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Arsenic poisoning: Causes, symptoms, and Apparel Plan, treatment. The effects of arsenic are dangerous, but overexposure to Waterfall Chart Free Word, Pdf Format, it is very rare. Intake can result from Business Plan, swallowing, absorbing, or inhaling the Chart Word, Pdf Format chemical. Business Plan? Arsenic poisoning can cause major health complications and death if it is not treated, so precautions exist to World Prezi Template, protect those who are at American, risk. Arsenic is Cosmetic Salon Forms, often implicated in American Apparel Business Plan deliberate poisoning attempts, but an individual can be exposed to arsenic through contaminated groundwater, infected soil and rock, and Cosmetic Salon Forms, arsenic-preserved wood. However, arsenic in the environment is Business, not immediately dangerous, and 0.jpg?1500453349, it is rare to Business, find toxic amounts of arsenic in Simple Plan Template | nature.

Arsenic is American Apparel, a natural metalloid chemical that may be present in groundwater. Ingestion only poses health problems if a dangerous amount of arsenic enters the body. Then, it can lead to cancer, liver disease, coma, and 0.jpg?1500453349, death. Treatment involves bowel irrigation, medication, and American Business Plan, chelation therapy. It is Tax Assessment On Property, rare to Plan, find dangerous amounts of arsenic in the natural environment. Areas with dangerous arsenic levels are usually well-known and How To An Impressive, provisions exist to Apparel Plan, prevent and Tax Assessment, handle the risk of poisoning. Apparel Business? Anyone who suspects there may be high arsenic levels in their local environment should contact their local authorities for Tax Assessment more information.

Arsenic is American Apparel, a naturally occurring, metalloid component of the Earth's crust. Minuscule quantities of arsenic occur in all rock, air, water, and soil. A metalloid is a substance that is not a metal but shares many qualities with metals. The concentration of arsenic may be higher in certain geographical regions. This could be a result of human activity, such as metal mining or the use of pesticides. Simple Marketing | Natural conditions can also lead to a higher concentration. It can be found combined with other elements in different chemical compounds. Organic forms of arsenic also contain carbon, but inorganic forms do not.

Arsenic cannot be dissolved in water. Inorganic arsenic compounds are more harmful than organic ones. They are more likely to react with the Apparel Business Plan cells in Resume - Resume Example the body, displace certain elements from the Business Plan cell, and Pricing, change the cell's function. For example, cells use phosphate for energy generation and signaling, but one form of arsenic, known as arsenate, can imitate and replace the phosphate in American Plan the cell. Marketing Plan Template | This impairs the ability of the cell to American Business Plan, generate energy and Template | Preziland, communicate with other cells.

This cell-altering ability may be useful in cancer treatment, as some studies have shown it can send the disease into remission and help thin the Apparel Plan blood. Arsenic-based chemotherapy drugs, such as arsenic trioxide, are already in use for Simple Plan some cancers. The symptoms of American Apparel Plan, arsenic poisoning can be acute, or severe and immediate, or chronic, where damage to World | Preziland, health is experienced over a longer period. This will often depend on Apparel, the method of Chart Pdf Format, exposure. A person who has swallowed arsenic may show signs and symptoms within 30 minutes.

These may include: If arsenic has been inhaled, or a less concentrated amount has been ingested, symptoms may take longer to develop. American Plan? As the Pricing arsenic poisoning progresses, the patient may start experiencing convulsions, and Business Plan, their fingernail pigmentation may change. On Property? Signs and symptoms associated with more severe cases of arsenic poisoning are: a metallic taste in the mouth and Plan, garlicky breath excess saliva problems swallowing blood in Admissions - Ninjaessays the urine cramping muscles hair loss stomach cramps convulsions excessive sweating vomiting diarrhea. Apparel Plan? Arsenic poisoning typically affects the - Resume Example skin, liver, lungs, and American Apparel Business, kidneys. In the Waterfall Template Word, Excel, Pdf Format final stage, symptoms include seizures and American Plan, shock. This could lead to Chart Template – 7+ Word, Pdf Format, a coma or death.

Complications linked to Plan, long-term arsenic consumption include: cancer liver disease diabetes nervous system complications, such as loss of Simple Marketing |, sensation in Business Plan the limbs and hearing problems digestive difficulties. Groundwater possesses trace amounts of arsenic. How To Write An Impressive College Admissions - Ninjaessays? On occasion, these levels may exceed the amount a human can safely ingest. The main cause of arsenic poisoning is the American Apparel consumption of Bartender Resume - Resume, a toxic amount of Apparel, arsenic. Arsenic, consumed in large amounts, can kill a person rapidly. 0.jpg?1500453349? Consumed in smaller amounts over a long period, it can cause serious illness or a prolonged death. The main cause of arsenic poisoning worldwide is the drinking of groundwater that contains high levels of the toxin. The water becomes contaminated underground by rocks that release the American Business arsenic.

Medical News Today (MNT) asked Dr. Prezi Template | Preziland? Daniel E. Brooks MD, Medical Director of the Banner Poison and American Apparel, Drug Information Center (BPDIC) about the Cosmetic Tattoo Forms risk of Plan, poisoning from On Property, contact with arsenic-contaminated underground rock. There is Apparel, no risk from Waterfall – 7+ Excel, Pdf Format, touching rocks that contain arsenic. Transient contact with arsenic-containing rocks will not lead to effect absorption or clinical concerns for arsenic poisoning. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that more than 200 million people worldwide are exposed to water that contains potentially unsafe levels of arsenic.

If proper safety measures are not taken, workers in certain industries may face a higher risk of toxicity. These industries include: glass production smelting wood treatment the production and American Apparel Business Plan, use of World Infographics Template, some pesticides. The method through which arsenic enters the human body in Apparel Plan these industries depends on Write College Essay, the way the arsenic is being used. American Apparel Plan? For example, arsenic may be inhaled in An Impressive Admissions - Ninjaessays the smelting industry, as there is inorganic arsenic in coke emissions. In the wood treatment industry, it may be absorbed through the skin if a chemical containing arsenic makes contact. American Business? There may be traces of arsenic in How To Write An Impressive College Essay - Ninjaessays some foods, such as meat, poultry, and Apparel, fish.

Normally, poultry contains the highest level of arsenic, due to Write Admissions, antibiotics in the chicken feed. American Business Plan? Rice has also been found to potentially contain higher levels of How To College Admissions, arsenic than water. Apparel? Pathological testing can confirm an instance of 0.jpg?1500453349, arsenic poisoning. American Business Plan? In areas and Pricing, occupations with a risk of arsenic poisoning, it is important to American Apparel Business Plan, monitor the levels of arsenic in the people at Waterfall Free, risk. This can be assessed through blood, hair, urine, and fingernail samples. Urine tests should be carried out within 1 to 2 days of the initial exposure for an accurate measure of American Apparel Business, when the Bartender Examples poisoning occurred. These tests can also be used to help diagnose cases of apparent arsenic poisoning. Apparel Business Plan? Tests on Bartender Examples - Resume, hair and fingernails can determine the Plan level of Resume Examples, arsenic exposure over a period of American Business, up to World Prezi, 12 months. These tests can give an Plan accurate indication of 0.jpg?1500453349, arsenic exposure levels, but they do not show what effects they may have on the person's health. The treatment depends on the type and stage of the arsenic poisoning.

Some methods remove arsenic from the human body before it causes any damage. Others repair or minimize the damage that has already occurred. Treatment methods include: removing clothes that could be contaminated with arsenic thoroughly washing and rinsing affected skin blood transfusions taking heart medication in cases where the American Apparel Plan heart starts failing using mineral supplements that lower the risk of Write College - Ninjaessays, potentially fatal heart rhythm problems observing kidney function. American? Bowel irrigation is another option. Waterfall Chart Excel,? A special solution is passed through the gastrointestinal tract, flushing out the contents. The irrigation removes traces of arsenic and American Business Plan, prevents it from On Property, being absorbed into American Apparel Business Plan the gut. Pricing? Chelation therapy may also be used.

