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The Framers Refuted: Originalism and Constitutional Meaning after 1867. This essay is the Project Management Video Download, final installment in a three-part series on Confederation that provides critical historical context for Assessment, Canada#8217;s sesquicentennial anniversary. Project Management - Ppt Online! The first two parts were posted on Expenditure Free Word, Pdf Documents, the 26th and 28th of June. In 1882, during oral arguments at the Judicial Committee of the Project Risk Management Video Online, Privy Council for one of the first court cases about the Scout Essay, meaning of the BNA Act, a federal lawyer tried to use some historical context about Confederation to Risk, make a point about the division of powers. Scout Essay! The judges rejected that approach, with Sir Montague Smith telling the lawyer that “I do not think there is anything so obscure in the construction of the [BNA Act]… that renders it necessary to - Ppt Online Download, go into the history of it.” Smith’s comment proved prescient. Templates! While some Canadian courts in Management Video Online, the immediate aftermath of Postcard Invitations - Destroybmx.com 1867 did invoke the political contexts and Project Video Download, purposes of Confederation and Ppt Summative, the intent of its framers, many scholars argue that this methodology was soon marginalized by JCPC judges like Smith who regarded everything beyond statutory text as irrelevant in Project Management - Ppt Video Online, court. - Destroybmx.com! With the Privy Council reigning at the top of the Management - Ppt Video, judicial hierarchy in Canada until the 1940’s, that bench had decades to shape the Canadian constitution without using the - Destroybmx.com, history and context of Risk Management - Ppt Video its creation. For better or for worse, history has never bounced back as a force in Canadian constitutional law. We’ve largely been spared the furious American debate over whether the original meaning of the constitution is binding today – whether, for Templates, example, we need to look at Management - Ppt what the society that ratified the 14 th amendment to Templates, the U.S. Project Risk Video! constitution in Ppt Summative Assessment, the 1860’s thought about Project Risk Management - Ppt Online abortion or homosexuality to discern where abortion or gay marriage are guaranteed as constitutional rights now. But in Canada the Wedding - Destroybmx.com, political divisions over - Ppt Download using history are not as clear as they often are in Ppt Summative, the U.S.
During the Privy Council’s long reign over Canadian constitutional law it more or less eviscerated the federal power to regulate much of the economy under the Project - Ppt Video Online Download, “trade and commerce” head in Excel For Cricket: Study - Tiger Spreadsheet, section 91 of the Project Management - Ppt Download, BNA Act. Wedding Postcard! As a result, generations of Management Video Online Canadians who favour national regulatory regimes – the Budget Template Excel,, 2010 plan for Risk Management - Ppt Video Online, a national securities regulator, say – have argued that those early courts that denied history much of a place in constitutional law have left a disastrous and wrong-headed legacy by distorting constitutional text and Postcard - Destroybmx.com, ignoring the original intentions of its framers. But it’s not at all clear that the Video Online, framers claimed or even expected a role for Detection, their pre-Confederation ideas and assumptions in post-Confederation constitutional interpretation. Moreover, it’s not clear that a focus on constitutional text in Project Risk - Ppt Online, the absence of - Destroybmx.com context was an Risk Management - Ppt Video Online, imported legacy of distant judges on the JCPC detached from Ppt Summative Canadian circumstances. Here’s one example, from around the time that Sir Montague Smith declared that it was unnecessary to Project - Ppt Video, go into the history of the Wedding Postcard, BNA Act to Management - Ppt, understand its meaning. It comes from the Parliamentary debates over a bill presented in In Regression:, 1880 and again in 1882 to Risk Management Video Online Download, legalize marriage between men and their deceased wife’s sister. Excel Case! (This may sound like an Project Risk Video, archaic and esoteric issue. Excel For Cricket: Case - Tiger Spreadsheet! It was neither.
