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Latin America at the Crossroads:An Introductory Essay. Not for the first time in its arduous history, Latin America stands poised at a crossroads. Continuing along the Customer Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern University, present path of Win An Cd From deepening indebtedness, never-ending recession, plummeting employment and household impoverishment is simply unsustainable. It would be a mistake to conclude that the dominant economic policy paradigm in the region is exclusively responsible for this sorry performance. Nonetheless, the verdict is now in on the ability of the market-based economic policies associated with the Washington Consensus to generate positive results: The market-driven model has failed miserably, and alternatives need to be put in place sooner rather than later. Historians may look back on the utter collapse of the Argentine economy in 2001 as the critical moment that awakened the world to Management the extent of the region-wide crisis. The Argentine debacle carried with it the real possibility of analogous breakdowns in neighboring Uruguay and 9+ How To Make A Voucher | Cook, Brazil.  Perhaps more importantly, the crisis coincided with persistent economic emergencies across much of the Andes and significant portions of Central America and Management - Northwestern, the Caribbean. The full range of neoliberal reforms were not applied in Win An Family Chart Templates Cd From all of the countries that teetered on Customer Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern University, the brink of social and economic catastrophe at Student Entry Level Hairdresser Template, one point or another from the mid-1990s through 2002. Yet even where popular resistance had managed to Management - Northwestern University block domestic implementation of some market-oriented reforms, the crises and their social repercussions could be traced to the impact of a broadly neoliberal international regime on domestic economic stability. Argentina was crucial, not only for the extreme nature of its predicament and the breadth of Job Offer Non | its reverberations, spanning oceans beyond Latin America, but also because it had for Management - Northwestern, so many years served as the model for the advocates of Student Entry Hairdresser Resume Template wholesale privatization, deregulation, trade liberalization and financial integration. Customer Facilities Management - Northwestern University! Finally, Argentina’s ordeal reflected the degree to which today’s Latin American economic crisis is of even greater dimensions than that which accompanied the This Notice, Great Depression or the debt crisis of 1982.
Argentina may or may not represent the proverbial straw that broke the camel’s back. Customer Management - Northwestern! But there is little doubt that its crisis marked the end of the period during which power-holders in Win An Ultimate Chart Cd From Latin America, and its de facto capital city for economic policymaking, Washington, D.C., could ignore the outrage over the inevitable consequences of the economic model prescribed for the region. However we allocate blame for the economic devastation that has brought ruin to Customer Satisfaction: millions of households across Latin America and the Caribbean, it is time to label the experience clearly. There should be no dispute that it qualifies as a tragedy of Job Offer Letter Sample Up Friendly historic proportions. Protests from the direct victims of Customer Facilities - Northwestern this region-wide tragedy have time and again elicited reactions of disinterest, dismissal or suppression from government officials and international financial institutions.
Before the Argentine collapse, few were willing to listen to progressive intellectuals or advocacy groups outside the region who condemned, as consciously or inadvertently pernicious, the This Sample Notice Template Consists, process of wholesale privatization, institutional dismantling and regressive redistribution that was being foisted upon Latin American countries for roughly two decades. But those raised voices can no longer be ignored. It is Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern University not only that the evidence of failure now exceeds the capacity for denial of even the most impervious economists. Rather, what is Consists Entire Format most significant is Facilities Management - Northwestern University that the political pendulum has now swung decidedly against the champions of the market as a one-size-fits-all solution to Handbook Latin America’s economic woes. In one Latin American country after another, progressive leaders have come to office and are confronting the established paradigm, as Cecilia Lopez Montano notes in her contribution to this NACLA Report. At times, as in Brazil, they are doing so only at the margins, at least for now. But elsewhere, as in Argentina and, arguably, in Venezuela, they are confronting that paradigm and its apostles head on. Perhaps most importantly, the shift is now emerging beyond the context of national level economic policies. This point was driven home last September when developing countries walked out of the trade negotiations at Cancun, declaring themselves fed up with the collusive charade being enacted by Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern University the governments of the United States and the European Union. To say that we have reached a turning point is not to predict any single likely outcome.
Quite the contrary, in Latin America as in Handbook so much of the world, we are witnessing a moment of highly uncertain flux. That very uncertainty signals the Satisfaction: Facilities Management University, degree to which what is at stake in the debate over Sample Eviction Notice Template Of An Entire Format Latin American development strategies is a matter of intense struggle. Customer Facilities Management - Northwestern! As Keith Nurse underlines in Handbook his critique of developmentalist discourse in Customer Satisfaction: this report, this struggle is highly political as well as economic. He reveals the 11) Do Not Call In, often diverging interests of North and South, not to mention the depth of the chasm separating the forces that wish to safeguard hierarchies and privilege from Customer Facilities University those who would overturn these in Contest: Ultimate Family Tree Chart Templates Cd From Shop the interest of social justice. This is also an intellectual struggle between the defenders of orthodoxy who inhabit the corporate world, developed country governments and international financial institutions, and on Management, the other side, their critics, who march in This Eviction Template Entire Format the streets or who work in advocacy organizations, academia, policymaking positions in Southern governments or in development agencies of various kinds. This NACLA Report aims to enter this fray, to provide an overview of some of the questions that are being debated vigorously in Latin America and the Caribbean, and to highlight some of the more provocative ideas circulating among progressive analysts of development in the region. We do not aim to achieve consensus, not to mention closure. Indeed, it would be premature to attempt either. Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern University! Our admittedly more modest objective is simply to situate the present conjuncture in a broader historical context, to signal areas of particularly heated controversy and to suggest some elements of an Eviction Of An Format, eventual alternative.
We reject in advance the objections of those who would demand that we must put forth compelling answers to all pending questions before the prevailing model can be abandoned. Quite the contrary: It is well past time for Customer Satisfaction: University, those in the policymaking community who have spear-headed the Letter Sample, more than two decades of devastation to recognize the depths of their failure and to Customer Management University acknowledge the legitimacy of schools of thought diverging considerably from their own. The Mexican debt moratorium of Sample Template Of An Format 1982 brought to a sudden close the inward-oriented development model that had prevailed throughout the region—to differing degrees—at least since the Second World War. Though it afforded greater opportunities both for upward mobility and for sustaining social solidarities than the market-oriented model that succeeded it, the Customer Satisfaction: - Northwestern, post-war recipe for development was far from perfect, and none of the contributors to this issue of the Report proposes its resuscitation. Based on protection of Contest: Family Tree Chart Cd From domestic markets, subsidies for local industry, public investment and favoritism toward organized producers (who more often than not were disproportionately male, white and Satisfaction: University, urban), it achieved impressive rates of economic growth and constructed incomplete but often ambitious systems for social protection. It was during this period that social security, unemployment insurance, health care and Letter Sample Setting, extensive public education became accessible to substantial segments of the middle and working classes. Of course, these achievements were woefully partial and in more cases than not were bequeathed from the state by authoritarian leaders instead of conquered from Customer - Northwestern University below by a mobilized citizenry. Perhaps for this reason, these accomplishments came at 9+ How To Make, considerable cost. Latin America’s inequalities remained among the most severe on the planet, because social groups that lacked privileged ties to the prevailing political order did not share in Customer Management University the fruits of the industrial boom or the state-building process that endured for several decades. Exclusion was particularly widespread among Latin Americans residing in the countryside.
For them agrarian reform all too often remained an unfulfilled promise—if it was promised at all—as oligarchies, which in some cases remain entrenched to 9+ How Resume this day, resisted even timid efforts to modernize land tenure regimes. Nor did the Customer Facilities, benefits of Student Level Hairdresser Resume Template this model extend to the tens of millions of urban poor who toiled under conditions of informality, frequently residing in the urban squalor of teeming shantytowns that sprung up inexorably as rural communities migrated to Management University the cities when their agricultural livelihoods disappeared. The highly centralized systems that characterized this period were also exclusionary in other respects. 9+ How A Voucher | Cook Resume! They typically allowed little space for citizens to articulate demands autonomously or to forge creative solutions to collective concerns at local and community levels or in their relationship to the broader political order. In short, while the development paradigm that was eclipsed with the debt crisis was not a total failure, it was not an effective strategy for empowering subaltern populations or for constructing social and political citizenship in the broadest, most emancipatory sense of the term. The story of neoliberal adjustment and restructuring is Customer University sufficiently well known that there is no need to recount it here.
It suffices to say that much of what was constructed during the pre-debt crisis decades of economic growth has eroded to the point of Letter Sample Non | Setting Letter near extinction. In South America, for example, the industrial landscape has decayed dramatically and probably, irretrievably. Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management University! The minority of industrial units that survive competitively have boosted productivity to levels hardly imaginable not long ago, but these typically represent mere enclaves, accounting for negligible employment and connecting unevenly, at best, to the broader fabric of economic life. Although industry has performed better in Mexico and in parts of Central America and the Caribbean, dynamism has been concentrated in Entry Level Hairdresser Resume Template production of relatively low value-added goods in export processing zones that typically afford low wages and limited ties to Facilities domestically-oriented enterprises. Thus, the Job Offer Letter Sample Setting Up Friendly Letter, industrial upgrading that is rightfully given priority by several contributors to this NACLA Report remains elusive, and the result is Customer Management - Northwestern University that both the supply of jobs and their quality is inadequate to meet the needs of households and communities throughout the region. Much the same can be said for agricultural production, where again the greatest advances have been achieved in sectors that are oriented to external markets and 9+ How To Make Resume, that provide only limited benefits in employment or in demand for domestic enterprises.
The restructuring of the past two decades has also had a devastating impact on the institutional underpinnings of Customer Satisfaction: Facilities University social welfare. Latin America’s social security systems and public universities, to cite just two examples outside the narrow realm of economic production, were flawed fundamentally. But they were worthwhile beginnings for Tree Chart, societies that imagined a future in which all citizens would share opportunities to improve their lot. Customer Management - Northwestern University! Those institutions, victims of chronic under-funding and Win An Ultimate Family Tree, of an Facilities University, ideologically driven crusade to relegate the provision of Job Offer Letter public goods to the market, now face extinction. However, all has not been lost. Public expenditures on education and social services have in fact increased substantially in recent years virtually everywhere in Latin America, a trend supported by both the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. And while tax systems remain regressive and raise insufficient amounts of revenue given the range of urgent social and economic needs, the reality is Customer Facilities Management that the administrative capability of states to Job Offer Non | Setting Up Friendly collect taxes has risen substantially. Management - Northwestern! In this regard, as with advances in the efficiency and transparency with which some public services are delivered, not all of the reforms advocated by multilateral institutions must necessarily be jettisoned in order for a progressive alternative to To Make | Cook Resume take hold. Customer Management University! Indeed, there are noteworthy instances in which Latin America’s peoples are reaping the benefits of administrative reforms aimed at facilitating what Judith Tendler described, in her aptly titled book, as Good Government in the Tropics. It is possible to build on these gains, but—as each of the Letter Setting, contributors to this issue of the NACLA Report argues—for that to Customer Facilities Management - Northwestern University be possible at least two decisive shifts are imperative.
Above all, policy- making must abandon a fundamentalist faith in markets and in the desirability of economic growth as the “be all and Sample Eviction Of An Format, end all” of economic development. Instead, as Mariama Williams argues in her account of the contribution made by feminist economists to understanding collective well-being, priority must be given to enhancing the social welfare of the populations that inhabit Latin America and the Caribbean. That transformed emphasis for policy—on satisfying people’s needs rather than on maximizing space for efficient operation of markets or on implementation of any other narrow ideological agenda couched in terms of technocratic efficiency—is as urgent as it is straightforward. Secondly, and Customer Satisfaction: Facilities, not unrelated, development must be understood as inextricably linked to the construction of democratic societies in To Make | Cook Resume which people’s needs and preferences are recognized as essential underpinnings of sound public policy. The past decades of Latin American history are replete with examples of market-oriented reforms that were imposed over the objections—or behind the backs—of the Customer Satisfaction: University, citizenry, often by leaders who had been elected to office precisely on the basis of pledges not to enact such measures. Yet even where it can be argued plausibly that painful reforms were overdue—cutbacks in protections for privileged sectors of the civil service are one obvious example—the costs of top-down imposition of change have typically far exceeded those of the problem they supposedly aimed to overcome.
Whether motivated by their own distance from the everyday lives of the people they govern or by pressures to conform to the demands of international investors or officials of Setting multilateral agencies, political leaders throughout Latin America enacted the Washington Consensus without regard to public opinion. It has become commonplace to observe that, in so doing, they undermined societal trust in democratic institutions and leaders. But the costs of this exclusionary approach to decision-making run much deeper. Customer Facilities Management - Northwestern! They are found in the absence of civic engagement and social solidarity that characterizes many Latin American and Caribbean societies where awareness of collective interests once permeated political discourse. Overcoming this particular legacy of neoliberal reform will take decades and will require vibrant efforts from social movements, from government officials and from citizens in This Sample Eviction Template Consists Of An Format all walks of life.
Juan Pablo Perez Sainz and Katherine Andrade-Eekhoff are right to emphasize that the prospects for improving social welfare in the region will hinge on the capabilities of communities to forge integrative projects for development. In other words, it is Customer - Northwestern University essential to elaborate strategies for change that incorporate the abilities and interests—and thus the enthusiasm—of the broadest possible segments of the Job Offer Non | Setting Up Friendly Letter, population. Anything less than that will be insufficient to overcome the heritage of polarization and underdevelopment that pre-dates the neoliberal era but that has grown so much more severe under its auspices. To identify a socially-driven agenda and a politically democratizing mode of decision making as crucial is an important step forward, but for these aspirations to be realized will require prolonged practical and intellectual struggles. It is toward the fusion of Management University such currents of struggle that this issue of the Report is directed. The issues that could—indeed, that must—be addressed are far greater than we can accommodate in any single issue of the Report. Eviction Notice Consists Format! Our intention, however, is to expand upon this effort during subsequent issues over the next year. Debate about development alternatives will continue for some time to come and in many different venues. One such venue may well be the Facilities - Northwestern, Annual Conference on Template, Development and Change, which Fred Rosen chronicles in the next article of this report.
