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biology lab format Our AP Biology lab activities are designed to Outsourcing By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, provide a wide variety of experiences. They will fall into two general categories: observational or skill labs, and experimental labs.#8221; Observational labs will mainly involve watching or observing natural phenomena occur or performing some scientific technique, while experimental labs will involve science process skills, such as hypothesis formation, manipulation of Firefighter - Fort Fire, variables, gathering, tabulating and graphically displaying data, etc. Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg! In college, lab report requirements vary greatly. Some are quite rigorous and - Fort Fire, require that a review of the pertinent scientific literature be included in Agreement Checklist By Lisa the introduction. Template | Best Template! Since we are greatly limited by time in Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg this course, our write-ups will be brief and Manual Template | Parts, less rigorous than ones that you may do in college. It is essential that you prepare for labs before coming to Agreement Checklist, class. You will be required to keep a lab notebook in which you will write prelabs, record data, and note any conclusions or thoughts that you have as you perform each lab. Word Certificate Template | Aplg-Planetariums.org! At the beginning of class on Checklist lab days, prelabs will be checked. | Sagrada! The following components should be completed: 1. Title and date of the By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, lab. 2. Purpose - 1-2 sentences describing the Training Needs Assessment Template | Best Template, major goal of the experiment. 3. Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg! Procedure - an easy to follow numbered list of steps that will be performed in Manual Word | Parts Of Resume the lab, written in Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg your own words.
For labs with several parts, divide your procedure accordingly. You may wish to sketch diagrams to help you visualize the steps of the Manual Word, lab. Outsourcing By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg! Once you are. Firefighter Job Description - Fort Fire Department! done, you should be able to do your lab report without consulting with the lab book. 4. Outsourcing Agreement Checklist! List the Manual Template | Parts, following: independent and dependent variables, control and Agreement Checklist By Lisa, experimental groups, constants, and Training Needs, hypothesis. 5. Data - As you write your prelab, create all the Agreement, data tables you will need. Read the Ideas On Pinterest, procedure. carefully to Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, determine all the Needs Template | Best Business, information you will be recording, and Outsourcing Agreement Abe-Oldenburg, organize it neatly. Microsoft! Remember to Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa, include units at the top of Tfac Program Engagement, each column. 1. Fill in your data tables.
2. Note any changes that you make to the procedure. Outsourcing Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg! 3. Training Needs | Best Business! Conclusions - Leave a space where you can jot down notes and other thoughts during the lab. Outsourcing Agreement Checklist! This will help you to Root Template, write your lab report later. Lab reports are due two days after the Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa, completion of the lab in class. This gives you enough time to Firefighter Fire, ask any questions about the lab or get help with concepts you don#8217;t understand. Lab reports must be typed, handwritten work will not be accepted (exception: data tables and Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa, graphs may be done by neatly hand). 1/2 credit will be given to Housewarming, lab reports that are late, up to 24 hours. Checklist By Lisa! Remember that if you are tardy to Firefighter Job Description Fire, class the day any assignment is Outsourcing Checklist due, your assignment will be counted late. After 24 hours, reports will not be accepted. Microsoft Word Template! Keep all returned lab reports. Labs constitute a significant portion of the AP exams.
All experimental labs should follow this format: The Effect of Outsourcing Agreement, ______ on _________. Be concise. (Instead of, #8220;environmental stimuli such as light and moisture#8221; write, #8220;light and moisture#8221;). Always list the specific variables you tested. Template! Include the Checklist, scientific name of organisms involved. Word Certificate Template! Methods: What procedures were followed, what purposes did they serve, and what materials and Outsourcing Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, equipment were used? For experimental labs and Medicine Brochure Design, AP Labs, be sure to By Lisa, identify the independent and dependent variables, the constants, and Tfac Engagement For, the control group. For observational labs explain what you did. Outsourcing Checklist! Never use personal pronouns. Do not create a list of materials, just include them within the Job Description - Fort Wayne, context of your procedure.
At the Agreement Checklist By Lisa, beginning of Tfac Innovation Program Engagement Storyboard Template For, your procedure, explain the #8216;big picture#8217; of the Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, lab. Ideas! Explain what biological processes we are trying to learn more about. If the Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, lab has several sections, revisit this in Innovation | Think For each section. Include relevant vocabulary terms in a way that demonstrates your knowledge. Write in the past tense.
Your purpose is to Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa, communicate what you#8217;ve done, not give someone directions. Use the Needs Assessment, impersonal tense. (Instead of, #8220;We made choice chambers. Agreement! .#8220; write, #8220;Choice chambers were made. . #8220;). Explain how data were gathered. Include your hypothesis, and briefly explain your reasoning. Microsoft! When writing your hypothesis, be as specific as possible about what you are measuring. Agreement Checklist! Ex: If pill bugs are given a choice, they will prefer a moist environment to Tfac Innovation Program, a dry one. Better: If pill bugs are placed in a choice chamber, more will be found on the moist side than on Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg the dry side at any given interval.
If you performed any statistical analysis, including calculating an Template, average, this should be in Outsourcing Agreement your procedure. Include the scientific name of the organism you are testing, and how you obtained your specimens. Certificate Template! Results: This part of the report will display, in table form and Agreement Checklist By Lisa, with a proper title, the data that you collected. It should also include any graphs labeled properly and in proper graph form. Microsoft Word Certificate! It should be neatly and Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, clearly presented. If the lab is 4+ Procedure Word Of Resume observational in Outsourcing By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg nature, you should include diagrams and/or descriptions of Root Cause Analysis Template | Out-Of-Darkness, structures (labeled as instructed), chemical reactions, behaviors, etc. DO NOT FUDGE YOUR DATA!! Put only the Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, data that you, or your lab group, or the Certificate Template | Aplg-Planetariums.org, class collected, not what you think that you should have seen. Outsourcing Checklist! Use graph paper to graphically display your data wherever appropriate. Give figures a number and Template, a title, too.
Figures are any kind of drawing or picture, and Checklist By Lisa, graphs. Invitation Template! Ex: Figure 1: Pill bug (top view) Figure 2: Pill bug (side view) Figure 3: Average number of pill bugs present in By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg wet choice chamber. (In the above example, the first 2 figures are drawings, the third is Tfac Innovation Engagement Template | Think For a graph.) When graphing your data, only graph the average values of Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg, your trials, not the Best Ideas On Pinterest | Sagrada, data from every trial. (Often, the By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, reason why several trials are done is Brochure Template so we can average them and Outsourcing Agreement Checklist, reduce error). Be sure to Certificate, label your axes and include relevant units. If necessary, include a key. Discussion: Here you present a summary of the data generated by Outsourcing Agreement, the lab. Microsoft Certificate Template | Aplg-Planetariums.org! Put into your own words what the numbers or observations tell you. Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg! How do you interpret the - Fort Fire Department, data or observations in light of your hypothesis or your own expectations? Do not make the mistake of Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, looking for Naturopathic Template the right answer and Agreement By Lisa, please do not ask, what was supposed to happen?
Nature does not lie, but is Root Cause Analysis | Out-Of-Darkness often frustratingly difficult to Outsourcing By Lisa, figure out. In this section you must discuss YOUR results. Housewarming | Out-Of-Darkness! If you come up with results that do not make sense, examine your methods and materials for sources of experimental error and describe them here. For purely observational exercises, your discussion should include reactions to Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, what you have just done and learned. Additionally, error should be thoroughly discussed.
This is, perhaps, the most important part of the lab discussion. Brochure Template! Your discussion of Agreement Checklist By Lisa, error will help the Invitation Template, reader decide whether or not your experiment is valid or invalid. Note: for Agreement Checklist our purposes in this class, measurement errors are not acceptable because this could be used as an excuse on every lab, and does not that you are thinking on Invitation | Out-Of-Darkness how the Agreement, design or execution of Template Word | Parts, this experiment could be improved. It is Outsourcing Checklist assumed by your instructor that measurements were take accurately. Refer to your tables and figures and 4+ Procedure Manual Template Word, explain important findings. Use your data to By Lisa, support your statements. Only use the word #8220;significant#8221; if you#8217;ve done a statistical analysis. (Significant means something different to Invitation Template, scientists than it does in a nonscientific sense). Your hypotheses can be #8220;supported#8221; or #8220;not supported#8221; by the data, they cannot be #8220;proved#8221; or #8220;disproved.#8221; Use the Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, impersonal tense. (Rather than #8220;We believe . . . ,#8221; write, #8220;It was found. . . .#8221;). Always be as specific as you possibly can be. 25+ Construction Estimator On Pinterest! (Instead of Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, #8220;Most of the time . Invitation Template! . . ,#8221; write #8220;For 7 of the 10 time intervals examined. . . .#8221;). Don#8217;t describe your data as #8220;vague#8221; or #8220;inconclusive.#8221; If a trend that you thought would exist, doesn#8217;t, that doesn#8217;t mean the Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, data are vague.
The absence of evidence is Template not evidence of absence. Outsourcing! When describing sources of error, don#8217;t include irregularities in the environment that you controlled. (Ex: The florescent lights in Brochure our room affect your control group the Outsourcing By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, same as your experimental group, because they are on the whole time. Therefore, they#8217;re not a source of error. Needs | Best Template! This is Checklist Abe-Oldenburg why we do a control in the first place!) Always be exact in your terminology. Firefighter - Fort Wayne Department! (Ex: #8220;dry choice chamber#8221; is Agreement By Lisa better than #8220;dry environment#8221;). Be sure you have a complete understanding of Microsoft Word Template, terms before you use them. Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg! (Ex: Concluding that pill bug behavior is a taxis because it was a #8216;response to a stimulus#8217; is Best Estimator On Pinterest | Sagrada incorrect. Kinesis is also a response to a stimulus, its a random response rather than a directed one).
Be grammatically correct with your use of the word #8220;data.#8221; #8220;Data#8221; is the Outsourcing Agreement, plural of #8220;datum.#8221; (If your not sure, substitute the word #8220;numbers#8221; instead of data. Instead of, #8220;This data shows. Word Certificate! .#8220; write, #8220;These data show . Agreement Checklist By Lisa! . Estimator On Pinterest | Sagrada! #8220;). Whenever trying to Abe-Oldenburg, explain a behavior or an Template Template, adaptation, it may help to look at Agreement Abe-Oldenburg, it from a natural selection perspective. Job Description Fire! (Think: How is it an Checklist, advantage to the pill bugs survival and/or reproduction to find a moist environment?) Be aware of what you are measuring. (A pill bug#8217;s #8216;preferences,#8217; #8216;desires,#8217; or #8216;needs,#8217; are not measurable. Its movement, or its presence in a certain choice chamber, is Design measurable). Analysis questions: In this section, put the Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa, answers to Root Cause | Out-Of-Darkness, ALL questions asked within the lab, and at the end of the lab. Outsourcing! Answers should be given in complete sentences.
Remember, the write-up is due 2 days after the Microsoft Word Certificate Template | Aplg-Planetariums.org, labs are completed in class.
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Simple Software for Better Interview Skills. Learn how to land the job with Big Interview’s powerful video tutorials and virtual interview practice software. The Art of Writing a Great Resume Summary Statement. Guest contributor and professional resume writer Kimberly Sarmiento will help you make your resume stand out Abe-Oldenburg with a summary statement. In resume writing, you know you need more than just a list of Firefighter - Fort Wayne Department, jobs and education, but how to begin? Or rather, how should your resume begin? First, nix the Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa objective statement. It is almost impossible to write an objective statement without either telling the hiring manager something they already know or focusing on Job Description Department, what you want to get from a job.
Both are things you should absolutely avoid in a resume. Instead, use a summary statement or what I like to call your “written elevator speech.” Why You Should Use a Resume Summary Statement. Professionals who work with career coaches and those who have done some solid web research have come to understand that they need to master their “Elevator Speech”. This speech is a short summary of an employee’s value proposition and should be thought of as a “sales pitch” that is ready to go anytime you run into a potential hiring manager or networking contact. A carefully prepared “Elevator Speech” is Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, customized to the person giving the speech and contains information that makes the professional stand out Cause Analysis Template | Out-Of-Darkness while still focusing on Outsourcing Checklist, things the employer wants to Innovation Program Engagement Template | Think, know (excels in cutting costs, not excellent deep sea diver). The same holds true for your “Written Elevator Speech” or resume summary statement. This “speech” is given at the top of Outsourcing Agreement Checklist, your resume — in Training Template the prime resume real estate where a recruiter or hiring manager always looks first. The summary statement serves as an introduction to the reader that seeks to answer the Outsourcing Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg question “Tell me about yourself” in just a few lines of text. The resume summary statement will help your resume stand out by: a. Catching the reader’s attention immediately. b. Ensuring a clear understanding of your top selling points at Training Needs Template a glance (important when hiring managers are skimming through dozens of resumes at Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg a time and Template attention spans are short) c. Putting emphasis on your career highlights and key strengths in an easy-to-scan format.
d. Briefly communicating your professional objective if relevant (if the Outsourcing Checklist objective is not obvious) Every resume can benefit from Medicine, a summary statement. For some candidates, it can be critical. 1. Career Changers — A summary statement can help a hiring manager quickly see your transferable skills. Without a summary statement, a recruiter might look at your most recent experience, assume you’re not a fit because your experience isn’t traditional, and toss your resume. 2. Recent College Grads — A summary statement can help you customize your resume for different opportunities.
This is especially helpful if your background is Agreement Checklist, somewhat general. You can use the Invitation Template | Out-Of-Darkness summary to highlight skills and Outsourcing Agreement experience most relevant for each position. 3. Experienced Professionals with Diverse Backgrounds — For experienced professionals, a summary statement can become the “executive summary” of your resume, tailored for each position. Tfac Storyboard Template | Think For! This allows you to pull the most relevant and impressive skills and career accomplishments and By Lisa feature them at Naturopathic Template Design the top of your resume. Elements of Outsourcing By Lisa, a Strong Resume Summary Statement. The Basics — Your summary statement should consist of a title and a few lines of Medicine Brochure Template, text. The text can be in paragraph form and/or use bullets.
The summary statement should appear directly below your contact information at the top of the Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg resume. and should reflect a general (or specific) idea of your career goals. Your Title — When working with my clients on Naturopathic Template, their resumes, I typically recommend starting with a title that communicates their professional identity. Think of it as a headline that will catch the reader’s eye and help them see your fit for the position at Outsourcing Checklist hand. Examples include Social Media Brand Strategist, Senior Marketing Executive, Multifaceted Art Director, and Global Operations Professional. See Resume Summary Statement examples below for additional titles that may spark ideas for you. The Format — The main body of your summary statement should be approximately 3-4 lines of text and should NOT be written with first-person pronouns. If you are tempted to make your summary statement longer to squeeze in more details, resist the temptation. Industry research tells us that most hiring managers spend only seconds reviewing a resume before they make up their minds to call a candidate or not. We also know that when they see large chunks of text, their eyes will skip over it. Therefore, it is vital to limit the length of Housewarming, a summary statement to ensure it gets read.
Resume Summary Statement Examples. Below are several examples of “written elevator speeches” or summary/branding statements with titles. A versatile and Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg creative writer fuses a background in journalism and academics with expertise in business writing to deliver quality, customized material spanning news, marketing, web content, curriculum, and Training Needs Assessment Business Template career development. Provides sales support and highly-rated client service and Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg excels in meeting deadlines in quick-turnaround settings. FINANCIAL OPERATIONS SUPPORT PROFESSIONAL.
Blends academic training in economics and business administration with hands-on experience in sales and operations support to offer employers a track record of delivering on tasks accurately, efficiently, and quickly. Best Estimator | Sagrada! Known for Outsourcing Agreement Checklist providing best-in-class customer service and communications in a variety of business settings. A proven leader of US and Cause Analysis international sales organizations offers expertise in developing successful growth strategies and training both individual representative and team leaders in product benefits and Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa customer service techniques. Naturopathic Template Design! Also known for creating dynamic marketing/brand strategies that engage consumers and take away business from the competition. Effectively manages PL on multimillion-dollar, multi-product lines of business. How to Write Your Resume Summary Statement. Since you have limited space, it’s important to Outsourcing Agreement, carefully plan what goes into your summary statement. Your statement must be concise AND represent the strongest elements of you as a professional. Here are three steps to writing a strong summary statement for your resume: Step 1: First, think of three or four things that define you as a professional. This can be a strong sales record, excellent customer service, expertise in drawing engineering plans, or an ability to manage large-scale technical projects.
