strong resentments result that may last throughout the school year (Quina, 1989). Sullivan (1992) and Herbert (1991) contend that teachers should be willing to laugh at themselves and should be careful to match their humor to Marketplace the level of Examples And Free Resume Builder their students. In addition, Herbert (1991) recommends using visual examples of humor, opening class with a joke, and telling humorous anecdotes. However, he suggests that humor should always serve a specific purpose; it should not be aimless. Realinsight? Cornett (1986) presents a list of forty-nine specific ways in Union - Loans which planned humor can be incorporated in the classroom. Her only guidelines are that teachers should adopt a playful mind, think funny, and encourage humor from their students. Although a vast array of Marketplace humor categories exists, one must carefully and cautiously discriminate in the choice of humor being used. Clearly, the misuse or abuse of humor in the classroom may have negative effects. Humor arising from a sexual or racial context should have no place in Sample Employment Sample Form | Laywers the classroom and should be avoided at Realinsight Marketplace, all times.
The victims of such humor may feel that they are being forced to hear a derogatory statement about Amazing Form - Best Resume For Your Job their heritage or gender. One might assume that the teacher has a prejudice against Realinsight that particular group of people, and the classroom environment becomes negative and hostile (Dickmeyer, 1993). Humor may unconsciously allow the person to Examples | Resume get at the target of such humor. The “target” is the individual who is placed in one of these situations by humor (Edwards #038; Gibboney, 1992). The target is on the receiving end of the humorous comment, whether it be joke, pun, or funny story and is focused on when the humor takes place.
As mentioned earlier, targets of instructor’s humor can be self, student, or other. Humor may be ineffectively utilized to promote the superiority of one group or person over Realinsight, another as expressed by the Superiority Theory of humor (Gruner, 1978). This theory focuses upon the heightened sense of self- esteem, confidence, and reduced threat that are coupled with a humorous response to a typically stressful experience or situation (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1988). It is embodied in the slur, the put down, and the barb in which an individual or group laughs at another, supposedly inferior individual or group (Pollio, 1983). Examples of this type of Telcoplus Union humor are the various ethnic, racist, and sexist jokes which are increasingly becoming taboo in a more enlightened, sensitive society (Coleman, 1992). A major premise of this theory is that people laugh when they feel superior to others (Meyer, 1990). Closely related to the Superiority Theory is the Disparagement Theory of Humor, whereby humor, as disguised aggression, is used at Realinsight, the expense of others to And Free garner a small victory in the midst of defeat (Rainsberger, 1994). A final theory of humor, the incongruity theory, emphasizes the occurrence of Marketplace two or more illogical or incongruent events, often eliciting the double-take or puzzled look before the laughter (Coleman, 1992).At the end and as a resume these types of humor should be remain out of the classroom: ‘ Sexual humor: celebrating the fun of | Zazzle sex, mildly flirtatious to outright obscenity and Realinsight lewdness. ‘ Ethnic/Racial -humor: in which a particular ethnic group is demeaned, ridiculed, or made fun of. ‘ Religious -humor: making fun of particular religions or religion in general.
‘ Hostile -humor: in which an attack on someone’s dignity is the primary focus. These may be insulting, invective, or involve a put-down of someone. ‘ Demeaning to Men/ Women- humor: in which males/ females are discredited or put-down, often by the opposite gender. ‘ Sick-humor: making fun of death, deformity, disease, or handicapping conditions. (1996, p. 87). ‘ Aggressive humor: by saying, showing or make such allusion may provoke students’ anger. Through this chapter, it seems to be clear that humor is advocated as a pedagogical strategy. Many authors recommend the use of humor in the academic context.
They argue its significance by a variety of studies conducted to Airmail | Zazzle survey its supportive role to enhance learning. No matter how humor has been defined and what principles humor theories are based on, but what worthwhile role it plays in the teaching- learning process. In addition to its therapeutic function in medicine and psychology, humor has the potential to Realinsight give rise to successful learners and, thus, to successful workers. In order to be effective, teaching strategies require some rules to be obeyed. The appropriate and timely humor relies on a set of principles. Following these standards, it will be easy for Amazing Fmla Form Pictures - Best Examples professors to Realinsight make humor an integral part of - Loans material to be learnt, and then their teaching will be conducive to Marketplace optimal learning.
Section 2 Speaking skill. Speaking is one of the most demanding skills in Employment Sample Form the daily life. Every person needs to communicate with others through speaking. Speaking plays an Marketplace important role in making a social interaction with another people in Employment Contract Form order to Realinsight Marketplace gain information. Thus, it is necessary for every people to have a good speaking skill. As the Sample Form, needs of English increase over Realinsight Marketplace, the year, people do not only communicate with those who come from the same country, but also with those who come from different countries. Cto Resume Resume? In order to be able to convey meaning and talk to people around the world, they must be able to speak English since it is an Realinsight international language. Airmail 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle? Due to its importance, it is very reasonable why the objective of the English teaching as a compulsory subject at university level is to enable students to communicate in both oral and written forms. As the language is a means of communication, students have to be accustomed to speak utterances orally in the classroom even in the very simplest way, such as greeting, answering, expressing ideas, giving responses, and the like.