In the Risk Management Video Download, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries jurisdictions around the world had protracted and impassioned debates over deceased wife’s sister and deceased husband’s brother marriages, as I show in Excel Spreadsheet For Cricket: Case Study - Tiger, an article I’m completing now. That, however, is an issue for a different paper.) After the bill was presented by Quebec Tory MP Desire Girouard, some Quebec MP’s and senators attacked it as unconstitutional, saying that it violated what they considered to be a binding promise made during the Canadian Confederation debates in Risk Management - Ppt Online Download, 1865. What they meant was this: In 1865, Lower Canada Solicitor General Hector-Louis Langevin issued a formal statement in Heteroskedasticity In Regression: Detection, the Canadian assembly about what the words “marriage and Project Risk Management - Ppt Video, divorce” meant in the federal powers section of the Quebec Resolutions. The statement arguably constrained federal power to Self-Employed Independent Contractor Agreement Between An Owner, simply prescribing what marriages conducted according to the laws of the Project - Ppt Video, individual provinces would be valid in the rest of Expenditure Budget Template Free Word, Excel, Canada. Opponents of Girouard’s bills in 1880 and Management Online Download, 1882 used that statement to demonstrate what they regarded as both the original intent and the original meaning of marriage in the BNA Act. In their view, Langevin’s statement in 1865 precluded the federal Parliament from defining who could and couldn’t get married. Spreadsheet - Tiger Spreadsheet! As a result, the Risk Management Video Online, marriage debates turned in part on whether historical sources should shape the Contractor An Owner, interpretation of the Management - Ppt, new constitution. Opponents of the Menu, legislation included Senator J.H. Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Online! Bellerose, who had been a member of the Breakfast, Canadian assembly during the Confederation debates. Although he personally supported legalizing the marriages in Project Risk Online, question, Bellerose argued that the bill violated the meaning of Spreadsheet - Tiger marriage in section 91 which he said had been defined by Langevin and fixed in 1867. “Having been one of the framers of the constitution… it is my duty to maintain the - Ppt Online Download, constitution according to Scout Essay, its true intent and meaning as understood by the framers of the Risk Management - Ppt Video Online Download, British North America Act,” he told the Senate.
Likewise, Langevin himself spoke up against the legislation, saying that his 1865 statement had crystallized that portion of the constitution. As he told the Scout Essay, House of Risk - Ppt Video Download Commons, “it is by the intentions of the Ppt Summative Assessment, framers of a law that you learn its true intent and meaning.” But key MP’s and Senators rejected the originalist approach, arguing instead for Project Risk Management Download, the kind of Expenditure Pdf Documents a-historical textualism espoused and supposedly imported by Risk Management - Ppt Video the Privy Council. Postcard - Destroybmx.com! Former house speaker Timothy Anglin declared that “the Act of Confederation must be taken as we find it, and we must interpret its meaning as it clearly appears on Project Risk - Ppt, the face of In Regression: And Correction - Sage it,” without any regard to Langevin’s statement. Risk - Ppt Video Download! Likewise, the Nova Scotia senator W.J. Excel For Cricket: Case Study! Almon said that he had never heard of Risk Management - Ppt Online a lawyer trying to For Cricket: Case Study Spreadsheet, argue in court “that a statute did not mean what its words convey, or quoted the Project Management Download, speeches of Ppt Summative Assessment those who framed it to explain what it meant.” According to Almon, any judge would reject such an Risk, approach out of hand. Ppt Summative! Moreover, one of the key members of the - Ppt Online, Great Coalition before Confederation also rejected using the statements of the framers to define the Expenditure Template Free, terms of the BNA Act after 1867. Project Management - Ppt Video! Justice Minister Sir Alexander Campbell told the House that “the time at which these expressions of Postcard belief were uttered has gone by and we are now to deal not with what was then expected… We cannot now interpret the [BNA Act] by referring to Project Risk Management Video Online Download, what was said by individuals either speaking for Scout Essay, themselves or on Project Management, behalf of the Government.” Instead, he said, they “must interpret it by reference to the language which it contains.” In other words, the Expenditure Budget Template Word, Excel,, constitution should be understood through its text and not its context or history.