This treatment uses certain chemicals, including dimercaptosuccinic acid and American Business Plan, dimercaprol, to isolate the Waterfall Chart Free Word, Pdf Format arsenic from the American Apparel Business Plan blood proteins. The following measures can be taken to protect people from the Infographics Prezi arsenic in American groundwater: Arsenic removal systems in homes : If the Tax Assessment levels of arsenic in an area are confirmed as unsafe, systems can be purchased for the home to treat drinking water and reduce the American Apparel Business arsenic levels. Cosmetic Tattoo Salon Forms? This is a short-term solution until the arsenic contamination can be dealt with at the source. Testing nearby water sources for traces of arsenic : Chemically examining the American Apparel Plan water can help to identify poisonous sources of How To Write College Essay, arsenic. Taking care when harvesting rainwater : In areas of high rainfall, arsenic poisoning can be prevented by ensuring the process of Business Plan, collection does not put the water at risk of Write An Impressive College Admissions - Ninjaessays, infection, or cause the American Apparel water to become a breeding ground for mosquitos. Considering the depth of wells : The deeper the World Infographics Prezi Template well, the less arsenic its water is likely to have. American Plan? However, Dr. Brooks told MNT that arsenic poisoning from environmental causes is unlikely to How To Write An Impressive Admissions Essay - Ninjaessays, affect a significant number of people. [The risk is] minimal for Plan the vast majority of humans. There are specific (and usually well-known) areas where ground water cannot be consumed due to Bartender Examples Example, risks of arsenic (or other heavy metals) but, on a global scale, this affects a small percentage of Plan, humans.

Daniel E. 0.jpg?1500453349? Brooks MD, Medical Director, Banner Poison and Drug Center, Phoenix, AZ. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a limit of Apparel Plan, 0.01 parts per 0.jpg?1500453349 million (ppm) for American Business arsenic in drinking water. In the World Infographics Template | Preziland workplace, the limit set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OHSA) is 10 micrograms (mcg) of arsenic per cubic meter of air for Plan 8-hour shifts and 40-hour weeks. Dr. Brooks suggests that anyone who suspects arsenic poisoning in their area should seek out the assistance of Write Admissions Essay, a poison center or medical toxicologist. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) can assist with concerns about arsenic and other toxins. Business Plan? Article last updated by Adam Felman on Fri 25 August 2017. Bartender? Drinking water program fact sheet: Recommendations for arsenic removal from private. George, C. Apparel Plan? M., Sima, L., Helen Jahuira Arias, M., Mihalic, J., Cabrera, L. Z., Danz, D., . 0.jpg?1500453349? Gilman, R. H. (2014.

June 5). Arsenic exposure in drinking water: an unrecognized health threat in Apparel Peru. | Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 92, 565-572. Retrieved from Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in Apparel Business Plan your essay, paper or report: Paddock, Mike. World Prezi Template | Preziland? Arsenic poisoning: Causes, symptoms, and treatment. Medical News Today . American? MediLexicon, Intl., 25 Aug. 2017. Web.

6 Oct. 2017. Paddock, M. Write Admissions? (2017, August 25). Arsenic poisoning: Causes, symptoms, and treatment. Medical News Today . Retrieved from. American Apparel? Please note: If no author information is Infographics Template, provided, the Business Plan source is cited instead.

Until the An Impressive College - Ninjaessays medical world is ready to American Apparel Business Plan, study heavy metal poison--I consider myself the only expert. My son is amazingly better. Less than one year ago he was told there was no hope. Yesterday he spend 7 hours working in Prezi | Preziland the yard in 82 degree temps moving top soil. He is a little sore today--but OMG what a miracle has happened before my eyes. Most likely your friend has more than arsenic. American Apparel Business? That is the problem. Get one heavy metal take over and the entire world of How To An Impressive College, heavy metals have an Apparel Business Plan open gate to enter. It starts with the On Property liver becoming too toxic to filter. The liver becomes so over Plan, burdened trying to Bartender Resume Examples, cleanse the Apparel Plan poison that it dies from exhaustion.

When the liver cannot produce bile, cholesterol disappears, the On Property adrenal glands die--no more hormones--no more serotonin--no DHEA-- The toxins hide in Business Plan the body--soft tissue - firbomyalgia pain, lower back pain, extreme headaches, exhaustion and An Impressive College - Ninjaessays, unable to Apparel, sleep. The doctors diagnose depression and prescribe anti depression pills. This makes the symptoms worse. Resume Examples? Then the doctors send you off to American Apparel Plan, a psychiatrist to talk about your pain and suffering. Simple Marketing Template | Then the American Apparel person dies of something that is accepted by the western medical world -- heart attack, suicide, kidney failure or the now why did she do that--overdose because the Waterfall Template Free Word, Excel, Pdf Format doctors prescribed a bad combo of drugs and they became an addict. Eat large amounts of Apparel, protein.

RED MEAT makes amino acid with makes DHEA. Eat lots of dark green salads and vegetables. Eat raspberries, blueberries, blackberries and How To Write Admissions Essay, strawberries. Apparel Plan? Drink a protein shake with GOOD PROTEIN powder. Resume Example? NO SUGAR.

Add the Business fruit listed above with a couple tablespoons of Greek yogurt. Very interesting reading. Cosmetic Tattoo Salon Forms? I am pleased your son is Plan, doing so much better. On Property? Alot of Apparel Plan, medical professionals do not listen. I suspect I have been exposed to poisoning about 2 years ago again just recently. How To Write An Impressive Essay - Ninjaessays? It is deliberate. I just want to know if I get my hair checked could it show arsenic poisoning from 2 years ago? Reply rupinder jeet singh August 20, 2012 9:11 pm. hi, my brother is American Business Plan, sufring from 0.jpg?1500453349, highly arsenic poisoning. Plan? plz tell me about the recovery . Prezi Template | Preziland? Reply Judy A. Plan? Derflinger September 7, 2012 11:58 pm.

I just found your web page! Thank God there is someone out 0.jpg?1500453349 there that understands what arsenic can do. I watched the report regarding arsenic in apple seeds and kind of American Business Plan, was amused in that people want to talk about Tattoo Salon Forms it and although seem quite knowledgeable about Plan it, do not do anything to help someone who has had arsenic poisoning. What I’ve found is that even doctors don’t know that you can get arsenic poisoning from Simple Plan Template |, breathing the dust. Plan? I have to Tattoo Salon, carry a copy of my lab report in Plan my purse when I see a new doctor. I don't know if arsenic has shortened my life or not but I know that I can't take long walks anymore because it makes my lungs hurt. I've had xrays for Cosmetic Tattoo Forms the surgeries and no one has said anything about the lungs, so I just hope and pray that it will not come up later. If you research breathing arsenic you will find that now I'm suppose to get all kinds of American Business Plan, cancer, but God is in charge and I am trusting that he is taking care of Pricing, me and American Plan, that will not happen. I don't know how to Cosmetic Salon Forms, let people know that this can happen to them too. I know of people right here who have neuropathy and American Apparel Business, are not diabetic (I'm not either) but no one checks to find out the reason the feet are numb.

I've had doctors tell me that they wouldn't have thought to Waterfall Chart Template – 7+ Excel, Pdf Format, order a heavy metal test either. I have talked to attorneys ever since I found out what my problem is and no one would help me. American Apparel Business Plan? I found out World Infographics Template I had arsenic poison in Apparel Business October of 2009. They haven’t heard of World Infographics Template | Preziland, this before and don’t want to try because they said they would have to put money up front and are not willing to do that. I sure don’t have a lot of American Apparel, money either. I know I’m not the only one with this condition. The doctors just don’t order the right test. after 150 doctors opinions we have finally recieved results that my son has a toxic amount of Waterfall Template Word, Excel,, arsenic in him. He went diving for golf balls in American Business a pond on a golf course 7 years ago(at age 15).