It provided the initial occasion for the contributors gathered herein to share ideas about Satisfaction: - Northwestern University these issues. There will be others as well, and NACLA will strive to bring to its readership information about these events and analyses of the debates that they engender, for Latin America and the Caribbean, as for other regions of the To Make Resume, South. ABOUT THE AUTHOR. Eric Hershberg, a Program Director at the Social Science Research Council, is a guest editor of this Report. He is currently a Visiting Fellow at Princeton University’s Program on Latin American Studies (PLAS) and the Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies (PIIRS) and President of NACLA’s Board of Directors. 1. I am grateful to PLAS and PIIRS for funding support during the writing and editing of this Report and to Customer Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern University Fred Rosen for comments on an earlier draft of Handbook this essay. Errors of omission, commission or interpretation are solely my responsibility. 2. Indeed, the contagion effects were substantial.
Uruguay’s GDP declined by 4% during 2001 and an additional 11% during 2002. By the end of University last year, per capita GDP had fallen to $3,700 from $6,800 at the end of 1998. See . The Brazilian economy, meanwhile, labors under draconian budget cuts and interest rates kept sky-high in a desperate—so far successful—attempt to persuade Wall Street bondholders that its left- of-center government can be relied upon to ensure healthy returns on their investments. In both countries, the situation could grow considerably worse. 3. Perhaps the most systematic review of the reforms, and one that ultimately assigns a mixed report card to Student Level Hairdresser Resume Template Washington Consensus policies, is Barbara Stallings and Wilson Peres’, “Growth Employment and Equity,” (Brookings, 1999). The authors conclude that the biggest failures are distributional and in the realm of social policy and employment.
4. See Sue Branford and Management University, Bernardo Kucinski, Lula and the Worker’s Party (New York: The New Press, forthcoming 2003). 5. A useful overview of the problem of inequality in Latin America is Kelly Hoffman and Miguel Angel Centeno, “The Lopsided Continent: Inequality in Latin America,” Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. Ultimate Chart! 29, pp. 363-390, August 2003. 6. See the 2003 UNDP Human Development Report, pp. 266-268. 7. Judith Tendler, Good Government in the Tropics (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998). Like this article? Support our work. Management! Donate now. Sign up for our NACLA Update for announcements, events, the latest articles, and more!
NACLA relies on our supporters to continue our important work. With the right resurgent throughout the Job Offer Letter Setting Up Friendly, hemisphere—from Brazil to Colombia, Argentina to the United States—NACLA's research and analysis is more important than ever. Please support our work! The Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies (CLACS) at New York University is an interdisciplinary teaching, research, and public information program. Latin American Perspectives is Customer Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern University a theoretical and scholarly journal for discussion and debate on the political economy of Handbook capitalism, imperialism, and socialism in the Americas. INFO About Staff Board Jobs Contact SUPPORT US Donate Store Become a Member MAGAZINE Advertise Archives CONNECT NACLA newsletter Facebook Twitter LinkedIn. NACLA | c/o NYU CLACS, 53 WASHINGTON SQ.
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THE MILAN APPROACH TO FAMILY THERAPY: A CRITIQUE KATE TUCKER. The essence of Customer Satisfaction: life is the progression of To Make A Voucher Resume such changes as growth, self-duplication, and synthesis of complex relationships. (Odum 1983: 87) Life occurs within the context of ecosystems, which include both the living and non-living elements of the environment (Odum 1983: 13). All the elements of an ecosystem influence each other in Management patterns of interdependencies. An ecosystemic post-modernist, deconstructionist view, presupposes that there is Contest: Win An Ultimate Chart Cd From, no one culture, no one worldview or reality, and no one #145;correct#146; model of Customer Facilities Management - Northwestern University psychology. It is particularly important to understand this point in the South African context, where so many cultural and ethnic groups live side by This Eviction Template Format side in an ever-changing ecology of Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern University ideas. If a critique is to be meaningful, it should be informed, and should take into Win An Family Chart Templates Cd From, account the ecology of the conceptual framework that is being subject to criticism and should be consistent with the assumptions of Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management that framework (Becvar Becvar 1998: 221).
An attempt will be made therefore to 11) Do Not Call, enter into the ecology or framework of the Customer Satisfaction: Management University Milan approach to family therapy in order to write this critique. However, consistent with a ecosystemic perspective, it should be born in mind that the Job Offer Non | Up Friendly Letter underlying propositions of the culture in which one has been socialised have a fundamental influence on one#146;s view of Satisfaction: Facilities reality, on one#146;s thought processes, perceptions and intellectual functioning. In other words, in In order to write a truly meaningful critical evaluation of the Milan approach to family therapy, it is not possible to stand outside the theory and Facilities Management, merely observe (as in the black box metaphor) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 63). The act of engaging in critical evaluation sets up a dialogue with the theory, which impacts on the worldview of the writer. Letter Sample Non | Setting. The process of interpretation of the theory in order to subject it to critical analysis impacts on the theory #150; the Satisfaction: - Northwestern theory as interpreted is not necessarily the theory as intended by 11) Do In the originators of that theory. The way that the reality of the theory is observed partly determines what is seen and how that reality is understood (Zohar 1991: 28). Honderich (1995:13) says that there is Customer Management University, currently a distinct vacuum in interpretative theory#133; critical as well as philosophical, #145;continental#146; as well as #145;analytic#146; #150; across the entire range of western debate. The Milan group contended that there is Win An Tree Chart Cd From, a tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239), which traps therapists and clients into linear ways of thinking.
This writer sees the work of the Milan group as a dialogue or rather #145;multilogue#146; that attempts to break free of the received view of the Western logical-positivist tradition, and traditional depth psychology. This writer sees the systemic approach of the Milan group as confronting the #145;tyranny of linguistics#146; and the #145;discursive vacuum#146;. The original Milan group (Palazzoli, Boscolo, Cecchin, Prata) has split up and the various members have gone their separate ways (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239), splitting up in 1980 (Becvar Becvar 1998: 245). However, the epistemology of the divergent groups can reasonably be assumed to still be based on Customer Facilities - Northwestern the same underlying principles as that of the original group. A Voucher | Cook. Bearing this in mind, the discussion of the epistemology of the Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern Milan group will be based on Job Offer the broad principles of the original group. There are several important elements of the Milan group#146;s approach that require discussion. The systemic element. The Milan approach to family therapy has been called systemic in the tradition of Bateson#146;s circular epistemology. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239) For Bateson (1971: 243) systems are units that incorporate feedback mechanisms; and by virtue of feedback, these units (systems) can process information. Such systems can be ecological, social, and individual.
Individuals are contextually located. For Bateson, families are systems comprised of individuals who are also systems (Bateson 1971: 243). Customer Facilities. Most important for Bateson was the shift in Student Entry Level Hairdresser Template focus from traditional linear thinking and the traditional perception of the Management - Northwestern University individual mind to a way of understanding the mind as part of a circuit. This means that the concept of mind is considered within the context of all relevant completed circuits (Bateson 1971: 244). In this manner Bateson resolves the dichotomy between mind and body, as for him mind, body, action and the objects (or people) which are acted upon are all part of a circuit of mental activity. This means that for Bateson, behaviour that in the traditional paradigms is This Eviction Format, considered to be pathological or abnormal and intrapsychic, is in Customer University the circular paradigm, interpersonal and Sample Notice Template Consists Of An Entire Format, relational (Becvar Becvar 1998: 22). The focus in Management University Bateson#146;s paradigm has shifted from the inner workings of the individual mind to the consideration of relationships in context (Becvar Becvar 1998: 22). Bateson based his ideas on several sources, including the work of Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Norbert Wiener, Warren McCulloch, Alfred North Whitehead, and Bertrand Russell, as well as mathematics and Level, engineering (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18 f.) An important concept for Bateson was Russell#146;s paradox, based on his Theory of Customer Satisfaction: Management University Logical Types (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18). Essentially Russell#146;s paradox states that most classes are not members of themselves, but some are (Honderich 1995: 785).
Russell#146;s Theory of Logical Types deals with the complexities of relations between the members of classes and the discontinuity that arises between different levels of Letter Non | Setting Up Friendly abstraction, or between a class and the members of that class (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18) (Honderich 1995: 785, 884). Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern. Bateson examined the paradoxical situations suggested by Russell#146;s paradox and the dislocated communication patterns that can exist in such situations. Based on this Bateson and his research group moved towards a position of seeing disorders, such as schizophrenia, in terms of communication patterns within individuals and within families, rather than in terms of 11) Do biogenic or intrapsychic pathology (Becvar Becvar 1998: 20). Several of these elements are important in Facilities Management - Northwestern University the context of the Milan group. Paradoxes, levels of Handbook meaning, the evolutionary nature of systems (even when apparently stuck) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240), patterns of Customer Facilities - Northwestern information, feedback and To Make A Voucher | Cook Resume, recursiveness are all concepts that draw from Satisfaction: - Northwestern Bateson#146;s work. Systems are homeostatic and morphogenic (McKay, in Visser et al 1995: 285 f.); they strive simultaneously for balance and change. Macy (1991) suggests that systems are autonomous. Macy then proceeds to discuss the autonomy of systems in terms of self-regulation (homeostasis and morphogenesis): systems regulate themselves, but are conditioned (changed) by the environment and by input from the environment (Macy 1991: 92).
The Milan group saw the Entry Level Hairdresser Resume Template world in terms of patterns of Customer Facilities - Northwestern University relationships and information, rather than in Student Entry Level Hairdresser terms of matter and energy (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). For Macy, matter, energy, and information are utilised dynamically by systems: external causes are actively transformed in interaction with any system (Macy 1991: 92). Because of the dynamics of change within systems, the implication is that systems are not subject solely to either internal or external causes. Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management. This perspective is consistent with Bateson#146;s view that people#146;s behaviour and thought processes must be seen in terms of the total context of the relationship between people, actions, thoughts and external objects or people in relationship. The Milan group saw that families came to therapy with a paradoxical request: families wanted the stability of an unchanged system, but also wanted the problem member of the family to Notice Consists Of An Entire Format, be cured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). However, the Milan group saw the Facilities Management University problem as being rooted in the family rather than in 11) Do the individual. Consistent with a systems theoretical perspective, and consistent with Bateson#146;s circular or recursive patterns, the group believed that it was not possible to Facilities Management University, change the patterns of behaviour and communication in one part of the system (the identified patient) without affecting the family system as a whole (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) 4.3 . Feedback and equifinality/equipotentiality. Feedback is described as the aspect of recursion involving self-correction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 64). Feedback is what keeps a system functioning the This Sample Format way it does. The Milan group took cognisance of the importance of Customer Facilities Management - Northwestern University recursiveness 3.1.1 and feedback. It was important that both theory and therapy be responsive to feedback in the therapy situation (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240).
Negative feedback is taken into account in the Milan Group#146;s approach to theory and therapy (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). Letter Non | Setting Letter. The Milan Group#146;s awareness of what happened in the therapeutic situation led them to discard a linear way of Customer Satisfaction: - Northwestern thinking and This Sample Notice Template, suggesting interventions, and to move towards a more circular approach to instigation and Customer Management - Northwestern, intervention (Palazzoli et al 1989: 118). This demonstrates that feedback from Letter Sample Setting Letter therapy punctuated their epistemology and that changes in epistemology led to changes in clinical practices. This means that the Facilities Management - Northwestern system of the 11) Do Not Call Milan Group itself changed: the Satisfaction: Management ecology of ideas took on a different perspective. This is an example of feedback on a level of simple cybernetics: the system (the Milan Group) changed in response to information fed back into Job Offer Non | Setting Letter, it from interaction between the group and Customer Facilities - Northwestern, the clients. The status quo was not maintained, so the process is referred to as positive feedback (Becvar Becvar 1998: 65). A second-order cybernetic way of looking at feedback in this context is that the Milan Group was error-activated: information that differed from their original ideas was fed back into the system (the Group, in interaction with their clients), and the Group responded to this information in Handbook such a way that the difference (from their previous concepts) was accepted (Becvar Becvar 1998: 66). It is Customer Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern, important to note that this feedback still functioned to Job Offer Sample Setting Letter, stabilise or correct the system: the Milan Group incorporated new ideas, changed their strategies and Customer Management - Northwestern, thinking into more circular patterns, and continued to function (until such time as the Group did in fact split up) as a family therapeutic group. Whether or not the members of the Milan Group analysed the feedback process in this manner is not known.
What is important is Student Hairdresser, that they incorporated feedback from therapy into theory and vice versa. According to Customer University, the principle of equifinality systems function according to 9+ How To Make | Cook Resume, characteristic, repetitive patterns of interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). The goal of a system is its own survival (Palazzoli et al 1989: 159): a system, as it is Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern, , is its own best explanation of itself (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69) (my italics). Family members tend to develop habits and ways of communicating and relating to each other, so that regardless of how a situation starts, the tendency is to end in a characteristic way. An example might be a wife#146;s complaint that her husband #145;always#146; shouts at her when she does something he does not approve of, while the husband might react by saying that his wife #145;never#146; considers the implications of her actions, but #145;only ever#146; thinks of the immediate present. Whether the Not Call wife buys expensive Christmas presents for the children, or new curtains, with her annual bonus, the end result will be that the Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern University husband will shout at her for not thinking of putting some money aside as savings. In. The wife considers that the purpose of the annual bonus is to provide for Christmas or to refurbish the home.
The husband perceives the wife as never thinking of the Management future: each reacts in a certain, characteristic way, which preserves the system and the communication patterns as they are. Complementary to the principle of equifinality is the principle of equipotentiality, which states that different endings can be reached from the Job Offer Sample Setting Up Friendly Letter same initial actions (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). To continue with the example: the husband might decide that the new curtains are actually an investment in the family home, and might praise his wife for Customer Management, her forethought and consideration in not spending her bonus on presents that the children will have forgotten about before the end of January. The wife might be so pleasantly surprised that she would start to invest some of her salary every month towards future home improvements. These two complementary principles have a focus in the here-and-now, directing one towards what is To Make Resume, happening rather than why something is happening. What is important is the present functioning of the system, rather than the history of how the Facilities Management - Northwestern University system came to be or to function in Student Level a certain way (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). Initially the Customer Facilities Management University Milan Group based their theory on the concepts of the Palo Alto Group, using the Not Call telephone system model (a model of interactive circularity) (Palazzoli, Cirillo, Selvini Sorrentino 1989: 159) (Cecchin et al 1994: 14). This model is impersonal and a-historical: all users are equal, irrespective of who they are, what their personal characteristics are, and Customer Facilities, what their historical backgrounds are.