These professional traits will vary according to profession and Brochure Template Design skill level. Managers and executives should focus on business skills as well as technical expertise — even if they fall into a technical industry. Entry-level and Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg recent graduates can include academic training and experience to Best | Sagrada, support professional abilities. Step 2: Next, think of the things you enjoy the most in your work. When you write your summary statement, you aren’t just telling the employer what you are good at, you are also telling them what you want to do day in and day out.
Ergo, no matter how well you do something – don’t talk about it if you don’t want to Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, do it. My wisest clients have pointed it out to me when I have focused too much on something they don’t particularly enjoy and we rework their summaries accordingly. Step 3: Align your summary statement with the Invitation | Out-Of-Darkness company’s job requirements. Once you identify the skills you want to focus on, do a little research and see if they line up with job requirements listed for the positions you are seeking. If you are a project manager, you probably want to establish early that you are skilled at managing resources and ensuring assignments get completed on-time/on-budget. This might not be the thing you want to focus on the most, but it is essential to work in. More Tips on Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, Resume Summary Statements. 1. Customize for Your Experience Level. Each of the above example statements effectively sets up the skill sets, achievements, and even certifications/degrees that the applicants highlight throughout their resumes. When writing your statement, it is important to consider where you are in Cause Analysis your professional progression. While a job description might want an Outsourcing, MBA, PMP, or other certifications, whether or not you mention such things in your opening statement will depend greatly on how much experience you have to back your application.
When the job seeker is young and needs to rely on Fire Department, academic experience to strengthen their qualifications, it is best to call that out from the start. Consider the example below: Blends lab management experience with academic training at the University of Florida to offer solid skills in clinical experiments and Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg research activities. Incorporates a background in | Out-Of-Darkness office administration to provide employers with proven organization, communications, and scheduling expertise. In this instance, the job seeker focused on things learned through education and transferable skills that could be applicable from part-time work experience. On the other hand, when the job applicant has strong experience, there is no need to Outsourcing By Lisa, rely on the academic training any longer and it doesn’t need to Medicine Brochure Template, be mentioned. 2. Focus on Agreement, your most important selling points.
Some requirements can be covered in the body of the resume and just aren’t important enough to place in that opening paragraph. One example I see a lot is Cause Analysis, proficiency in MS Office. Even if you are a technical professional, software and hardware skills need their own section on the resume and don’t belong in the opening statement. The summary statement is for the strengths and Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg accomplishments that truly make you stand out as a candidate. Consider the Best 25+ Construction | Sagrada following examples of resume summaries for Agreement technology professionals: A proven leader of IT startups and Department established operations offers expertise in defining technical strategies that support overall business objectives.
Supports efforts to develop and Agreement Checklist market technical solutions to both internal and external clients. Oversees team development and vendor selection/maintenance for multimillion-dollar operations. COMPUTER/HARDWARE SPECIALIST /TEAM SUPERVISOR. Leverages technical expertise on hardware setup/configuration to provide exceptional user support and resolve critical operational issues. Experience includes managing security and after-hour support for classified materials and communications. Known for creating and implementing training that expands team member capabilities and instructs users on system utilization/improvement. Works with government, civilian, and corporate stakeholders. Of course there are other things you might want to call to Firefighter Job Description - Fort Wayne Department, the reader’s attention early, including language proficiencies, award-winning performance, or being named on one or more US patents.
While these qualifications can be contained in Outsourcing Agreement Checklist the body of a resume (and should still be placed there) , it could be relevant to highlight them early to establish your unique value as an employee. Please note again that none of these opening paragraphs are written with first person pronouns. While you do write the paragraph in present tense, you write it as if you are the understood subject of the resume. This allows the Root Analysis Template | Out-Of-Darkness focus to remain on Agreement By Lisa, the employer. Use of Innovation Engagement Template | Think For, “I, me, my” places the focus on Checklist By Lisa, the applicant and the goal of the resume is to sell the employer on what you can do for THEM. By telling the reader what you “do” and Job Description - Fort Wayne what you are “known for,” you get the reader thinking about how you can do those things for Outsourcing By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg them. This message should be reinforced throughout the Naturopathic Template Design resume as you use achievements and certifications to reinforce your opening paragraph and highlight examples of Agreement Abe-Oldenburg, when you have done the Firefighter - Fort things that summary statement promotes. Remember, aside from a cover letter, the summary statement is the very first thing the hiring manager reads about you. It is Abe-Oldenburg, your handshake long before you meet the interviewer. It is Assessment Business, your first impression long before you get a chance to Agreement Checklist By Lisa, pick out your best outfit.
It requires more than “I am seeking a job as….” It is your first chance to Estimator, answer the question “Tell me about Yourself” and you want to make the Abe-Oldenburg most of it. HUMOR: Also, if you’re struggling for ideas, why not let Barney Stinson inspire you with some “creative” ways to Department, highlight your awesomeness. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As an Outsourcing By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, interview coach, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at organizations from Template | Out-Of-Darkness, American Express to the City of New York.
She is an Outsourcing Agreement, adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. 20 Comment to The Art of Writing a Great Resume Summary Statement. Nice one Pamela. One more thing I would like to add here is | Out-Of-Darkness, one should never try to add any fake information in their resume which can put them in trouble. @terrylewis – thats great. Maybe you can share it here once you’re done. @Arman – that’s correct. Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa! Faking info will very likely come back to bite you.
So resist the temptation to be too “creative”. What an exceptional post Pamela. I have seen many articles on resume tips but nothing like this one. | Sagrada! Just want to add more tip here that job seekers should never try to add any fake information in their resumes just to impress the recruiter. This is the part that is Agreement, very difficult for me, i work in the service area, i work for a very prestigious hotel brand and i don’t know how to convert what i do into a summary. I want to advance in my career, i want to move in int administrative part of the Fire Department hotel, not front office.
No I’m not a front desk agent nor a concierge. I am having so much trouble coming with the perfect resume so i can apply to better jobs.! Here’s a way to possibly get unstuck and draft your summary statement: 1) Brainstorm a bit about the most important qualities required for the job(s) that you want. If there’s a job description, scan it for Outsourcing keywords. 2) Think about your 3 most valuable transferable skills/strengths/areas of Best Estimator Ideas, expertise and how they relate. 3) Draft a sentence about each of those three selling points.
4) Combine/arrange/edit them into a summary statement using the examples in the post for inspiration. Depending on your level of experience, your statement may be a few simple sentences or a brief bulleted list. Please feel free to post a draft of your summary statement here and I would be happy to give some feedback. Keep track of the interviews. Maintain a record of the .information about the interview so that you can refer to it in future. Many times you would have more than one interview with an Outsourcing, organisation and it would help if you have jotted down somewhere what happened in the previous interviews. As the human memory fades with time it is preferable that you record the information within 24 hours of the interview. While maintaining the summary of Naturopathic Design, interviews include the following information:• Name and position of interviewer(s) After the Interview. It is not over until you finally get the job.
So don’t just sit back and Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa relax. Now is the time to do the follow up procedures to finally get selected and gain the job of your dreams. Get Selected at Best Ideas On Pinterest Job Interviews. • Job profile/description: duties, responsibilities, powers, salary, other benefits etc. • Category: positive, negative, average. • Date of contact with the organisation. • Specific points discussed: stressed on some qualifications, achievements more than others. Pamela you are genius…Just read your blog….It is simply amazing. Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg! Already started working on creating my own personal branding statement.
It would be great if you can suggest what should be the caption or heading for personal branding statement. For instance, the categories/headings which appear in Root Cause Template | Out-Of-Darkness a Resume/CV are Core Competencies, Professional Experience, Academics, Personal Information etc. Is it a good idea to Outsourcing Agreement Checklist, write heading ” Senior Banking Professional ” followed by branding statement under this heading. Since, I am a banker with 8 years of experience in Root Cause Analysis Template executing cross- functional assignments in Retail ( Marketing Campaigns for Retail banking ), Corporate Banking (Commercial Credit to SMEs ) and Strategy (Launch of Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa, Wealth Management Business) with MBA as background. Keeping my fingers crossed …to discover a nice branding statement for me… THANKS A LOT…. Outstanding post Pamela! I am a young creative professional and Training Business Template find it very difficult to By Lisa, put my skills and experience into a summary when its such a broad field. After reading your article I now have a better understanding of what companies look for in a resume. Thank you! Outstanding post Pamela and very helpful but I am some time confused that – What type of CV format should I opt for HR post please help as I am working as an HR? What type of frequent question can be asked during an interview?
How can we describe a healthy interview? How can I create my own profession brand as an Innovation | Think For, HR? It seems like the examples used are trying to show some corporate bean counter that you know a lot of big words. Agreement Checklist! Is this really what sells? I don’t want to jump through a bunch of hoops to dazzle some corporate sell out. Naturopathic Medicine Design! What ever happend to keeping it simple? Great article. I’m running into trouble highlighting my transferable skills that I got from being a corporate lawyer because I now want to work on research teams for news shows, or in production.
Its difficult trying to Outsourcing By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, connect the | Sagrada two. Can you write an example here. Good article, exposed some weaknesses in my resume, I’m make the changes today! Thanks. Helpful article, though I find myself wondering at the images you chose for the sections. They are all part of a larger work by Pablo Picasso, titled “Guernica,” which was his attempt at a propaganda piece criticizing war. The painting depicts innocent people being firebombed by German and By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg Italian warplanes. Clearly shown are tormented soldiers, a dead child in the arms of a ravaged woman, and Tfac Innovation Program Engagement | Think citizens and livestock burning alive. Abe-Oldenburg! Perhaps this is Root Template, a strange choice of Outsourcing Agreement Checklist, artwork to use for Wayne Fire Department this article. Awesome. Agreement Checklist! shares some other resume design skill in AmoLink resume.
Hope it’s useful to all of us. I found it odd also. This is why doing arts papers while studying for your business degree is Innovation Storyboard Template For, so important. Something incredibly ironic about Agreement someone who is an expert in selling yourself plastering her blog post with images from a painting as brutally about Naturopathic Brochure Design suffering as this. I guess whoever pieced this page together thought “oh, it’s art, so it must be sophisticated.” And they say I’m irrational for thinking business people aren’t necessarily very bright. Thank you for the inspiring article! I have been struggling to By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, find a job that fits my professional profile and when I finally find it, I get no attention… at all!
Now, I migh have identified some of Best 25+ Construction Ideas | Sagrada, my common mistakes. Anyhow, I have a big problem. I am a BA in International Relations and Outsourcing By Lisa I have no idea how to Innovation Storyboard | Think For, name my professional title…. Any ideas? I rarely get sidetracked by advertisements or odd artwork in blog posts, mainly because I’m inundated with it. Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg! But my concentration was quickly.
diverted to the slightly barbaric images as soon as I could make out Invitation | Out-Of-Darkness an. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As one of the Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa country's top interview coaches, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and Best 25+ Construction Estimator On Pinterest JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of Program Engagement For, New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. Continue reading.
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The Student's Practical Guide: Writing Term Papers for Anthropology (and Related Subjects) (originally written in 1981, with various updates since then. ) rendered into html with occasional comments by. (whose own two cents on Outsourcing Agreement Checklist, this topic is summarized here) Dictionaries and Best On Pinterest | Sagrada, encyclopedias. Indexes and abstracts. Yearbooks and By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, review literature. You have not even started the paper -- somehow you have not managed to find the Innovation Program Engagement Storyboard | Think, time for it. Other things always seemed more important or more fun. But you can't put it off any longer. You have to start right now.
You have to get it done as quickly and efficiently as possible -- and obviously you don't want to Checklist suffer any more than is Training Needs | Best Business Template necessary. Also, you don't want to take any chances with your GPA, so you want to write a good paper. But the whole project seems confusing, dreary, and a little overwhelming. It doesn't have to be that bad. That is what this Guide is Agreement Checklist all about -- making the writing of anthropology term papers easier. There are ways to save time and effort. There are procedures and strategies that enable you to negotiate the necessary -but often tedious- process of finding the material you need in the library quickly and effectively. After finding the material you need, it is important to Business know the best way of Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg organizing it in Best 25+ Construction Estimator Ideas | Sagrada, your paper. Learning these techniques and skills frees you to concentrate on Outsourcing By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, the quality of the paper--or maybe on the beach. This Guide is no substitute for your own effort and commitment. (Obviously we are not about to 25+ Construction Estimator recommend that you wait six weeks to begin your paper.) Certainly there is no way to guarantee success or scholarly ecstasy; writing a term paper may never be as much fun as mountain climbing, or reading Russian novels, or whatever your idea of fun is.
And there is no final or definitive answer to the question of what a professor wants in Checklist By Lisa, a paper. But this Guide will inform you of some of the basic features of an anthropology paper which you can be sure your professor will want you to know. Ideas On Pinterest | Sagrada. And it shows you how to make your paper a more polished and expert product. You may already have taken a writing course. The skills learned there will be useful in writing papers for anthropology. The ability to organize ideas effectively and express them clearly is an important survival skill in the university environment. Mastering this skill early in your academic career can greatly increase your enjoyment of university life 2 . Outsourcing By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg. However, you probably did not learn the Cause, citation and bibliographic format used by anthropologists. One of the goals of the Guide is to introduce you to that format. A word of warning: you should set aside any ideas you have about using footnotes for documentation. (Documentation refers to methods of Outsourcing Agreement acknowledging the use of someone else's work.) You may also find that the writing style required for research papers is not the same as the Naturopathic Medicine Brochure Design, style you learned in By Lisa, your writing classes. The style for research papers emphasizes the unambiguous, easily understood presentation of information and ideas, rather than the expressive use of evocative, complex, and Firefighter Fire Department, richly ambiguous imagery and Outsourcing Checklist, symbolism. In other words, research papers require an expository, not a literary, style.
THE STYLE AND ORGANIZATION OF TERM PAPERS: A QUICK REVIEW OF THE ESSENTIALS. Then what is Brochure Design a term paper? Like a report, a library research paper presents data and ideas (which are, however, typically drawn from several sources). Unlike a report, a research paper presents your analysis and interpretation of the data and ideas found in a survey of the anthropological literature relevant to the topic of Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg your paper. Analysis is the process of organizing and summarizing the data and ideas in order to answer a question.
Interpretation refers to a discussion of the meaning and implications of your answers for the issues, ideas, and problems that your paper addresses. Eight Magical and Wise Rules for Housewarming, Writing Term Papers. Kolb, Harold H. 1980 A Writer's Guide: The Essential Points . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Outsourcing Checklist Abe-Oldenburg. Strunk, William, and E.B. White 1979 The Elements of Style . 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan. Turabian, Kate 1976 Student's Guide for Writing College Papers . 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. You should be able to find them all at Tfac Innovation Template For, the University Bookstore. Magical and Practical Rule Number 1: A paper should be organized around a clear problem. The problem is formulated in the course of exploratory reading in the anthropological literature.
First, you should choose an appropriate topic and check it for feasibility by doing some preliminary research in Agreement Abe-Oldenburg, the library and by consulting with your TA or professor. This exploratory reading helps you formulate a problem (or thesis) regarding your topic. The problem you select then becomes the focus of your paper; it directs and limits your efforts. Housewarming Invitation | Out-Of-Darkness. A good problem immediately raises certain questions and implies significant issues. You use your library know-how to find the data that answer these questions and to find the ideas of the scholars who have discussed these issues.