Has gotten progressively worse had to drop out of college his Jr. year. We are in On Property the process of seeing an Apparel Plan environmental Dr. I would love to Marketing Template, know the best diet for him. We started the green drink-(now im going to add beets) Appreciate info regarding milk ice cream. Love to learn more. Thank god i found this website. I had been having all the symptoms of Business Plan, arsenic poisoning since the last 16 years. I had been running from one doctor to the other for Tattoo Salon Forms bloody diarrhea, chronic liver enlargement,loss of muscle mass, hypertension, hyperthyroidism, diabetes, hair greying, hairfall, nail ridges, skin darkening,vision blurring,arrhythmia,skin rashes etc. American Apparel Business? Nobody could explain what was going on Cosmetic Tattoo, with me.

Different specialists were taking care of American Business, me.I just happened to find out an Cosmetic Tattoo ongoing foul-play by my in-laws eyeing the joint property owned by me and my husband.I recall an American Business episode of lunch at my in-law's place 15 years ago,after which i started having flu like symptoms- fever, bloodshot eyes, severe throat pain,headache followed by bloody diarrhea and cramps. Tax Assessment? since then, whenever my in laws came to Apparel Plan, stay with us, such similar episodes kept happening over the years which i did not for Examples some reason relate on connect with anyone's ulterior motive. Now I understand the American Apparel Business Plan reason for | all my sudden plethora of illnesses. I do not know whether the testing for American Apparel Business Plan heavy metal poisoning is World Prezi Template, done in Apparel India or not.It suddenly seems like I have aged like an Pricing 80 year old in the past 16 years.My knees are cracking,muscles are wasting,hair has completely greyed . Business Plan? I am only Cosmetic Tattoo Forms, 39 years old. Apparel Plan? You mentioned that you are going to give to your son beets. Infographics Prezi Template? Be careful, because beets, rice and American, many other foods have been traced with higher than the Cosmetic Tattoo Salon Forms tolerable levels of Plan, arsenic. Healthline Media UK Ltd, Brighton, UK. 2004-2017 All rights reserved.

MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on How To Write Admissions Essay, this website is Apparel, not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional.

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Resolution on Gender and Sexual Orientation Diversity in Children and Adolescents in Apparel, Schools. Adopted by the Council of Representatives, August 2014. Amended by the Council of Representatives, February 2015. (Suggested citation is included with references.) WHEREAS people express and | Preziland, experience great diversity in sexual orientation and gender identity and American Business Plan, expression; WHEREAS communities today are undergoing rapid cultural and political change around the Cosmetic, treatment of sexual minorities and Business Plan, gender diversity; WHEREAS all persons, including those who are sexual or gender minority children and adolescents, or those who are questioning their gender identities or sexual orientations, have the right to Bartender Resume Examples - Resume Example, equal opportunity and a safe environment within all public educational institutions; Sexual Orientation and American Apparel Plan, Gender Identity. WHEREAS some children and adolescents are aware of their attraction to members of the same gender or of their status as lesbian, gay, or bisexual persons by Cosmetic Salon early adolescence (Remafedi, 1987; Savin-Williams, 1990; Slater, 1988; Troiden, 1988), although this awareness may vary by culture and acculturation (Morales, 1990; Rosario, Schrimshaw Hunter, 2004); WHEREAS sexual orientation and gender identity are separate, but related, aspects of the human experience (Bockting Gray, 2004; Chivers Bailey, 2000; Coleman, Bockting, Gooren, 1993; Docter Fleming, 2001; Docter Prince, 1997); WHEREAS some children and adolescents may experience a long period of Apparel Business Plan, questioning their sexual orientations or gender identities, experiencing stress, confusion, fluidity or complexity in their feelings and social identities (Hollander, 2000; Remafedi, Resnick, Blum, Harris, 1992);

WHEREAS there are few resources and supportive adults available and little peer support individually or within student groups for gender and sexual orientation diverse children and adolescents, particularly those residing in rural areas or small towns, (Kosciw, Greytak, Diaz, Bartkiewicz, 2010; Robinson Espelage, 2011); WHEREAS a person's gender identity develops in Template, early childhood and some young children may not identify with the American, gender assigned to them at How To Write Admissions Essay birth (Brill Pepper, 2008; Zucker, 2004); WHEREAS it may be medically and therapeutically indicated for Business some transgender and other gender diverse children and adolescents to transition from one gender to another using any of the following: change of name, pronoun, hairstyle, clothing, pubertal suppression, cross-sex hormone treatment, and surgical treatment (Coleman et al., 2011; Forcier Johnson, 2012; Olson, Forbes, Belzer, 2011); Consequences of Stigma and Minority Stress. WHEREAS minority stress is 0.jpg?1500453349 recognized as a primary mechanism through which the notable burden of stigma and discrimination affects minority persons' health and well-being and generates health disparities (Hatzenbuehler, Nolen-Hoeksema, Erickson, 2008; Meyer, 2003; Meyer, Schwartz, Frost, 2008; Mirowsky Ross, 1989); WHEREAS many gender and sexual orientation diverse children and adolescents have reported higher rates of Apparel, anxiety and depression, low self-esteem, engaging in self-injurious behaviors, suicide, substance use, homelessness, and eating disorders among other adverse outcomes (Austin et al., 2009; Corliss, Goodenow, Nichols, Austin, 2011; Gibson, 1989; Gipson, 2002; Gonsiorek, 1988; Grossman D'Augelli, 2007; Harry, 1989; Hetrick Martin, 1988; Mustanski, Garofalo, Emerson, 2010; Poteat, Aragon, Espelage, Koenig, 2009; Russell, Ryan, Toomey, Diaz, Sanchez, 2011; Ryan, Huebner, Diaz, Sanchez, 2009; Ryan, Russell, Huebner, Dias, Sanchez, 2010; Savin-Williams, 1990; Schutzmann, Brinkmann, Schacht, Richter-Appelt, 2009). WHEREAS many transgender and gender diverse children and Cosmetic Tattoo, adolescents experience elevated rates of depression, anxiety, self-harm, and other health risk behaviors (American Psychological Association, 2009; Coleman et al., 2011; McGuire, Anderson, Toomey, Russell, 2010); WHEREAS some gender and sexual orientation diverse adolescents are at an increased risk for pregnancy (Goodenow, Szalacha, Robin, Westheimer, 2008; Russell et al., 2011; Ryan et al., 2010; Saewyc, Poon, Homma, Skay, 2008; Savin-Williams, 1990;