What is important in a telephone system is rapid action and reaction (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). This model functions according to the principles of equifinality and equipotentiality. However, for | Cook, the Milan Group, the model proved to be inadequate. For this group what mattered was the circular processes and interactions within the Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern family that take place over Job Offer Letter Non | Letter, the years that it takes for a person to Customer Satisfaction: Facilities University, become a patient. For the Milan Group, the circularity that mattered is to be found in the history, not in the instant (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160) (original italics). Time or history, for the Milan Group was vitally important, and Win An Ultimate Family Tree Chart Templates Shop, they saw time as being linked to process (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260). They found that the telephone system model to be simplistic and reductive (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern. For example, according to Palazzoli and colleagues (1989: 160) there are many factors that might cause a husband to become a wife-beater: provocative behaviour by the wife, education level, adherence to cultural norms, personality, motivations, expectations, and the rules of what the Milan Group calls the family game. This does not mean that they rejected the importance of the here-and-now in their theoretical or clinical work, but believed rather that the here-and-now should be integrated together with history into Handbook, a multidimensional model (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). For the Milan Group circularity is a process that entails a completion the various arcs of a circuit over a period of time, but that also takes into account the here-and-now, and incorporates individual, intermediate events. It is important to note at this stage that the position assumed by the Milan Group is thus inconsistent with second order cybernetics, as it does have a historical perspective, in Customer Satisfaction: University addition to Contest: Win An Templates Cd From, a present oriented focus 6 . Strategic approaches evolved from both general systems theory and communications approaches to psychology (Becvar Becvar 1998: 223).
Strategic therapists build on the assumptions that #145;one cannot not communicate#146; and #145;one cannot not behave#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). These assumptions form an important part of communication science. In communication science there are many models to explain the - Northwestern University process of communication, from the linear Shannon and Weaver model, through Osgood and Schramm#146;s circular model to Verderber#146;s transactional model (Steinberg 1997:17 ff.). Contest: Win An Family Tree Templates Cd From. Verderber#146;s transactional model is Customer Management, of relevance in this context, as it demonstrates not only that communication is an ongoing, circular process, verbal and non-verbal, but that it is a process by which the parties concerned negotiate meanings (Steinberg 1997: 19). According to Steinberg (1997: 19) the Contest: Ultimate Chart Templates Cd From creation of meaning is negotiated between the participants (my italics). In postmodernist, cybernetic terms, this implies that meaning is not present prior to the communication encounter, but that meaning is created out of the encounter, according to the way that the encounter or relationship punctuates the Satisfaction: realities of the parties.
Strategic therapists add a further injunction to the two above, namely; #145;one cannot not manipulate#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). In a relationship each member tries to find ways of being in 11) Do Not Call a position to define or control the relationship (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). Steinberg (1997: 84) suggests that this is true even in apparently one-sided power relationships, such as a complementary autocratic-abdicratic relationship: both parties seek to define and control the Customer Facilities Management relationship as one in which their needs are met. The autocrat seeks to control and dominate, while the abdicrat seeks to Entry Hairdresser Resume Template, be dominated, abdicating control to - Northwestern, the dominant partner. Each seeks to define the relationship to meet their specific needs. Becvar Becvar (1998: 222) suggest that manipulation is the inevitable consequence of being in This Eviction Notice Template Consists Format a relationship in Management - Northwestern which each member seeks to control or define its nature. Communication patterns, the impossibility of not communicating/behaving (behaviour being seen as a way of communicating), paradoxical injunctions, and manipulation are important aspects of the strategic approach that Milan Group have incorporated into In, their theory and practice. The Milan Group found it important to consider the history of their clients; for them it was necessary to know and understand the clients#146; backgrounds and influences over time 3.1.2 . This is related to the concern that strategic therapists direct to the conceptual frameworks of Customer Facilities Management University their clients. It is also related to Student Entry, Bateson#146;s 3.1.1 concept that body, mind, action, and person/object are all part of Customer - Northwestern a circuit of relationship: the mind and its thoughts do not exist independently of the body or of the Not Call In people, actions and relationships that form the system in which an individual functions.
A problem is not a problem unless it is defined as such (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). Customer Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern University. How a person or family defines a specific behaviour as problematic reflects the way they think, as well as how they relate to each other#146;s worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). However, the clients are not necessarily aware that there is more than one way of looking at the behaviour that they have defined as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224): they are not necessarily aware that people function in a multiverse rather than a universe. Strategic therapists believe it is important to reframe the problem in such a way that it is no longer perceived as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). The Milan Group saw that new meanings needed to be introduced into Contest: Ultimate Family Templates Cd From, a family system in order to Customer Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern, change behaviour and to reframe or re-write the perception of a given behaviour so that it was not longer seen as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241). Meanings are defined by Handbook conceptual frameworks or worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). Therefore the Milan Group needed to be able to understand the worldviews of Customer - Northwestern their clients, and to do this they considered it vitally important to understand the history of their clients (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160, 260, op cit.) 3.1.2 . Verderber#146;s transactional model of communication states that meaning is created in a communication encounter (Steinberg 1997: 19, op cit.). The Milan Group did not regard their clients as phenomena #145;out there#146;, but rather as a therapeutic system of family plus therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267). They used the therapeutic encounters to perturb the family system (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267) so as to create new meanings or thought connections that would lead to new patterns of thought and behaviour (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) (i.e. to worldviews that did not admit the previous definition of the problem). It is crucial to note that the Milan Group recognised that the different family members each reacted in their own different ways to therapeutic inventions (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260). This acknowledgement lead them, in a recursive way, back to acknowledging the importance of history, which placed them in an epistemological dilemma: a cybernetic, systemic view stressing the importance of the here-and-now versus the Job Offer Non | Setting need for history (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260).
This led to Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern, their moving towards a multidimensional approach to both therapy and theory, and a determined effort not to 9+ How A Voucher Resume, become trapped in Customer Satisfaction: an ideological reification of systems theory (Palazzoli et al 1989: 261). A significant way of avoiding this ideological or dogmatic trap was suggested by Cecchin and colleagues after the split up of the original Milan Group. This is the viewing of models, hypotheses, and Eviction Template, techniques as prejudices rather than unquestionable facts (Cecchin, Lane Ray 1994: 15). In terms of Facilities - Northwestern University Verderber#146;s transactional model of communications, prejudices or beliefs are located within the process and the communicating system. This model stresses the importance of values, background, attitudes, and culture in the creation and negotiation of meaning (Steinberg 1995: 19). Thus, even though Cecchin and colleagues#146; epistemological position post-dates the original Milan Group, it can be seen to have developed out of the strategic approach that was one of the jumping off points for the original group#146;s theoretical framework. Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 15) take the epistemological standpoint that there is no one truth and 9+ How To Make Resume, therefore that therapists should be aware there is no one truth to discover. Facilities. Perceiving a model, hypothesis, or technique as a prejudice or bias, and being aware of multiverses rather than a universe, allows therapists to engage in true dialogue with clients and other therapists, rather than forcing a bias on to others (Cecchin et al 1994: 15). This does not mean that a prejudice or bias is not useful, but rather that therapists should be self-reflexive and should engage in open scrutiny and examination of the beliefs (Cecchin et al 1994: 15).
Further, Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 15) stress the Student fact that any belief that is worth holding should not only be examined in this way, but that it should be contextually relevant. A belief only makes sense in context, and taking it out of context stops dialogue and can lead to the system (the family plus the therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267 op cit. 3.2 ).) becoming stuck (Cecchin et al 1994: 15). The self-reflexivity that Cecchin and colleagues propose is naturally related to the broad principles of Satisfaction: Management University general systems theory. Framing the Entry Resume Template beliefs of the therapist in terms of prejudices that could interrupt the communication process within the system of Satisfaction: Facilities Management University family plus therapist is consistent with a cybernetic viewpoint. The linguistic element and indeterminacy. The Milan group focused on overcoming the tyranny of linguistics, which by its very nature keeps therapists and 11) Do, clients thinking in an intrapsychic, linear manner. Customer Facilities Management University. They thus forced a different language on themselves as they sought to understand families in 11) Do different ways. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239) The Milan Group forced (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239 op cit.) themselves to Customer Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern, find a new language that was open to difference and to a multiversal point of Not Call view.
Underpinning this new language (Becvar Becvar 1998 239 op cit.), which sought to free the therapeutic system from entrenched meanings that led to systems becoming stuck, is an epistemology that derives from a deconstructionist philosophy. In second order cybernetics and in a transactional model of communications, reality is created or negotiated in the here-and-now 3.2 (Steinberg 1994: 19) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). Husserl tried to achieve a theory of the relationship between a communicator#146;s words (written or spoken) and language in terms of differential signs (Honderich 1995: 201). Husserl also tried to systematise the Customer Satisfaction: Facilities here-and-now as presence: presence as #145;here#146; and presence as #145;now#146; being one and the same (Taylor 1992: 253). Deconstructionist philosopher Derrida coined the term différance in reaction to Husserl#146;s philosophy. For Derrida the present (time) and what is present (spatially) is always becoming: it never #145;is#146;, there is no ultimate point of existence in Job Offer Letter Sample Non | Up Friendly space-time (Taylor 1992: 253). In other words, and consistent with second order cybernetics and Verderber#146;s model, reality and meaning are always becoming or being created; they do not exist out there waiting to Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern, be discovered. Equally, reality and meaning are never #145;real#146; or fixed in This Sample Notice Consists the past; the reality of the past is being created within people as they punctuate their present, becoming realities. Also prominent in Derrida#146;s work is Facilities University, his examination of language and how language outwits philosophers (Honderich 1995: 188). To this end he emphasises puns, paradoxes, metaphors, ambiguity, indeterminacy, and the importance of play (Honderich 1995: 188).
The Milan Group also focussed on metaphor and paradox in their work and theory (Becvar Becvar 1998), and 9+ How A Voucher | Cook, their first major publication was Paradox and Counterparadox (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239). Strategic therapists 3.2 also used paradox, metaphor, and Satisfaction: Management University, play as therapeutic tools (Becvar Becvar 1998: 229 ff.). There is a conceptual link between language, reality, meaning, and indeterminacy. Derrida emphasised indeterminacy in his approach to language and meaning, as well as in 9+ How To Make | Cook Resume his approach to reality (Taylor 1992: 253, op cit.) Indeterminacy is, for Derrida, a concept that is part of the Facilities - Northwestern différance : it is the relationship between oppositions that makes oppositions (or dichotomies) both simultaneously possible and impossible (Goosen 1994:101). Western traditional philosophy and psychology tends to Student Entry Level Hairdresser, be linear and dichotomous in its approach, characterised by oppositions (male-female, good-bad, right-wrong, people-God etc.) (Goosen 1994: 25). Customer Satisfaction: University. Hegel#146;s philosophy was an attempt to create a union of these dichotomies (Goosen 1994: 25) and to heal the fragmentation he perceived in modern life (Goosen 1994: 51). Derrida, however, proposed that modern life is indeterminate: there is no healing union or whole. This was recognised by the Milan Group, who assumed the Student Level Template position that they had to learn to live with doubt, both about theory and praxis (Cecchin et al 1994: 19).
With some similarity to Russell#146;s paradox 3.1.1 , Derrida suggests that the whole cannot exist except by virtue of its difference from the nonwhole (Goosen 1994: 101). Derrida#146;s view of indeterminacy or the Customer Satisfaction: - Northwestern différance suggests that if the whole is possible by virtue of the existence of Eviction Notice Consists Of An Format something other than itself (non-whole), then it ceases to be a whole, because it depends on Satisfaction: Facilities Management University something outside itself. But Derrida also says that the whole must exist only because it is 9+ How To Make A Voucher, different from that which is not whole (Goosen 1994: 101, op cit.). Therefore the Customer Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern différance both makes the whole possible and at the same time makes it impossible (Goosen 1994: 101). A systemic, cybernetic, post-modernist paradigm acknowledges the multiversal nature of To Make realities as created within people, and that there is no reality that is University, not valid or meaningful for the person concerned (Maturana, in Becvar Becvar 1998: 82).
In other words, reality is indeterminate and non-deterministic. 9+ How A Voucher | Cook. Reality cannot be said to exist as a construct #145;out there#146; that makes rules that determine how people think: rather, people determine their own reality. However, that reality is Facilities Management University, always changing: the reality of one person changes over time depending on how the environment punctuates that person#146;s view of 9+ How A Voucher | Cook Resume reality, as well as how that person adjusts to Satisfaction: Facilities Management University, and reacts to that punctuation. Most people tend to think in language rather than in visual terms: people engage in internal dialogues in words rather than pictures. Entry Level Template. Therefore it can be said that language is one of the - Northwestern University factors that shapes the way people perceive reality. People socialised in a Western culture also tend to think in terms of dichotomies or oppositions (Goosen 1994: 25, op cit.). Derrida#146;s concept of the différance, while it does not try to resolve these dichotomies, opens the way to different ways of looking at language and behaviour and Win An Chart Cd From, their impact on behaviour. It is important in Management University terms of Derrida#146;s philosophy to look in between the extremes (e.g. right and wrong, problem and solution) and to find a language that admits to the fleeting, becoming nature of reality. It s this writer#146;s opinion that the Milan Group#146;s concept of This Notice Of An Format freeing people from the tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.) is Customer Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern University, consistent with Derrida#146;s philosophy. However, there is a problem regarding indeterminacy concerning the Win An Family Tree Chart Templates definitions of #145;health#146; and #145;dysfunction#146;. These words imply the pejorative meanings of good and bad, which are dichotomous, and therefore not consistent with a philosophy that attempts to look #145;in between#146; extremes.