You should use only the Agreement By Lisa, data needed to answer your questions. Otherwise your paper will lack coherence and unity, and you will have done more work than you needed to. And, worst of all, you may not get your paper in on time. Tfac Innovation Program Engagement Storyboard Template | Think For. The professor may then never get a chance to read it, because he has flown off to some delectable Pacific island, and you may be stuck with an Incomplete. So subordinate your reading and note taking to a clear, well defined problem (or controlling idea), formulated in your exploratory reading. Magical and Logical Rule Number 2: After you have selected a problem and become acquainted with some of the literature on it, make a well thought out and fairly detailed outline . As you reading progresses, ask yourself what ideas and information are necessary for understanding your problem, and in Checklist, what order they have to be presented, in order to have a logical and coherent presentation.
Start out with a crude outline. Then revise and elaborate it as needed. A good outline is indispensable; it helps you figure out what information you need as you carry out your research and in what order that information should be presented. A few superstars can juggle complex ideas and Best Ideas, quantities of data in their heads, but for ordinary mortals the use of an outline makes sense. Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg. (It is wise to figure that you, like Socrates, are an ordinary mortal.) Magical and Effective Rule Number 3: A term paper should be conceived of as a whole. Needs Template | Best Template. It should have thematic unity and Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, an integrated structure. If you stick to your problem and your outline, you should have no trouble writing a unified paper; unity just means sticking to the central idea of your paper and your plan for Housewarming Template | Out-Of-Darkness, discussing it.
Structure refers to the organization of the parts of your paper. A paper consists of three main parts: an opening or introduction, the body, and a conclusion. But these parts must be tied together, and subordinated to By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg the main purpose of the paper, which is to tell someone about your analysis and interpretation of the problem you have formulated and researched. You want to Invitation | Out-Of-Darkness make the paper as easy to Outsourcing Agreement understand as possible. So first you tell them what you're going to say. The introduction clarifies the Training Template | Best Business Template, nature of your topic; it states your research problem and your strategy for understanding this problem. Your opening ideally puts the reader in the mood for reading the paper; it serves to spark some interest.
But mainly it prepares the reader intellectually for your main effort--the body of the paper. The best introductions are often written after the body of the paper is already drafted, so that they can lead to it as effectively as possible. Outsourcing Agreement Abe-Oldenburg. Remember: one way to bomb on a paper is to promise one thing and deliver something else. The body of the paper carries out your strategy or plan for analyzing and interpreting your material. This part of the paper goes into details: it lays out all the necessary information and ideas in a logical order (that is, in the sequence in which the reader needs to Invitation Template | Out-Of-Darkness know them in order to understand you). The body is organized in terms of answers to questions, cause and By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, effect, comparison and contrast; it supports generalizations with data, or derives generalizations from Best Estimator On Pinterest | Sagrada, data. . and then you tell them what you've said.
The conclusion wraps things up. It reminds the reader of the nature and Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, significance of the problem you set out at the beginning, and sums up the meaning and Cause Analysis Template | Out-Of-Darkness, implications of your analysis. It tells the reader what has actually been discovered and what it means. The conclusion concisely restates your intentions and plans, and Outsourcing Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, tells the reader succinctly what happened when you carried out that plan. In other words, it summarizes and Innovation Program Engagement | Think, synthesizes the progression of Agreement Checklist By Lisa your understanding from the opening statement of your problem through the Job Description, detailed development of the problem in Agreement Checklist By Lisa, the body of the paper. Magical and Essential Rule Number 4: Write with your readers in mind. Be clear and explicit so that they can follow your argument. Be concise and yet complete. You are writing something that will be read and evaluated by someone.
Keep in Cause Analysis, mind that all your readers can know of your thoughts is Checklist what you put down on paper. Telepathy is rare even among anthropologists. Invitation Template. So be explicit. Don't refer or allude to ideas or information not contained in your argument, unless you can reasonable expect the Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, readers to be familiar with that material. Make sure that the readers have all the information they need in order to follow you from point A to point B in your discussion. If your roommate doesn't understand how you argued your way from point A to point B, your TA or professor probably won't either. And choose your words with care. You don't want to obscure your reasoning by putting it into the wrong words. A brilliant logical argument can be lost for Assessment Template, want of Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa precise words 4 . Your outline will help you make the logical connections in your paper explicit.
You may even want to use some subtitles in your paper (one or two per Medicine Brochure Design, page) which serve up the points made on that page. These subtitles will correspond to your outline--or at least they will if you stick to it. Using subtitles can alert you when you start to stray from your plan. Subtitles also have the advantage of Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg reminding the weary reader (who has just read 137 term papers before starting yours and has 79 yet to Needs Template Template go) where he has got to in your argument. (They also make fuzzy stuff look organized, keeping the opposition off guard.) However, if you allude extensively to material not included in your paper, or ideas not explained in your paper, or do not choose your words with some care, then even subtitles won't save you. You want to be clear, explicit and complete, but you don't want to bore your reader (or not very much anyway--not more than is necessary). So don't belabor the obvious. Put things in your paper because they're important in terms of your argument, not because you feel you should explain everything--twice. Be as concise as you can, while still being clear, explicit and complete. So, it is important to be clear and complete, but on Checklist, the other hand, it is important not to be boring or obvious. That sounds a little like look before you leap but he who hesitates is Firefighter Wayne lost!
And yet these points are not as contradictory as they may seem. It's a question of balance, which, in writing term papers, as in learning to ride a bicycle (and practically everything else), is Outsourcing Agreement Checklist only learned through practice--by doing it until you don't fall down. Too much explanation and qualification of your argument can distract the reader from the essential points you are trying to - Fort Wayne make. Too little explanation and elaboration makes a paper vague; the reader doesn't have enough information to judge the essential points of your argument, or see how they are connected--or even, sometimes, see what they are. When in doubt, it is better to Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg bore than to Template | Best Business Template be vague. If you're boring, the professor may fall asleep, but at least you'll get credit for the work you did. If you are vague, on the other hand, you leave the reader with no way of Abe-Oldenburg knowing what you meant. In this second case, there is nothing to base a grade on, except the creeping suspicion that you haven't said anything. Vagueness is generally pretty boring anyway. It is Tfac | Think For better to work on being both clear and interesting; with practice and commitment, it is possible to be both. Magical and Reasonable Rule Number 5: The paper should reflect the Outsourcing, theme of the course.
You should be sensitive to the point of Assessment Business view the professor is trying to present and to the scope of the Agreement, course. A good paper should reflect the theme of the course in some way, even if you do not agree with the Needs Business Template, professor's approach. 5 Consult your TA or professor before you invest a lot of Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg time and Housewarming Invitation Template, energy investigating a topic that might not be appropriate. For example, when you are writing for a class that focuses on some aspect of cultural symbolism, and you find yourself discussing astrology, King Tut, and Outsourcing Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, holistic hang gliding, then you're stretching the boundaries of the Root Cause Analysis, course. You will probably find that you are stretching the boundaries of Outsourcing Checklist Abe-Oldenburg your GPA too. More realistically, if your professor has been talking for weeks about political conflict, then a paper in which you marvel at the harmony and smooth integration of culture--and by implication deny the reality or significance of conflict--will probably raise some eyebrows, but not your grade. But a paper about the problems of political leadership in Arab villages in territory occupied by Israel, or about lineage feuding in classical China, would more appropriately reflect the theme of the Needs Assessment Template | Best Business, course. Magical and Abe-Oldenburg, Indispensable Rule Number 6: Revise, Rewrite and Proofread. You should always plan on doing some revision and rewriting. But how much? And how do you know when it is necessary?
Here again, if a friend (or enemy) has trouble understanding your paper or any part of Storyboard Template For it, you need to do something about it. You need to rewrite the Outsourcing, foggy and fuzzy sections. And even if your paper is more or less comprehensible, revision and rewriting will nearly always improve it. Basically, a sense of when and what to revise, what to throw out, and what to rewrite is developed through the practice of writing and through receiving feedback on Root Analysis Template | Out-Of-Darkness, your papers. With your research problem, outline and Agreement Abe-Oldenburg, the limitations of readers firmly in mind, go through your outline with a certain ruthlessness. Cut out any jumbles of excess or imprecise words. Don't be afraid to throw away sentences and whole passages which don't do the job of On Pinterest | Sagrada communicating your ideas. Clean up the grammar.
Rewrite as necessary. Now you can type or print your final draft. And then you should proofread it. You don't want to leave any little but distracting errors or typos uncorrected. (A typo can change the comment Kroeber's theory is not considered adequate into Outsourcing Agreement Abe-Oldenburg Kroeber's theory is now considered adequate. Tfac Innovation Program Engagement Storyboard Template | Think. But any type can eb distracting.) 6 Most word processing programs will check the spelling, and even simple grammar, automatically if you ask, so use these features. However, always read the paper yourself before you print the Agreement Abe-Oldenburg, final copy--the Kroeber typo cited above is neither misspelled nor grammatically incorrect, but it is a mistake that will be noted. Magical and Risk Avoidance Rule Number 7: If you use a computer, save your files often and make multiple backup copies. Nothing is so debilitating as following the first six rules and then losing the Training Template Template, whole work to a cyber-space demon.
Saying you lost your work to the computer, or that it will not print out, now runs well ahead of dogs eating homework in the excuse category. It may be true, but it is very difficult to Outsourcing Checklist Abe-Oldenburg prove and, if the TA or professor is on a tight schedule to turn in final grades, you may not get the benefit of the 25+ Construction, doubt. Save your files regularly, especially after making extensive revisions, and when you are finished be sure to copy your files onto a separate disk that can be stored in Abe-Oldenburg, a drawer and moved to another machine if disaster strikes. Magical and Unwritten Rule Number 8: Make a rule to fit in this space. This is a freebie. Experience is the Firefighter - Fort Fire, best teacher, so develop your own. Sound like a lot of work? You're right. But in grade points per hour the magical rules are the best term paper bargain going.
THE CITATION FORMAT OF ANTHROPOLOGY PAPERS. I think this format is Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg easier to use than other formats. Once you familiar with it, I think you'll agree. Anthropologists document the use of other people's work--the sources of ideas or data used in a paper--by placing citations in the text of the paper. Documentation , for our purposes, means providing bibliographic references to sources. A citation is a bibliographic reference to a specific source--a book, an article, or other source of Tfac Program Template information. In-text citation simply means placing citations in the text of the paper, instead of in footnotes. In-text citation documents the Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, use of sources of data and ideas, just as reference (bibliographic) footnotes do, but in-text citations are used instead of such footnotes in anthropology. You do not use reference footnotes or endnotes when you write a paper using the in-text citation format. You were probably taught to use reference footnotes to document your use of sources, and the world is full of people who say footnote when they mean citation.
Hang in Engagement Storyboard Template For, there; things will become clearer as we go along. For now, do the Outsourcing Agreement, best you can to forget about using footnotes as a method of documentation. 7. The important thing to understand, then, is that in-text citation replaces reference footnotes . Here's what in-text citation looks like: The evidence for this hypothesis is Innovation Program Storyboard Template suspect (Burns 1969:32). Tonkinson (1978:27) notes that the Aborigines of the Western Desert. As you can see, the in-text citation supplies, in parentheses, the name of the Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa, author, the year of publication, and the page(s) on Template Business Template, which the material cited can be found [NOTE ADDED BY JM: when citing journal articles in the natural sciences, page numbers are usually omitted unless it is a direct quotation--most articles are short and if the reader wants to find the item, s/he can read the article.
Not true for Outsourcing Checklist, a 300 page book. ]. Note the punctuation: this is Best 25+ Construction On Pinterest exactly how it should appear in all your anthropology papers. Also note that when the name of the author is used as part of the text, as in the second example, only the year of publication and page numbers are placed within the parentheses. Now, if I'm your inscrutable TA and I'm interested in finding out more about something I read in your paper (because it is Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg just so bizarre or wonderful that I have to know more about it), then I turn from your citation to your reference list at the end of your paper. This list of all the Naturopathic Brochure, works cited in your paper provides information needed to locate sources in the bookstore or library. The citations and the reference list make it possible for the reader to track down material that may be useful. As your TA, I can find interesting stuff simply by tracing your citation back to Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg your source.
In that source are more citations, leading me back to your source's sources (squared as it were). These in turn have citations and reference lists leading to their sources (sources cubed?). Your paper becomes a link in a citation chain when you cite from publications connected in this way. Root Cause | Out-Of-Darkness. (TAs have funny ideas about how to spend their time.) The citation format used in anthropology is less work than the footnote format because you only Outsourcing Agreement have to type out the Innovation | Think For, complete bibliographic information for a source once--in the reference list. (Complete bibliographic information includes titles, publisher, place of publication, and so on. We'll get to that.) In a paper using reference footnotes, you have to Checklist Abe-Oldenburg type that information twice--once in the footnote itself, and then again in the reference list. This seems like extra work to me. | Out-Of-Darkness. I would rather not be typing footnotes when I could be out hang-gliding or otherwise exercising my hormones. I think in-text citations are quicker and easier than reference footnotes, and Checklist, they do exactly the same thing in terms of documenting the use of a source and providing access to that source. Since anthropology term papers do not use reference footnotes, you never have any reason to use Latin abbreviations such as ibid or op cit.
In the footnote format, you use these expressions when you refer more than once to a single source. But when you use in-text citation, you give the same information every time that you refer to a source: the author's last name, year of publication of the work cited, and the page(s) on which the idea or data you use appears. What if you refer to Cause | Out-Of-Darkness two different books or articles by the same author? How do you let the reader know that two different publications are being cited? You simply use the year of Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa publication to distinguish them. They will be listed chronologically under the Best 25+ Construction On Pinterest | Sagrada, author's name in the reference list. What if they were published the same year? Then you can add lower case letters after the publication date.
(Stone 1979a) (Stone 1979b) What happens if two authors have the same last names? In that case, you use the initials of their first names, or their full names if they have the same first names, so that it is clear in Outsourcing Agreement Checklist, your text which author you mean. So, if you cite both Karl Marx and Groucho Marx, you would use the initials of the first names in the citations, even though the years of publication are different. (K. Marx 1853:334) (G. Marx 1949:24) If two sources have the same first and last names, then you may have to use middle initials, if available. The general rule is always to try to give enough information so that the reader will know exactly what individual or publication in Best Estimator | Sagrada, the reference list you are referring to. If there are two authors for a publication you wish to Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa cite, you cite them this way: (Stone Burns 1956)
If there are more than two authors, then you can probably get away with using the name of the senior author--the one whose name appears first in an article, or under whose name a book is Firefighter - Fort Fire cataloged--followed by Agreement Abe-Oldenburg et al. which means and others. Smith, Burns, Garcia, and Sullivan 1980:87 can be cited as (Smith et al. 1980:87). Smith is the senior author; do not use the alphabetical order of authors' names in deciding what names to use in a citation. (Note: American Anthropologist , a major journal, now prohibits the use of et al. in the text, because it is undemocratic. I recommend the use of Firefighter Fire Department et al. --not because I'm undemocratic, but because it seems to me that a citation with three or more names interferes with the ease of reading the By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, text, and I do not believe many instructors would object to this use of et al. in term papers. | Out-Of-Darkness. In your reference list, you must use the Agreement Checklist, names of all the authors.
Unless you are undemocratic.) An Exception to the Ban on Footnote: Multiple Citations. There is an exception to the rule against using reference footnotes for citing your sources. If you have many citations for one sentence (in other words, many sources for one piece of information), then you may use a footnote to avoid cluttering the text and disrupting the reader's attention to your reasoning. Beagles are fond of Department bagels (Collins 1967:67; Crenshaw 1934:98; Morton 1978:81-89 1979:97). This means that. Beagles are fond of bagels. 1 This means that. 1. see Collins 1967:67; Crenshaw 1934:98; Morton 1978:81-89 1979:97. Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg. Using the reference footnote makes this easier to read without losing the sense of the text.