WHEREAS, some gender and sexual orientation diverse adolescent sub-populations, including young men who have sex with men, homeless adolescents, racial/ethnic minority adolescents, transgender women of color, and adolescents enrolled in alternative schools, are at heightened risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012; Markham et al., 2003), due to complex and interacting factors related to stigma, socioeconomic class and minority stress (Hatzenbuehler, Phelan Link, 2013; Link Phelan, 1995; Meyer, 2003; Phelan, Link, Tehranifar, 2010); WHEREAS some children and adolescents with intersex/DSD 1 conditions report rates of self-harm and suicidality comparable to individuals who have experienced physical or sexual abuse (Schutzmann, et al., 2009); WHEREAS individuals with intersex/DSD conditions often report a history of silence, stigma, and shame regarding their bodies and medical procedures imposed on them (MacKenzie, Huntington, Gilmour, 2009; Wiesemann, Udo-Koeller, Sinnecker, Thyen, 2010); WHEREAS invasive medical procedures that are not medically necessary in nature (e.g., genital surgery for purposes of 'normalization') continue to be recommended to American Apparel Business Plan, parents of intersex/DSD children, often proceed without the affected individual's assent, and lack research evidence on long-term quality of life, reproductive functioning, and body satisfaction (Wiesemann et al., 2010); WHEREAS adults with intersex/DSD conditions report negative emotional, psychological and physical consequences that result from repeated and often questionable medical exams and procedures that lack research evidence to support their purported long-term reduction of distress (MacKenzie et al., 2009; Wiesemann et al., 2010); WHEREAS gender and sexual orientation diverse young people with intersecting identities face additional challenges to their psychological well-being as a result of the negative consequences of World Infographics Prezi Template | Preziland, discrimination based on sexual orientation and ethnic/racial minority status, religious identity, and country of origin, among other characteristics (Garnets Kimmel, 1991; Herek, Gillis, Cogan, 2009; Moradi et al., 2010; Poteat et al., 2009; Russell et al., 2011; Ryan et al., 2009; Szymanski Gupta, 2009); WHEREAS gender and sexual orientation diverse children and adolescents who come from impoverished or low-income families may face additional risks (Gipson, 2002; Gordon, Schroeder, Abramo, 1990; Russell et al., 2011); WHEREAS gender and sexual orientation diverse children and adolescents in rural areas and small towns experience additional challenges, such as living in Apparel, typically more conservative and less diverse communities (compared to those in urban settings) and Resume, having limited access to affirming community-based supports, which can lead to greater feelings of social isolation (Cohn Leake, 2012; O'Connell, Atlas, Saunders, Philbrick, 2010); WHEREAS gender and sexual orientation diverse children and adolescents with physical or mental disabilities are at increased risk of negative health outcomes due to the consequences of societal prejudice toward persons with mental and physical disabilities (Duke, 2011; Hingsburger Griffiths, 1986; Pendler Hingsburger, 1991); 1 Intersex refers to a range of conditions associated with atypical development of physical sex characteristics (American Psychological Association, 2006).

Intersex individuals may be born with chromosomes, genitals, and/or gonads that do not fit typical female or male presentations (Organization Intersex International in the United States of America, 2013). Since 2006, the medical and research community has used the term Disorders of Sex Development . This term refers to congenital conditions characterized by atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex (Houk, Hughes, Ahmed, Lee, Writing Committee for the International Intersex Consensus Conference Participants, 2006). An alternate term — Differences of Sex Development — has been recommended to prevent a view of these conditions as diseased or pathological (Wisemann, Udo-Koeller, Sinnecker, Thyen, 2010). In order to be inclusive of various terminology preferences, this document will use intersex/DSD when referring to American Business Plan, individuals who are part of this community. Concerns and Issues in the Context of Schools.

WHEREAS many gender and sexual orientation diverse children and adolescents experience harassment, bullying, and physical violence in school environments (Brooks, 2000; Fineran, 2002; Greytak, Kosciw, Diaz, 2009; Kosciw et al., 2010; McGuireet al., 2010; Poteat Rivers, 2010; Russell, Franz, Driscoll, 2001; Sausa, 2005); WHEREAS low numbers of school personnel intervene to stop harassment or bullying against transgender and other gender diverse students in school settings and may even participate in harassment of transgender and gender diverse students (Greytak et al., 2009; McGuire et al., 2010; Sausa, 2005); WHEREAS gender and sexual orientation diverse children and Prezi Template, adolescents who are victimized in school are at increased risk for mental health problems, suicidal ideation and attempts, substance use, high-risk sexual activity, and poor academic outcomes, such as high level of absenteeism, low grade point averages, and low interest in Apparel Business, pursuing post-secondary education (Birkett, Espelage, Koenig, 2009; Bontempo D'Augelli, 2002; D'Augelli, Pilkington, Hershberger, 2002; Kosciw et al., 2010; O'Shaughnessy, Russell, Heck, Calhoun, Laub, 2004; Russell et al., 2011); WHEREAS some studies suggest that transgender and other gender diverse students experience even poorer educational outcomes compared to lesbian, gay and bisexual students, including low achievement levels, higher likelihood of being pushed out of World Infographics Prezi | Preziland, high school prior to American Plan, graduation, low educational aspirations, and high incidences of On Property, truancy and American Plan, weapons possession (Greytak et al., 2009; Toomey, Ryan, Diaz, Card, Russell, 2010); WHEREAS recent research has identified a number of school policies, programs, and practices that may help reduce risk and/or increase well-being for On Property gender and sexual orientation diverse children and adolescents (Blake et al 2001; Eisenberg Resnick, 2006; Goodenow, Szalacha, Westheimer, 2006; Graybill, Varjas, Meyers, Watson, 2009; Heck, Flentje, Cochran 2011; Murdock Bolch, 2005; Szalacha, 2003; Toomey et al., 2010; Walls, Kane, Wisneski, 2010; Watson, Varjas, Meyers, Graybill, 2010); WHEREAS gender and sexual orientation diverse students report increased school connectedness and school safety when school personnel intervene in American Apparel Plan, the following ways: (1) addressing and stopping bullying and harassment, (2) developing administrative policies that prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression, (3) supporting the use of affirming classroom activities and Examples, the establishment of gender and sexual orientation diverse-affirming student groups, and (4) valuing education and training for students and American Business, staff on the needs of gender and sexual orientation diverse students (Case Meier, 2014; Greytak et al., 2009; Kosciw et al., 2010; McGuire et al., 2010; National Association of School Psychologists, 2011; Sausa, 2005); The Role of Mental Healthcare Professionals in Schools. WHEREAS school psychologists, school counselors, and school social workers advocate for inclusive policies, programs and practices within educational environments (NASP, 2010a; NASP 2010b; NASP, 2011), and.

WHEREAS the field of Salon Forms, psychology promotes the individual's healthy development of personal identity, which includes the sexual orientation, gender expression, and gender identity of all individuals (APA, 2002; APA, 2012; Coleman et al., 2011; NASP, 2010a; NASP, 2011); THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists affirm that same-sex sexual and romantic attractions, feelings, and behaviors are normal and positive variations of human sexuality regardless of sexual orientation identity; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists affirm that diverse gender expressions, regardless of gender identity, and diverse gender identities, beyond a binary classification, are normal and positive variations of the human experience; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists will advocate for local, state and federal policies and Business, legislation that promote safe and positive school environments free of bullying and Tattoo, harassment for all children and adolescents, including gender and American Apparel Business Plan, sexual orientation diverse children and Bartender Resume Example, adolescents and Business Plan, those who are perceived to be lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or gender diverse; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Examples, American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists recommend schools develop policies that respect the American Apparel Plan, right to privacy for students, parents, and colleagues with regard to World Infographics Template | Preziland, sexual orientation, gender identity, or transgender status, and Apparel, that clearly state that school personnel will not share information with anyone about the 0.jpg?1500453349, sexual orientation, gender identity, intersex/DSD condition, or transgender status of a student, parent, or school employee without that individual's permission; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Apparel Business Plan, American Psychological Association and Write An Impressive College Admissions - Ninjaessays, the National Association of School Psychologists recommend that school administrations and mental health providers, in the context of Apparel, schools, develop partnerships and networks to promote cross-agency collaboration to create policies that directly affect the health and wellbeing of gender and sexual orientation diverse adolescents and children;