The actual situation of students’ speaking English competencies at Abbes Laghrour University insure that the Marketplace, most of Snoopy | Printable Schedule students are at low level, despite teachers use hard efforts and many techniques to enhance their students’ speaking level. From a daily observation the researcher ‘which is a student at the same university ‘ has been noticed that the majority of students keep silent during lessens; hesitate in the participation, or using humble and individual words or short sentences at most by French or Arabic phonetics and pronunciation. In the oral presentation, students read their projects or just memorize what they want to present word by word neither more nor less. Also few of students participate by read the information from Tablets, Computers, or the Handout of the teacher himself. Another observation is that students distinguish between teachers based on their reputation; general personality and behavior .That enable to classify teachers into two sets, beloved and non beloved .these affection toward teachers’ impact maybe positively or negatively on students’ speaking participation and thus their speaking skill achievements. 1-Definition of speaking. Speaking is one of two productive skills in a language teaching. It is Marketplace, defined as a process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal or oral form (Chaney, 1988:13 and Gebhard, 1996:169). Moreover; Nunan (2003:48) defines that speaking consists of producing systematic verbal utterances to convey meaning.
To know deeper what speaking is, Nunan differentiates it from writing. First, in Weekly Weekly | Pinterest spoken language, speaking must be listened by others. Realinsight? It has temporary and immediate reception. When we do listen from other people, it has special prosody some like stress, rhythm, and intonation. Snoopy Weekly Weekly | Pinterest? It must be there an Realinsight intermediate feedback for Telcoplus Credit Union - Loans communicating directly. By speaking activity, orator or speaker have to pay attention of planning and Marketplace editing by channel. Whereas the second,in written language, the activity is done as a visual term.
The time for doing it, is permanent and it is delayed reception. The writer uses punctuation as well to make others clearer in vision or reading the meaning. There is no feedback or it is usually delayed or indirectly communicating. The planning is unlimited and there are often editing and revision in Fmla Form - Best Examples Job any parts of the Realinsight, written language. Based on the utterances above, they can be concluded that the differences between spoken language and the written one as follow: Spoken language Written language. Temporary; immediate reception. Prosody (rhythm, stress intonation. Planning and Telcoplus Union editing limited by Realinsight channel Visual.
Permanent; delayed reception. Delayed or no feedback. Unlimited planning, editing, revision. 2-The importance of speaking. Human being as social creature always communicates to one another. It can be occurred with the process of interchange of the thought or ideas which include interactions. For examples telling information or some news, asking other helps for their needs, or etc.
All of them can be done trough speaking to Credit others directly. Marketplace? It means that the activity of speaking itself has a very important role in human life. Ramelan (1992:13) says that all human being whenever they live always speak language, although they do not have any writing system to Cto Resume Examples | Resume Examples Resume record their language. From the statement above it can be concluded that speaking is very important in mastering foreign language. Thus speaking capability can be measured whether a foreign language learner in Realinsight successful in Airmail 5x7 Envelope learning or not. But in mastering speaking skill can be seen not only from the performance of learners in spoken, but also we have to see from their competence in using the language. Speaking competence is not only the theoretical study but also it is daily activities and human’s need for growing. Realinsight? As according to Airmail | Zazzle Chomsky in Garnham (1985:23) said linguistic performance is the actual use of language in concrete situation.
And also according to William O’Grady, et.al (1996:4) states that linguistic competence is the ability in producing and Marketplace understanding an unlimited number of utterances. From the two definitions above, we can conclude that speaking skill consists of linguistic performance and linguistic competence. In other word, we can say that speaking skill is a mental motor skill, it consist of the coordination of Strategic Plan sound, mechanism, which is Marketplace, produce by our muscles and it is also has as a mental aspect .That is the ability in arranging the meaningful words and Telcoplus Union - Loans explain and convey thinking, feeling, and idea. Speaking ability means the ability to think .Based on the explanation above, to measure the students’ speaking, has five competences as follows: Hornby defines pronunciation as the way in which a language is a spoken, way in which a word is pronounced (Hornby, 1974:669). It means that pronunciation is an important of language, including its aspect like accent, stress, and intonation. Grammar and pronunciation has a close relationship. In addition to the sound system learners must be taught by using structure system of language.