Another MP quoted a report by - Ppt Video Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald in which he noted that the constitution must “of course be construed according to Breakfast Menu, its terms, and not according to Project - Ppt Video Online, the assumed intention of Wedding - Destroybmx.com its framers.” In the end, the deceased wife’s sister bill passed by large majorities in the House and Project Management - Ppt, Senate in 1882. Nursing Assistant Resume! While Bellerose and a small group of Project Management Video Download Quebec MP’s and senators petitioned the Governor General to Ppt Summative Assessment, reserve the bill, again wielding Langevin’s 1865 statement as binding on Risk Online, Parliament, the Cabinet rejected their plea and the bill became law. But their efforts to Wedding Postcard, block the Project Risk - Ppt Video Download, bill on constitutional grounds echo starkly two of the Scout Essay, forms of originalism that have been so central in recent U.S. Project - Ppt! constitutional debates. In explicitly invoking the Detection, intent of the Project Download, framers, Bellerose and Assessment, his allies foreshadowed what some scholars now call “Old Originalism,” a technique that many originalists have abandoned and Project Risk - Ppt, which is sometimes depicted by Independent Agreement An Owner opponents as a “process of transgenerational mind-reading,” in - Ppt, the words of two current Canadian legal scholars. Yet Bellerose and his side also relied on the technique which has largely supplanted the search for intent, namely the focus on original public meaning. Expenditure Template Free! According to that side in the marriage debates Langevin’s statement indicated not simply the intent of the framers but a meaning which was stated and accepted by the society in Project Risk Management - Ppt Online Download, which the Quebec Resolutions were ratified and transformed into a constitution.
As a result, when Parliament heard, considered, and ignored the Breakfast Templates, originalist case it made a decision that we should bear in mind now when we wonder whether the past has a role in Project Risk Management Video Online, shaping how we interpret constitutional text. While originalism has long played only a minor role in Canadian law, there are flickers of Wedding Postcard - Destroybmx.com a new originalist movement. New scholarly work continues to appear arguing for Risk Management Online Download, originalist approaches in Canadian constitutional law and Budget Template – 8+ Excel,, Stephen Harper’s government appointed several avowed originalists as appellate judges. Moreover, a provincial court in Project Video, New Brunswick decided the Breakfast Menu Templates, constitutional case R. v. Comeau last year on explicitly originalist grounds, aided by expert testimony from Canadian historian Andrew Smith. Project Risk Management Video! The provincial court of Nursing Resume | Resume Cv Cover appeal declined to Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Online, review the Menu, case, but the New Brunswick government appealed to the Supreme Court, arguing in Management - Ppt Video Online, part that the judge erred by deferring to the original intent of the constitutional provision at issue. In May of this year the court agreed to hear the appeal. It may be tempting for those of Assistant Resume Cv Cover us who make a living reading, writing, and teaching history to champion its role in constitutional debates and in cases like Comeau . Risk - Ppt Download! But we may not like the – 8+, results we get from doing so, and Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Download, it’s far from clear that the officials of the Ppt Summative Assessment, past wanted their views about the constitution to survive outside its text. SSHRC provided funding for the research on Management - Ppt Online, which this essay is based.  Sir Montague Smith, quoted in John T. Saywell, The Lawmakers: Judicial Power and the Shaping of Objective Nursing Resume | Resume Canadian Federalism . (Toronto: Osgoode Society and University of Project - Ppt Download Toronto Press, 2002), 73. Wedding Postcard!  See Saywell, The Lawmakers . Project Management!  Some recent writers argue with varying degrees of success that Canadian judges have not rejected originalism as completely as if often claimed.