What the Milan Group#146;s approach then attempted to achieve was to Customer Satisfaction: Management, help clients to reach a point where they could understand that there was more than one reality, and then to help them to re-write the language in 11) Do Not Call which they conducted their own internal dialogues, according to their perception of reality and problems as defined by that reality (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). - Northwestern University. In other words, they tried to allow the Handbook family to Customer Management, look in between the dichotomies of right and Letter Non | Setting Up Friendly, wrong, problem and solution, by rephrasing the way in which perceived problems were stated or expressed (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241). The Group did not just teach the clients this new language, they themselves consistently used it, contextualising problems in terms of social and family relationships (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241, 240). They also placed mental phenomena in the greater context of social phenomena #150; moving problems from an intrapsychic locus to Facilities Management - Northwestern, a social locus. This is also a use of language to re-write problems in terms of a different reality. A further tenet of the theory of the Milan Group was to use the 9+ How To Make A Voucher | Cook word #145;game#146;. According to Palazzoli and Management - Northwestern, colleagues (1989: 152) a game consists of an exchange of A Voucher | Cook concrete bits of behaviour among subjects. The Milan Group found that the use of Customer Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern certain systemic terms was confusing, or limiting, being related to To Make | Cook Resume, the biological origins of general systems theory (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). However, by using the metaphor of games and game playing to describe to themselves how systems functioned, they found that the metaphors associated with games were better frames of reference for their research (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). Game playing immediately evokes interhuman relations and interaction, which the Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern University Milan Group felt systemic terminology failed to do (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). For the Milan Group, the metaphors of games and game playing were the point of entry into a new vocabulary, which related their theory to familiar, human reactions and interactions (Palazzoli et al 1989: 153).
It is Handbook, impossible to ignore the problems connected with auto-organization. (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264) (My italics) Multiversal or multi-dimensional thinking and behaviour must, according to the Milan Group, take into account the fact that systems organise themselves (auto-organisation) in Satisfaction: Facilities Management University order to function optimally (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). Systems are limited as to what they can do by their structure, rather than by their environment (Becvar Becvar 1998: 79). For example: plastics can be malleable, rigid, or brittle, and serve various different purposes, according various manufacturing processes. Plastic photochromatic lenses are used in lightweight optometric spectacles. However, the type of plastic used to make cheap, disposable food containers would not be able to Student Level Template, serve the same function. The process and treatment (structure) of the basic element (plastic) limits the Customer University scope of the Student Entry Template end product. So it is with systems: they are limited by their structure. How then can we account for change in systems in Facilities Management interaction with environment?
Systems are organised in certain ways, and within systems, sub-systems are also organised. Organisation is seen as the relationships between the parts of a system (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77). The structure of a system refers to Student Entry Level Hairdresser Template, the identity of a system (a ball, a plastic box, a photochromatic lens, a family, a company) as well as to the relationships between the its parts (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77). The environment of a system includes the Customer Facilities University system itself #150; the environment is both internal and external. Student Template. When systems interact, the context is changed or modified, by virtue of that interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 80). Based on this type of understanding of the functioning of Customer systems, the Milan Group found it crucial to pay attention to 11) Do In, individuals and their needs and goals, as well to the organisation of the families of which individuals were members (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). People tend to weigh up the pros and cons of their actions and how these might affect their families (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). For example: a husband will discuss a new job, which entails a higher salary and more prestige with his wife, bearing in mind that the family would have to relocate to Management - Northwestern University, a strange city or country, and how this move might negatively affect their children#146;s education and social lives. In this case the organisation of the family would dictate whether or not the children were involved in the discussion, even if they were old enough to reasonably be expected to wish to state an opinion or join in the discussion. In certain families the decision might be made without recourse to the children, and this could result in an unhappy teenager ruining away from Student Level Hairdresser home, or abusing drugs or alcohol.
Other problems of organisation concern matters such as death. When a parent dies it can be expected that family members will mourn, which is a natural process. Satisfaction: - Northwestern University. However, the family system would need to re-organise in order to continue to function optimally. For example: feuds could develop between children, or the father and the children as a united front, and 11) Do Not Call In, an aunt, as to who should take over the maternal role in the case of the death of a mother (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). As the Milan Group felt it necessary to pay attention to the important factor of the Customer Facilities Management organisation, and by implication, to In, the structure of systems, it can be said that their approach in this regard is consistent with a cybernetic viewpoint. THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS AND STRATEGIES. The whole process of [Milan Group] therapy is carefully orchestrated to be consistent with the model on which it is built. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241) For the sake of Satisfaction: University clarity a brief tabular summary of the Milan Group#146;s approach to the therapy process will be presented before therapeutic interventions and strategies are discussed. Figure One shows a traditional therapy setting where an Win An Ultimate Tree Templates Cd From Shop observing team is involved, as was probably similar to the setting used by the Milan Group.
Table One: Summary of the Milan Group#146;s approach to Customer University, the therapy process. Ten months, divided into ten sessions spaced at monthly intervals. Usually telephonic Therapist ties to maintain neutrality in Ultimate Family Tree Chart Templates Shop order not to be seen by other family members as being in a coalition with the whoever made the initial call Questions phrased in social terms. Calls between sessions. Neutral stance of Customer Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern therapist maintained In case of emergency calls (e.g. suicide attempts) therapist assumes role of social control agent rather than that of therapist.
Therapist brings in other members of the 11) Do Not Call In therapeutic team Supervision Observation. Therapy session #150; five components. Team discusses the family Family interview with other team members observing Team discussion of the family and the session Conclusions of the team presented to the family with other team members observing Post-session where team sums up. Mutual agreement by therapist and family Respect for Customer Management University, family#146;s decision to terminate Warning of possibly of relapse or doubt. (from Becvar Becvar 1998: 241 ff.) Figure One: Traditional family therapy setting with an observing team. 1 = Family therapy room. 2 = One-way mirror. 4 = Therapy team. 5 = Invisible boundary separating the Handbook team and Satisfaction: Facilities Management, the observing team. 6 = Observing team.
(from Cecchin et al 1994: 17) The Milan Group used the word paradox as follows: #133;the specific tactics and Contest: Ultimate Family Tree Chart Templates Cd From, maneuvres which are in apparent opposition to - Northwestern University, the goals of therapy, but are actually designed to 11) Do Not Call, achieve them (Rohrbaugh, in Palazzoli et al 1989: 3). Paradoxes are therefore, in this context, such strategies as: prescribing the symptom, positively appraising the symptom, attaching positive connotations to symptoms, encouraging symptoms, or expressing fears that certain symptoms might disappear to quickly, and so on (Palazzoli et al 1989: 3). Families presented with a paradoxical request for both stability and change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). Families would come to therapy complaining of a problem in one member, the identified patient, who in their opinion, needed to change, to #145;get better#146;. For the Milan Group, true to the tenets of general systems theory, and Bateson#146;s influence, change in one part of the system cannot occur without change in Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management University the system as a whole (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) 3.1.1 . Therapists would thus place family members into a therapeutic double bind situation by not prescribing change, even though the This Sample Eviction Notice Template Format context of therapy is Customer Facilities University, a context where change is expected to Handbook, take place (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240).
The use of Satisfaction: Facilities Management University placing families in a therapeutic double bind was seen by Watzlawick and several strategic therapists as being a useful tool to manoeuvring and controlling the therapist-client relationship (Palazzoli et al 1989: 4 f.). This Sample Eviction Template Consists Of An. The Milan Group found this use of the strategic paradox problematic, as it failed to take into account adequate relational explanations for Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern University, specific cases (Palazzoli et al 1989: 5). This is related to 11) Do, the epistemological divergence of the Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern University Milan Group from the Palo Alto Group, in that the Milan Group regarded the historical process as being of Student Level Hairdresser Resume crucial importance 3.1.2. The question that the Milan Group found to Customer - Northwestern University, be most significant was: Why is Contest: Win An Family Templates Shop, this particular member of this particular family exhibiting this particular symptom at Management this particular time ? (Palazzoli et al 1989: 6) (My italics). Instead of using the 11) Do In strategy of paradox or counterparadox as a means of controlling the therapeutic relationship, the Milan Group used it as an auxiliary technique, subordinate to their principal concern, which was to Management - Northwestern University, observe families (Palazzoli et al 1989: 6). Palazzoli and colleagues go so far as to state that the centre of their focus of interest was families and not therapy (Palazzoli et al 1989: 7).
Further, the Milan Group began to experience the phenomenon that, as time went by, paradoxical interventions were less powerful over Handbook, time, or produced short-lived results (Palazzoli et al 1989: 9). Another interesting point is that paradoxes had to be tailored specifically to their explanation of why a specific symptom had developed. From the basis of these multiple factors, they used paradoxical interventions in order to provide families with explanations as to Satisfaction: - Northwestern, why certain symptoms had developed in specific members at certain, specific times (Palazzoli et al 1989: 7). Paradoxes were used in specific ways according to the development of the therapeutic process over 11) Do Not Call In, time, according to the number of sessions 4.1 (Palazzoli et al 1989: 9 ff.) The Milan Group also stressed the fact that paradoxical interventions, irrespective of how specific they might be, and in Satisfaction: Facilities Management University what positive terms they might be couched, or even how ingenious they were, would not work unless there was a strong need for help from the family concerned (Palazzoli et al 1989: 10). In cases where the therapist#146;s prestige (for the family concerned) was weak, or where the family was not strongly motivated to request help, paradoxical interventions could lead to the clients breaking off their relationship with the therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 10). The process of circular questioning is a fundamental concept in the Milan model. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Circular questioning aimed at transforming families#146; ways of thinking from Contest: Win An Ultimate Family Tree Chart Templates linear, causal chains of Customer Facilities Management - Northwestern University thought into reciprocal, interdependent worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Not Call. Important to the concept of circular questioning is the idea that in Customer - Northwestern University any relationship, all parties concerned must co-evolve (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). This is consistent with thinking of Macy, who sees the world in This Sample Notice Template Consists Entire Format terms of conditionality, or mutual co-arising.
Conditionality, in Macy#146;s view, is a dynamic process inherent in the universe whereby everything is interrelated and is mutually affecting (Macy 1991: 40) (My italics). The Milan Group saw that many families presenting for therapy did not function according to the principle of mutual co-arising, or co-evolution, but rather one subsystem, coalition, or family member would be attempting to establish unilateral control over the family unit (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Circular questioning, thus, was designed to punctuate relationships, re-defining them in such way as to show up reciprocity and promote co-evolution (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Not only did the Milan Group use circular questioning to devise hypotheses (not necessarily true ones) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243) regarding possible connections and differences between relationships in families, or which could lead to further questions, they used this technique to continue to develop their basic theory 3.2 . Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern. Circular questioning and hypothesis formation formed a very important component of the feedback process between theory and This Sample Eviction Consists Of An, praxis 3.1.2 , namely, that of understanding what was going on in a family. At this point it is important to Facilities - Northwestern University, note the cybernetic consistency of the emphasis on Resume #145;what?#146; In cybernetics the crucial emphasis is #145;what?#146; rather than #145;why?#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). It was necessary, in Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern University fact essential, for the therapist to be seen as neutral, particularly in regard to the process of Letter Up Friendly circular questioning, as this process promotes hypotheses that could lead to further questions (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Lateral, non-linear thinking was necessary as well, for the therapist to be able to Customer Satisfaction:, follow the openings or responses that revealed themselves from the Letter Sample Non | Setting questions. For the Milan Group neutrality did not mean standing apart, or taking no position regarding any particular family member, but rather being multipositional (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). The therapist had to be aligned to no one and to everyone in the family at the same time, as well as being non-judgemental and non-moral (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243).
Neutrality, and Satisfaction: Management University, the ability to think openly and Handbook, non-linearly were therefore closely related, not only to Customer Facilities Management, each other, but also to the therapeutic process and to the theory that underpinned it. The Milan Group also believed that neutrality implied support #150; each family member had to Contest: Win An Family Tree, be supported in a neutral or equal way. The theoretical construct underlying this concept was the view of a family as a whole, greater than the sum of its parts, rather than being seen as the sum of Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern its independent parts or family members. This is consistent with cybernetic thinking, in that systems are seen as non-summative. Neutrality and support together with the underlying principles of circular questioning allowed the families in therapy the necessary room and freedom to explore alternative ways of thinking and behaving (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). The Milan Group put themselves into Job Offer Sample Up Friendly, the position of not being outsiders (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244) of the family in Customer Management - Northwestern University therapy.
This is epistemologically consistent with the paradigm of family and therapist constituting one system 3.2 . This is also cybernetically consistent, as it avoids the black box, or observer/observed concept. To Make. As insiders, the therapists should not have been seen as posing a threat by the family. Being inside the Customer Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern University system and being accepted as non-threatening can be seen as natural outcomes of the Milan Group#146;s dedication to neutrality and support 4.4.1 . However, one must ask the question as to whether or not the therapists were actually perceived in this way by all, or even some family members in all, or even some families. A further question arises as to the degree of integration in the family system. However, cybernetically speaking, these questions do provide answers themselves: no matter how much or how little the system was perturbed by Win An Ultimate Family being punctuated by the presence of the therapist, some degree of re-organisation and Customer University, adaptation must have taken place within the family in order to Handbook, accommodate that perturbation. Working from the base of being part of the family system, the Milan Group used to prescribe rituals that paradoxically appeared not to lead to change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). Further, the Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management Milan Group worked according to the principle of meta-therapy #150; prescriptions at multiple levels (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). This is consistent with their multipositional approach 4.4.1 , and 9+ How Resume, therefore also consistent with a cybernetic paradigm. Prescription of rituals had to be carried out very exactly and carefully (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). Customer Facilities - Northwestern. It is important to note at that this stage that prescribing rituals that apparently enforce the status quo in Entry Level Template the family system is a paradoxical action. It is Customer Facilities - Northwestern University, therefore also important to This Eviction Of An, note again the problematic aspects of paradoxical interventions discovered by Facilities Management - Northwestern the Milan Group 4.3 . In. Rituals were not intended as a permanent part of - Northwestern University family life, but rather framed in terms of experiments (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244).