Learners must be given insight into word order, inflection and Marketplace derivation into the other meaningful features of the English language. It will help students to speak fluently. Hornby (1974:979) defines vocabulary is Credit - Loans, range of words known or used by a person in trade, profession, etc. Realinsight Marketplace? If students have many vocabularies, it will be easier for him to Weekly | Pinterest express his idea. d. Fluently Hornby (1974:330) defines fluency as the quality of Realinsight being able to speak smoothly and easily. It means that someone can speak without any hesitation. Airmail 5x7 Envelope? Someone can speak fluently even though he makes errors in pronunciation and grammar. Self confidence becomes an important factor in speaking learning process.
A student with good grammatical and vocabulary master usually has a big confidence to express idea, suggestion or answer the question. Marketplace? He feels like that, so he thinks he knows what will he say and how to express. 4 -Aspects of speaking. Eventually, aspects of the | Resume Resume, speaking skill need to be closely scrutinized and put into consideration. These aspects pose some challenges and identify some guidelines for understanding this skill and hence design instructional activities to prepare learners to communicate effectively in real life situations. A. Realinsight? Speaking is face to face: Most conversations take place face to Examples Examples And Free Builder face which allows speakers to get immediate feedback, i.e. ‘Do listeners understand? Are they in Realinsight agreement? Do they sympathize (Cornbleet #038;Carter, 2001: 16) . Thus communication through speaking has many assets, such as facial expressions, gestures and even body movements. Speaking also occurs, most of the time, in Plan Template | Plan Template situations where participants or interlocutors are present. Such factors facilitate communication (Widdowson, 1998 #038; Burns, 1998).
B. Speaking is interactive: Whether we are speaking face-to ‘face or over the telephone, to one person or a small group, the wheels of conversation usually turn smoothly, with participants offering contributions at appropriate moments, with no undue gaps or everyone talking over each other (Bygate, 1998: 30 and Cornbleet #038; Carter, 2001: 27) Turn taking, a main feature in interaction, is an unconscious part of normal conversation. Realinsight? Turn takings are handled and Sample Contract Form signaled differently across different cultures, thus causing possible communication difficulties in conversation between people of different cultures and Realinsight Marketplace languages (Mc Donough #038; Mackey, 2000: 84). C. Telcoplus Union - Loans? Speaking happens in Realinsight real time: During conversations, responses are unplanned and spontaneous and the speakers think on their feet, producing language which reflects this (Foster et al., 2000: 368).These time constraints affect the speaker’s ability to plan, to organize the message, and to control the language being used.
Speakers often start to Printable Sample Form | Laywers say something and change their mind midway; which is termed a false start. The speaker’s sentences also cannot be as long or as complex as in writing. Similarly, speakers occasionally forget things they intended to say; or they may even forget what they have already said, and so they repeat themselves (Miller, 2001: 27). This implies that the production of speech in real time imposes pressures, but also allows freedoms in Marketplace terms of compensating for these difficulties. The use of formulaic expressions, hesitation devices, self correction, rephrasing and Examples | Resume And Free Resume repetition can help speakers become more fluent and cope with real time demands (Bygate, 1987: 21; Foster et al., 2000 and Hughes, 2002: 76). Actually, exposing students to these spoken discourse features facilitates their oral production and helps them compensate for the problems they encounter. It also helps them sound normal in their use of the Realinsight, foreign language.
5- Purpose of speaking. It was argued that the purpose of speaking can be either transactional or interactional. Union - Loans? Apparently, there are some differences between the spoken language used in both transactional and interactional discourse. In transactional discourse, language is Realinsight Marketplace, used primarily for communicating information. Form - Best Resume Examples? Language serving this purpose is ‘message’ oriented rather than ‘listener’ oriented (Nunan, 1989: 27). Clearly, in this type of interaction, accurate and Realinsight Marketplace coherent communication of the Business Template Template, message is important, as well as confirmation that the message has been understood. Examples of language being used primarily for a transactional purpose are: news broadcasts, descriptions, narrations and Realinsight instructions (Richards, 1990: 54- 55). Amazing Fmla Pictures Resume? Speaking turns serving this purpose tend to be long and involve some prior organization of content and use of Realinsight linguistic devices to signal either the | Resume And Free Resume, organization or type of Realinsight Marketplace information that will be given (Basturkmen, 2002: 26).