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists encourage state educational agencies to collect data on sexual orientation, taking care to ensure student anonymity, as part of efforts to monitor and study adolescents' risk behaviors in the CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to Tax Assessment On Property, develop and Business, validate measures of gender identity for Tax Assessment inclusion in Business Plan, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, as well; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists recommend that inclusive data collection be incorporated into the Department of Education's Mandatory Civil Rights Data Collection, another important measurement of youth experiences in schools that could help inform effective interventions to better support gender and How To Admissions Essay - Ninjaessays, sexual orientation diverse children and adolescents in schools; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Plan, American Psychological Association and World Template, the National Association of Apparel Business Plan, School Psychologists support efforts to ensure the funding of basic and applied research, and scientific evaluations of On Property, interventions and programs, designed to address the issues of gender and sexual orientation diverse children and adolescents in the schools; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists recommend the continued development and evaluation of school-level interventions that promote academic success and resiliency, that reduce bullying and harassment, that reduce risk for sexually transmitted infections, that reduce risk for pregnancy among adolescents, that reduce risk for self-injurious behaviors, and that foster safe and supportive school environments for gender and sexual orientation diverse students; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists recommend that special sensitivity be given to the diversity within the population of gender and sexual orientation diverse students, with new interventions that incorporate the American Plan, concerns of sexual minorities often overlooked or underserved, and the concerns of racial/ethnic minorities and recently immigrant children and adolescents who are also gender and sexual orientation diverse students; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists support affirmative interventions with transgender and Bartender Resume Examples, gender diverse children and adolescents that encourage self-exploration and self-acceptance rather than trying to shift gender identity and Apparel, gender expression in any specific direction; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists encourage school-based mental health professionals to advocate for efforts to educate and train school professionals about the full range of sex development, gender expression, gender identity, and sexual orientation; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of Simple Plan, School Psychologists will encourage education, training, and American Apparel Business Plan, ongoing professional development about the needs and the supports for gender and sexual orientation diverse students for Bartender Example educators and trainers of school personnel, education and mental health trainees, school-based mental health professionals, administrators, and school staff, and American Apparel, such training and education should be available to students, parents, and community members; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists will encourage school-based mental health professionals to learn how strictly binary notions of sex, sex development and gender limit all children from realizing their full potential, create conditions that exacerbate bullying, and prevent many students from fully focusing on and investing in their own learning; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and Resume Example, the National Association of School Psychologists encourage school-based mental health professionals to serve as allies and advocates for gender and Business Plan, sexual orientation diverse children and adolescents in schools, including advocacy for the inclusion of gender identity, gender expression and sexual orientation in all relevant school district policies, especially anti-bullying and anti-discrimination policies;

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists encourage school staff to support the decisions of children, adolescents, and families regarding a student's gender identity or expression, including whether to On Property, seek treatments and interventions, and discourage school personnel from requiring proof of medical treatments as a prerequisite for such support; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists recommend that administrators create safer environments for Apparel Business Plan gender diverse, transgender, and intersex/DSD students, allowing all students, staff, and teachers to have access to the sex-segregated facilities, activities, and programs that are consistent with their gender identity, including, but not limited to, bathrooms, locker rooms, sports teams, and Cosmetic Tattoo Salon, classroom activities, and avoiding the use of gender segregation in school uniforms, school dances, and Business, extracurricular activities, and providing gender neutral bathroom options for individuals who would prefer to use them; and. BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists will work with other organizations in efforts to accomplish these ends. American Psychological Association National Association of School Psychologists. World Prezi | Preziland? (2015). Resolution on gender and sexual orientation diversity in children and adolescents in Apparel Business, schools . Salon Forms? Retrieved from Apparel Business Plan, American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 57, 1060-1073. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.57.12.1060. American Psychological Association. (2006). Answers to your questions about Tax Assessment, individuals with intersex conditions.

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Gender identity development and issues. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America , 13 (3), 551-568. doi:10.1016/j. American Business? chc.2004.02.006. The working group that wrote this resolution developed additional resources to support and facilitate its dissemination and implementation: 750 First St. NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242 | Contact Support. 750 First St.

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Acupuncture for mumps in children. Sichuan University, West China School of Public Health, Chengdu, Sichuan, China Search for American Apparel Business Plan, more papers by Infographics Template | Preziland, this author. Plan. Mingming Zhang, Chinese Cochrane Centre, Chinese Evidence-Based Medicine Centre, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. College Admissions. 37, Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, China. [email protected] [email protected] American Apparel Plan. West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Rehabilitation and Acupuncture Centre, Chengdu, Sichuan, China Search for On Property, more papers by this author. First published: 12 September 2012 Editorial Group: Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008400.pub2 View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 1 article Check for updates. Mumps is an acute, viral illness transmitted by respiratory droplets and saliva. A number of studies published in China have suggested that acupuncture is beneficial for Apparel Plan, children with mumps but the World Prezi | Preziland literature reporting the benefits or harms of acupuncture for mumps has not been systematically reviewed.

To determine the American Business Plan efficacy and Template | Preziland safety of acupuncture for American Plan, children with mumps. 0.jpg?1500453349. We searched CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to American Business April week 4, 2012), EMBASE (1974 to May 2012), CINAHL (1981 to Resume Examples - Resume May 2012), AMED (1985 to American Business Plan May 2012), the Chinese BioMedicine Database (CBM) (1979 to Infographics Prezi Template | Preziland May 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979 to May 2012), Chinese Technology Periodical Database (CTPD) (1989 to May 2012) and WANFANG database (1982 to Business Plan May 2012). We also handsearched a number of journals (from first issue to current issue). We included randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture with placebo acupuncture, no management, Chinese medication, Western medication or other treatments for mumps. Tax Assessment. Acupuncture included either traditional acupuncture or contemporary acupuncture, regardless of the Apparel Plan source of 0.jpg?1500453349, stimulation (body, electro, scalp, fire, hand, fine needle, moxibustion). Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies. Apparel Plan. We calculated risk ratios (RR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for Plan Template |, the effective percentage and American Business Plan standardised mean differences (SMD) with 95% CIs for the time to cure. Only one study with 239 participants met our inclusion criteria. Bartender - Resume. There were a total of 120 participants in the acupuncture group, of which 106 recovered, with their temperature returning back to American Business Plan normal and Tattoo no swelling or pain of the Business parotid gland; the condition of Marketing Template, 14 participants improved, with a drop in temperature and alleviation of swelling or pain of the parotid gland. There were 119 participants in the Western medicine group, of Apparel Business, which 56 recovered and the condition of 63 improved.

The acupuncture group had a higher recovery rate than the Tax Assessment control group. The relative RR of American Apparel Plan, recovery was 1.88 (95% CI 1.53 to Prezi | Preziland 2.30). However, the acupuncture group had a longer time to American Apparel Plan cure than the control group. The mean was 4.20 days and the standard deviation (SD) was 0.46 in How To Write An Impressive Essay the acupuncture group, while in the control group the American mean was 3.78 days and the SD was 0.46.There was a potential risk of bias in the study because of low methodological quality. Cosmetic Tattoo Salon. We could not reach any confident conclusions about the American Business efficacy and safety of Simple Marketing Plan Template, acupuncture based on one study. More high-quality research is American Business Plan, needed. L'acupuncture pour les oreillons chez l'enfant. On Property. Les oreillons sont une maladie virale aiguë transmise par des gouttelettes en suspension dans l'air et venant de la salive dans les voies respiratoires. American. Un certain nombre d'études publiées en Chine ont laissé entendre que l'acupuncture est bénéfique pour les enfants atteints des oreillons, mais la littérature rapportant les bénéfices et les dangers de l'acupuncture pour les oreillons n'a pas encore fait l'objet d'une revue systématique. 0.jpg?1500453349. Déterminer l'efficacité et l'innocuité de l'acupuncture pour les enfants atteints des oreillons. Stratégie de recherche documentaire.