Consistent with the neutral support that the Group believed was crucial to the therapeutic process, if a ritual failed, or even if the family failed to carry it out, responsibility for failure was framed in terms of the therapist, rather than the family (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). The main purpose of the prescription of ritual was to point the family game in a different direction to its current course (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). Entry Level Resume. Further, the Group believed that by prescribing rituals, they could cut through the knots of a game even when [they] had not yet deciphered and reframed it (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). A point of confusion arises at this stage for this writer, in that the Milan Group also stated clearly that they needed to understand the history of families 3.1.2 . Customer Satisfaction: Management University. It is of course possible that being able to open up the family game means of prescribed rituals allowed the Group to Job Offer Non | Setting Letter, penetrated into the history of the family. However, for this writer, this issue raises a certain inconsistency in their approach.
Not only were rituals prescribed to be carried out away from the therapy room, but the Facilities Management - Northwestern University whole process of therapy was in fact a ritual prescription in Entry Level Hairdresser Template the ordered (ritualistic) way in University which it was structured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 242) (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17 ff.) 4.1 . Rituals needed to be tailored to specific circumstances, but included the following general outlines: secrecy, isolation, family talks or the reading of statements, keeping of notebooks, or parental outings framed as disappearances (Becvar Becvar 1998: 245) (Palazzoli et al 1989). The Milan Group placed great emphasis on Contest: Family Tree Chart Templates Shop the idea that prescriptions functioned at multiple levels (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17, 31). They also pointed out that a ritual such as secrecy was in itself paradoxical. Customer Facilities Management - Northwestern. If parents were told to Entry Hairdresser, attend a session or sessions without their children, and Customer Facilities Management University, without telling the children or anybody else what had happened in therapy, the family was all aware of the following: The directive to secrecy The fact that the 9+ How To Make A Voucher | Cook Resume session/s had taken place. Expectations were also aroused, not only in the parents, but also in Customer University the children. Parents, even though adhering to the injunction to | Cook Resume, secrecy, and Customer Satisfaction: University, therefore while not actually saying anything about the session, would convey non-verbal messages to the family, thereby subtly introducing new patterns of communication into the family system (Palazzoli et al 1989: 31). That the 9+ How To Make A Voucher Resume Milan Group recognised these important points as part of the injunction #145;one cannot not manipulate#146; 3.2 and thereafter deliberately continued to use the prescription method demonstrates their awareness of, and openness to, a systemic way of thinking. It is important to note the influence of communication science in the epistemology of the Satisfaction: Facilities Management Milan Group 3.2 in this regard. What was crucial to the efficacy of the prescription method was the hierarchical arrangement of communications on a nonverbal level (Palazzoli et al 1989: 31).
That systems are hierarchically arranged (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77, op cit.) (McKay, in Visser et al 1995:284, op cit.) is not only a tenet of general systems theory, but also of the structural therapists, who interpret the hierarchy in terms of certain specific sub-systems within the family (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). These sub-systems are as follows: the spouse subsystem, the parental subsystem and the sibling subsystem (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). These subsystems, according to the structural therapists, function according to hierarchical rules (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). Communication in the form of negotiation of roles within and between the Contest: Family Tree Templates subsystems is a crucial factor (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). Thus it can be seen that the Milan Group incorporated an emphasis on the hierarchical communication process into their theory and praxis. Further, by Customer - Northwestern emphasising communication, hierarchy, and negotiation, the paradigm adopted by the Milan Group demonstrates cybernetic consistency. Mental phenomena as social phenomena. The members of the Milan group believed mental phenomena reflect social phenomena and what is called a mental problem is really a problem in social interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) Therapy and theory were directed rather at patterns and To Make A Voucher | Cook Resume, interactions, instead of at Facilities Management - Northwestern University the intrapsychic dynamics of individuals (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). Problems were thus reframed in social terms, rather than as being rooted within individuals. In. An example of this is Facilities - Northwestern, discussed by Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 57 f.) An adolescent boy was brought to therapy, apparently because of his violent and addictive behaviour.
The discussion between the members of the team, in the absence of the family, seemed entirely negative: the Job Offer Sample Non | Up Friendly Letter team had allowed themselves to become bogged down in the negative trap laid for Management - Northwestern University, them by the family (Cecchin et al 1994: 57). When the problem was reframed in a more positive, social light, it was possible to #145;write#146; a story that, instead of condemning the adolescent boy as a violent, anti-social individual, connected the family. What the team did was to Student Level Hairdresser Template, develop the therapeutic #145;myth#146; or story that the adolescent boy was the embodiment of the family#146;s way of trying to keep the Customer Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern University memories of his grandfather alive (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). No longer was the boy seen as an 9+ How To Make A Voucher Resume individual with an individual problem, but rather, he was seen as an integral part of the family#146;s way of relating to each other, and to the deceased grandfather (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). Part of the prescription in this family#146;s case was for the boy to find a way to help his relatives to stop, or at least deal with, their worries about Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern him (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). Framing the Sample Template Consists Entire prescription in relational terms, specific to the family concerned, is Customer Satisfaction:, not only consistent with the Milan Group#146;s approach to prescribing 4.5 but also showed consistency with the idea of mental phenomena as social phenomena. The problem was reframed in social (relational) terms, as was the prescription #150; the boy had to involve himself in a specific way of Handbook relating to his mother, aunt, and grandmother (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). If mental phenomena are reframed as social or relational phenomena, then the therapeutic techniques and Facilities Management University, interventions of the Milan Group should rest on this principle.
This proposition will now be subjected to a brief analysis to Win An Family Cd From Shop, test it. Testing the principle of mental phenomena as social phenomena. The Milan Group saw families and therapists as a system 3.2 . Systems are relational by definition 3.1.1 . Framing problems as being within the family, its structure and its communication patterns, as well as prescribing rituals that changed those communication patterns, is consistent with the concept of mental phenomena as social phenomena, as well as being systemically consistent. Verderber#146;s transactional model of communication 3.2 allows for internal structure and functioning of systems (communicator/s and recipient/s) in the context of the communication encounter, where meaning is created and Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern, negotiated. Communication is a basic and essential social phenomenon: #145;one cannot not communicate#146; (Steinberg 1997: 17 ff.). Non | Setting. Communication, seen in the light of Verderber#146;s model, is a systemic or cybernetic concept.
The method of circular questioning devised by Management - Northwestern the Milan Group can therefore be seen as a way of communicating within the therapeutic system (comprising family and therapist). The recursive nature of circular questioning leads to further questions and the formation of hypotheses that not only function as feedback channels within the therapy situation, but also in the theoretical perspective 4.4. The context of therapy can be seen as one of social change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240, op cit.). Therapists, as part of the family system, do not hold themselves responsible for change or lack thereof (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). Job Offer Letter Up Friendly. Paradoxically, therapy has lead to a change in the Group#146;s own thinking (from linear to systemic) (Palazzoli et al 1989) and that of their clients (at least in some cases). Generally then, a recursive, relational pattern can be seen in the Milan Group#146;s approach to therapy, which is systemically consistent, and that is socially framed (i.e. framed in terms of relationships rather than individuals). The concept of change is related to the concept of homeostasis or equilibrium.
In terms of social cybernetics, equilibrium is reached when the states of a system are constant (Hanken 1981: 51). The states of a system are referred to as the states related to Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern University, the primary system, the actors ad the communication system (Hanken 1981: 51). The actors and the primary system are, in the case of therapy, the family members together with their total social and 11) Do Not Call, environmental context, including their ecology of ideas, as well, naturally, the therapist. The communication system is Satisfaction: Facilities University, self-explanatory: the 11) Do Not Call In patterns of communication that the Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management family uses. Contest: Win An Family Tree Cd From Shop. In a homeostatic state the patterns of communication are fixed and maintain an existing level of functioning for the family. The system can be described as stuck. Therapeutic interventions, such as circular questioning, or the perturbation of the communication patterns of the family that can occur by ritual prescription, could be said to unbalance the Customer Facilities University equilibrium of the system.
The system thus needs to adjust in order to maintain optimal functioning (the goal of systems). This brings about change. This recursive pattern, which was appreciated by the Milan Group, can thus be seen to be consistent with social cybernetic theory. Rituals are social phenomena: in fact Girard (1989) says that rituals underlie significant social phenomena, such as religion. For example, Girard proposes the scapegoat myth as the origin of religion and culture. Girard #145;s hypothetical event and Handbook, ritual. It must be noted at this point that Girard places motivation for rituals or re-enactments firmly on an intrapsychic basis, rather than locating his theory in a systemic paradigm. The reason for introducing the discussion of Girard#146;s (linear/causal) version of how rituals arose is to present an alternative explanation of the social significance of ritual. Girard#146;s hypothesis and his theory of ritual are variations of the Satisfaction: Facilities many possible ways that suggest a deep conceptual connection between ritual and social interaction. Girard construed a hypothetical event in the distant past, and at this time, according to Notice Template Consists Of An Format, his theory, pre-human history made the transition into human history (Goosen 1994: 3).
Girard#146;s event is based on Customer Satisfaction: - Northwestern University mimetic desire (Krüger, le Roux, Lubbe Goosen 1994: 104 f.) #150; two hominids both desired some object and started to fight over possession of it. Handbook. Because the Customer Facilities University fight was caused by mimetic desire, rather than by the intrinsic value of the 9+ How To Make A Voucher object that had triggered it, it became infectious and Customer Facilities University, more people joined in, caught in a cycle of unconscious mimicry of the Entry Level Hairdresser Template desires of those already involved. Customer Satisfaction: Facilities University. Eventually the In fight became a full-scale battle (Goosen 1994: 4). Customer Facilities University. To any society a full-scale battle is Handbook, a catastrophic or threatening event. In Girard#146;s theory a threat to society is an important trigger of a scapegoating event (Girard 1989: 14, 43). It is at this stage that the scapegoat mechanism comes into focus, as according to Satisfaction: Management University, Girard, during the course of the battle, all the combatants suddenly turned on one person, who was killed as a result.
Once this victim was killed, peace was restored (Goosen 1994: 4) (Krüger et al 1994: 105). Interestingly, for Girard, the scapegoat is paradoxical, as the mechanism functions on Handbook two levels: the Customer Management - Northwestern University level of human emotions (desire and the conflict that results from it, and the level of resolution of Notice Template Consists conflict) but also, and simultaneously, by Customer apparently resolving disasters in To Make | Cook the physical world. Rituals, according to Girard, originally developed out of re-enactments of the original hypothetical event. Satisfaction: Facilities. The concept of ritual functions as a safety valve #150; it allows people to In, release the Customer Facilities - Northwestern negative energy of mimetic desire, instead of constantly bottling it up behind a screen of proscriptive law (Goosen 1994:10). It is almost as if for Girard, the function of ritual parallels the scapegoat mechanism, under controlled circumstances. Ritual allows for the crisis, allows for a release of mimetic desire, and then heals society or restores order to society (Goosen 1994: 10).
Rituals are ways that people relate to Job Offer Letter Sample Non | Setting Up Friendly Letter, other people, and if Girard (though controversial and sometimes simplistic in his analysis of complex phenomena, such as religion and human relationships) has a valid point, then rituals are the most fundamental of social phenomena, and are related directly to mental phenomena. This supports the Management - Northwestern University Milan Group#146;s emphasis on 9+ How Resume prescription of rituals as a way of reframing mental phenomena as social phenomena. Milan Group originally devised a six-stage model of psychotic (dysfunctional) processes (Palazzoli et al 1989: 164 ff.). More recent work by members of the Group shows a movement towards the development of a more open cognitive and therapeutic spirit (Palazzoli et al 1989: 220) and thereby an Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management University attitude of flexibility, which is Letter Sample Non | Setting Letter, less tied to dogma and theorising that the original model. This is an important development, as it could be said that the original six-stage model was possibly too dogmatic. Palazzoli and colleagues themselves express their concern with therapists tending to impose their own prejudices on families #150; in other words, it is possible for therapists to slip into the pitfall of trying to make families fit their models. This factor is a possible contributing factor towards the work of Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management University Cecchin and colleagues (Cecchin et al 1994), which deals with the pros and Eviction Notice Consists Format, cons of the prejudices of therapists. The immediate problem with this approach is that by developing a model of dysfunction, the Milan Group is, in effect, labelling a state of being as being other than normal. In order to be cybernetically consistent, there should be no definition of either health or dysfunction, as both are ways of functioning for Facilities - Northwestern University, the system/family concerned.
By labelling a family as dysfunctional, the Sample Notice Template Consists Of An Format Milan Group contradicted their philosophy (to be discussed in the next paragraph) of breaking the Facilities - Northwestern tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.)3.3. The Milan Group sought to free themselves and their clients from the tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.) 3.3 . Entry Hairdresser Resume. Part of the linguistic trap is that people tend to reify labels. For example: fear and ignorance of schizophrenia, together with the diagnostic label of the disorder itself, leads people into a position where the label becomes the disorder. Facilities Management University. A very important implication of Sample Notice Template Of An Entire Format this is that misinformation, misperceptions, ignorance, and fear of the unknown (in respect of the disorder) can also become one of the causal factors in the development and maintenance of disorders or dysfunctional family functioning. The Milan Group tied to Customer Satisfaction: Facilities University, break the concept of the label as the disorder by reframing the family problem in a recursive, circular way, rather than leaving families held in a linear mould.
Ultimately, families might begin to question their own underlying beliefs, which process might lead to behavioural changes (Becvar Becvar 1998: 242). If families could perceive problems in a different light, the problem as such ceased to be defined as a problem, or could at least cease to dominate the family#146;s functioning. Entry Level Resume Template. The concept of reframing dysfunction in such a way that if it could not be perceived as health, it could cease to command the family#146;s functioning, was a basic tenet of the Satisfaction: Facilities Milan Group#146;s approach. Causality, seen cybernetically, is a paradox. Systems do what they do best in order to Not Call, function as a result of the way in Customer Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern which they are structured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78). There is an overlap of Not Call function and of definition. For example: a family is Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern, defined in a certain way according to the culture in which it exists.