On the other hand, some conversations are interactional with the purpose of establishing or maintaining a relationship. This latter kind is sometimes called the Amazing Fmla Resume Job, interpersonal use of language. It plays an important social role in oiling the wheels of social intercourse (Yule, 1989: 169). Examples of interactional uses of language are greetings, small talks, and compliments. Realinsight Marketplace? Apparently, the language used in the interactional mode is listener oriented. Speakers’ talk in this type tends to be limited to quite short turns (Dornyei #038; Thurrell, 1994: 43 and Richards, 1990: 54-55). - Loans? However, in spite of the distinctions between the Realinsight Marketplace, two types, in most circumstances, interactional language is combined with transactional language. This helps to Printable Sample Employment Contract Sample Form ease the transactional tasks to be done by keeping good social relations with others. In, other words, we can say that speakers do one thing by doing another (Brazil, 1995: 29). So both purposes can be viewed as two dimensions of spoken interaction. Realinsight? Analyzing speaking purposes more precisely, Kingen (2000: 218) combines both the transactional and Printable Sample Contract Sample Form | Laywers interpersonal purposes of Realinsight speaking into Builder an extensive list of twelve categories as follows:
1- Personal – expressing personal feelings, opinions, beliefs and Marketplace ideas. 2. Descriptive- describing someone or something, real or imagined. 3. Narrative-creating and telling stories or chronologically sequenced events. 4. Instructive-giving instructions or providing directions designed to Airmail 5x7 Envelope produce an outcome. 5. Questioning-asking questions to Realinsight Marketplace obtain information. 6. Comparative-comparing two or more objects, people, ideas, or opinions to make judgments about Business | Plan them.
7. Imaginative-expressing mental images of people, places, events, and objects. 8. Realinsight Marketplace? Predictive-predicting possible future events. 9. Interpretative-exploring meanings, creating hypothetical deductions, and considering inferences. 10. Persuasive-changing others’ opinions, attitudes, or points of view, or influencing the behavior of others in some way. 11. Business | Plan Template? Explanatory-explaining, clarifying, and supporting ideas and opinions.
12. Realinsight Marketplace? Informative-sharing information with others. This list corresponds closely to the language functions explained by Contract Sample | Laywers Halliday (1975). 6-Main Factors That Hinder Students from Speaking. It has been mentioned earlier that there are some psychological factor that hinder students from practicing their speaking in Marketplace English class. Each of them is explained below. 6.1. Fear of mistake. As argued by many theorists, fear of mistake becomes one of the Printable Employment, main factors of students’ reluctance to Realinsight Marketplace speak in Amazing Fmla Form Pictures - Best For Your Job English in the classroom With respect to the fear of Realinsight Marketplace making mistake issue, Aftat, (2008) adds that this fear is linked to the issue of Cto Resume And Free Resume Builder correction and negative evaluation. In addition, this is also much influenced by the students’ fear of being laughed at by other students or being criticized by the teacher.
As a result, students commonly stop participating in the speaking activity (Hieu, 2011).Therefore, it is important for teachers to Realinsight convince their students that making mistakes is not a wrong or bad thing because students can learn from their mistakes. Shyness is an emotional thing that many students suffer from at some time when they are required to speak in English class. Business? This indicates that shyness could be a source of problem in students’ learning activities in the classroom especially in the class of speaking. Therefore, paying attention on Marketplace this aspect is 5x7 Envelope, also quite important in order to help the Realinsight Marketplace, students do their best in their speaking performance in the classroom (Gebhard, 2000). In line with this, Baldwin (2011) further explains that speaking in front of people is Fmla Form Job, one of the more common phobias that students encounter and feeling of shyness makes their mind go blank or that they will forget what to say.
This theory is also supported by Realinsight the result of this research in which most students fail to perform the Sample Employment Contract Sample | Laywers, speaking performance at their best. As they say, their inability to show their ability in speaking is also influenced much by their feeling of Realinsight shyness. In other words, it can be said that shyness plays an important role in speaking performance done by Examples And Free Resume Builder the students. Anxiety is Marketplace, a feeling of tension, apprehension and nervousness associated with the situation of learning a foreign language (Horwitz et all cited in Nascente, 2001). Further Nascente writes that, among other affective variables, anxiety stands out as one of the main blocking factors for effective language learning. In other words, anxiety influences students in learning language.
Therefore, paying attention to this factor of Telcoplus Credit Union - Loans learning should also be taken into Marketplace consideration. The fact that anxiety plays an important role in students’ learning is also shared by other researchers like Horwitz (1991) as cited in Sylvia and Tiono (2004). 5x7 Envelope? He believes that anxiety about speaking a certain language can affect students’ performance. It can influence the Marketplace, quality of oral language production and make individuals appear less fluent than they really are. This explanation suggests that teachers should make an attempt to create a learning atmosphere which gives students more comfortable situations in their learning activity. 6.4. Lack of Confidence. It is commonly understood that students’ lack of confidence usually occurs when students realize that their conversation partners have not understood them or when they do not understand other speakers. In this situation, they would rather keep silent while others do talking showing that the students are lack of confidence to communicate. In response to this, Tsui cited Nunan (1999) says that student who lack of confidence about themselves and their English necessarily suffer from communication apprehension.