The idea is to Tfac | Think avoid doing anything to distract the reader's attention from what you have to say. Unless an idea is very complex or profound --like Beagle bagelphilia- or the data very technical or surprising, you rarely need to use many citations for one particular chunk of information. A single citation will generally do. Agreement Checklist By Lisa. Sometimes you may wish to Root Cause Analysis use several citations in order to direct the reader to a particular literature or to important examples of something. A footnote is appropriate in such cases. For example, for the statement Beagles are fond of bagels, you might use this footnote:
1. Agreement Checklist By Lisa. The best references on Beagles and. bagels are Collins 1967, Crenshaw 1934, and Morton 1978 1979. Footnotes should go at the bottom (foot) of the page. Some publishers put them at the end of the book. They claim this saves typesetting money (although with computerized typesetting that is no longer true). The real reason is that they hate readers. In any event, term paper footnotes should go at the bottom of the page. It not only keeps the professor from cursing your future posterity as he fumbles his way to the back in search of a note, it also improves the chances that he will actually pay attention to them. (Nothing is more infuriating, by the way, than to make one's way to the back of the book in search of footnote 73 from chapter fourteen only to find that it says op cit in reference to something last discussed six chapters earlier.)
Cite corporate authors (organizations or groups) by their corporate names. (National Anthropological Institute 1989) A very long corporate name may be abbreviated. The National Institute of Mental Health can be cited in the text as NIMH. However, the full corporate name must be used in the reference list. And you must be sure that you always provide enough information that a reader can find the source in the reference list without problems. Naturopathic Medicine. If an individual can be identified as the author, the person rather than the organization should be cited. Occasionally, you will run across a work that has neither a personal nor corporate author. In that case you can use a few identifying words from the title of the source, which are placed in the author position in the entry in the reference list. There are as yet few employment opportunities in the field of Martian anthropology (Martian Anthropology 1986:569).
This citation corresponds to the following reference list entry: Martian Anthropology: An Overview of By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg a Non-field. 1986 Encyclopedia of the Inner Planets. Abridged. Best 25+ Construction. Space City L-5:L-5 Publishing Matrix. Other people's exact words must be placed within quotation marks, or set off from the Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg, text by indentation and single spacing. A citation must be placed near the Training Needs Assessment | Best Business, beginning or at the end of the quotation, so that it is Outsourcing Checklist Abe-Oldenburg clear who is being quoted. You could acknowledge a quotation from Clifford Geertz as follows: Culture is the fabric of Template | Think meaning in terms of Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa which human beings interpret their experience and Naturopathic Medicine Brochure Template Design, guide their action; social structure is the form that action takes, the actually existing network of social relations (Geertz 1957:533). Here's another way to cite this quotation:
In an article critical of functional analysis, Geertz (1957:533) distinguishes between culture and social structure: Culture is the fabric of meanings in terms of which human beings interpret their experience and guide their action; social structure is the form that action takes, the actually existing network of social relations. Note that no citation is Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg needed at the end of the quote. Finally you might choose to incorporate Geertz's works into Cause your text in the following manner: According to Geertz, culture is the fabric of meaning by which people interpret their experience and guide their action (1957:533). Note: when you put somebody's words inside quotation marks, be sure to quote exactly--spelling, grammatical errors--everything must be just as it is in the original. Paraphrase or Summary. Even when you put other people's ideas or information into your own words, you must cite the source of the Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, idea and date. For example, suppose that for a paper on socialization or cultural transmission I want to use T.R. Williams' idea that children take an Invitation active part in their own socialization into society. Williams calls this the Outsourcing, generative function of socialization. He defines this as.
comprising all of the ways children reflect upon, think about, and sort out the Brochure Template Design, content of culture, in order to develop for themselves a cognitive map of adult culture (Williams 1972:224). I don't want to quote him, though, because I know using too many quotations is a cheap trick. It's my paper, after all, so I paraphrase him as follows: Williams (1972:224) notes that children are active agents in their own socialization. They do not merely absorb the norms and values of adult behavior in a passive manner. Rather, they think about their experience of cultural behavior, and develop their own theories about their position and roles in the system of social interactions that surround them. Data and Specialized Knowledge. All specialized knowledge--anything that cannot be considered common knowledge in the field in which you are writing--must be documented.
Data from a source must be cited. Naraun society is divided into Outsourcing Checklist Abe-Oldenburg three status classes. The highest rank (temonibe) consists of descendants from the eldest daughter of the Innovation Template For, woman who founded the Agreement, clan (Alkire 1972:44). Data from an ethnography on a group is often specialized knowledge --anthropologists are specialists on the people they study. How do you know if something is common knowledge? There are fuzzy areas, of course. Generally, though, you can rely on common sense. You don't have to document the fact that the Plains Indians hunted buffalo on Tfac Innovation Program For, horseback in the nineteenth century. Outsourcing Checklist. But if you describe the life of the Sioux before they got horses or moved onto the Great Plains, or describe a fight the Pawnee had with the Sioux while on Naturopathic Medicine Brochure Design, a buffalo hunt in Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, 1858, then you need to provide a citation referring the reader to the source of your information. Common knowledge means common in the field in which you are writing. (That anthropologists are mostly geniuses is 25+ Construction Estimator On Pinterest common knowledge--among anthropologists.
Others may disagree--but they don't know the field.) Most anthropologists know what clans, lineages, cross cousin marriage, and classificatory kinship are, but only specialists can be expected to know the difference between Aluridja and Kariera type kinship systems, and so if you write a paper on Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, how a particular group of Australian Aborigines combine features of Assessment Template | Best Template both, a reference citation is called for, such as: A pretty good rule of By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg thumb is that if you knew it before you started your research, you probably don't need to Tfac Innovation Engagement Template For provide a citation, unless you read about it recently. But if you learned it in the course of your research you'd better cite it. 8 When in doubt, go ahead and cite. A citation must identify quotations. This can be done in several ways. Outsourcing By Lisa. Short quotations can be incorporated in a paragraph by using quotation marks and a citation. If you have more than a couple of lines, you can show that you are quoting by Training Needs Template | Best Template indenting and using single spacing. Here is an example of a longer quotation in Outsourcing Agreement Checklist, a sample text: Language requires and reinforces shared understandings. | Out-Of-Darkness. There has to By Lisa be some level of Housewarming Invitation | Out-Of-Darkness agreement concerning the meanings and use of words and Checklist By Lisa, sentences in order for communication to be possible.
So it is reasonable to assume that language in some sense standardizes the understandings of Housewarming Invitation Template | Out-Of-Darkness individuals. However, Sapir, for one, notes in this context that although language acts as a socializing and uniformizing force, it is, rather paradoxically, at the same time the most potent single factor for the growth of individuality (1933:27). Remember, using citations is just like so many other things; it takes some practice. So don't worry if it doesn't feel right at first. You'll get the hang of it, and soon you will be doing it automatically. Now what about paraphrases? A paraphrase is a rewording of Agreement Checklist By Lisa someone's ideas or information.
Suppose I want to use some information I find in Invitation Template | Out-Of-Darkness, Tools for Thought by C.H. Waddington, for a paper describing the impact of the information explosion on Outsourcing Agreement Checklist, anthropological research. In a section of Waddington's book entitled Complexity of Information in Job Description Department, the Modern World, he discusses the number of scientific journals published as an index of complexity. Here is the passage I'm interested in. The first two journals wholly devoted to science-- The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London and the French Journale des Savants --were both started in Agreement Checklist, 1665. A number more were started at regular intervals during the next century.
The process really got under way in earnest around 1760; since then the number of new journals established has doubled every fifteen years. Root Cause. By now well over 100,000 scientific journals have been founded. Not all have persisted, and nobody knows quite how many journals are being published at Agreement Checklist By Lisa, the present time. As long ago as 1938, Bernal estimated that they were some 33,000 current scientific publications. Another estimate in the late 1960's put the number at Training Needs Assessment | Best Business, 50,000, containing about 1 million separate scientific papers per year.
One attempt to handle this mass of material has been the Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, foundation of secondary journals, whose function it is to summarize and abstract the papers published in the primary journals. The first of these appeared as long ago as 1714 in Tfac Innovation Program, Germany. By the time there were enough of them to form a representative sample, they also started to multiply, at Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg, the same exponential rate as the primary journals, doubling in numbers every fifteen years, and reaching a total of 1,900 by the mid 1960's. By this time there had been developed a tertiary level of Brochure Template periodical publications, giving information about the abstracting journals (Waddington 1977:32- 33). Outsourcing Agreement. I want to use some of Brochure Design these facts in a paper on Abe-Oldenburg, how this flood of information affects anthropological research. First I make a point and then I paraphrase Waddington in Medicine Brochure, support of Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg that point. Assessment | Best. Then I go on to cite another source. The library is a sophisticated information retrieval system. It is designed to give us access to the information we need.
But we have to learn how to use it strategically, not haphazardly. This is especially true in anthropology, where the literatures used are both extensive and diverse. The general need for sophisticated library research strategies becomes apparent when we consider the volume of information that confronts us. Waddington reports that the Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, first scientific journals were established in 1665. Since 1760 over 100,000 journals have been established; it was estimated in the 1960's that as many as half of that number were still being published. These 50,000 surviving journals publishsomething on the order of one million papers a year.
Efforts to manage this flood of information include the use of secondary journals to condense and make accessible the Training Needs Assessment Template, contents of the Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, primary journals. By the 1960's there were at least 1900 of these secondary journals (Waddington 1977:32-33). The situation in anthropology is the same. Cause Analysis Template. In 1875- 76, the library of the Peabody Museum, perhaps the Agreement, first specialized anthropological library in the United States, had less than 1000 publications in its collection; by 1975 it had 130,000 (Currier 1976:16). The third edition of Murdoch's Ethnographic Bibliography of North America, published in 1960, contained 17,3000 entries for Training Needs Assessment Template | Best, books and articles; the fourth edition, published in 1976, contains an additional 28,000 entries for books and articles published between 1959 and Agreement, 1972 (Currier 1976:27). Assessment Business. Note how the citations identify the source of the Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, information.
A citation is not needed for every sentence; a series of sentences (or passages) may only require a single citation, as in the paraphrase of Waddington above, if it is clear that the information contained in the entire passage is from a single source (and from only a few pages of the source). If you pull together information from different places in Invitation, a book or long article (as I did from the article by Currier), then you need to use a citation within the paraphrase to indicate the different pages in the source where the material you used can be found. Transitions from one source to another obviously require you to position a citation in such a way that the reader can see that you have switched from one source to Outsourcing By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg another. The crucial thing is that it must always be clear what ideas came from Root Cause Analysis, where. If it is not clear, then it is wrong. When discussing a single book at Abe-Oldenburg, length, you do not have to acknowledge the general concepts, concerns, or themes in it each time you mention one.
But it must be clear to the readers that you are in fact discussing an idea or theme from that particular book. Naturopathic Medicine Template. You must, of course, cite the pages where more specific data or concepts are found, when you use them, so that the reader can find them. For example, you don't have to cite page numbers every time you state or imply that Frederik Barth, in his book Political Leadership among Swat Pathans , is interested in political leadership and Agreement, authority, because that is the grand theme of the book. It runs all through it. Naturopathic Medicine Brochure Template Design. Therefore, you don't have to cite specific pages when you say something non-specific about Barth's book. Barth shares this concern about the problem of Agreement Checklist By Lisa political leadership. His study of the Swat Pathans (1959) is a good early example of an approach to politics developed within social anthropology.
Once you have clearly established that you are discussing Barth's 1959 study of the Best 25+ Construction Estimator Ideas, Swat Pathans, you can drop the (1959) --as long as the reader knows you are referring to Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg Barth's general theme or conceptuali- zation. But as soon as you go on to discuss Barth's specific formulations, then you have to provide the reader with page numbers. Barth states that among the Training Needs Template | Best Business Template, Swat Pathans, Politically corporate groups are created by the actions of Outsourcing Agreement leaders (Barth 1959:72). These corporate groups are person-centered. The leader is the focus of the group; the group only exists in terms of and by virtue of his authority. The group includes anyone the leader can get to join him in Job Description Wayne Department, collective action in response to Agreement threat, crisis, or conflict. Note that since the Root Cause Analysis, quotation and Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, paraphrase come from the same page, one citation is Naturopathic Medicine Brochure Template Design adequate to identity both. Compare the paraphrase with the original: Politically corporate groups are created by the actions of leaders. Any such group consists of all the persons whom a leader is able to mobilize in the event of conflict. Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa. Its limits are undefined except in relation to the leader, and Best 25+ Construction Ideas On Pinterest | Sagrada, its solidarity derives from the latter's authority (Barth 1959:72).
In theory, if you are not indebted to someone for Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg, an idea or date, you do not have to cite him or her, even if you come across their statement of that concept or information. However, in practice, it is usually better to go ahead and cite such a source, if the material is pertinent. If nothing else, you strengthen your argument by indicating that reputable scholars have made the same point. Besides, citing a source entitles you to | Best list it in your bibliography and shows the professor how hard you worked. Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa. You don't want the professor to think you have done a slap dash job of research because you have failed to use a significant source.
Also, you don't want to risk an unfair suspicion of plagiarism--more on that in the next section. Plagiarism is the use of someone's work without acknowledgment, as if it were your own. If in your term paper you were to use someone's dates, ideas, or words without documenting that use with a citation, then you would be guilty of plagiarism. Plagiarism is cheating. The penalties for plagiarism include an F on a paper, failing the class, and probation or suspension from the university. To avoid plagiarism, you have to know how to Template For document your use of other people's work. This is what we went over in the last section; in-text citation is the Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg, system of documentation used in anthropology. Documentation is more than a good thing to know--it is your responsibility to know how to document your use of Training Needs Template Template sources, and to make sure that you do so in Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa, every paper that you write, whether you use in-text citation for an anthropology paper, or reference footnotes for a literature paper. It is pretty easy to tell when a student has plagiarized.
Professors and TAs are not dummies (or anyway not total dummies, or anyway not always total dummies). 9 They've had lots of experience in Best 25+ Construction | Sagrada, reading student papers, and they know what to expect. It is not always easy to tell whether a student meant to cheat (although some cases are so outrageous that there can be no doubt) but most professors and TAs can tell whether he did cheat. Read this section and the section on the use of citations with care, so that you never unintentionally fail to document the source of material you use in your papers. It is not all that hard to avoid plagiarism once you know what is Outsourcing Agreement involved. I'll advise you on how to avoid unintentional plagiarism.
The main thing is to Program Engagement Storyboard Template | Think know how to document any use of sources correctly. A quotation, the use of Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg someone's words, not only requires a citation, but must be set off from your writing by quotation marks or by indentation and single spacing. Innovation Program Engagement Storyboard Template For. This is true of Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg phrases as well as of whole sen- tences and Naturopathic Medicine Brochure, passages. Outsourcing Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg. Consider the following example from African Religions of Brazil by Robert Bastide. The original is: All religion is a tradition --a dual tradition of Firefighter Job Description - Fort Department stereotyped actions and rites and of mental images and myths. It has often been claimed that the two elements are inseparable, myths being a definition or justification of the ceremonial action (Bastide 1978:240). Agreement By Lisa. And here is the 25+ Construction Estimator On Pinterest, same passage plagiarized almost word for word in student paper. Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg. (The paper is hypothetical. If a student did this, he would find his graduation getting pretty hypothetical too.) This religion is a dual tradition, like any other; a tradition both of stereotyped actions and rites and of psychological images and 25+ Construction Ideas On Pinterest, myths.
The two elements are inseparable, with myth being the definition of ceremonial action. Only a few, very minor, changes have been made; essentially it consists of Checklist By Lisa Bastide's words. Innovation Program Template For. Here is an example of how to Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg use this passage properly: According to Bastide, all religion is a tradition and as such consists of Invitation | Out-Of-Darkness stereotyped actions and Agreement Checklist, rites and mental images and - Fort, myths. He notes that it is possible to Checklist view ritual and myth as a unitary phenomenon in which myth is Needs | Best Business a statement of the purpose or meaning of ritual (Bastide 1978:240). By Lisa. It is clear that Bastide is being quoted, so a single citation at Firefighter Job Description - Fort, the end of the Checklist, passage does the trick. Remember: it is still plagiarism even if you put someone's thoughts or data into your own words (in a paraphrase or summary) and do not acknowledge that use with a citation. Plagiarism occurs whenever a citation is Needs Assessment Template required, but is not given, whether for quotes or paraphrases, ideas or data. Besides confusion about the purposes and methods of documentation, the Outsourcing Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, major cause of unconscious plagiarism is probably lousy note taking. Training Assessment. Whenever you take a note you should record whether it is a quote, a paraphrase, or summary.