Nous avons effectué une recherche dans CENTRAL (2012, numéro 4), MEDLINE (1950 à la 4ème semaine d'avril 2012), EMBASE (de 1974 à mai 2012), CINAHL (de 1981 à mai 2012), AMED (de 1985 à mai 2012), la Chinese BioMedicine Database (CBM) (de 1979 à mai 2012), la China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (de 1979 à mai 2012), la Chinese Technology Periodical Database (CTPD) (de 1989 à mai 2012) et la base de données WANFANG (de 1982 à mai 2012). Nous avons également cherché manuellement dans un certain nombre de journaux (du premier numéro jusqu'au plus récent). American. Nous avons inclus des essais contrôlés randomisés ayant comparé l'acupuncture à l'acupuncture placebo, à la non prise en charge, à la pharmacopée chinoise, à la pharmacopée occidentale ou à d'autres traitements pour les oreillons. Cette acupuncture incluait tant l'acupuncture traditionnelle que l'acupuncture contemporaine, quelle que soit la source de stimulation (corps, électro, cuir chevelu, feu, main, aiguille fine, moxibustion). Tax Assessment On Property. Deux auteurs ont extrait les données et évalué la qualité des études incluses, de façon indépendante. Nous avons calculé les risques relatifs (RR) avec leurs intervalles de confiance (IC) à 95 % pour le taux effectif, et les différences moyennes standardisées (DMS) avec IC à 95 % pour le temps de guérison. American Plan. Une seule étude avec 239 participants répondait à nos critères d'inclusion. Marketing Template. Il y avait un total de 120 participants dans le groupe d'acupuncture, dont 106 avaient guéri, leur température étant revenue à la normale, le gonflement et la douleur ayant disparu de leur glande parotide ; l'état de 14 participants s'était amélioré, avec une baisse de la température et une réduction du gonflement ou de la douleur de la glande parotide.

Le groupe de médecine occidentale se composait de 119 participants : 56 avaient guéri et l'état de 63 s'était amélioré. American Plan. Le groupe d'acupuncture avait eu un taux de guérison plus élevé que le groupe témoin. Le RR de guérison était de 1,88 (IC à 95 % 1,53 à 2,30). Le groupe d'acupuncture avait cependant eu un temps de guérison plus élevé que le groupe témoin. La moyenne était de 4,20 jours et l'écart type (ET) était de 0,46 dans le groupe acupuncture, tandis que dans le groupe témoin la moyenne était de 3,78 jours et l'ET était de 0,46. Il y avait un risque potentiel de biais dans l'étude en raison de la médiocre qualité méthodologique.

Nous n'avons pas pu parvenir à des conclusions fiables quant à l'efficacité et à l'innocuité de l'acupuncture sur la base d'une étude. D'autres recherches de meilleure qualité devront être réalisées. Acupuncture for Cosmetic Tattoo Forms, mumps in children. Acupuncture has been used to treat children with mumps for American Business, hundreds of - Ninjaessays, years in China. American. Benefits attributed to Tax Assessment acupuncture include decreased swelling and Plan pain, and shortening of the disease duration. According to traditional Chinese medicine, health is achieved by maintaining an uninterrupted flow of Qi, or energy, along 14 meridians.

Mumps is caused by 'wind warmth evil' (epidemic heat) and 0.jpg?1500453349 'pyretic toxicity' accumulated in American Business Shaoyang and Yangming meridians, thus the Prezi Template | Preziland flow of Qi, sputum and American Plan 'heat evil' stagnate in and around the ears and Cosmetic the cheeks. Apparel Business. Acupuncture can help expel 'wind warmth evil', clear pathogenic heat, remove toxic substances, act as an anti-inflammatory, alleviate pain and re-establish the normal flow of Qi, thus restoring internal balance. Although acupuncture has been widely used in China for Cosmetic, children with mumps and quite a number of trials claiming to be randomised controlled trials have been published, we identified only one study with 239 participants that met our inclusion criteria. American Apparel Plan. The study results suggest that acupuncture may be beneficial in improving swelling and pain of the parotid gland and returning the body temperature to Tattoo Salon normal. However, the included study is Apparel, of low methodological quality and did not report adverse effects and long-term follow-up.

Therefore, we could not draw any definite conclusions about the Bartender - Resume Example efficacy and Apparel Plan safety of Salon Forms, acupuncture for Business Plan, children with mumps. L'acupuncture pour les oreillons chez l'enfant. Tax Assessment. L'acupuncture est utilisée en Chine depuis des centaines d'années pour traiter les enfants atteints des oreillons. Les bénéfices attribués à l'acupuncture comprennent notamment la diminution des gonflements et de la douleur, et le raccourcissement de la maladie. Selon la médecine traditionnelle chinoise, la santé est assurée par le maintien d'un flux ininterrompu de Qi, ou énergie, le long de 14 méridiens. Les oreillons sont causés par un mauvais vent chaud (une chaleur épidémique) et une toxicité pyrétique accumulée dans les méridiens Shaoyang et Yangming, de telle sorte que la circulation du Qi, des sécrétions et de la mauvaise chaleur stagne dans et autour des oreilles et des joues. L'acupuncture peut aider à expulser le mauvais vent chaud , éliminer la chaleur pathogène, éliminer les substances toxiques, agir comme un anti-inflammatoire, alléger la douleur et rétablir l'écoulement normal du Qi, restaurant ainsi l'équilibre interne.

Bien que l'acupuncture soit couramment utilisée en Chine pour les enfants atteints des oreillons et que de nombreux essais prétendant être des essais contrôlés randomisés ont été publiés, nous n'avons identifié qu'une seule étude impliquant 239 participants qui remplisse nos critères d'inclusion. American Business. Les résultats de l'étude suggèrent que l'acupuncture pourrait permettre d'améliorer le gonflement et la douleur de la glande parotide et de ramener la température du corps à la normale. Cependant, l'étude incluse est de faible qualité méthodologique et n'avait pas rendu compte des effets indésirables ni d'un suivi à long terme. Nous n'avons par conséquent pas pu tirer de conclusions définitives sur l'efficacité et l'innocuité de l'acupuncture pour les enfants ayant les oreillons. Notes de traduction.

Traduit par: French Cochrane Centre 18th January, 2014. Marketing Plan Template. Traduction financée par: Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé Français. American Business. Copyright 2014 The Cochrane Collaboration. Tattoo Salon Forms. Published by American Apparel Business, John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Marketing Plan. Article first published online: 12 September 2012. Jing He, Pengli Jia, Min Zheng, Mingming Zhang, Hua Jiang. Business Plan. Article first published online: 2 Feb 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008400.pub3. Jing He, Min Zheng, Mingming Zhang, Hua Jiang.

Article first published online: 12 Sep 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008400.pub2. Jing He, Min Zheng, Mingming Zhang, Hua Jiang. Article first published online: 17 Mar 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008400. Cosmetic Tattoo. 1 Jing He , Pengli Jia , Min Zheng , Mingming Zhang , Hua Jiang , Mingming Zhang , Cochrane Database of Plan, Systematic Reviews, 2015 Wiley Online Library. Copyright 1999 - 2017 John Wiley Sons, Inc.

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Free Information Technology essays. Internet telephony or Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a product that is American Plan quickly changing the telecom industry and how people communicate. With the rise of VoIP services means nothing less than the death of the traditional telephone business. Marketing Plan Template | VoIP is an emerging technology that utilizes the Internet infrastructure to make phone calls as opposed to American, the traditional public switched telephone network (PSTN) that has been in place for more than a century. With VoIP there is the ability to make free phone calls over the high-speed Internet connection which undermines the existing price model for telephony. Since VoIP functions like a traditional telephone system but travels through a broadband Internet connection, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has questioned how to classify VoIP. Write An Impressive - Ninjaessays? Should it be classified as an information service or a telecommunication service? If VoIP is classified as an information service then it would generally be free from FCC regulation under the Telecommunications Act of 1996.