This shows that building students’ confidence is an Telcoplus - Loans important part of teacher’s focus of Realinsight attention. This means that the teacher should also learn from both theories and Schedule | Printable Schedule | Pinterest practical experience on Realinsight Marketplace how to build the students’ confidence. 6.5. Lack of Motivation. It is mentioned in the literature that motivation is a key to students’ learning success (Songsiri, 2007). Airmail? With regard to the issue of motivation in learning, Nunan (1999) stresses that motivation is important to notice in that it can affect students’ reluctance to speak in English. Realinsight Marketplace? In this sense, motivation is a key consideration in determining the preparedness of learners to communicate.
Zua (2008) further adds that motivation is an inner energy. She says that no matter what kinds of motivation the learners possess it will enhance their study interest. It has been proven in Printable Employment Contract Sample Form many studies that students with a strong motivation to succeed can persist in learning and gain better scores than those who have weaker motivation of success showing that to learn is Realinsight Marketplace, urgent for every teacher. 7- Ideas about using humor in Amazing Form Examples speaking lessons. Humor as we have seen is an open ended teaching tool , it may be just a small smile with students till make them laughing out loud or giggling; between this and that; the researcher proposes some thoughts to introduce humor in the teaching process. 7.1. Realinsight Marketplace? Tongue twisters are a great way to practice and improve pronunciation and fluency.
They can also help to improve accents by using alliteration, which is the repetition of one sound. Examples: ‘ Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of Telcoplus Credit - Loans pickled peppers. Where’s the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked’? Betty Botter bought some butter. But she said the butter’s bitter. If I put it in my batter, it will make my batter bitter.
But a bit of better butter will make my batter better. So ’twas better Betty Botter bought a bit of better butter. ‘ How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, and chuck as much wood As a woodchuck would if a woodchuck could chuck wood. ‘ She sells seashells by the seashore. ‘ How can a clam cram in a clean cream can’? I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream. ‘ I saw Susie sitting in Marketplace a shoeshine shop. 7.2. Students always have difficulty expressing what they want to say, no matter how advanced their vocabulary is .Teacher has to downloaded short jokes from the Form, Internet, cut them into strips, and distribute them randomly. Realinsight Marketplace? The goal is to Fmla Form Resume Examples express the short joke in students’ own words, without reading or memorizing.
Teacher should be sure to model how a person tells a joke (like telling a story, with facial expressions or everything).He might need to help them with understanding some jokes, as some are contextual /cultural. A: I have the perfect son. B: Does he smoke? B: Does he drink whiskey? B: Does he ever come home late? B: I guess you really do have the perfect son. Realinsight? How old is he?
A: He will be six months old next Wednesday. Girl: You would be a good dancer except for two things. Boy: What are the two things? A family of mice was surprised by a big cat. Father mouse jumped and said ‘Bow- wow!’ The cat runs away. ‘What was that father’? asked baby mouse. ‘Well, son, that’s why it’s important to learn a second language. 7.3. Create dialogue comic strip. This is a simple worksheet with single comic strips for students to use their imagination and Strategic Template Template fill the speaking bubbles freely.
There are no conditions except that they have to write at least 2 sentences, but the idea of the exercise is to give them the freedom to find their own words (or ask for them) and at the same time have fun inventing something crazy to fill the bubbles with. Realinsight? There is no right and wrong in Cto Resume | Resume And Free Builder terms of content. This is to check grammar and vocabulary. From: busy teacher .org. 7.4. Psychology quiz. Teachers in Realinsight ESL classes can practice this fun quiz with students’ .quiz to make them think about their priorities in life in a fun way. Nice way to relax the Credit Union, class. It takes 5 minutes to use it. From: busy teacher .org. Teaching and Realinsight learning English in Abbes Laghrour University have faced many difficulties.
As for students, they wish to speak English fluently, but face with language barriers such as pronunciation and grammar usage. Moreover, they lack of opportunity to speak or use language in daily lives. They are too shy to speak with their classmates or teachers because they are being passive and have little speaking activities to practice. In addition, all of four skills, teaching and learning of speaking skills seem to Airmail be the most crucial part, because in the classroom almost of instructions are given in the university as many as teachers who are non-native speakers, and having no interaction occurs in the classroom. These difficulties in primary and secondary schools, where the English curriculum and environment do not meet the demand of the Realinsight Marketplace, learners, and do not focus on speaking, have affected on learning English in university level where listening and speaking skills are most used. Therefore, to help the learners improves speaking skills, various kinds of strategies should be considered. One of them is probably using pedagogical humor during the Strategic Plan | Plan, teaching learning process because it strengthens the relationship between the Realinsight Marketplace, education parties in order to create fun, confidence and | Resume Builder boldness in students’ personalities to enhance all their language kills achievement especially speaking.
Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Linguistics essay, dissertation or piece of Realinsight Marketplace coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in Credit - Loans our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Linguistics work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Linguistics essay was submitted to us by a student in order to Realinsight Marketplace help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in | Zazzle your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Using Humor in the Teaching-Learning Process To Improve the Students’ Speaking Skill . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/linguistics/essay-using-humor-in-the-teaching-learning-process-to-improve-the-students-speaking-skill/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on Realinsight our website then please click on the link below to Strategic Template request removal:
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How To Write A Resume Summary: 21 Best Examples You Will See. What is the best way to start a resume? The Ladder's research found that recruiters spend an average of 6 seconds looking at your resume! Yeah, you read that right. That means you've got to give recruiters what they want to see in the blink of an eye . But how?
A little something called a resume summary . Realinsight Marketplace? A good resume summary puts the information recruiters are looking for first. In this article, I will explain how to write a resume summary that gives recruiters what they want most . Airmail | Zazzle? And I will explain how to showcase that information so that it catches the employer’s attention. A great resume summary goes at Marketplace the top of the page - in Weekly | Printable Schedule, the most prominent position. Use it to attract recruiters' attention. Here is a template from Realinsight Marketplace our resume builder (create your resume) . See how the resume summary sample stands out? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction highlighting your career progress and skill set. An example of a resume summary looks like this: Administrative Assistant with +3 years of experience in Schedule | Printable Schedule | Pinterest, a sensitive corporate environment.
Outgoing and detail-oriented, I am proficient at building and Realinsight maintaining professional relationships. Have an - Best Resume Examples Job Associate's Degree in Office Administration. Administrative Assistant seeking meaninful work in Marketplace, a corporate environment where I can learn and develop my skills. A resume summary is also known as: Think of - Loans it as an “elevator pitch” or “sales pitch” that you can use anytime someone says: Pro Tip: If you're looking for Realinsight Marketplace samples of resumes and summaries for specific professions, you may also want to take a look at our resume examples section. Resume Summary vs.
Objective: What’s the Difference? The difference between a general resume summary and a resume objective looks like this: You are at a party. Let’s call you Robert. Your wingman approaches the girl you like. Robert likes girls and wants to leverage his skills to marry one. Boyfriend Material experienced at 5x7 Envelope laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and Realinsight pulling out chairs. Telcoplus Union? Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to Marketplace leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Has an MA in hand holding and a license to cook romantic dinners.
Which wingman is Amazing - Best Resume going to get Robert the girl? The resume objective was acceptable a long time ago when dinosaurs roamed the Realinsight Marketplace Earth. All you had to do at the beginning of a resume was write a one-liner that told the recruiter: 2. That you want the job. Then a meteor came and smashed into the Earth, and all the resume objectives died. Resume objectives are still extremely useful for certain types of job seekers. So, Who Should Use a Professional Resume Summary? Resume summaries are for people with years of experience who are not making a career change. You should consider writing a resume objective if you have no experience, are in the middle of a career change, or have some gaps in your job history. If you think that a resume objective would be a better fit for you, read our full guide on Airmail 5x7 Envelope, how to write resume objectives: +20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) And Where Does a Resume Summary Statement Go on a Resume? A professional summary for a resume should go at Realinsight the top under the contact information.
You will find that experts will refer to Credit Union - Loans this space as “prime real estate” - the penthouse of Marketplace your resume. Whatever you put there will be the first thing a recruiter will see when they look at your resume. When the resume summary section is first, a hiring manager sees your value right now. So, don't waste the space. How Long Should a Career Summary on a Resume Be? Depending on who you ask, you will be told that a good example of Telcoplus Credit Union a resume summary is anywhere from three to Realinsight Marketplace six sentences. As I mentioned in the beginning, an average recruiter will only spend six seconds looking at a resume. Airmail | Zazzle? That converts to about 20 or 30 words, which is around the length of Realinsight a Tweet. You should also pay attention to the fact that a reader scanning a document will skip over large blocks of Business Plan Template text.
With that in mind, you should consider keeping your personal resume summary statement on Marketplace, the shorter side: Around 3 sentences or 50 words. Pro Tip: Resume summaries tend to be short. Take a look at a sample resume template from our resume builder. You can create a similar resume here. A resume template from our resume builder - create your resume here. How to Fmla Resume Examples For Your Write a Resume Summary in 7 Easy Steps. 1. How to Start a Summary With a Few of Your Best Accomplishments. When you start writing a professional summary for Marketplace a resume, it is best to sit down for a moment and think back over the long span of your career.
What are my brightest moments? What am I proud of achieving? What do I love most about what I do? What do I do best? Once you’ve brainstormed, make a list of your achievements (about six bullet points). Pictures Resume? This is Marketplace your master list. Here is Union what it would look like if you were, for example, Indiana Jones: Indy’s Master List of Realinsight Marketplace Accomplishments and Top Skills. Found the Ark of the Amazing Form Pictures - Best For Your Covenant. Found the Sankara Stones.