You should also immediately take down all the bibliographic information you will need, should you later decide to incorporate that material into your paper. Agreement Abe-Oldenburg. If you don't do this, and you need to use that material, you'll have to haul yourself kicking and screaming back to Training Needs Template Business Template the library to get this information. That will look pretty silly. (You would be wise if you also wrote down the call numbers of Outsourcing Checklist library materials you use, so that you can find that stuff again without having to look it up in Training Assessment | Best Business, the computer card catalog.) If you photocopy pages from something, you should immediately write down complete bibliographic information on the copy or, better yet, photocopy the title page. Otherwise in a couple of weeks you may want to use it, but have only a vague notion of where it came from. And so you won't be able to use it, until you go back to the library and get the information you need to document your use of it. 10. The Bibliographic Format of Anthropology Papers: THE REFERENCE LIST. A reference list is not a real bibliography in the sense of seeking either to cover a subject comprehensively, or to identify sources which share certain special qualities (as in Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa, a select bibliography).
A reference list is less ambitious; it is an inventory of sources actually used rather than of all sources or selected sources. (Some people refer to reference lists as bibliographies, and others don't. Housewarming Invitation | Out-Of-Darkness. Personally, I don't think it matters what you call it as long as you know how to construct one.) A reference list gives the Outsourcing Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, necessary bibliographic information in a particular format. The bibliographic format presented here is derived, for the most part, from the journal American Anthropologist and Best Estimator, from the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences . The format may be somewhat different in other journals, and still more different in other disciplines. The reference list follows the text of the paper.
It can be headed at Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa, the top of the page References Cited or Works Cited. The entries in the list are organized alphabetically by the last names of the authors. | Out-Of-Darkness. Here is what an Outsourcing Agreement entry for On Pinterest | Sagrada, a book looks like: Geertz, Clifford. 1973 The Interpretation of Cultures . New York: Basic Books. and for a journal article: Keesing, Roger 1979 Linguistic Knowledge and Cultural Knowledge: Some Doubts and Speculations. American Anthropologist 81 :14- 36.
The above examples give the general form for entering sources in Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, a reference list. You should use the same layout and punctuation. Start typing from the regular margin. Notice what bibliographic information is required: 1. Last name of - Fort Wayne Fire Department author, then first name (and middle initial). [NOTE ADDED BY JM: In the natural sciences (that goes for BioAnthro), first names are not generally used, just initials. There are about a gazillion nuances and styles; in general, use the style that is used by most of the sources you are citing--i.e., pay attention to your sources and do like they do .] 2. Date of publication. 3. Title. 4. Abe-Oldenburg. Information about the publisher or periodical, or other information about the source of the publication. a. If a book, then the Training Template | Best Business Template, city of Agreement Checklist publication and name of the publisher. b. If an article, then the name of the periodical, volume number, and pages on Training Assessment | Best Business Template, which the article appears. Outsourcing Checklist. (Note: if the journal or periodical does not number pages consecutively for the entire year, you also need to give the issue number.
See point 7 below.) The above form will work for Wayne Fire, most entries. Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg. But there are a variety of Invitation little details and special problems that you will encounter from time to Outsourcing By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg time. Let's consider these one by one. 1. Book, single author. Include complete subtitles.
Tonkinson, Robert. 1978 The Mardujara Aborigines: Living the Best 25+ Construction Ideas, Dream in Australia's Desert . New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. 2. Book or article, more than one author. Only the name of the first author is Outsourcing Agreement Checklist reversed. Berger, Peter, and Thomas Luckmann. 1966 The Social Construction of Invitation | Out-Of-Darkness Reality . New York: Doubleday. Harrison, G.A., J.S.Weiner, J.M.Tanner and N.A. Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa. Barnicot. Tfac Innovation Storyboard. 1977 Human Biology: An Introduction to Human Evolution, Variation, Growth, and Ecology . 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Remember that it is (usually) acceptable, in a reference such as the one above, to use the principal author's name followed by et al in your in-text citation, but that you must give all of the authors' names in the reference list entry.
3. More than one publication by same author. In this case, you list the works chronologically (by date of publication). Checklist Abe-Oldenburg. The earliest work is cited first. Bailey, F.G. 1963 Politics and Social Change . Berkeley: University of California Press. 1969 Stratagems and Spoils: A Social Anthropology of Politics . Oxford: Blackwell. If more than one work was published in the same year, list them alphabetically and Tfac Innovation Program Engagement Storyboard For, use lower case letters to distinguish them, as in the in-text citation (1963a, 1963b). 4. City and State of Publication.
If a book was published in some little known city or town--Tuba City, Arizona, or Weed, California, for example--then you should note the Outsourcing, state, as well as the city, of publication. Rosenberg, G. and D. Anspach 1973 Working Class Kinship . Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books. Place of publication is Invitation Template not required for periodicals, except to avoid confusion, as when journals with the same of similar names are published in different places. 5. Editor or compiler. Hunt, Robert, ed. Checklist Abe-Oldenburg. 1967 Personalities and Cultures: Readings in Psychological Anthropology . Training Business Template. Austin: University of Texas Press. 6. Chapter or article in Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, book. Williams, T.R. 1972 The Socialization Process: A Theoretical Perspective. Brochure Template. In Primate Socialization . Frank E. Poirer, ed. Pp.
207-260. New York: Random House. Notice that in is underlined (or italicized in print). This is to Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg make sure that no one thinks it is part of the title of the Job Description - Fort, book. Also, note that the name of an editor, when not in the author position, is not inverted. 7. Journal Articles. If the periodical has continuous pagination, you omit the issue numbers. Singer, M. 1980 Signs of the Self: An Exploration in Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, Semiotic Anthropology.
American Anthropologist 82 : 485-507. Nowadays, most scholarly journals do not start off each issue with new pagination; rather, pagination is Template | Out-Of-Darkness continuous throughout a volume, so providing an issue number would be superfluous. However, some periodicals start each issue with page one, in Checklist By Lisa, which case you must give the issue number in your entry. Whenever you are not sure whether pagination is Innovation Program Storyboard For continuous, provide the issue number, in parentheses, after the volume number. Washburn, Sherwood L. 1978 The Evolution of Man. Scientific American 239(3) :194-211.
If you read Helen Sebba's translation of a book by Roger Bastide, the Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa, complete entry would be as follows: Bastide, Roger 1978 The African Religions of Brazil: Toward a Sociology of the Interpenetration of Civilizations . Helen Sebba, trans. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. (Original: Les Religions Afro-Brasiliennes: Contributions a une Sociologie des Interpenetrations de Civilisations, Paris, 1960). All of the Innovation Engagement | Think For, above information is not always available, in which case you have to make do with what is available. There are also variations in what is done.
For example, sometimes the language of the original is given: Translated from the Nahuatl by. Outsourcing Agreement. . 9. Corporate Author. Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition 1978 Cognition as a Residual Category in Anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology 7 :51-69. 10. Reprints of Older Works.
You should give the original publication date in brackets, if available, as well as the date of the Wayne Fire Department, reprint. Smith, Arthur H. 1971  Village Life in China . Boston: Little, Brown. You probably should cite this in the text by both dates, at least on Checklist By Lisa, its first use, so the reader will be aware of the historical context of the source. Your page citation should be to Naturopathic Medicine Template the edition you used. Blom, Frans and Oliver LaFarge 1926 Tribes and Outsourcing By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, Temples . New Orleans: Tulane University Press. Collier, Jane F. 1973 Law and Social Change in Needs Assessment Business Template, Zinacantan . Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1974 Women in Politics. In Women, Culture and Society . M. Rosaldo and L. Lamphere, eds. Pp. 89-96.
Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1977 Political Leadership and By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, Legal Change in Zincantan. Law and Society Review 11 :131-163. Emerson, Richard 1962 Power-dependence Relations. Naturopathic Medicine Design. American Sociological Review 27(1) :31-40. Levi-Strauss, Claude 1975 La Voie Des Masgues . Checklist Abe-Oldenburg. 2 vol.
Geneva: Editions Albert Skira. Strickmann, Michel 1974 Taoism, history of. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 15th ed. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britanica. Vol. 17. Pp. 1044- 1050. Part of what makes a library confusing is the fact that it has to | Best organize tons of different kinds of stuff-- books, magazines and journals, government publications--from all over the world, about everything from the anthropology of art to Agreement Checklist By Lisa zymurgy, in a way that can be used efficiently by everyone from anthropology students to zymurgists. Anthropology uses an Assessment Template Template extremely wide range of library materials. If you go into the library blind, you won't find most of them.
To use the library effectively for anthropological research, you have to know the functional relationship between critical reference works (that is, various indexes and bibliographies) and the anthropological literature. And, of course, you have to know how to use each individual reference work, when you find it. Using a reference work, such as the Social Sciences Citation Index , is not simple. But with practice it becomes automatic. Librarians are not uniquely gifted superstars; they have simply taken the time to learn how the Agreement Checklist, library works. If you take a little time, you can become fluent at using the library too (not as good as the librarians, but pretty good). Ideas On Pinterest. 11 This Guide will get you started, and will, we hope, be something you can refer to Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg as needed, whenever you do research in the University Library, for anthropology or allied disciplines.
The Library: How to Medicine Template Get Started. So you walk into the library. What do you do first? Encyclopedias are good places to begin your exploratory reading, if you have some idea for a topic. (But term papers are never based solely on encyclopedia articles.) I suggest you go either to the Encyclopedia Britannica , 15th ed., or to the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences , or to a specialized area or subject encyclopedia, if one is available for your topic. (See the Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa, next section for descriptions of Best 25+ Construction Estimator Ideas On Pinterest | Sagrada individual reference works, including the ones mentioned here, plus directions on how to find them in the reference areas.) Encyclopedias and Outsourcing Agreement Checklist, handbooks are the best way to get a quick introduction to a topic--to see if it really interests you and to check it for feasibility. And you can use their reference lists to identify good sources. When you find a source in a reference work you then have to Housewarming Invitation Template | Out-Of-Darkness go to the computer card catalog (a now archaic reference to the time when you actually consulted the paper cards directly) and Outsourcing Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, find its call number, so that you can locate it in the stacks. The stacks are all those shelves of books that really make up a library. The reference area is a kind of map of the stacks. Using the reference works shelved in Tfac Innovation Program Engagement Storyboard | Think For, the reference area enables you to find that dingy brown book on the far end of the bottom shelf on the east side of the sixth floor which is just what you need for your paper. (It beats starting with the first book on the first floor and flipping through every book until you find the one you need.) After you have a call number, you can go find the book you want. When you find it--or the place where it would be if it were on the shelf--take time to look at the books next to it on the shelf.
Since they are in the same call number sequence, they may be relevant to your topic. This kind of browsing (by call number sequence) is often an effective way of finding useful sources. Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa. The same type of browsing is also possible to | Think do electronically, but then you can't actually flip through the books themselves. Once you lay your hands on one good source, you can use its citations and Outsourcing Agreement Checklist, reference list to identify additional sources. These sources will lead you on to their sources, and so on--this is the method of pursuing a citation chain, which was mentioned earlier, in the section on the use of citations. - Fort Wayne Department. (Incidentally, many sources will use old fashioned reference footnotes instead of in-text citations, and Outsourcing Agreement, may omit a reference list on the theory that the information was already given in footnotes. Firefighter Wayne Fire. That is a pain, and we are inclined to think dark thoughts about their ancestry, but we're not so prejudiced that we'd pass up a good source on Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, that account.) Since each source can cite only Tfac Innovation Storyboard For earlier sources, a citation chain normally leads from recent to earlier and earlier publications. But it is also possible to pursue it in the opposite direction, i.e., from earlier to later citations.
This is done by means of a remarkable set of Abe-Oldenburg reference tools called the Naturopathic, Social Sciences Citation Index . We'll get to that. Reference Works: Encyclopedias. Encyclopedias attempt to summarize the knowledge in an area. Here are two of the best encyclopedias for anthropological research. (Also see the section on more specialized handbooks.) The New Encyclopedia Britannica (1990) 15th ed. 30 vols. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. There are three parts to this encyclopedia. Checklist Abe-Oldenburg. The first is a one volume outline of knowledge entitled the Propaedia. It is also a guide to the encyclopedia. Then there is a ten volume Micropaedia which briefly summarizes knowledge in a subject.
It is intended to Firefighter Wayne Fire function as a ready reference, and as an index to the last nineteen volumes. It doesn't give the kind of in Agreement By Lisa, depth information needed even for exploratory reading on a topic, but it may give you ideas for a topic and leads to follow. The final nineteen volumes are the Macropaedia. Analysis. They give what the Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, editors (pretentiously) call knowledge in depth. Often the Program Storyboard Template | Think For, articles in the Macropaedia are written by scholars famous in their fields. (The articles are initialed, and the initials are identified at the end of the Propaedia volume if you get curious.) These selections are the ones you are most likely to find useful. The reference lists are good. Outsourcing By Lisa. Note: one of the Job Description - Fort Wayne Department, distinctive features of the 15th edition is its excellent cross indexing. The Micropaedia is a splendid index to the Macropaedia. It is always best to Outsourcing By Lisa start there. The Propaedia also indexes the Macropaidia, though less obviously. Don't skip them.
International Encyclopedia of the Invitation | Out-Of-Darkness, Social Sciences (17 vols.) edited by David Sills, New York: Macmillan, 1968-79. Volume 17 is the Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, index volume. USE IT! It is Best On Pinterest | Sagrada much better than relying on the broad subject headings used in the encyclopedia proper. The index volume lists specific topics--going to it first saves you time. Page 84 of the index gives a list of the articles on anthropology.
This encyclopedia has signed articles by heavyweights in their field. For example, Melford Spiro wrote the article on Culture and Personality. The reference lists are excellent. Reference Works: Indexes and Bibliographies. Social Sciences Index. As you turn from the Outsourcing Agreement, world of general encyclopaedias, this is probably the index you will want to turn to first. It is selective about the material it covers, and so the sources you find by using it have a pretty good chance of being high quality. It is easy to use.
For example, suppose you are interested in Brazil. You look in Template, the index for 1980 under the subject heading Brazil and find that it says, among other things: Brazil see also. You then turn to the anthropological research heading. There, under Brazil, a journal article is listed. The title, author, journal name, and volume and page numbers are given: Final report on the meeting of anthropologists and Indian experts. R. Cordoso de Oliveira. Cur Anthrop 20 :451-4 Je' '79. Cur Anthrop is the Outsourcing By Lisa, abbreviation used in this index for the journal Current Anthropology. (You can tell because there is a list of abbreviations used in Engagement Storyboard Template, the front of the index.) The volumes in which the article appears is 20, on pages 451-454, in June 1979.
The article was written by R. Cordoso de Oliveira. To get your hands on the article itself, look up the journal name in the serials record . Outsourcing By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg. This is a list of the journals and magazines in the library, and gives their call numbers. The serials record is found both in print and on computer at various locations--one is near the reference desk. The serials list also tells you what volumes the Firefighter Job Description Fire, library has. Checklist Abe-Oldenburg. Volumes that are bound are shelved in the stacks. Unbound periodicals may be located in the Current Periodicals room. Some unbound periodicals are also shelved in the stacks.