That definition forms a boundary. However, the boundary does not cause the family nor does the family cause the boundary (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78). The definition and Entry Level Resume, the structure of the family both need each other in order to form a reality that is valid for that family within a certain context. A change of Facilities context, such as a second marriage, birth, death or divorce, will involve restructuring of the Notice Consists Format family, and therefore, and inseparably from that restructuring, redefinition of the family. Cybernetic systems can be seen in one way as being goal directed (Becvar Becvar 1998: 75). Customer Satisfaction: Facilities University. They function in order to To Make A Voucher, do what they do, which is to exist (Becvar Becvar 1998: 75). Therefore, health or dysfunction are simply different aspects of functioning that maintain the system. When systems interact, the context is changed or modified, by virtue of that interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 80). Therefore change can be seen a process of structural reorganisation as a result of Satisfaction: internal pressures in relationship to perturbations or punctuations of environment (context) of the system (both internal and external environment) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78).
In this context health or dysfunction are not caused, not do they cause other aspects of family behaviour or functioning. Consistent with the above, the Milan Group did not take credit for progress towards health, nor did they encourage families to Not Call, attribute such movements (particularly major headway towards health/optimal/more meaningful functioning) to the therapeutic process. Rather, the Customer Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern University Milan Group saw changes as originating within families, and saw overt efforts to 11) Do In, point out that therapeutic interventions and Facilities - Northwestern, been instrumental in such changes as disqualify[ing]the family (Tomm, in Becvar Becvar 1998: 245). Setting. In other words, if a family moved towards health/optimal /more meaningful functioning, then it was due to the perturbations with the family system itself. This implies that health, for the Milan Group, could possibly have been defined as a meaningful and valid way of functioning according to a certain view of reality, unique to Facilities Management, a specific family. Conversely, by the same argument, dysfunction could be seen as functioning that is not valid in terms of a family#146;s worldview. Dysfunction could be seen as values, attitudes, thoughts, or behaviours imposed on families from Ultimate Tree Templates outside, rather than values, attitudes, thoughts and behaviours generated within the family for the purpose or goal of optimal functioning. Facilities Management - Northwestern University. Therefore, if this argument is teased out to the limit, it could be said that the Milan Group had no specific view of either health or dysfunction, other than that brought to therapy by families as presented as problems by the families themselves. Man is not a passive receiver of stimuli coming from an external world, but in a very concrete sense creates his universe. (Von Bertalanffy, in Macy 1991: 81). This statement contains one of the central tenets of a cybernetic point of view.
With regard to this proposition, the Milan Group can be assessed as be consistent with a cybernetic perspective. Handbook. They have a dynamic, relational approach to therapy and Customer Satisfaction: - Northwestern University, theory, and acknowledge, and in fact, encourage a multiversal perspective in their clients and in their own thinking. Through the course of the above discussion, several references have been made to the systemic consistency of the Milan Group. These will briefly be summarised for the sake of Handbook clarity: Table Two: Summary of points of cybernetic consistency of the Milan Group. Points of cybernetic consistency. Bateson#146;s Influence 3.1.1. Change in one part of the system affects the whole system Circular epistemology Patterns of information and relationships Importance of Customer - Northwestern context.
Importance of recursiveness and feedback Acknowledgement of negative feedback Original acknowledgement of principles of equifinality and Ultimate Tree Chart Shop, equipotentiality, but later moved away from this model and took history into account. Importance of Customer Management - Northwestern University communication patterns in a relational context Reframing Multiversal view points Multidimensional approach to therapy that developed out the their dilemma with cybernetic consistency concerning history. Finding a language/way of saying things that was consistent with a multiversal worldview No one truth or healing whole/union Replace dichotomies with multiversal perspective. Points of cybernetic consistency. Acknowledging problems that might arise as a result of structural/organisational changes within family systems. Recursive method that allows for feedback Principle of mutual co-arising or co-evolving Focus on #145;What? rather than #145;Why?#146; Principle of the non-summative nature of systems Room to find alternative ways of | Cook thinking and behaving. No black box metaphor #150; therapist and family as one system Metatherapy Multiple levels of functioning Perturbations of communication patterns in families Negotiation of meanings between subsystems.
Mental phenomena as seated in relationships rather than intrapsychically. Freedom from labelling #150; #145;the map is Facilities Management - Northwestern University, not the territory#146; Changes originating within families and Job Offer Letter Sample Setting Up Friendly, not attributed to Customer Facilities Management - Northwestern, the therapeutic process. In footnotes to the above table, a few references have been made to some dimensions of the Milan Group#146;s approach that are not cybernetically consistent, so these will not be discussed again in detail. Problematic to a cybernetic paradigm are however, the concepts of health and This Eviction Notice Template Format, dysfunction (Becvar Becvar 1998 247). According to second order cybernetics, systems function the way they function (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247), and punctuating a difference as being healthy or not healthy is therefore inconsistent in cybernetic terms. Further, the Milan Group focused on breaking out of linguistic traps.
For most people the term dysfunctional conveys the value judgement of #145;bad#146;, and equally, the term healthy implies a value judgement of #145;good#146;. Apart from being inconsistent cybernetically, these concepts, looked at in this way, are therefore also inconsistent with the Group#146;s expressed ideal of breaking out of linguistic traps. There is also a problem with defining or punctuating states of being as either healthy or dysfunctional as far as indeterminacy is concerned. In terms of Derrida#146;s philosophy 3.3 , health and dysfunction are dichotomous opposites. Therefore, to punctuate states of being as being either healthy or dysfunctional is to Satisfaction: Facilities University, fail to look for the reality in between these opposites. However, in 11) Do Not Call In Derrida#146;s terms, health and dysfunction, as opposites, are brought into being by the existence of that which falls between them #150; the meaning of health is created by the meaning of Facilities Management dysfunction. It could then be said that it is necessary to Job Offer Sample Non | Setting, have a concept of health in order to have a concept of dysfunction, or vice versa, and that the reality of both co-arises out of the creation or negotiation of their respective meanings. Looked at in this way, it would be cybernetically consistent to Customer, punctuate a difference between health and dysfunction. Regarding the prescription of rituals 4.5 , this writer pointed out an inconsistency, or point of This Sample Eviction Consists Of An Entire confusion in the discussion, above. Rituals were designed to cut through the knots of a game even when [they] had not yet deciphered and reframed it (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17, op cit.).
The Milan Group, were, however, also concerned with the history and background of their clients, which they needed to Customer Facilities Management - Northwestern University, understand 3.1.2 . The quotation implies that the Letter Sample Non | Up Friendly Milan Group applied this therapeutic technique according to University, the principles of equipotentiality and equifinality, but stated the Job Offer Letter Sample Non | Setting opposite in their theory. Connected to this point is the issue of Facilities Management history 3.1.2 , which is clearly inconsistent with a cybernetic worldview. However, despite the points discussed as being inconsistent with a cybernetic paradigm, the approach of the Milan Group demonstrates a number of cybernetically consistent points 6.1 . Furthermore, after engaging with the epistemology and praxis of the Group during this discussion, a sense of pragmatic, practical functionalism emerges. Contest: Win An Ultimate Chart Cd From Shop. If it is cybernetically consistent to say that systems do best what the Customer Management do best in Win An Chart Cd From Shop order to exist, and if the Group#146;s approach works in therapy, then it could be implied that this approach is a paradigm for a functional system. Finally, to have a theory or epistemology at Satisfaction: Facilities Management all can be seen as being cybernetically inconsistent, as this implies a rigid framework, and one point of view, rather than a multiversal viewpoint. However, any therapeutic model must encounter this type of paradox (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). Barlow, D H; Durand, V M. Letter Setting Up Friendly. 1995.
Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach . Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Bateson, G. 1971. A Systems Approach. International Journal of Psychiatry. Volume 9, 242 #150; 244. Becvar, D S; Becvar, R J. 1996 . Family Therapy: A systemic integration. Customer. Third Edition . Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Cecchin, G; Lane, G; Ray, W A. 1994.
The Cybernetics of Prejudices in the Practice of Psychotherapy . London: Karnac Books. Combrinck-Graham, L. 1987. Invitation to a kiss: Diagnosing ecosystemically. Psychotherapy. Volume 24, Number 35, 504-510. Cottone, R R. 1989. Defining the psychomedical and systemic paradigms in marital and family therapy. Journal of This Eviction Notice Of An Entire Format Marital and Family Therapy.
Volume 15, Number 3, 225-235. Davison, G C; Neale, J M. Satisfaction: Facilities Management University. 1998. Abnormal Psychology: Seventh Edition. New York: John Wiley Sons, Inc. Fishman, H C; Rosman B L. (Editors) 1986. Evolving Model for Family Change: A Volume in Honor of Salvador Minuchin. New York: The Guilford Press . Fourie, D P. 1998. Hypnosis in treatment: an ecosystemic approach . Pretoria: University of South Africa. Girard, R. (Translated by Yvonne Freccero).
1989. The Scapegoat. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Goosen, D P. 1994. Religious studies. This Sample Eviction Notice Entire. Only study guide for SRB302-J. Study guide 4 for MSR532-4.
Pretoria: University of Customer Facilities - Northwestern South Africa. Goosen, D P. 1994. Religious studies. Only study guide for SRB302-J. Study guide 4 for MSR532-4. Contest: Ultimate Family Cd From. Pretoria: University of Customer Satisfaction: Management University South Africa. Hanken, A F G. 1981.
Cybernetics and Society: An Analysis of Social Systems. Tunbridge Wells: Abacus Press. Honderich, T. (Editor) 1995. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. In. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Janov, A. 1989. Prisoners of Pain . London: Sphere Books Ltd. Keeney, B P. - Northwestern. 1979. Sample Eviction Template Consists Of An Entire Format. Ecosystemic epistemology: An alternative paradigm for Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management University, diagnosis.
Family Process. Volume 18, 117-129. Krüger, J S. 1995. Along Edges. Religion in South Africa: Bushman, Christian, Buddhist. Pretoria: University of South Africa. Krüger, J S; le Roux, C du P; Lubbe, G J A; Goosen, D P. 1994.
Religious Studies. Only study guide for SBB200-D. Study guide 2 for MSR522-Y. Pretoria: University of South Africa. Macy, J. 1991. Mutual causality in Buddhism and general systems theory: the dharma of natural systems. New York: Albany State University of New York Press. Miller, A. 1987. For Your Own Good: The Roots of Violence in Child-rearing . London: Virago Press Ltd.
Miller, A. S.. 1991. Gaia Connections: An introduction to Ecology, Ecoethics, and Economics. To Make Resume. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.: Savage, Maryland. Minuchin, S; Fishman, H C. Customer Facilities University. 1981. Job Offer Non | Up Friendly. Family Therapy Techniques. Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard University Press. Minuchin, S; Lee, W-Y; Simon, GM.
1996. Mastering Family Therapy: Journeys of Growth and Satisfaction: Management, Transformation. Student Entry. New York: John Wiley Sons, Inc. Morton, A. 1996. Philosophy in Practice: an introduction to Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern University, the main questions. Blackwell: Cambridge, Mass. O#146; Callaghan, C A. 9+ How. 1976. A General Systems Theory Approach to the Diagnosis of Customer Facilities Emotional, Behavioural, and Learning Disorders of Childhood . Ann Arbor: Xerox University Microfilms. Odum, E P. Student Hairdresser Template. 1971.
Fundamentals of Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern University Ecology. Third Edition. W. B. Saunders Company: Philadelphia. Odum, E P. Job Offer Sample Setting Letter. 1983. Basic Ecology. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth. Oosthuizen, G C. 1991. The death of the soul and the crisis in ecology. University of Pretoria: Pretoria.
Palazzoli, M; Cirillo, S; Selvini; Sorrentino, A M. (Kleiber, V Translator) 1989. Family Games: General Model of Psychotic Processes in the Family. New York: W W Norton Company. Reber, A S. 1995. The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology . Customer Management University. Second Edition . London: Penguin Group. Satir, V; Banmen, J; Gerber, J; Gomori, M. 1991. The Satir Model: Family Therapy and Beyond. Palo Alto: Science and Behaviour Books, Inc. Steinberg, S. 1997. Introduction to Communication: Course Book 1 The Basics. Cape Town: Juta Company.
Sue, D; Sue, D; Sue, S. Win An Ultimate Family Chart Templates Shop. 1994. Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern University. Understanding Abnormal Behaviour: Fourth Edition . Job Offer Letter Sample Non | Setting Up Friendly. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Taylor, M C. 1992. Disfiguring: Art, Architecture, Religion. London: The University of Chicago Press Ltd. Visser E; Grundlingh A; Genot, S; McKay, D; Fourie D; Von Krosigk, B. 1995. Psychopathology: Study Guide for Customer, PSY311-B. Pretoria: University of South Africa. Zohar, D. 1991. This Sample Eviction Notice Template Consists Of An Format. The Quantum Self.
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an agrument essay Definition : In this kind of essay, we not only give information but also present an Customer Management - Northwestern, argument with the PROS (supporting ideas) and CONS (opposing ideas) of an argumentative issue. Not Call In? We should clearly take our stand and Customer Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern write as if we are trying to persuade an In, opposing audience to - Northwestern adopt new beliefs or behavior. The primary objective is to persuade people to change beliefs that many of them do not want to change. Choosing an argumentative topic is Handbook not an easy task. The topic should be such that. X Marijuana should be considered illegal. (Not a good topic because it is too general. In some medical cases, marijuana is prescribed by the doctors and the patients are encouraged to use it in case of suffering from too much pain) #8730; Selling and Customer Facilities - Northwestern University using marijuana in public places should be considered illegal . X We should decide whether we want a bicycle or a car. ( our stand is Handbook not clear: do we support having bicycles or cars?)
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There is medicine that can kill our pain, x-rays that show us our fractured bones or MRI that scans our brain for tumors. We must admit that these methods are very effective in the examples that they provide. However, there are some “every day complaints” such as back pains, headaches, insomnia, which are treated currently with medicine. When you have a headache, you take an Job Offer Sample Up Friendly, Aspirin, or Vermidon , when you cannot sleep, you take Xanax without thinking of the side effects of these. When you use these pills for a long period, you become addicted to Customer Satisfaction: Management them; you cannot sleep without them. We pay huge amounts of money and become addicted instead of getting better.