Found the Holy Grail. Effectively able to dispatch Nazi bad guys. Proficient in the use of a bullwhip. Able to fly planes, ride horses, and commandeer motorcycles. Keep in Realinsight, mind that these are the brightest moments and can come from Airmail | Zazzle any point in your career. Now make a quick list of your top transferable skills. Transferable skills are skills that you can use in any job . For example, being able to write or being able to speak fluent Spanish. Research and analytical thinking skills (70% of my work is done in the library). Excellent cultural sensitivity.
Able to work in a high-stress, fast-paced environment. Linguist (Speak fluent German, Hindi, and Mandarin Chinese - among other languages). Now you have a master list of your achievements and a master list of your transferable skills. Set these aside for a moment. And make sure you read this article to Realinsight find out Amazing Fmla Form For Your Job, what skills are currently the Realinsight most desirable for resumes. You will also find actionable tips on how to Weekly Schedule | Printable showcase your skills on a resume, and a pretty cool infographic featuring R2D2. What does R2D2 have to do with resume skills? Find out here. 2. Scan the Job Post - Find out What the Employer Needs. Keywords are the particular skills or qualities an employer lists in a job post. Highlight or underline the keyword skills that you find in your job description.
Who are they looking for? What value do they want an employee to provide? What extra skills or qualities not listed would add unexpected value? Indy’s Job Description - Cocktail Server. 3. Research the Job - Find Out What is Realinsight Valuable. Find a few similar job posts. Again, highlight or underline all of the keyword skills and requirements.
Compare the new keywords to those in your job description. Anything that does not have a duplicate could add extra value to Contract Sample Form your resume. Look up other professionals on Realinsight Marketplace, LinkedIn with the Resume Examples Job same job as the one you want. Their skills section should give you a sense of what recruiters value in that profession. 4. Realinsight Marketplace? Tailor Your List - Make Your Skills List a Recruiter’s Wish List.
Which of my skills and accomplishments match those listed in the job description? How do my accomplishments and skills position me to solve the employer’s problems? What details can I add for amplification (numbers, details, proof like certificates or awards)? 5. Start With Your Title to Define Yourself Out of the Gate. Starting a professional summary for a resume with your professional title allows a recruiter to know right away that your resume is relevant.
Pro Tip: Make your professional title bold in order to draw attention to it, so that it is easy for - Loans recruiters to find. You will also want to add the number of years you worked in that position. Sassy Marketing Manager with 5+ years of experience. 6. Focus on Specific Results to Prove and Demonstrate Value. Now it’s time to go back to your master list. Condense your list of 6 accomplishments down to about 3 concise and specific sentences. As you describe your accomplishments and skills, add numbers, details, and Marketplace proof.
Focusing on quantifiable results in a career summary for a resume does a couple of things: Draws the eye of the recruiter and gives them a tangible sense of what you’ve achieved. Provides proof that your claims are more than just hot air. Sets you above other candidates who did not elaborate on Telcoplus Union - Loans, their accomplishments. Realinsight? Helps the recruiter imagine you achieving the same results for them. Indy’s Professional Resume Summary Sample.
Cocktail Waiter Improved collection of tickets onboard German zeppelin by 100%. An analytical, fast learner with 2+ years of Credit Union experience in global, on-demand service positions on zeppelins, boats, and trains. Leveraged extensive cultural and linguistic knowledge (Mandarin Chinese and Hindi) to recover the Sankara Stones while maintaining the highest level of customer service. Marketplace? Able to endure exposure to elements such as lava and snake pits, and able to physically outmaneuver such obstacles as giant boulders in Weekly Schedule, boobytrapped tombs. Guest Services, Sales, and People Skills Able to Learn and Master New Information Basic Math Bilingual Extensive Physical Activity Exposure to Elements. As you can see, Indy starts his sample resume summary statement by opening with the title of the Realinsight job (one of his professional titles) and Snoopy Weekly Schedule Weekly Schedule | Pinterest a headline.
His headline is supported by Realinsight Marketplace details: He then adds five of the six skills from the job description that match his skill set to his resume summary . He also adds details to amplify the information: “Linguistic knowledge” is amplified by “Mandarin Chinese and Hindi,” which also covers the Form - Best Resume Job “Bilingual” language bonus from the job description. He avoids the Realinsight first person, has added keywords like “exposure to elements,” and has added extra value by exhibiting experience in Airmail, wait service on Marketplace, various modes of transportation that might be interesting to an employer seeking a waiter to Telcoplus - Loans serve drinks on Realinsight, a boat. Dr. Jones has also managed to squeeze in a transferable skill - “cultural sensitivity/knowledge.”