Armed with the call number for the journal and the volume and Housewarming, page number from the Social Science Index reference that you found, you may now march confidently into the stacks, walk right to the the shelf, and Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg, pull out the volume you need, flip it open, and voil?: the desired article. (Remember, that if that article is useful, the 25+ Construction Estimator Ideas On Pinterest | Sagrada, sources it lists in its reference bibliography may also be useful.) Essay and General Literature Index. This index identifies the contents of books (for example, essays in collections). The computerized card catalog does not do this. In the Agreement Abe-Oldenburg, index for 1970-74, under the heading Brazil, you find nothing interesting. You turn to the anthropology heading. Again nothing seems useful. But it refers you (see also) to various other headings, including ethnology.
Under ethnology, you strike out. But it says see also kinship. Turning to the kinship heading, you find an article on kinship in Brazil. This is how it is listed in the index: Kinship Levi-Strauss, C. Social Structures of Central and Cause Template | Out-Of-Darkness, Eastern Brazil. In Gross, D.R., ed. Abe-Oldenburg. Peoples and Cultures of Native South America . p. 263-74. You could not have found this particular article in the card catalog, but you can look up the book edited by Gross. You would jot down the above information, and turn to the back of the index, where there is a section which lists alphabetically all of the books which have had their contents indexed. Under Gross, D.R., you find the following information. Gross, Daniel Russel (ed) Peoples and Innovation | Think For, Cultures of Native South America: An Anthropological Reader . Ed. Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg. with introductions.
Published by the American Museum of Root Cause Template | Out-Of-Darkness Natural History Press 1973. You use this information to look up the Agreement Checklist By Lisa, book. The big advantage of this index is that it indexes the contents of Naturopathic Brochure books. The fact that an article or essay has been selected for Outsourcing, inclusion in a collection means that there is a fair chance that the article is of high quality. Catalog of the Library of the Peabody Museum of Root Analysis | Out-Of-Darkness Archeology and Ethnology, Harvard University.
This is a reproduction in book form, of the card catalog of the Peabody Museum Library. It is Agreement Abe-Oldenburg perhaps the best retrospective bibliography for Analysis | Out-Of-Darkness, anthropological research. 12 It also indexes the contents of selected journals and books. It is divided into Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg an author catalog and Storyboard | Think For, a subject catalog. The catalog is periodically updated with supplements which index works acquired since the main catalog was published. 1. Outsourcing By Lisa. Subject Catalog The subject catalog of the Peabody Museum Library is Naturopathic Brochure organized by topical divisions (ethnology, technology), by Outsourcing Agreement human groups (political, linguistic, and social) and by geographical areas. The human groups headings, such as Basques and Berbers, have subject sub- headings, such as Basque-Sociology-Economics.
The broader topical divisions may be broken down into subtopics (Anthropology-Theory). Publications under a particular geographical heading, like those for human groups, have subject sub-headings. So you can look first for the geographical area that interests you, and then you look for the subject headings that interest you. Keep in mind that some of the subject headings in the catalog may be out of date, since they were set up years ago. Suppose I am interested in Bali, an island in Indonesia. Innovation Program Engagement. Under Bali in the fourth supplement to the catalog are reproduction of thirty-one cards in the catalog of the Peabody Museum Library. Agreement Abe-Oldenburg. Subject headings follow the geographical headings; there are cards that say Bali Island--Ethnology, meaning that the publication listed on that card concerns the - Fort Wayne Fire, eth- nology of Bali. Here are some of the Abe-Oldenburg, subject headings that appear under the geographic heading of Firefighter - Fort Department Bali:
Sociology--Acculturation and Culture Change. The Peabody catalog indexes the contents of Checklist Abe-Oldenburg many books and journals. For example, on Tfac Template | Think, a card headed Bali Island-Sociology-Authority and Leadership, we find a chapter in a book listed: Hobart, Mark Orators and Patrons: Two Types of Political Leaders in Balinese Village Society. ( In : Political Language and Oratory in Traditional Society . London: New York: Academic Press. c.1975, p. 65-92.) Notice that this entry does not give you the Outsourcing Agreement, name of the editor of the volume in which this work appears; it does give you page numbers. We also find a journal article on marriage (under the subject heading Sociology-Marriage). Boon, James A. Firefighter Wayne. The Balinese Marriage Predicament: individual, strategical, cultural.
( In : American Ethnologist . Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg. 1976 v.3 no.2 p.191-214; diagrs.) Both of the above appear in Template | Out-Of-Darkness, the fourth supplement , which updates the catalog. The fourth supplement was published in 1979, and catalogs 100,000 entries not cataloged in the third supplement. You should use both the main catalog and each of the supplements in your search of the literature. Otherwise you can miss valuable sources.
For example, if I had not looked in the main catalog under Bali, I might have missed the following older, but classic, work: Bateson, Gregory Balinese Character: a photographic analysis ; by Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead. New York, 1942. xvi, 227 p. 100 illus. Outsourcing Agreement Abe-Oldenburg. (Special Publications of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. II.) Remember, this catalog is the best place to locate many older works; it is an excellent retrospective bibliography. 2. Author Catalog. Suppose you already know that a particular author has done major work on your topic. For example, maybe you are interested in some aspect of your topic. For example, maybe you are interested in some aspect of the Naturopathic Brochure Design, work of Alfred Kroeber on California Indians.
Under Kroeber, Alfred Louis, in the Peabody author catalog are listed 126 entries on works by Kroeber, covering the course of his career from Agreement Abe-Oldenburg, 1900 through the 1950's. There are numerous articles on Analysis Template, California Indians. After the publications by Agreement By Lisa Kroeber are listed various works about Kroeber, which may also be useful. The first supplement to the author catalog had another thirty-two entries by Training Needs or about Kroeber--many of these are reprints of works also listed in the main catalog. These reprints may be more accessible to you than the original publications, so it may pay off to check the supplements even on Outsourcing By Lisa, older authors. Social Sciences Citation Index. The Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) is the Analysis Template | Out-Of-Darkness, versatile and sophisticated index we mentioned before. It consists of three different kinds of indexes, which are designed to be used together: the Permuterm Subject Index , the Citation Index , and the Source Index . This is one of the major accomplishments of modern library science, and it's well worth the Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, time it takes to get acquainted with it. 1. Subject and Source Index. If you have a topic, and Engagement Storyboard Template | Think, want to find articles about it, you can use the SCCI Permuterm Subject Index . Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa. Permuterm means that the words in titles have been used to index articles; an article will be listed under various combinations of the words in Assessment Template, the title, which are called terms and co-terms. For example, suppose that you have a topic in the area of psychological anthropology.
You know that culture and Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, personality studies are an important part of this field. So it makes sense to pick culture as you Primary Term and personality as a Co-Term. In the Permuterm Subject Index for 1980, under the primary term culture and - Fort Wayne Department, the co-term personality the Outsourcing By Lisa, name Shweder is Training Template listed. Now you turn to Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg the Source Index for 1980 and look up Shweder. This turns out to | Out-Of-Darkness be a bonus: not one, but three articles by Shweder are listed. Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg. (There was even a little symbol in the Subject Index which indicated that.) The SSCI Source Index gives you the following information for the first of Shweder's articles: Shweder, R.A. Rethinking Culture and Personality Theory 2: Critical Examination of two more Classical Postulates. This is basically the same bibliographic information you find in a reference list: author, title, journal, volume and issue number, page numbers, and Estimator On Pinterest | Sagrada, date of publication.
Only the order is different from the format given earlier. The only mystery here is the Agreement Checklist By Lisa, 77R. That indicates the number of sources that Shweder cites. Seventy-seven sources is Medicine Template a lot. Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa. When you find a journal article with more that thirty or forty works listed in its reference list, you can be pretty sure that it is a major review of a subject. The article by Shweder is probably a review of some aspect of culture and personality theory, and so may be quite useful--for its reference list, if nothing else. One beautiful thing about the SSCI is that in the Source Index it lists the reference sources of every article indexed. So you not only have a reference to Shweder's article in Ethos , you have a list of Invitation Template all the sources he cited, even before you go look at his article.
His reference list is given right below the entry for Outsourcing Agreement, his article. Let's look at Innovation Program Engagement Storyboard Template | Think, one of Shweder's sources, as listed in By Lisa, the Source Index. Bateson G. 67 AM Behavioral Sci 10 29. Bateson is the author. 25+ Construction Ideas On Pinterest | Sagrada. 67 means 1967. The name of the journal in Outsourcing Agreement, which the article appears is American Behavioral Scientist. (The Index has a listing of Housewarming | Out-Of-Darkness all abbreviations used.) 10 refers to the volume number of the journal, 29 is the page number. The Citation Index of the SSCI enables you to find out which authors are being cited by others. The authors who cite Shweder's articles on culture and Outsourcing Agreement Abe-Oldenburg, personality, for example, are probably writing about the same or related issues. The person who cites Shweder may provide follow-up work or an evaluation of Shweder's work. So by using the Citation Index , you can listen in to the dialogues being carried on by various groups of Naturopathic scholars who are interested in the stuff that interests you. When you find a good article on your topic, you can find other sources by finding out who has cited that article (or author) since its publication.
The Citation Index lets you pursue citation chains in a new direction. Before, you could only trace sources cited in an article you had your hands on, which meant you could only find works published before the date of Outsourcing publication of the article you have. But with the Citation Index you can find sources published after that date, because this index tells you who has cited the article you have since its publication. So not only can you find a lot of potentially useful sources fast by Template | Out-Of-Darkness using the SCCI, you can also keep up with the most recent developments and ideas in Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, a field, and Job Description - Fort Department, check to Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg see how a work was later evaluated, a theory revised, or a conceptual framework expanded, modified or given up as worthless. This kind of library research is likely to pay off a lot faster than paging through journals one by one. Here's how you go about using the Best Estimator Ideas, SSCI Citation Index : First you look up the author in the index. The titles of the author's articles are listed, by year of Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg publication, under his or her name. Under the titles are listed the names of the authors who cite that article, along with the bibliographic information you will need to look up these new sources. Book Review Digest.
Suppose you want to know whether or not African Political Systems , edited by Meyer Fortes and E.E. Evans-Pritchard is worth using in your paper. You can use the Book Review Digest to find out. First, look up Fortes in the author/title index which is Tfac Innovation Template | Think For published in separate volumes (Author-Title Index 1905-74). This provides the Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg, title and year of Best Ideas | Sagrada publication of Outsourcing By Lisa all books included in the Digest . You will find that African Political Systems was published in 1941. Turning to the volume for Needs Assessment Template | Best, 1941, you will find digests (that is, summaries) from several reviews of this book which appeared in various periodicals, including American Anthropologist and Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, American Political Science Review . If a book is not reviewed by a major journal, it may not be worth using. Engagement Template | Think For. There are a lot of pretty funny people writing pretty funny books, and Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa, it is embarrassing to base part of a term paper on Ideas, a book which seems to be scholarly and rigorous, only to have the professor tell you that the results were considered impossible, or that fraud was involved, or that the author is famous for being an Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg idiot. Therefore any book which seems to contain startling or controversial information or interpretation is worth checking out in the Book Review Digest . If you find no summaries there, be sure to check the Firefighter Department, Book Review Index . Here you can find the Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, citations to Assessment Template | Best a much larger number of book reviews but without summaries. You will have to Agreement By Lisa look them up yourself. Since academic journals are nortoriously slow about reviewing books, you may find that a book published in 1990 has the bulk of Training Assessment Template | Best Template its reviews appear in 1991 while others will straggle in over the next couple of years, so do not confine yourself just to the year the Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, book was published.
Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) The Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) are a microfiche collection of books, articles and unpublished papers on more than 300 ethnic, religious, cultural and national groups worldwide. They are particularly valuable if you want to Wayne do a cross-cultural comparison quickly since each piece of writing is Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg intensively indexed by topic. Materials are arranged according to a classification system based on the following manuals: Outline of Cultural Materials . 5th ed. 1982. Subject index to the HRAF files.
Assigns a numerical designation to Root Cause Template | Out-Of-Darkness more than 700 categories of human culture. It is used in conjunction with the Outline of World Cultures to locate information in the HRAF files. It is advisable to use several reference works when surveying the literature in Outsourcing Agreement Abe-Oldenburg, preparation for Analysis Template, a research paper. And remember that indexes and bibliographies organized by geographical areas index sources that focus on particular subjects (such as culture and personality or political systems), and the subject indexes will include sources that focus on ethnographic areas. This is not an exhaustive list of reference works useful in anthropological research.
I have tried here to list only the ones you will probably find most useful. Abe-Oldenburg. There are many other useful reference sources. Try browsing in the reference area sometime to get a feel for the diversity of Job Description Fire available reference works. 13 There is a list available in the reference area devoted just to reference works in anthropology, and there are similar lists for other subjects as well. Obviously, if you have any questions or problems, consult your librarian. Cultural Anthropology: A Guide to Reference and Information Sources . 1991. Guide to reference literature in cultural anthropology, as well as libraries, publishers and Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa, organizations.
Introduction to Library Research in Anthropology . 1991. Invitation. Guide to Checklist research tools, library services and the mechanics of term paper writing in anthropology. The Social Sciences: A Cross Disciplinary Guide to Selected Sources. 1989. Consult the Anthropology chapter for Naturopathic Medicine Brochure Template Design, an annotated list of recent reference sources in anthropology. Sources of Information in the Social Sciences . 3rd ed. 1986.
The Anthropology chapter contains an exhaustive annotated bibliography of the Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, literature of this field. [probably] Available at the Reference Desk. International Bibliography of the Root, Social Sciences--Anthropology . 1955-91+ This has an Outsourcing Agreement author-subject index at the back of Best 25+ Construction Estimator On Pinterest | Sagrada each volume. It breaks the discipline into sub-areas in a clasification scheme-- for Outsourcing Agreement, example, General Studies, Materials and Methods, Ethnographic Studies (by area), Social Organization (by area and by institution and type of behavior, e.g., sexual relations, inter- racial and - Fort, inter-ethnic relations). The IBSS also includes bibliographies in political science, economics, and sociology. The anthropology part covers archeology and physical anthropology as well as cultural and social anthropology. DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS. Dictionary of Anthropology . Checklist Abe-Oldenburg. 1986. Covers 1100 terms, theoretical concepts, and biographical profiles in social and cultural anthropology. Includes bibliography.
Dictionary of Concepts in Cultural Anthropology . 1991. Contains definitions, historical origins and Job Description - Fort Wayne Fire Department, developments, and bibliographic references for 80 key concepts in cultural anthropology. Dictionary of Concepts in Physical Anthropology . 1991. Consists of brief definitions, historical origins and developments, and sources of additional information for concepts in physical anthropology. Encyclopedia of Anthropology , 1976 This is really a dictionary rather than an encyclopedia. Encyclopedia of Evolution: Humanity's Search for its Origins . Outsourcing. 1990. Root Analysis. Popular encyclopedia containing 600+ articles on evolution and its impact on By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, society, from Bonzo to biogenetic law and from Planet of the Apes to plate tectonics. Encyclopedia of Islam , New Edition. vol 1-4 Covers most major aspects of Islamic history and religion. Encyclopedia of Tfac Engagement Storyboard | Think For Human Evolution and Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, Prehistory . 1988.
Covers 1200+ topics in human evolution. Contains photographs, drawings and charts. Entries include bibliographies. Encyclopedia of World Cultures . 10 vols.[in progress] 1991- . Ten-volume encyclopedia, arranged by geographic region, provides descriptive summaries on world cultures. International Dictionary of Anthropologists . 1991.
Biographical dictionary of anthropologists born prior to 1920. The scope is worldwide. International Encyclopedia of Needs Template Business Template Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychoanalysis, and Neurology, 1977 Volume 12 is the index volume. The articles are signed and have reference lists. The International Encyclopedia of the Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, Social Sciences would also be useful in doing research in psychological anthropology. Women Anthropologists: A Biographical Dictionary . 1988. Biographical profiles of | Out-Of-Darkness women anthropologists born between 1836 and 1934. Profiles include a selected bibliography of works by or about each individual. INDEXES AND ABSTRACTS.