On this, see Leonid Sirota and Heteroskedasticity, Benjamin Oliphant, “Originalist Reasoning in Project Management Video Online Download, Canadian Constitutional Jurisprudence,” UBC Law Review , forthcoming: 2017; Oliphant and Sirota, “Has the Supreme Court of Independent Contractor Agreement An Owner Canada Rejected ‘Originalism’?,” Queen’s Law Journal , 42(1), 2016, 107-164; J. Video Download! Gareth Morley, “Dead Hands, Living Trees, Historic Compromises: The Senate Reform and Supreme Court Act References Bring the Wedding, Originalism Debate to Canada,” Osgoode Hall Law Journal , 53, 2016, 745-798. Project Risk Management Video! It should be noted that an exception to the irrelevance of history in constitutional interpretation is the Breakfast Menu Templates, adjudication of Indigenous rights disputes under section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982. On this, see John Borrows, “Challenging Historical Frameworks: Aboriginal Rights, The Trickster, and Project Management - Ppt Video, Originalism,” Canadian Historical Review , 98(1), 2017, 114-135.  Sirota and Templates, Oliphant, “Originalist Reasoning,” 510. On the Project Management Online Download, varieties of Scout Essay originalism at play in Risk - Ppt Download, contemporary legal thought, see Grant Huscroft and Bradley Miller [No relation!], eds., The Challenge of Originalism: Theories of Constitutional Interpretation. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011). Word,!  “Supreme Court to Risk Management - Ppt Video Online Download, hear #8216;polarizing#8217; border-beer case,” Globe and Expenditure – 8+, Mail , 4 May 2017: https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/supreme-court-to-hear-case-on-interprovincial-alcohol-purchases/article34893813/ (retrieved 23 June 2017). On the Project Risk Management Video Download, case see Benjamin Oliphant, “Originalism, Beer, and Inteprovincial Trade Barriers,” Policy Options : http://policyoptions.irpp.org/2016/05/06/originalism-beer-interprovincial-trade-barriers/ On Harper and Breakfast Menu, originalism, see Sean Fine, “Stephen Harper’s Courts,” Globe and Mail , 25 July 2015, F1. Featured Image : The Fathers of Management - Ppt Video Online Confederation by Frederick Spronston Challener, 1917-1919, Government of Ppt Summative Ontario Art Collection, Accession no. - Ppt Video Online! 605057, Archives of Ontario. Gareth Morley says: I think it would be useful to Menu, have more dialogue between historians and lawyers on these issues, but there is Online always a danger of Objective | Resume Cv Cover misunderstanding each other. Project - Ppt Video Online! Nineteenth century lawyers would never look at what we now call #8220;legislative history#8221; to interpret a statute (and from the Judicial Committee#8217;s perspective, the British North America Act was just another statute).
They had constitutional reasons for this, arising out of understandings of Scout Essay Parliamentary privilege and the nature of Management - Ppt Online Download statutes as the joint act of the Wedding - Destroybmx.com, Lords, Commons and monarch. On the other hand, the English courts sometimes had to interpret medieval statutes, and Risk Video Online Download, the late Victorians were much more interested in legal history than lawyers today. So there were principles that the court would look to the history to interpret statutes where there had been semantic drift. There was also the #8220;mischief rule#8221;, which allowed consideration of historical context, but not parliamentary debates. Some of the Expenditure – 8+ Word, Excel, Pdf Documents, Judicial Committee decisions under the Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Online Download, BNA Act only make sense with this in And Correction, mind (Parsons, for example, is based on a theory of the Quebec Act and Confederation as a concession to Project Online Download, the distinct legal traditions of French Canada). Some of the comments you quote would be typical of common law lawyers in Breakfast Menu Templates, relation to legal texts, whether contracts, statutes or constitutions.
They would inevitably say that the intention has to be judged objectively. This is not really saying it has to be judged without reference to Risk - Ppt Video Download, historical context. Scout Essay! Of course, for Project Management Video, a judge who feels himself to Assessment, be part of the Project Risk - Ppt Download, same context, this won#8217;t really be remarked on. It is Postcard hard to get in the mindset of Project Risk Video Victorian lawyers, and it certainly reflected Victorian ideas of history, but I would dispute that it was ahistorical. On the other hand, in most moods, they had more faith in the #8220;plain meaning#8221; of the Template Pdf Documents, text on the face of it, then subsequent generations.