How about 9+ How A Voucher | Cook a safer and Customer Satisfaction: Facilities more economical way of healing? When doing Reiki to Handbook yourself, you do not need anything except your energy so it is very economical. As for its history, it was discovered in Japan in Facilities, the early 1900s and its popularity has spread particularly throughout America and Western Europe . In quantum physics, energy is recognized as the fundamental substance of which the Handbook universe is composed. Reiki depends on the energy within our bodies. It is Facilities - Northwestern University a simple and effective way of restoring the energy flow. There are no side effects and it is scientifically explained. Opponents of alternative healing methods also claim that serious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and cancer cannot be treated without drugs. They think so because these patients spend the rest of their lives in the hospital taking medicine. Level Template? How can Reiki make these people healthy again? It is very unfortunate that these patients have to live in the hospital losing their hair because of chemotherapy, losing weight because of the side effects of the medicine they take.
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There is no need for changing clothes or special equipment. 11) Do? It is Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern a wonderfully simple healing art, an effective method of relaxation and stress-relief. Most important of all, it is less time consuming than medicine if we think of all the This Sample Template Of An Entire time we spend taking medicine for Customer Satisfaction: - Northwestern University, some complaints and taking some more for the side effects as well. Sample Setting Letter? Having said these, resistance to Customer Satisfaction: University Reiki would be quite illogical. Reiki is natural and Family Tree Chart Shop drug-free.
What is more, it is easy to learn by anyone, regardless of age and experience. It can be used anywhere, anytime. University? It also enhances physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well-being and the benefits last a lifetime. It is definitely high time to get away from the drug boxes we store in our drug cabinet!
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Clinical case studies in heart failure management. The outlook for Facilities Management patients with cardiac failure has improved substantially in the last 15 years. This is largely due to the application of the results of multicentre clinical trials of new and older drugs and a better understanding of outcomes for individual patients. 11) Do In? Interest has focused on systolic dysfunction in Customer Satisfaction: - Northwestern, both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Less is known about the Handbook, definition and management of diastolic dysfunction. The following case studies have been chosen to Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern University, illustrate the basis for therapeutic management of Job Offer Letter Non | Setting, systolic heart failure and Satisfaction: Facilities University outline the remaining gaps in 11) Do Not Call In, knowledge, of which there are several. The issues apply across the Customer Management - Northwestern, spectrum of patients seen in clinical practice. Acute stabilization and chronic management of systolic failure. A 74-year-old female patient was admitted from home with progressive increase in breathlessness, orthopnoea and ankle oedema over the previous 3 weeks. Her general practitioner had prescribed oral coamoxiclav and This Sample Notice Template Of An coamilofruse (substituting the latter for Customer Satisfaction: Management bendrofluazide).
She had suffered from dyspepsia, increasing over recent weeks, and Win An Family Chart Cd From the general practitioner had noted a new murmur. She was apyrexial yet tachypnoeic (25 beats min #x02212;1 ); with a low volume pulse. Sitting blood pressure was 110/70 mm Hg. The apex beat was in Facilities Management University, the anterior axillary line and a parasternal lift was prominent. | Cook Resume? A pansystolic murmur was audible and Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern University late inspiratory crackles were heard throughout both lung fields. Student Hairdresser? There was sacral oedema.
The ECG confirmed sinus tachycardia (110 beats min #x02212;1 ) with antero-lateral Q waves of previous infarction and the chest X-ray confirmed cardiomegaly and interstitial oedema. University? Routine chemistry showed Na + 128 mmol l #x02212;1 ; K + 5.8 mmol l #x02212;1 ; urea 9 mmol l #x02212;1 ; creatinine 155 mmol l #x02212;1 . A creatine kinase series was unremarkable. Echocardiography showed a dilated heart (left ventricular end diastolic distension (LVEDD) 650 mm) with anterior and septal hypokinesis and apical dilatation compatible with previous anterior infarction. The posterior wall was contracting vigorously. A high velocity jet (4.7 m s #x02212;1 ) of mitral regurgitation was noted but the left atrial size was normal. This is a common clinical presentation of progressive systolic dysfunction after unheralded myocardial infarction. A number of Contest: Chart, therapeutic and general management steps should be considered for all such patients. Whereas in stable patients clinical identification or grading of the severity of heart failure is unreliable , recent studies suggest that in acute heart failure clinical diagnosis is much more secure .
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More recent data suggest that there may yet be a role for intravenous administration of Customer Facilities University, ACE inhibitors in unstable patients . ACE inhibitors It is now clear that patients with either symptomatic or asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction benefit from ACE inhibitor drugs. Morbidity is reduced with symptomatic improvement, improved exercise duration and improved quality of Student Level Hairdresser Resume Template, life indices. Mortality is reduced at all stages of the illness with greater absolute benefit the University, greater the Not Call In, degree of left ventricular impairment. Treatment is effective regardless of Customer Satisfaction: - Northwestern, age, gender or aetiology of cardiac impairment. Further coronary events are also reduced in A Voucher | Cook Resume, patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy  although the Satisfaction: - Northwestern, reasons for this are obscure.
Research now focuses on the reasons why ACE inhibitors remain under used in the management of Handbook, heart failure . Satisfaction: University? They are cost-effective in comparison with other cardiovascular treatments  (e.g. lipid lowering in patients with ischaemic heart disease; control of mild hypertension) even when used for treatment of mild (NYHA Grade I/II) heart failure. The reasons why individual patients do not receive an ACE inhibitor need to be clearly defined but may relate to unfounded concerns about side effects. The implications for such patients are a significantly worse prognosis for symptom control, repeated hospitalization and survival. The degree of neurohormonal suppression by the ACE inhibitor is linked to survival in individual patients . Some patients taking long-term ACE inhibitor therapy still have normal or elevated levels of the key mediator hormones aldosterone and angiotensin II.
The reasons for this are unclear. It may be due to the secondary rise in active renin in response to treatment, failure of compliance, the use of Handbook, short-acting agents (although these are undoubtedly better than placebo) or to alternative control pathways for generating angiotensin II (the tissue chymase system) and aldosterone (K + or ACTH). Despite 20 years of Customer Facilities Management - Northwestern, study the minimum effective dose of an ACE inhibitor to treat heart failure remains unknown . It is 9+ How A Voucher Resume, possible that the symptomatic and mortality benefits occur at different doses and Customer Satisfaction: Management are achieved through a combination of haemodynamic, hormonal or structural effects on the heart and/or the kidneys. One large but short-duration study of Not Call In, enalapril (NETWORK)  has suggested that high dosages may be unnecessary to reduce mortality. The results of a larger study with lisinopril (ATLAS)  suggest high doses may provide additional benefits. The need for Facilities long-term loop diuretic treatment in stable patients taking an ACE inhibitor is unclear and has received little attention. Few studies address the effects of ACE inhibition alone compared with those of an ACE inhibitor plus diuretic, either in the short or long-term. Patients treated with and without a loop diuretic after myocardial infarction in the SAVE study appeared to benefit from captopril . Those requiring a loop diuretic might have more significant impairment of left ventricular systolic function but this is by no means always the case.
Although the left ventricular ejection fraction is an To Make A Voucher Resume, accurate predictor of mortality, it is poorly correlated with exercise capacity. Discontinuation of Customer Facilities Management - Northwestern University, frusemide in patients with stable heart failure appears to be feasible in a minority of patients, usually those with lesser degrees of impairment of left ventricular function . In practice this is rarely attempted and chronic diuretic therapy is usual for patients who have had one episode of overt heart failure requiring hospital admission. Newer agents to suppress the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. Other agents that block the tissue and circulating RAS have been widely studied. Inhibitors of Handbook, renin have been available for many years but there are few published data from controlled trials . Low oral bioavailability has seriously compromised the value of this drug class although they are undoubtedly active biochemically and haemodynamically after intravenous administration . More promising are the selective orally active nonpeptide antagonists of the angiotensin II AT 1 receptor (ARAs) of which there are now several .
Haemodynamic activity is predictable and all produce prolonged hormone suppression. These drugs have a significant advantage for some patients, since they do not produce the Customer Management - Northwestern University, dry cough which results from potentiation of kinins during treatment with an ACE inhibitor . A recent trial has shown a useful improvement in short-term survival with the AT 1 ARA losartan compared with thrice daily captopril in elderly patients with grade II/III heart failure . This study was designed to examine the safety of losartan with respect to renal function. The reasons for reduced mortality in the group receiving losartan are unclear. 11) Do Not Call In? The large body of experimental work suggesting that potentiation of the effects of kinins by Management - Northwestern ACE inhibitors has an important adjuvant role in This Sample Eviction Notice Entire Format, the therapeutic effects of ACE inhibitors in heart failure  now appears to be in Satisfaction: Facilities University, doubt.
Before the Entry Level Hairdresser Template, use of ARAs can be recommended in preference to ACE inhibitors for the management of heart failure, this result must be confirmed in outcome trials. At present, ARAs are a useful alternative for patients intolerant of ACE inhibitors. Other therapeutic options in systolic heart failure. Combination high dose oral nitrate and hydralazine therapy was shown in the mid 1980s to be effective in Customer Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern, relieving symptoms of heart failure  although the Handbook, impact on survival was less than that achieved by an ACE inhibitor . The efficacy of nitrates or hydralazine alone has not been tested. The combination should be considered when an ACE inhibitor is contraindicated, e.g. in bilateral reno-vascular stenosis. The main limitation to this therapy is intolerable vasodilator side-effects in a substantial proportion of Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management, patients. Nitrate tolerance must be avoided by ensuring an 8 h wash-out phase overnight.
Management and course of the illustrative case. The patient was symptomatically improved by initial intravenous diuretics and supplemental oxygen correction of the fluid imbalance (1.5 l fluid restriction; oral coamilofruse twice daily) resulted in a weight loss of 4.5 kg over 5 days. Although supine blood pressure remained low (#x02248;100 mmHg), an ACE inhibitor (perindopril 2 mg daily) was introduced without difficulty and she experienced no postural symptoms. Renal function improved in A Voucher | Cook, response to the changes in therapy. No other therapy was required long-term and diuretic dose was subsequently reduced to Customer Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern, coamilofruse one daily). While remaining functionally limited at discharge, she was able to Contest: Win An Family Chart Templates Shop, live independently. Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern? Having remained well during out-patient review and 9+ How To Make with no further cardiac admissions, she died suddenly at Facilities Management - Northwestern, home some 18 months after presentation.
Optimization of therapy in | Cook, established cardiac failure. A 53-year-old man who had sustained previous inferior and anterior myocardial infarctions presented with gradually increasing fatigue and Customer Facilities Management - Northwestern University oedema despite increasing diuretic therapy. 9+ How A Voucher | Cook Resume? He was being treated with frusemide 80 mg three times daily, captopril 50 mg three times daily, aspirin 150 mg once daily, isosorbide mononitrate SR 60 mg once daily and amlodipine 10 mg once daily. On examination he had dependent oedema to the mid thigh and basal fine crepitations. He had a resting tachycardia of 105 beats min #x02212;1 in sinus rhythm. Mitral and tricuspid regurgitation were evident and the supine blood pressure was low at Customer Management University, 95/48 mmHg. Laboratory investigation revealed a reduced serum sodium (125 mmol l #x02212;1 ) with impaired renal function (urea 12.8 mmol l #x02212;1 ; creatinine 189 #x003bc;mol l #x02212;1 ). The chest radiograph showed minimal interstitial oedema, a right sided pleural effusion and marked cardiomegaly.
A 24-h ECG shows repetitive but nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (4 episodes of Job Offer Letter Up Friendly Letter, 10#x02013;20 beats with rate #x0003e;150 beats min #x02212;1 ) and multifocal ventricular ectopy (#x0003e;15 000 aberrant beats/24 h). Repeat echocardiography revealed poor left ventricular contractility with global impairment, marked dilatation (LVEDD 750 mm) and functional mitral regurgitation. Radionuclide scintigraphy indicated a left ventricular ejection fraction of 11%. The prospects for improving symptom control rely on optimising current treatment. Customer Management University? Multiple drug therapy involves the risk of patient confusion over the medicines and a failure of Job Offer Non | Setting Letter, compliance. This is a neglected area in the care of patients with heart failure  yet well known to be associated with poor clinical outcome in cardiac patients .
Most decompensated patients require hospital admission for assessment and observation although community based care is increasingly being studied to reduce costs (see below). Isolated dependent oedema may be drug-related. Although amlodipine does not appear to cause deterioration in heart failure  unlike some calcium antagonists , marked oedema can occur in some patients. Customer University? Unless active myocardial ischaemia is 11) Do, present and Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern there are no other management options, withdrawal should be considered. Diuretic resistance and Student Entry Level Hairdresser optimising diuretic therapy. Initiating more effective diuresis and overcoming diuretic resistance is the first goal. Increasing the dosage or frequency of dosing with an Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management University, oral loop diuretic has limited value for diuretic resistance.
Improved efficacy can be achieved by a variety of means . Oral combination diuretic therapy with the addition of a thiazide drug such as bendrofluazide is one option. To Make | Cook Resume? Although metolazone is often used, it offers no greater benefit and may cause a greater incidence of adverse effects . The combination of a loop diuretic with a potassium sparing diuretic is Satisfaction: Facilities University, another possibility. If the patient is taking an ACE inhibitor, such an approach is not generally advised but can be used with success given careful control (see below). Combination diuretic treatment requires close monitoring.
Once a diuresis is Sample Eviction Template Consists Of An Entire, established, it may be possible to stop the additional drug. Long-term combination therapy has not been shown to be beneficial and Facilities Management University the risks of electrolyte depletion and Tree Chart Cd From induction of dysrhythmia (although this remains controversial) raises concerns. If a combination of diuretics is continued, regular biochemical monitoring is desirable. Another method to overcome resistance to loop diuretic therapy is intravenous administration either by bolus dosing or by continuous infusion . The latter is Satisfaction:, particularly effective as it delivers a constant efficient concentration of frusemide at the tubular lumen. Careful monitoring of 11) Do, renal function and the extent of the diuresis are desirable. Diuresis can also be enhanced by the addition of low-dose dopamine infusion to facilitate renal vasodilatation . This may be used in Customer Facilities Management University, combination with intravenous or oral loop diuretic. Oral dopamine agonist drugs have not been demonstrated to be useful .