Abstracts in Anthropology . 1970 - . Abstracts are brief summaries of the contents of a publication and index journal articles in a subject arrangement. Agreement By Lisa. Abstracts, unlike book reviews, are non-evaluative. Most social sciences have their own abstracts. Firefighter. You may also find Psychological Abstracts and Sociological Abstracts useful. Divided into four sections: archaeology, physical anthropology, linguistics, and cultural anthropology. Does not index book reviews. Africa Bibliography . Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa. 1984 - . Index to articles, books and essays. Arranged by Root region and Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa, country, following a general section.
Consult the social and cultural anthropology/sociology and anthropology/ archaeology/prehistory subject headings. Alternative Press Index . 1970 - . Index to alternative and radical publications. Consult this index for articles on Australian aborigines, native Americans and other groups. Index America: History and Life . 1964 - . Table This work indexes and abstracts periodical articles in the field of North American history and culture. Includes articles on Cause Analysis | Out-Of-Darkness, native American history, prehistory and culture.
Includes book reviews. Anthropological Index to Current Periodicals in the Museum of Mankind Library . 1980 - . Indexes more than 600 periodicals in Checklist, a geographical arrangement, subdivided by general, physical anthropology, archaeology, cultural anthropology, ethnography, and linguistics. No subject index. Annual author index published separately. Root Analysis. Does not index book reviews. Anthropological Literature: An Index to Periodical Articles and Essays . 1979 - . Outsourcing By Lisa. Indexes over 1000 periodicals and 150 edited books from materials received at Harvard's Tozzer Library. Does not index book reviews. Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts . 1987 - . Needs Template. Index to Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa journal articles in Training Needs Business Template, the applied social sciences.
Includes social and cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics and physical anthropology. Index Arts and Humanities Citation Index . 1975 - . Outsourcing Checklist Abe-Oldenburg. Table Provides author, subject and citation access to the literature in folklore, linguistics and archaeology. Includes book reviews. A Current Bibliography on African Affairs . 1962 - . Quarterly index to books, articles, government documents and visual aids, arranged by general subject or geographical area. Geographical Abstracts: Human Geography . 1989 - . Index to 1000 geographical journals, books, proceedings, reports, theses and dissertations covering the literature of human geography. Classified subject arrangement.
Handbook of Latin American Studies , 1935- Publishes separate volumes on humanities and social sciences. Annotated. Handbook of Middle American Indians . 16 vols. 1964-1976. Contains essays on the ethnography, archaeology, physical anthropology and social anthropology of the Indians of Middle America. Updated by recent supplements. Handbook of North American Indians . 20 vols. - Fort Wayne Fire Department. [in progress] 1978 - . Outsourcing Agreement. When completed, this work will be the standard source of Training Business information on the prehistory, history and cultures of the native peoples of North America north of Mexico. Agreement Checklist By Lisa. Each volume contains essays on specific aspects of Native American life with an Naturopathic Brochure Design extensive bibliography and Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa, detailed index. Handbook of Social and Cultural Anthropology . 1973. Surveys the state of knowledge and reviews research in the various branches of anthropology.
Handbook of South American Indians . 7 vols. Training Needs Assessment Template | Best Business. 1946-1959. Survey of tribes of South America, with emphasis on the European contact period. Medical Anthropology: A Handbook of Theory and Abe-Oldenburg, Method . 1990. Presents the state of the art in Needs Assessment | Best Business Template, medical anthropology, core theoretical issues, ethnomedicine, biomedicine, health issues in human populations, methodology and policy issues. Anthropological Bibliographies: A Selected Guide . Outsourcing Agreement Checklist. 1981. Extensive list of bibliographies arranged geographically with a final section of topical bibliographies. Anthropological Fieldwork: An Annotated Bibliography . 1988. Contains 700 entries on Naturopathic Medicine Brochure Design, anthropological fieldwork from the early twentieth century to 1986. Includes geographical and Outsourcing Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, subject indexes.
A Bibliography of Contemporary North American Indians: Selected and Invitation | Out-Of-Darkness, Partially Annotated with Study Guide . 1976 Organized by topics--for example, the anthropology of development, culture and personality. Cumulative Bibliography of African Studies . 1973 This is By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg a reproduction of the author and subject catalog of the IAI. Subject headings are organized under geographical Folio areas. It has a table of contents. The IAI has several other bibliographies which might be useful. Cumulative Bibliography of Asian Studies . 1941- These are two titles in Engagement | Think For, the same continuous series. Broken down by topic and country, they cover an extraordinarily large range of publications and therefore runs four or five years behind (i.e., volume covering 1986 was published in 1991). Ecce Homo: An Annotated Bibliographic History of Outsourcing Agreement Abe-Oldenburg Physical Anthropology . 1986.
Contains 2340 references from ancient times to on the history of Best 25+ Construction Estimator Ideas On Pinterest physical anthropology. Arranged chronologically. Ethnographic Bibliography of Outsourcing North America . 4th edition, 1975 (supplement 1990) Organized by areas. On Pinterest | Sagrada. It has 40,000 entries on articles and books, and covers the field through 1972, supplement takes it through the 1980s. Ethnographic Bibliography of South America . 1963 Organized by area, then by tribe. Has tribal index. The History of Anthropology: A Research Bibliography . 1977.
Contains more than 2400 entries on Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, the development of anthropology as a science and Fire Department, profession. Index Islamicus: A Catalogue of Articles in Periodicals and Other Collective Publications . 1958-85. Organized by Checklist By Lisa subject and by area. Includes section on Invitation Template, ethnology and Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg, anthropology (more current supplements issued periodically) Modern Chinese Society: An Analytical Bibliography . 1973 Good source for older work, but much new research has been conducted since it came out. Native American Basketry: An Annotated Bibliography . Naturopathic Medicine Brochure Template. 1988. Comprehensive bibliography includes books, articles, theses, dissertations and newspaper articles. Organized by culture area. Contains author and subject indexes. Pacific Bibliography: Printed Materials Relating to the Native Peoples of Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia . 1965. 2nd ed.
This has author, subject, and group indexes. The Social System and Culture of Modern India: A Research Bibliography . 1975 Organized by subjects--covers sociology and social and cultural anthropology, although all of the subject headings refer to sociology. YEARBOOKS AND REVIEW LITERATURE. Annual Review of Anthropology . 1972- This gives critical reviews of recent research in Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa, selected areas of anthropology, such as political and economic anthropology, symbolic studies, culture change, and area studies. Assessment Template. The biblio- graphies for each article are generally quite extensive.
Reviews in Anthropology . Outsourcing Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg. 1974 - . Quarterly journal which publishes long reviews on important new publications in anthropology. Atlas of Mankind . 1982. Contains general background information on peoples of the world, including issues such as migration, race, kinship, language, and environment. Atlas of World Cultures: A Geographical Guide to Ethnographic Literature . 1989. Geographical guide to ethnographic books, articles, reports, archaeological materials, maps and atlases for 3500+ cultures. Cultural Atlas of China . 1983. Visual representation of the culture history of China, with maps, photographs, tables and text.
There are similar volumes on Job Description - Fort Wayne Fire Department, Africa and Japan. AAA Guide . Current year. Describes anthropology departments in 485 institutions, lists American Anthropological Association members, recent PhD dissertations in anthropology, and student statistics. Biographical Directory of Anthropologists Born Before 1920 . 1988 Entries include biographical data, major contributions, and Outsourcing Agreement Abe-Oldenburg, published sources of biographical information. Return to contents Nowadays a fair amount of your library research can be done without ever entering the library (not all of it; after you identify sources using an online catalog, you still need to get them--with some nifty exceptions!).
This brief section on electronic searching is NOT intended to Housewarming Invitation Template cover the topic in as much detail as the rest of this document; it merely points out a couple of things I find many UCSD students are not aware of. ROGER seems to be where most students begin their online research; this is a great resource and has an easy-to-use interface, but has a critical limitation : it only covers BOOKS. Now, at first you might think, well, duh--libraries house books, I'm looking for books, so like what's the limitation line all about? It's about periodicals . Abe-Oldenburg. Using ROGER, you can locate which library subscribes to Tfac Program Engagement Storyboard Template | Think which journal, which is useful, but now what? To find an article on a particular topic, what do you do? You bag ROGER, that's what. [Jan. 2001 update: The new millennium has brought changes to Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg the system, and the rate of change is increasing.
Much of the following is 25+ Construction based on the old 1998 MELVYL interface (which is still available); resources today are vastly greater. Start your online library search for journals at the California Digital Library (http://www.dbs.cdlib.org/. The pull-down menu asks you to select a database. If you are looking for Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, a book, choose MELVYL; for a bioanthro article my suggestion is start with Current Contents. Cause Analysis Template. Experiment! The Really Cool Thing is that if you are logging on from a campus computer, for many journals you can read/download the entire article online! Save yourself that trip over to BioMed or SIO. DO skim through the rest of Outsourcing Agreement this, though; the exact commands and interfaces change, but the search strategies do not.
Instead, use MELVYL and get into one of the periodical databases: CC, MED, or MAGS (by typing CC, MED, or MAGS at the MELVYL prompt--not difficult!) The search syntax is a little different in each but each has a complete users guide--type help or e med [or e mags etc; e is for explain]--and it is worth learning because with these you can locate any article written by a particular author or that contains a given word (or words) in Template | Out-Of-Darkness, the title. For example, say you found an interesting article by Richard Wrangham that he wrote in 1980, and you want to Outsourcing By Lisa see if he's written anything else since then. Tell CC (the Current Contents database) to f ind all articles by Template Design the p ersonal a uthor R. Wrangham: CC: f pa wrangham, r. and you'll get a list. Or, you need to write a paper about Australopithecus anamensis and you've no idea where to Outsourcing Agreement find anything on Invitation | Out-Of-Darkness, it; if you search ROGER you can find plenty of books on hominids etc, but 99.9% of that will say nothing about anamensis , a recently-described species that won't even be in any older books. Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg. So -- ask CC to find all articles with anamensis in Root, the t itle w ords: CC: f tw anamensis and you're away. Note that this will miss an article about Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa anamensis that happens to be titled A new hominid from Ideas | Sagrada, Kanapoi, Kenya; hey, no single system is perfect (once you know who discovered the Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, fossil, you can do an Housewarming Invitation | Out-Of-Darkness author search to get everything else by that person. ). Now--what's the Checklist, difference between CC, MED, and MAGS? CC covers a wide variety of scientific journals across many fields; MED is more specialized to journals that carry articles related in Root Template | Out-Of-Darkness, some fashion to medicine (this covers a surprising number of topics that might seem fairly peripheral to Agreement medical topics).
Finally, MAGS covers--surprise--magazines (like Discover or Time ). OK, what's the difference between scientific journals and magazines? PEER REVIEW . When an article is submitted to a peer-reviewed journal, the editor sends it to from 2-8 (supposed) experts on the topic, who tear it apart and let the editor know if there is any merit to the article. For a magazine article, the editor decides whether to accept it on the basis of . well, whatever -- for example, an editor might include an outrageous story knowing that sales will go up as people argue about it. (The same can apply for books.) This doesn't mean everything in Naturopathic Medicine Template Design, peer-reviewed journals is true and Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, correct, but it's at least plausible, most of the time. Finally, a nifty feature of MED and MAGS is that for some articles you can access the abstract and (in MAGS), sometimes even the whole article online. In response to a search, output looks like: 3. Medicine Brochure Template Design. Evans, Dylan.
The arbitrary ape. (human intelligence and the ability to think randomly) New Scientist v159, n2148 (August 22, 1998):32 (3 pages). Type D 3 AB to see abstract. AT: UCSD S E Q 1 N5496 Current Journals Bound in Stacks. which is Outsourcing pretty self-explanatory (I've highlighted the relevant bit, the display won't be in color!). This can be an immense timesaver. I'm not going to attempt to Medicine cover research on the web; just want to make two points: First, refer back to the difference between peer-reviewed journals and popular magazines, and Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, remember: at least with those, at least one person other than the author read it before accepting it . Surprise: you can't trust everything you read on the web.
Second, while the web has everything on it, you may not be able to find it. I recently wanted statistics on Best 25+ Construction Estimator Ideas | Sagrada, timber exports from Outsourcing Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, Gabon, and figured it was a natural for a web search. Two frustrating hours later, nothing. On a whim, I tried MELVYL and | Out-Of-Darkness, within 3 minutes had the Agreement Abe-Oldenburg, call number of a recent book on African timber trade, that had everything I could ask for Template | Out-Of-Darkness, and more on the subject. (A week later, an expert I'd contacted finally got around to Outsourcing Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg emailing me with a couple of Housewarming | Out-Of-Darkness urls to websites with superb statistics on worldwide logging--like I said, it's there , just need to find it. ) No single search strategy will get everything, and Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, failure to find information using one resource means try another one-- not but there's nothing on my topic! 1 Literature as used here refers to the body of published material on some subject or topic--not to Russian novels. For example, there is a literature on medical anthropology, on Afro-American religions, on Housewarming Invitation Template | Out-Of-Darkness, the kinship systems of Outsourcing Australian Aborigines, on witchcraft and magic and so forth. Innovation Engagement For. back. 2 Writing skills are also useful in the world at Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, large, of 25+ Construction Estimator course.
One of the practical aspects of anthropology courses is their frequent emphasis on writing. You will find the writing and research skills as taught in anthropology useful in the REAL WORLD--more useful than an ability to ace multiple choice exams. And research and Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, writing are not really so hard, once you've had enough practice. back. 3 Data are pieces of Best 25+ Construction information that can be used in analysis. Technically, data is the plural of datum, that is, of one of the Agreement Abe-Oldenburg, pieces of information. But, so many people use data as a singular form that you probably won't get into too much trouble if you find yourself using it in the singular. Wayne Fire Department. Other common singular/plural confusions: criteria (pl.)/criterion (sing.); phenomena (pl.)/phenomenon (sing.) -- if you mix these up someone may accuse you of illiteracy. So when in doubt, consult a dictionary or a writing handbook on word usage and words commonly misused. back.
4 That may sound trite, but it is significant, and worth working on. A professor once remarked that he found some kind of Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa wrongheadedness in the first sentence of - Fort Wayne almost every paper. If that's true--and who am I to argue with a professor? [Steve wrote this while still a grad student, now he can argue]--then there is probably an awful lot of poor word choice going on. Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg. If you are careful to Engagement pick the best words for the ideas you want to express, you will probably be one of the Outsourcing Checklist, few who do--that doesn't guarantee an A, but it comes closer to guaranteeing it than any other writing habit I can think of.back. 5 If you are not belligerent and unreasonable, most professors have no objections to a little disagreement. Template. (A lot of them are flattered anyone was paying attention!) You probably have a reason for disagreeing, after all, and if it is a good reason it might work into the basis of a good term paper.back. 6 That's an on porpoise typo.back. 7 You can still use content footnotes, if you like. Content footnotes discuss ideas, issues, or details that are pertinent (or, occasionally, important) but not a necessary or direct part of the exposition or argument of the paper. This type of footnote is for discussion and Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, elaboration.
Unlike reference footnotes, content footnotes do not (usually) provide bibliographic information.back. 8 However, if you suspect that your audience will not be familiar with an idea or some body of information, then even if you have thought or known it for years, it is advisable to use a citation.back. 9 You can get pretty dummy-like after reading 100 term papers in a row.back. 10 The best advice on taking notes--library notes or field notes--is to include everything necessary for someone else to be able to use them. 25+ Construction Estimator On Pinterest | Sagrada. Figure that by the time you actually use them you'll be older and By Lisa, wiser (or will have forgotten enough) that for all practical purposes you will be someone else.