On the other hand if VoIP is classified as a telecommunication service then it would be subject to Apparel, a comprehensive regulatory regime and common carrier obligations. Cosmetic Tattoo Forms? As we know with any new technology, there will be legal and regulatory impact. VoIP will challenge the current regulatory framework and rules. Facing this new technology, the United States must determine what regulatory framework should apply to the regulation and administration of VoIP. In the United States telecommunications is American Apparel Plan highly regulated industry but currently the Internet remains largely unregulated.

This research paper has four main objectives. Part one will discuss the regulatory issue and the classification of VoIP as either a ‘telecommunications service’ or an ‘information service.’ Part two will address how the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) classifies VoIP services. Part three will address the benefits and risks of VoIP service to businesses. Part four will discuss the growing issue of network neutrality and its necessity. The last section of my paper will be the conclusion that addresses the open debate on whether VoIP services should be regulated. PART I: REGULATION ISSUES. This section of How To Write An Impressive College - Ninjaessays my research paper will discuss the American, regulation issues between Public Switched Telephone Network (PTSN) and VoIP. Cosmetic Salon? Let’s get started by talking about some of the public safety issues that concern state regulators. The first public safety issue is around access to emergency services such as 911. What is important to American Business Plan, note here is that the technology consumer’s use should not matter. Prezi Template | Preziland? But what does matters is American Business Plan that consumers have access to emergency services.

When using a traditional PSTN line, people in trouble dial 911 on their phone and the police department can quickly determine their location. However, when using VoIP service a user can make a call from anywhere around the world but the call will originate from the user’s home phone number. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) requires that providers of ‘interconnected’ VoIP services that use the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) meet Enhanced 911 (E911) obligations. The FCC imposed many requirements. Write An Impressive Admissions - Ninjaessays? The first requirement is that all interconnected VoIP providers must provide 911 services as a standard. The second requirement is that the VoIP provider must obtain from the American Plan, customers the location at which the 0.jpg?1500453349, service will be used. American Apparel Plan? The third requirement is Write An Impressive College Admissions - Ninjaessays that interconnected VoIP providers must be able to Apparel Business, transmit all 911 calls.

The fourth requirement is for interconnected VoIP providers to clearly articulate to Bartender - Resume Example, their customers the possible limitations of their 911 service and American Apparel receive acknowledgement from them. The last requirement involves the Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP). PSAP will be used when emergency service providers are not capable of receiving or processing the Tattoo Salon Forms, location information of the call received. However, there are still differences between VoIP E911 and traditional telephone 911 service in that they work differently. The second public safety issue relates to wiretapping access for law enforcement. The telephone system plays a critical role in law enforcement. FBI officials can easily tap into PSTN circuits but have difficulty with intercepting circuits used in Business Plan VoIP. FBI supports its beliefs that VoIP service providers must allow wiretapping under the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA). According to the FCC website, ‘CALEA requires a “telecommunications carrier,” as defined by 0.jpg?1500453349, the Act, to ensure that equipment, facilities, or services that allow a customer or subscriber to “originate, terminate, or direct communications,” enable law enforcement officials to American Apparel Business Plan, conduct electronic surveillance pursuant to Simple Marketing Plan |, court order or other lawful authorization. CALEA was intended to preserve the ability of law enforcement agencies to conduct electronic surveillance by requiring that telecommunications carriers and manufacturers of telecommunications equipment modify and design their equipment, facilities, and American Plan services to ensure that they have the necessary surveillance capabilities as communications network technologies evolve.’ FCC Encyclopedia Print Email. (n.d.).

Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act. Retrieved February 15, 2014, from Currently only PSTN service providers and wireless phone services have been subject to this legislation. The issue is Tax Assessment VoIP is not defined as a telecommunications carrier and if it was it would then be subject to CALEA. VoIP is an Internet based application and Business is classified as Title I ‘Information Services’ which are lightly regulated. Tax Assessment On Property? The Commission has deregulated information services which mean the states cannot regulate them. VoIP may mimic traditional telephone service in functionality but it does transmit over the Internet rather than the public switched telephone network. American Apparel? This is where the Bartender Resume Examples - Resume, issue comes into Apparel Business play, can states regulate Title II service carried over Title I network? The Commission has provided very little guidance regarding this question. Now let’s move on to talk about the tax dilemma.

Should VoIP be taxed in the same way as traditional telephone? The traditional phone service carries a lot of 0.jpg?1500453349 different taxes such as state, federal and local taxes. American Apparel Business Plan? Depending on Cosmetic Forms, where you live, some areas charge a county tax. Should these same taxes apply to VoIP? Regulators argue that VoIP is a telecommunication service no different than a phone service and therefore should pay the same taxes and fees. Others argue that VoIP is a data service, not a phone service; therefore, it shouldn’t be regulated or taxed like the traditional public telephone networks. On the other hand States do have a distinct interest in taxing telecommunications services because they rely on these taxes to fund universal services such as 911 services. Currently there are some taxes included on company’s VoIP bill but it is far less than a traditional landline. VoIP providers are under pressure to contain these costs to remain competitive.

I believe that hands off approach to VoIP should be considered to allow the American Apparel Business, technology to mature to encourage our economy to be competitive and to wait and see what direction it will take to encourage more investment and uptake. World Infographics Prezi Template? If you take the American, advances of the technology you may inhibit its adoption. VoIP services should dodge these fees because communications occur mostly over the Internet rather than PSTN line when you make a VoIP call. Simply put, VoIP is classified as an 0.jpg?1500453349 information service and not telecom carriers. PART II: HOW DOES THE FCC CLASSIFY VoIP SERVICES. This is a Federal Regulation issue and regulators are trying to determine and/or define what VoIP is and where it falls in the context of existing framework. The FCC will need to American Apparel Business, decide whether to classify VoIP as an information service or as a telecommunications service. Simple Plan? According to Apparel, US law, an Tattoo Salon information service is Business Plan generally free from regulation while a telecommunications service may be subject to old line common carrier requirements. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 sets forth the differences in definition and Simple Template regulation of these services. Per page 991 of our textbook, ‘The definitions of the terms ‘telecommunications service’ and ‘information service’ established by the 1996 Act are similar to the Computer II basic- and enhanced-service classifications. ‘Telecommunications service”the analog to basic service’is ‘the offering of telecommunications for a fee directly to the public’regardless of the facilities used.’ 47 U.S.C. American Apparel? ??153(46). Simple Plan? ‘Telecommunications’ is ‘the transmission, between or among points specified by the user, of information of the user’s choosing, without change in the form or content of the information as sent and Plan received.’ ??153(43). ‘Telecommunications carrier[s]”those subjected to mandatory Title II common-carrier regulation’are defined as ‘providers] of 0.jpg?1500453349 telecommunications services.’ ??153(44).

And ‘information service”the analog to enhanced service’is ‘the offering of a capability for American Apparel Business generating, acquiring, storing, transforming, processing, retrieving, utilizing, or making available information via telecommunications.’ Benjamin, S. M., Lichtman, D. Simple Plan Template? G., Shelanski, H., Weiser, P. J. (2006). Telecommunications Law and Policy, Second Edition. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press. If the FCC chooses to define VoIP under Title One of the Telecommunications Act, it would make VoIP essentially regulation-free, much like other Internet content. But if the American, FCC chooses the latter and defines VoIP under Title Two, the government will regulate VoIP under the Write Admissions Essay, myriad of regulations that has been developed for the telephone industry.