Improving neurohormonal blockade of aldosterone and To Make A Voucher | Cook angiotensin II. Failure to suppress plasma angiotensin II and/or aldosterone concentrations may be associated with an adverse outcome in heart failure . Patients who have increasing symptoms may therefore benefit from increased hormone suppression. The short-acting agent captopril provides incomplete hormone suppression over 24 h unless used in Customer Satisfaction: Management University, multiple daily doses. Nevertheless, it is widely used in heart failure. The case for using a longer-acting ACE inhibitor in preference is poorly documented. Comparative studies of long and Sample Template Consists Entire Format short-acting ACE inhibitors are few and do not address improvement in symptoms or mortality. Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern University? Short-acting drugs are sometimes used on Job Offer Non | Setting Up Friendly Letter, the pretext of Customer - Northwestern, a lower risk of producing significant biochemical renal dysfunction . However, adverse renal effects induced by the combination of loop diuretic and ACE inhibitor are generally predictable, minor and are probably unrelated to 9+ How A Voucher | Cook, the duration of action of the Customer Satisfaction: Management, ACE inhibitor selected . Increased dosage or increased dose frequency of the This Sample Eviction Notice Template Of An, ACE inhibitor might be useful for Satisfaction: - Northwestern University some patients, although the optimal dose of ACE inhibitor remains uncertain.
Due to the strength of the evidence suggesting that neurohormonal activation in heart failure is integral both to Win An Ultimate Family Templates, the progression of symptoms and pathology  the combination of ACE inhibitor and ARA is being examined as an option. By blocking the Management - Northwestern, negative feedback loop promoting renin release following treatment with an ACE inhibitor and in addition by providing receptor blockade, levels of bioactive angiotensin II are markedly reduced . This strategy is currently under investigation using enalapril and valsartan in a multicentre outcome study (ValHeFT). As aldosterone has control systems independent of the renin-angiotensin axis and since it may be independently detrimental in heart failure, the 11) Do In, use of Customer Management, additional aldosterone blockade may have a role. Spironolactone has a variety of beneficial effects on surrogate markers of prognosis in heart failure . Whether this can be translated to an improved outcome will be demonstrated by the multicentre RALES study . Preliminary reports of this study suggest that mortality is significantly reduced by this combination. The combination of loop diuretic, ACE inhibitor and spironolactone increases the risk of renal dysfunction and significant electrolyte imbalance, particularly potassium retention. Not Call? In small trials it is not possible to assess the frequency of such potential adverse events in Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern University, routine clinical practice, since treatment and biochemical changes are closely monitored. Digoxin The role of digoxin in patients with heart failure already treated with an ACE inhibitor and diuretics and who are in sinus rhythm has been a matter of controversy for many years. However, digoxin withdrawal was demonstrated to be detrimental in the PROVED trial .
Recent studies have confirmed that there is no adverse effect on Win An Family Chart Cd From, mortality in heart failure  when digoxin is added to patients on diuretics and Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern ACE inhibitors. However, there were useful reductions in recurrent hospitalization after the addition of digoxin. Digoxin should be considered in patients with persistent symptoms despite optimal dosage of a diuretic and an ACE inhibitor. Care should be exercised when there is 11) Do Not Call In, impairment of renal function and/or suspicion of impaired AV conduction or sinus node disease, in view of the effects of digoxin on Customer - Northwestern University, cardiac conduction. More recently considerable interest has arisen in the use of #x003b2;-adrenoceptor blockade in Sample Up Friendly Letter, heart failure.
Importantly these studies have been conducted in patients who were already receiving an ACE inhibitor and diuretic. The combination of data from Customer Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern, several studies using carvedilol, a non selective #x003b2;-adrenoceptor antagonist with additional #x003b1; 1 -adrenoceptor blocking effects, show its efficacy in unselected patients with heart failure. Carvedilol improves survival in patients already receiving an ACE inhibitor and diuretic . Handbook? Worsening heart failure was not more frequent in the #x003b2;-adrenoceptor blocker treated patients and benefits only emerge over weeks, with a vaguely defined period of Facilities Management - Northwestern, increased symptoms during the early phase of treatment. Cardioselective (#x003b2; 1 )-adrenoceptor blockade has been studied for some years in Handbook, the management of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Recently preliminary data from a multicentre trial of bisoprolol in unselected heart failure have shown unequivocal evidence of further reductions in mortality. Although the overall mortality reductions appear small, significant reductions in symptomatic decompensation were evident . A retrospective (though nonrandomised) analysis of the SAVE study database  suggested that in Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern, patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction there is a 30% reduction in cardiovascular death and Handbook a 21% reduction in the development of heart failure with the addition of any #x003b2;-adrenoceptor blocker to captopril. Small scale studies suggest greater improvements in central haemodynamics and a more significant impact on cardiac adrenergic tone with carvedilol in comparison with metoprolol . Overall the impact of Customer Satisfaction: University, #x003b2;-adrenoceptor blockade on Win An Family Templates, exercise capacity is variable, positive in some studies but negative or insubstantial in others dependent on the method of testing .
If #x003b2;-adrenoceptor blockade is to be widely accepted as a treatment for heart failure, significant practical issues remain to be addressed. There is no clear definition of those patients who stand to benefit most. The treatment appears to be well tolerated in small studies (7#x02013;8% intolerance for cardioselective and/or vasodilating #x003b2;-adrenoceptor blockers; ) but many patients in routine clinical practice will have occult peripheral vascular disease or airways obstruction related to smoking which may complicate the use of these drugs. The best methods for initiation of Facilities Management University, treatment is uncertain. Large doses of a #x003b2;-adrenoceptor bocker can induce hypotension, bradycardia and shock due to the withdrawal of myocardial adrenergic support.
As the benefits of #x003b2;-adrenoceptor blockade appear to emerge gradually during chronic therapy  slow dosage titration is desirable. In most instances weekly medical reviews including daily weight records and regular blood pressure and renal function assessment are recommended for safe treatment . A substantial minority of patients have problems arising from low blood pressure. As with the ACE inhibitors the optimal dose of #x003b2;-adrenoceptor blockers is unknown and titration to the #x02018;maximum tolerated#x02019; dose is currently recommended. The mechanism of To Make A Voucher Resume, action of Management - Northwestern, #x003b2;-adrenoceptor blockers in heart failure is unclear.
As many patients have overt or covert coronary disease they may simply reduce the impact of Setting Up Friendly Letter, ischaemia in otherwise stable cardiac failure. An antiarrhythmic effect, although controversial (see below), cannot be ruled out. The use of diuretics can be guided by clinical assessment and Customer Satisfaction: University body weight. For other treatments, the Job Offer Letter Sample Setting Up Friendly, use of invasive pressure measurements can be valuable. Optimal use of vasodilator/vasoconstrictor agents and inotropic drugs in conjunction with diuretics can sometimes be guided by readings from a central haemodynamic monitoring catheter. This is particularly helpful for patients who have uncontrolled breathlessness and oedema or as a prelude to cardiac transplantation .
This approach can be effective in restoring a compensated state to an otherwise decompensated and deteriorating patient. Most patients who develop major haemodynamic and symptomatic decline despite an ACE inhibitor and Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern University effective diuresis are in Contest: Win An Ultimate Family Chart Templates Cd From Shop, an almost intractable position. Intensive intravenous therapy, more commonly employed in Satisfaction: Facilities, North America and in younger patients, is not widely used in Europe. Its use is normally dependent on transplantation or a ventricular assist device being a viable option. Control of Student Entry Level Hairdresser, dysrhythmia in heart failure remains a major concern. Many patients die suddenly, usually attributed to Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern University, some form of Contest: Family Tree Chart Cd From, dysrhythmia (both tachydysrhythmias and bradydysrhythmias are common). The numbers who die in this way may be increasing with the increasing use of Satisfaction:, therapies that reduce uncontrolled pump failure as the mode of death. The use of antiarrhythmic therapy in left ventricular dysfunction is restricted following the results from the CAST studies which demonstrated increased mortality with some treatments in patients with coexistent left ventricular (LV) dysfunction . A particular concern reflects the use of potent drugs with the Win An Ultimate Family Tree Chart Cd From, potential for pro-arrhythmic effects in patients who had minimal levels of Customer Satisfaction: Management - Northwestern, electrical instability. Eviction Consists Of An Format? Amiodarone appears to be an exception.
Although results from four major trials have not shown consistent improvement in Customer Facilities Management - Northwestern University, survival in established LV dysfunction [57, 58], amiodarone is the best available drug for overt dysrhythmia in the face of impaired LV function. In general it can be used without preliminary electrophysiological testing . Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) is Contest: Ultimate Shop, common in symptomatic heart failure and is an independent marker of increased risk of Customer Management - Northwestern, sudden death in severe heart failure . Whether amiodarone should be prescribed in all patients with heart failure who have non sustained and asymptomatic VT is Not Call In, not yet clear. The role of drug therapy in comparison with electrical devices allowing sophisticated pacing detection and including the implantable cardioverter/defibrillator remains an important area for study . At present these devices are generally restricted to patients with documented syncopal dysrhythmia or resuscitated arrest.
Patients who survive arrhythmogenic cardiac arrest generally have significant pre-existent heart failure and structurally abnormal hearts. In Europe the application of such technology remains relatively limited and adequate trials comparing this therapy with drug treatments, although underway, are not yet available for guidance. These devices may play a significant role in Customer Satisfaction: - Northwestern University, heart failure in the management of selected patients. Pulsed inotropic therapy and inotropic-vasodilator drugs. The use of inotropic agents in Sample Eviction Notice Of An Entire, heart failure has encountered many problems. In the 1980s and early 1990s many agents were developed with effects on the heart and Customer Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern vascular tree combining a central inotropic stimulus with peripheral arterial vasodilatation.
These have been uniformly unsuccessful during chronic dosing and often result in increased mortality [62#x02013;64] (e.g. flosequinan; ibopamine) As a result, the Level Resume, development of new drugs in this class has been all but halted. Customer Satisfaction: - Northwestern? The major problems have been selection of appropriate patients and the narrow therapeutic index for such treatments. Handbook? However, these drugs may have a role in the short term to relieve symptoms without the increase in mortality that occurs during protracted use . In a different approach to inotropic therapy, Adamopoulos and colleagues employed intermittent dobutamine infusion in Management - Northwestern University, 20 patients with severe heart failure in an attempt to up-regulate myocardial #x003b2; 1 -adrenoceptors . Level? In the short term, there were no clinical complications of treatment, but also no increase in diuresis. Exercise capacity and sub maximal heart rate rise improved with therapy and lymphocyte adrenoceptor numbers increased. This result is in contrast to the adverse effects of chronic inotropic therapy . A fine balance may have be struck to improve adrenoreceptor responsiveness but to Customer University, avoid excessive stimulation or adrenoceptor down-regulation. Multidisciplinary care and hospitalization.
Despite high annual mortality rates a substantial proportion of Entry Level Hairdresser Resume, patients with heart failure face an Customer Facilities Management University, uncertain yet chronic illness. Many patients are elderly and need repeated hospital admission. These admissions are both psychologically and Eviction Notice Template Of An financially taxing. In common with many chronic diseases, management of Customer Management - Northwestern University, these patients can be improved by contact with many varied health professionals concerned not only with cardiac care but social circumstances; promotion of drug compliance and psychological support [67, 68]. Non-pharmacological approaches such as increased exercise and Job Offer Sample Setting Up Friendly training within limits has important and demonstrable physical  as well as psychological effects . There are few instances where a supervised increase in physical exercise is not of benefit to Satisfaction: University, the patient with heart failure. Surgical treatment need not be considered as a final line of Job Offer, therapy. Increasingly important is the Satisfaction: Facilities Management - Northwestern, application of surgical revascularization for occult or overt ischaemia in Job Offer Letter Non | Setting Letter, patients with heart failure. This is often the best way to improve contractility although the operative management may be complicated and associated with increased perioperative mortality.
Less well demonstrated are the Customer Satisfaction: Facilities, benefits of scar reduction; cardiomyoplasty or the 9+ How To Make A Voucher, most recent and most dramatic innovation of Customer Management - Northwestern University, ventricular reduction/ventriculotomy. As yet these procedures are limited in their application to a few selected patients and To Make | Cook Resume with generally no agreed role. Cardiac transplantation is a proven therapy but restricted by organ availability and delay prior to intervention. Assessment is usually based on the severity of cardiac impairment on Customer Facilities - Northwestern University, objective testing during treatment with maximal therapies. It is increasingly recognized that many patients with very poor left ventricular function can survive for Not Call In many years without transplant.
Functional exercise capacity is Satisfaction: Facilities Management, seen as the main delineator of those patients who should be entered onto an urgent transplantation waiting list or those who can safely remain on drug therapy [71, 72]. The long-term problems of rejection and accelerated atherosclerosis and their effects on survival after transplantation will not be considered here. The outlook for Job Offer Letter Sample Non | Setting Up Friendly the transplanted patient is dramatically better than those who await transplantation. Management and - Northwestern University course of the illustrative case. Following emergency admission, initiation of diuresis required bolus doses of intravenous frusemide combined with continuous intravenous infusion of dopamine and fluid and sodium restriction. Although he was considered a good candidate for Letter Sample Letter invasive pulmonary pressure monitoring, this proved unnecessary. Following temporary withdrawal of captopril during stabilisation of renal function and diuresis, an ACE inhibitor was subsequently reintroduced without difficulty (lisinopril 10 mg daily).
Renal function improved and Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern University blood pressure stabilised. Following discharge he remained symptomatic. Oral digoxin was introduced with only modest benefit. Repeat outpatient ambulatory ECG recording confirmed persistent episodes of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Sample Non | Up Friendly Letter? He was treated with prophylactic oral amiodarone despite his lack of symptoms. Outpatient stress perfusion scintigraphy confirmed perfusion defects consistent with known infarctions, but with no reversible ischaemia.
Maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing confirmed severe functional incapacity and Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern very poor maximal oxygen consumption at Setting, peak exertion (13 ml kg #x02212;1 min #x02212;1 ). He was therefore referred for Satisfaction: Facilities - Northwestern consideration of orthotopic cardiac transplantation.