7. The Name Drop - A Tried and True Way to Printable Sample Form | Laywers Generate Interest. Mention the organizations, clients, and past employers that you’ve worked for where appropriate. Name dropping is an old marketing technique that you can use when writing a resume summary for a resume to impress and establish authority and credibility. One word of warning: Employers could see name dropping as unprofessional snobbery. You need to Realinsight make sure you don’t cross the line. Also, you don't want to name drop confidential clients - because, you know, they're confidential. What you can do instead is say: I worked with top, global clients from (insert specific industry here) . It is Fmla Pictures Job best to Realinsight Marketplace name drop when it proves the thing you want to show the hiring manager in a professional summary for a resume.
The candidate who did it right has name dropped to prove that her clients are large, multi-national companies. The 7 Dos and Don’ts of Writing a Resume Summary. 1. Consider Adding a Headline for Extra Oomph. After you write your title, you can add a headline that sums up the main benefits of hiring you. Improved collection of tickets onboard German zeppelin by Snoopy Schedule Schedule 100%. 2. Microsoft Word is Not an Realinsight Marketplace Accomplishment So Leave It Out. Leave your core competencies for Sample Employment Contract Sample | Laywers the skills section of your resume. The resume summary section is for your best skills and keyword skills. Microsoft Office is Realinsight Marketplace boring and Employment Contract Sample Form pedestrian. Your mom, your sister, and your dog can all use Word.
And to further avoid being boring in a professional summary for a resume, consider using action verbs to describe your best skills. Avoid boring adjectives like “articulate” or “innovative.” Also, get rid of overused verbs like “managed” or “organized.” Action verbs are energetic and specific: Don’t go overboard. You don’t want to sound like a Freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary for the sake of Marketplace it. Remember that you should use keywords even if they are adjectives. There is a good chance that your resume will be fed through an Applicant Tracking System (ATS).
The ATS will scan your resume for | Zazzle keywords from the Realinsight job description. So you need to include them throughout your resume. 3. Resume Builder? Ditch the First Person Pronouns to Realinsight Focus on Airmail, the Employer. By skipping the “I” and Marketplace “me” stuff, your resume summary section will stay focused on Telcoplus Credit, the employer. When you use the third person and the present tense, a recruiter will be able to envision you doing that work for Realinsight them. Here are some resume summary statement examples with and Weekly Schedule | Printable without the first person. If you think it's more appropriate to use the first person, you should. It's up to you to Marketplace decide. 4. Ignore Tasks You Hate For Your Sake. When you are making lists of what to include on a resume don’t add anything you hate doing. Same goes for a summary in a resume.
If you hate doing something (even if you are really good at it), leave it. You will just get stuck doing it again at your new job, and it won’t make you happy. 5. Avoid Being Generic By Tailoring Each Resume Summary to the Job. Yes, that’s right. Every time you respond to Credit a different job post, you will need to Marketplace write a new resume summary. The professional resume summary is 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle only at peak effectiveness if you tailor it to fit one job description. So, if you are applying for 100 jobs, you need 100 resume summaries. You don't have to rewrite the entire thing. You can simply retouch your best resume summary by changing keywords. Just make sure that it is tailored to the job post.
How long should a resume be? In a word: short. Some experts will tell you about the Marketplace “one-page rule.” You should aim for Telcoplus Credit one page, but resumes are not glass slippers. Realinsight? You do not need to cram everything on one page like an ugly stepsister if it doesn't fit. A good rule of 5x7 Envelope | Zazzle thumb is to condense resume sections like the resume summary section at Realinsight Marketplace the end of the writing process. Trim the fat and keep it lean. Good professional summary examples don't exceed a paragraph of text or a few bullet points. If you're having trouble with the | Resume Examples And Free Resume Builder length of your resume, have a look at our guide on resume length: How Long Should A Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know 7. Avoid the Realinsight Marketplace Cardinal Sin of Resume Writing.
No good will come out of lying on your resume - even if it’s just a little white lie. Maybe you aren’t as good at creating spreadsheets as you made it sound. Good luck explaining that when an elaborate spreadsheet is your first task. Let's say you lie in your hobbies section - you say you like Game of Thrones when you don't. Who cares? Maybe the 5x7 Envelope rabid fan who is conducting your interview. Now you know nothing, Jon Snow. Marketplace? Uh oh. The best resume summary grabs recruiters’ attention by shouting out: And this is useful when it falls into the hands of Printable Sample Sample Form | Laywers a bored and overworked recruiter. In three punchy lines, you can show anyone reading your resume the Marketplace brightest moments of your career and Cto Resume Examples And Free your dazzling set of skills.
Bonus: Download these super-actionable examples of resume summaries that match real job posts here: Resume Summary Examples for Your Profession.” Do you have any question about how to Realinsight write a great resume summary for your position? Leave a comment. I'll be happy to answer. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork.
She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.