The application of Apparel Business this classification to different types of VOIP services is 0.jpg?1500453349 based on two FCC rulings in Business Plan 2004. In FCC Vonage Order 11-2004 the district court examined the recent history of regulations governing the telecommunications industry. The court found in its 1980 Computer II decision, the FCC had recognized the growing challenges posed by Bartender, the interaction between computers and American Business telecommunications technology. ‘The premier legacy of 0.jpg?1500453349 Computer II is the American Plan, establishment of the basic versus enhanced dichotomy. This layered approach to regulation becomes the 0.jpg?1500453349, bedrock of the computer inquiries success, and distinguishes it from other international schemes. It established a bright-line test and amplified the separation of the communications facility from the enhancement.’ Cybertelecom: Computer II. (n.d.). Cybertelecom: Computer II. Retrieved February 14, 2014, from At that time, the FCC distinguished between ‘basic services’ like telephone service and ‘enhanced services’ like computer-processing service offered over telephone lines noting that ‘basic services’ would continue to be regulated by Title Two while ‘enhanced services’ would go unregulated. The FCC further stated that the absence of regulation of ‘enhanced services’ offers the Apparel Plan, greatest potential for efficient utilization and full exploitation of the 0.jpg?1500453349, interstate telecommunications network. Vonage’s VoIP service offers an American Business Plan enhanced service not a telecommunications service under the Commission’s rules.

The FCC and the United States District Court of Minnesota recognized that Vonage’s VoIP service is an information service and cannot be regulated by the states. Based on this federal policy, current federal regulators continue to keep VoIP free from regulation. The FCC concluded in Marketing Plan Template | February 2004 that’s Free World Dialup , a service that facilitated voice communication between computer users over the Internet, was an unregulated information service, in part because the company did not provide transmission and did not charge for its services. American? The FCC explained that traditional telephone rules do not necessarily apply to all voice services and that state-by-state regulation of a wholly Internet-based service is Admissions Essay - Ninjaessays inconsistent with the controlling federal role over interstate commerce required by American Apparel, the Constitution. The FCC’s decision in this case was that Pulver’s computer-to-computer services were ‘Information Services’ instead of ‘Telecommunications’. Pulver’s services were under the Tax Assessment, deregulatory framework of Title I of the Communications Act instead of the highly regulated common carrier telephone regime of Title II of the American Business, Act. Title II captures all the traditional, land-line monopoly telephone services. Pulver’s service did not involve PSTN to warrant common carrier telephone regulation.

PART III: THE BENEFITS AND RISKS TO SOCIETY. Many businesses are cancelling their traditional land lines in favor of the Plan, new technology VoIP due to American Plan, the reaping benefits of cost savings, data integration, productivity, efficiency and 0.jpg?1500453349 system portability. While VoIP services can be less expensive than standard telephone network services, call quality can be a factor in one’s decision to switch to VoIP. However, with constant innovation and updates to American Apparel Plan, VoIP will make its service comparable to 0.jpg?1500453349, the traditional phone system. Although VoIP may offer some good benefits, businesses need to be aware and understand the risks as well. With any new technology, it’s important to understand the legal and regulatory impact. As VoIP continues to Apparel Plan, grow there is a risk of government regulation.

Certain governments are keen on protecting the position of legacy telecoms incumbents. There is no common regulatory standard. The regulatory burden is considered high as each country needs to be considered separately. Businesses may need to obtain telecom license from the local regulator and be required to provide emergency call access number portability between traditional public switched telephone networks (“PSTN”) and VoIP services, and net neutrality. If there is An Impressive College Admissions - Ninjaessays federal regulation this would create more competitive interconnections and will reshape how VoIP is managed. The FCC would enter into Apparel Business the Internet circuit as an official regulator. Bartender Resume Examples - Resume? It’s all about striking the Apparel Business, right balance between regulation for consumer protection and freedom for service providers. I do not think regulating VoIP would protect consumers nor would it provide them with a level playing field because new technologies do not develop on a level playing field. Although I do not object to regulation per Example, se, but do not believe it should be done by the states alone. Apparel Business? Having state by state regulations make for a messy market, there is the issue of different rules being imposed.

The risk is using the mindset of the old telecom world on a new and very different kind of technology.’ PART IV: NETWORK NEUTRALITY. Network neutrality is a growing issue. The basic principle behind network neutrality is that the Internet should remain free of How To Write College any discrimination or barriers among classes of users or of information stored and transmitted on the Internet. This implies no matter whom or where the user is the connection, quality, and the prices will remain equal. Plan? Many large corporate interests, especially software and applications providers, from Yahoo! and Amazon to eBay and Microsoft have been urging the FCC, Congress and even state legislatures to 0.jpg?1500453349, adopt laws that codify network neutrality on Business Plan, the Internet.

So why would Internet Service Providers (ISP) like VoIP want to change it? These and other companies want to change the terms of 0.jpg?1500453349 network neutrality to increase large corporate profits and possibly push out Apparel Business Plan, smaller competitors. On Property? ISP view is that running a network is expensive and that you should be charged by the amount of data you use in Business Plan the same way that your electrical company charges you. The Internet has always been neutral so why would the government bureaucracy think they can manage the Internet. If the Internet were regulated by government bureaucracy it would be far less advanced and Simple Plan not as useful as it is today. American Apparel Business? FCC wants to know how much power they have to regulate ISPs since they regulate the traditional telephone companies.

The FCC would not be able to use the same tools as they use to regulate ISPs. Marketing Template | FCC tried to regulate ISPs and the court found that the FCC was trying to American Apparel, apply Title II obligations to companies that are regulated under Title I of the Telecommunications Act which is the law that created the FCC and gives it its power. Bartender Resume Examples - Resume? The court did agree with FCC idea of American Apparel Business network neutrality but did not like the way the FCC handled it. Tattoo Salon Forms? At this point, the FCC has the option to appeal. They can ask for a rehearing or redefine what an ISP is so that they VoIP would fall into class Title II.

This process is known as reclassification. The basic questions that have been faced by regulators all over the world are about the necessity and the scope of American Business VoIP regulation. Infographics Prezi Template? The open question remains whether VoIP services should be regulated? Should a light-regulated approach on American Plan, VoIP services be employed focusing on public interest and consumers benefits? It is How To College Essay - Ninjaessays my belief that the Commission should end this battle once and for all. Following are the basic principles that regulators should consider to become the national’s regulatory framework adequate to the VoIP reality. First principle, I think VoIP should be classified as a Title I Information Service. Apparel Business Plan? I do not find it favorable to subject two services that consumers view as substitutes to two different regulatory regimes. 0.jpg?1500453349? This doesn’t make much sense to me. Second principle, the Internet Protocol nature of Business VoIP technology means it functions like an World information service opposed to a telecommunications service.

Third principle, the regulatory burdens of Title II carry government control in lieu of oversight, mandates, and Business compliance. Title II of the Communications Act is highly regulated. Tattoo Salon Forms? A common carrier subject to Title II regulation maybe subject to price regulation and they must interconnect with other carriers at FCC determined rates. The common carrier must also contribute to the universal service fund and be in compliance with public safety obligations. Apparel? Fourth principle, regulators should remove legal and regulatory barriers to the development of VoIP (deregulation). Fifth principle consists of no price regulation; VoIP providers should be free to set their own prices. Sixth principle, the whole telecom players should finance universal service ‘ including VoIP service providers. Seventh principle, it is my opinion that state regulation of intrastate telephone service is a thing of the past. This made sense during an era when customers distinguished between local and long-distance service and when state services were dominated by local monopolies which required regulatory oversight. Examples - Resume? If states are permitted to regulate new emerging services like they did the old telephone monopoly it would hinder the growth of this new technology, create barriers to entry, and it would delay the benefits of competition in voice service. In summary, I feel they should postpone regulating the Internet.

Since the Internet is worldwide every government would need to agree on some type of regulation and that would be difficult to do and I don’t envision that happening. It is impossible to get several countries to agree on anything. Lastly, I would like to make a comment on the article ‘Who Killed the Apparel Plan, VoIP Revolution’. In my opinion, the VoIP to PSTN is Tax Assessment not dead, it’s alive and kicking, and American Plan still being defined. People need phone services but they do not want to pay Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) prices.

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