Making notes self explanatory is never a bad policy. back. 11 The reference librarians are always going to know more about the library than anyone else, so if you can't find what you need, don't assume the library does not have it until you have asked a librarian. back. 12 Retrospective means covering older publications; looking back on past work.back. 13 I think I already told you that TAs have funny ideas about how to spend their time.back. One of the big buzzwords (OK, concept more than words) in primatology/cognitive science these days is theory of mind (TOM). There are folks who are devoting major research energy, if not careers, to establishing whether apes (or monkeys, or dolphins, or beagles. ) have TOM -- i.e., are they capable of thinking about other individuals as separate social actors with their own separate knowledge, motives, desires, or do they simply respond to stimuli without being able to take account of another's viewpoint? The classic experiment is what Christine Johnson calls the Sally - Anne test. Experimenter puts a big treat inside a box while Sally is watching, then Sally leaves the room (the experimental subject is watching all this). Anne comes in and switches the treat for 25+ Construction, something nasty, then leaves.
Sally returns. Now: ask the subject What does Sally think is in the box? Small children answer something nasty!, being unable to distinguish between their own knowledge and Agreement Abe-Oldenburg, that of Sally. Older humans have TOM and know that Sally incorrectly expects a treat. Monkeys don't seem to ever get it, and Template, people argue about apes. The interesting thing to me is that while normal adult humans are all capable of employing TOM, they do not always do it. When writing papers, remember that the reader is another person, who may or may not know all the things you know, and almost certainly has not organized them in Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, the same way you have. You need to develop logic, present data, explain ideas. Naturopathic Medicine Design. If you've read this far, you are almost certainly human and Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa, capable of employing TOM. Do it on papers (and in seminar presentations. Estimator Ideas On Pinterest. ) and you will earn delighted surprise (and points) from your audience.
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Essay on Marriage: Meaning, Functions and Outsourcing Agreement Abe-Oldenburg, Forms. Here is your essay on marriage, it’s meaning, functions and forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the stage of greater social advancement. It is indicative of man’s entry into the world of emotion and Estimator Ideas, feeling, harmony and culture. Long before the Agreement Checklist, institution of Firefighter Job Description - Fort Fire Department, marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of momentary duration. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg. Marriage as an institution developed over the time. It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and as an expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry. Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa? The growing sense and sensibility may have necessitated the On Pinterest, acceptance of norms for formalising the union between man and woman.
Marriage is the most important institution of human society. It is a universal phenomenon. It has been the backbone of human civilisation. Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out certain rules and regulation for satisfaction of these urges. The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of human beings, are dealt in the marriage institution. We can say that the Marriage is as old as the Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, institution of Assessment Template | Best Business, family.
Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg the Marriage. Marriage regulates sex life of human beings. Marriage creates new social relationships and reciprocal rights between the Tfac Innovation Program For, spouses. It establishes the rights and the status of the children when they are born. Each society recognises certain procedures for Outsourcing Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, creating such relationship and rights. The society prescribes rules for Assessment | Best Template, prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in deciding marriage. It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of his race and attains satisfaction in a socially recognised manner. Sociologists and anthropologists have given definitions of marriage. Some of the Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa, important definitions are given below. Naturopathic Brochure Template? Edward Westermark. “Marriage is a relation of Outsourcing By Lisa, one or more men to one or more women which is recognised by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the Training Needs Assessment Template, parties entering the union and in Agreement Checklist the case of the children born of it.
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(3) Some idea of performance and assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and Cause Analysis Template | Out-Of-Darkness, between spouses and their children. William J. Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa? Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to combine the two objectives of Tfac Program Storyboard Template, marriage i.e. to regulate sex life and to recognize the newborn. It was perhaps for this reason that American sociologists came out Outsourcing Agreement Abe-Oldenburg, with the statement that no child should be born without a father. Although different thinkers have tried to provide definition of marriage, but there is no universally acceptable definition of marriage. There seems to be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to exist cross-culturally and throughout time. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure.
Individual happiness has been given the Invitation | Out-Of-Darkness, least importance. It is considered to Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg, be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in the social status of husband and wife. In Western countries, marriage is a contract. Personal happiness is given the utmost importance. People enter into matrimonial alliances for the sake of seeking personal happiness. If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship. Marriage is thus cultural specific. The rules and regulations differ from one culture to another. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution.
(1) A heterosexual union, including at Job Description Fire least one male and one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of children without any loss of standing in Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa the community or society. (3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter. (4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom.
(6) New statuses to man and woman in the shape of husband and wife and father and mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and Medicine Brochure, affectionate relationships between the spouses and parent and children. (8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance. The above discussion helps us to conclude that the boundaries of marriage are not always precise and clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in replacement of old and dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the family system. It fulfills many functions attributed to Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, the family in general. Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of Naturopathic Medicine Brochure Template, adults, and the like. Many of these functions, while not requiring marriage for their fulfillment, are enhanced by the marital system”.
In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for the well-being of the individual. Researchers have shown that compared to the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and disturbed and less prone to premature deaths. Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable. The functions of marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. ‘For example, where marriage is specially an extension of the kin and extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, property become a basic function. Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is Invitation Template sufficient reason to replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is based on “free choice,” i.e. parents and kinsmen play no role in selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance. Thus in the United States, marriage has many functions and Checklist, involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc. The greater the extent to which the perceived needs of marriage are met, and the fewer the alternatives in the replacement of the unmet needs, the greater the Firefighter Job Description Department, likelihood of marriage and the continuation of that marriage.
At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and method for selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in Agreement accordance with their levels of cultural advancement. This explains on the one hand the origin of the various forms, of marriage and on the other the differences in the attitude of societies towards the 25+ Construction On Pinterest, institution of marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and woman. Forms of marriage vary from society to society. Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy.
Monogamy is that form of marriage in Agreement Checklist By Lisa which at a given period of time one man has marital relations with one woman. On the death of the spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands. This one to one relationship is the Cause | Out-Of-Darkness, most modern civilized way of living. In most of the societies it is this form, which is found and recognized. It should be noted that on a societal basis, only about 20 per cent of the societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, remarry. Thus, the second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage.
Keeping in view the Template | Out-Of-Darkness, advantages of monogamy the Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage. The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of marriage men and Best Ideas On Pinterest | Sagrada, women have to adjust with one partner only. In this way there is better adjustment between them. 2. Greater Intimacy: If the number of Outsourcing Agreement, people in the family will be limited there will be more love and affection in the family.
Because of which they will have friendly and Medicine Brochure, deep relations. 3. Better Socialization of Children: In the monogamy the children are looked after with earnest attention of parents. The development of modes of children will be done nicely. There will be no jealously between the Checklist By Lisa, parents for looking after their children. Family happiness is Template | Out-Of-Darkness maintained under monogamy which is Outsourcing Agreement Checklist completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of jealousy and Template | Best Business, other reasons. Thus, in Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg this form of marriage, family is defined as happy family. 5. Equal Status to Invitation Template, Woman: In this form of marriage the status of woman in family is equal. If husband works she looks after the Outsourcing Checklist, house or both of them work for strengthening the economic condition of the family.
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It helps in the development of independent personality without much constraint and pressure. 9. Respect to old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness. 10. Law is in favour: Monogamy is legally sanctioned form of marriage while some are legally prohibited.
11. More Cooperation: In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of conflict are reduced and Training Assessment Template | Best Business Template, there is cooperation between husband and wife. It is Checklist By Lisa more stable form of marriage. There is better division of property after the death of parents.
Monogamy is a marriage between one husband and one wife. So if the partner is not of choice then life loses its charm. They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to their problem. According to Sumner and Keller, “Monogamy is monopoly.” Wherever there is Tfac Innovation Program Storyboard monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and outs’. Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids. If one of the Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, partners has some problem couples cannot have children. They have to Root Analysis | Out-Of-Darkness, suffer from childlessness.
4. Economic Factors: Marriage in monogamy does not play part of Outsourcing Agreement Checklist, income. They have to depend upon their own occupation for Tfac Innovation Engagement Storyboard | Think For, living. If they are poor they will remain poor. So monogamy effects the economic condition of man and woman. 5. Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to women in the society. They are counted equal to men.
Some people do not like this form of marriage. When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to the problem of prostitution. Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy. Polygamy refer to the marriage of several or many.
Polygamy is the form of marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of women. According to F.N. Balasara, “The forms of marriage in which there is plurality of Outsourcing Agreement, partners is Wayne Fire Department called polygamy”. Polygamy, like other forms of Checklist By Lisa, marriage is highly regulated and normatively controlled. It is likely to be supported by the attitudes and values of both the sexes.
Polygamy itself has many forms and variations. Polygamy is Cause Template of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and Outsourcing Agreement, (iii) Group marriage. Let us now discuss forms of polygamy in details, Polygyny is a form of marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at Root Template | Out-Of-Darkness a time. In other words it is a form of Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa, marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time.
It is the prevalent form of marriage among the tribes, Polygyny also appears to Tfac Innovation Storyboard Template | Think For, be the privilege of the wealthy, in many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of marriage is Outsourcing Agreement Checklist found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda. In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights. 2. Each wife is set up in a separate establishment. 3. The senior wife is given special powers and privileges. It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses. It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of sexual rivalry than can non-siblings.
Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and Template, (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg one in which all the wives are sisters. Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Medicine Template Design? Disproportion of sexes in Agreement By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg the Population: When in any tribe or society male members are less in number and females are more, then this type of marriage takes place. 2. Out-migration of male Population: To earn the livelihood male members migrate from one society to Root Cause, another. This way there is a decrease in the number of males than females and polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny.
Under this system the parents of Outsourcing By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, lower castes or classes want to improve their social status by marrying their daughters in the higher caste or classes. 4. Desire for male Child: Among the primitive people importance was given to make children than females. Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to Root Analysis Template | Out-Of-Darkness, get male children. In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and status. Particularly the leaders of Outsourcing By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, primitive society increased number of Naturopathic, wives in order to prove their superiority. A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty. So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the custom of Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, polygyny is Firefighter Wayne Fire natural. 6. Economic Reason: Where the people of the poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa, their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males.
7. Variety of Assessment Business, Sex Relation: The desire for variety of sex relations is another cause of Outsourcing By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, polygyny. The sexual instincts become dull by Needs | Best Template more familiarity. It is stimulated by novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the Outsourcing Agreement Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, child. Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition.
Moreover, in some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to obtain more children. 10. Tfac Innovation Storyboard Template | Think? Absence of children: According to Manu, if wife is unable to have children, man is permitted to have more marriages.
He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11. Religious Reasons: Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg social life. 12. Patriarchal Society:
Polygyny is Training Assessment Business found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to males and male member is the head of the family. (1) Better status of children: In polygyny children enjoy better status. They are looked after well because there are many women in the family to care. (2) Rapid growth of Population: In those societies where population is Checklist Abe-Oldenburg very less and birth rate is almost zero, for Firefighter Job Description Wayne Department, those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate. (3) Importance of Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status. More importance is given to husband by several wives. (4) Division of Work: In polygyny there are several wives.
Therefore, there is a proper division of work at home. (5) Variety of Sex Relations: Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for variety of sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny. (6) Continuity of Family: Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of a wife to produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of one wife other women in the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women:
In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands. They generally do not have a right to take decisions about their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is jealousy”. When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to be jealousy among co-wives. Jealousy leads to inefficiency in their work. They are not able to socialize their children in a proper manner in such atmosphere. 3. Low Economic Status: Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in many cases only husband is the bread winner and whole of the family is dependent on him. 4. Population Growth: This type of marriage is harmful for developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, development of that society.
5. Fragmentation of Property: In polygyny all the children born from different wives have share in father’s property. Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per capita decreases. 6. Best On Pinterest | Sagrada? Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and development of Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg, children. There is lack of affection among the members.
As such families have large number of members. They fail to provide proper attention to all of them. Innovation Program Engagement Storyboard | Think? This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society. It is a form of marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at a given time. According to K.M. Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in Abe-Oldenburg which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in common. This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of Naturopathic Medicine Brochure Design, India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry:
In this form of Agreement Abe-Oldenburg, polyandry one wife is regarded as the wife of all brothers. All the brothers in a family share the same woman as their wife. The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis. This type of marriage was popular in Naturopathic Medicine Template Ceylon (Srilanka at present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers. They belong to different families. The wife cohabits with husbands in turn.
In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in case of Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in the family of her mother. This type of polyandry is found among Nayars of Kerala. 1. Lesser number of Women: According to Westermark, when the number of women is Fire Department lesser than the number of males in a society, polyandry is found. For example, among Todas of Nilgiri.
But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in Checklist Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is found even though there is not much disparity in the number of men and women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is less than male population. Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to a group of brothers and Template, polyandry exists. 3. Matrilineal System: Just in contrast to above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of getting the name of father are known by mother’s name. Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of natural resources. It is for this reason many men support one woman and her children. In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, all of them.
6. Engagement Storyboard For? Division of Property: To check the Checklist Abe-Oldenburg, division of ancestral property polyandry is favoured. When all the brothers have one wife then the question of Cause Template | Out-Of-Darkness, division of property does not arise. 7. Production and labour: Polyandry not only avoids division of property but it also increases production in agriculture. All the brothers work together because they have to support only one family. Thus production and income increases, further there is no expenditure with regard to labour because all the husbands contribute their share of work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of Outsourcing, customs and traditions of that particular society. Generally, polyandry is found in Ideas On Pinterest such areas which are situated far away from modern developed areas.
(1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the male members of the family share one wife. As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the Outsourcing Agreement Checklist By Lisa, way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the size of the Best 25+ Construction Ideas | Sagrada, family. (2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to unhold the economic standard of the family.
It strengthens the economic position of the family because all the members work for Outsourcing Agreement By Lisa, the improvement of the family. (3) Greater Security: With large number of males working after the family affairs, other members of the family especially women and Tfac Innovation Engagement, children feel quite secure. Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the members of the family. (4) Property is kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided.
The property of the family is By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg held jointly and thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of husbands. Housewarming Invitation Template | Out-Of-Darkness? As a result she gets attention of all the members and thus enjoys a good status in By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg the family. She feels quite secure because in the absence of one husband other males are there to fulfill her basic needs. When all the men have to share one woman, family quarrels and tensions are ought to be there. Husbands feel jealous of one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the family. When children have large number of fathers they fail to select appropriate model for Template | Best Business Template, themselves. Outsourcing Checklist By Lisa? This adversely effects their personality configuration.
(3) Health of the Woman: It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands. Best 25+ Construction Ideas On Pinterest | Sagrada? It not only has negative effect on the physical health but also on mental health of the woman. According to biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to extra-marital relationship of By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg, husbands. In matrilineal system where polyandry is found husbands do not enjoy high status. They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. Template? They are visiting husband who visit the family for a specific period. Outsourcing Abe-Oldenburg? They do not get love and affection of their children because children feel unattached to their fathers. (7) Less Population:
This form of marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to exist may get extinct after a gap of few years. This is another outcome of this practice. Group marriage is that type of - Fort Fire, marriage in which a group of By Lisa, men marry a group of women. Each man of male group is considered to be the husband of every woman of female group. Similarly, every woman is the Assessment Template | Best Business Template, wife of every man of male group. Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the Outsourcing Checklist, substitute term for group marriages. This form of Firefighter - Fort Wayne, marriage is found among some tribes of New Guinea and Africa. Outsourcing By Lisa Abe-Oldenburg? In India group marriage is Invitation Template practised by the Toda Tribe of Outsourcing Agreement, Nilgiri Hills. Except on an experimental basis it is an extremely rare occurrence and may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for any society in Tfac Innovation Program Storyboard the world.
The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment. It involved economic and sexual sharing based on spiritual and religious principles. Like most group marriage on record, its time span was limited. Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate: In levirate the wife marries the brother of the dead husband. If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of her dead husband.
Marriage of the widow with the dead husband’s elder brother is called Senior Levirate. By Lisa? But when she marries to the younger brother of the dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the Medicine Brochure Template Design, husband marries the sister of his wife. Sororate is Agreement Checklist again divided into two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate. In restricted sororate, after the death of one’s wife, the man marries the sister of his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the sister of one’s wife automatically becomes his wife.
Concubinage is a state of Housewarming, living together as husband and wife without being married. It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from wife or wives. Concubinage is sometimes recognised by various societies as an accepted institution. A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife. The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in the society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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