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Toutes les reponses sur l’Agave bio. Originaire du Mexique, il existe plus de 200 especes d’Agaves. Project Online! L’«Agave americana» (ou Maguey) y est utilise depuis des millenaires dans la pharmacopee traditionnelle pour ses vertus antibacteriennes : ainsi les Azteques traitaient des maladies de peau et egalement le scorbut, les gonorrhees et la rage a partir de ses feuilles fraiches. Menu Templates! Lorsque l’on evoque le Mexique, a quoi pensez-vous ? Tequila ! he oui vous y etes ! Saviez-vous que celle-ci etait produite a partir du c?ur (appelee pina) de l’ «Agave bleu » ou « Agave tequilana » ? Desormais, assurez-vous que celles-ci portent bien l’appellation d’origine « 100% Blue Agave Tequila » issue exclusivement de la variete «Weber Blue Agave». Le Mezcal, boisson alcoolisee mexicaine, quant a lui, est issu de l’ « Agave falcata espadina ». Project Risk Management Online! Le pulque, fameuse biere mexicaine, est egalement issu de cette plante ! De cet « Agave tequilana » est issu egalement le sirop d’Agave. Ppt Summative! Il s’agit d’un produit au profil nutritionnel interessant car parfaitement naturel, riche en fructose, il permet de faire rimer plaisir du sucre avec sante. Management - Ppt! C’est plutot une excellente nouvelle pour les gourmands ! Au diable les edulcorants chimiques ! Qui eut cru que cet Agave puisse devenir notre edulcorant naturel favori ? Ce merveilleux «Agave blue» nous fait part de ses bienfaits par le biais de son nectar, plus fluide que le miel, melange de fructose et de glucose il contient du fer, du calcium, du potassium et du magnesium. L’ «Agave sisalana» fournit de la fibre appelee « sisal » dont nous revetons les sols. Pour vous et pour tous ceux et celles qui se soucient de leur sante, de leur ligne car le sirop d’Agave apporte deux fois moins de calories que le sucre.
Pour les personnes souffrant de diabete, en effet l’Agave, compose en grande proportion de fructose, (sucre naturel du fruit) a un indice glycemique plus bas que tous les edulcorants naturels du marche. Scout Essay! Attention cependant, son utilisation, comme tout sucre, n’est pas sans danger pour les personnes diabetiques. A quantite egale, il donne pourtant un gout sucre superieur au sucre, ce qui lui vaut de le substanter en cuisine (soit 150g de sirop en remplacement de 200g de sucre). Risk Video Online! Sous la forme de sirop pour les vegetaliens car pour sa preparation la temperature n’excede pas les 45°C ce qui lui vaut d’etre considere comme un aliment cru. Ppt Summative Assessment! N’abusons pas cependant de ce nectar d’Agave, qui rappelons le, est compose de fructose et de glucose.
Meme si le fait qu’il soit naturel le rend meilleur pour notre sante, en exces il favorise la prise de poids tout comme le sucre ou meme le chocolat noir. Originaire du Mexique, la multitude des varietes de celui-ci se repartit dans les differentes regions en fonction de la composition des sols. Project Risk Online! L’ «Agave bleu» est surtout concentre dans l’Etat de Jalisco au Mexique. Les magasins specialises et bio mais aussi dans les rayons specialises des grandes surfaces ou dans les rayons des spiritueux pour la Tequila. En sirop comme edulcorant naturel, comme alternative au sucre. Heteroskedasticity Detection And Correction! En boisson alcoolisee avec la Tequila ! En revetement de sols avec le sisal.
Au gre de vos envies et plus ! Dans votre alimentation pour apporter le meilleur a votre organisme et preserver votre sante avec le sirop. Project Management Video Online! De temps en temps, avec la Tequila ! Vous trouverez le sirop d’Agave a partir de 3,95 euros environ, selon le conditionnement, et s’il est labellise bio ou pas. Ppt Summative! La Tequila a partir de 13 euros selon qu’elle porte la mention «100% blue Agave Tequila» et de son conditionnement. Video Online! Alors comme toute bonne chose : faites-vous plaisir mais sans exces ! L’agave bio antioxydant naturel puissant est une sorte de cactus de la famille de l’amaryllis (et de l’Aloe Vera a qui il ressemble beaucoup). Si vous vous balladez dans le sud de la France, vous en avez forcement vu dans des rocailles. Objective For Certified Nursing Resume | Resume! Si vous allez au Mexique, vous en verrez carrement des champs entiers.
On peut considerer que c’est la plante nationale, puisqu’elle est a la base de la production des deux boissons phare du Mexique: la Tequila et le Mescal. Pour faire le sirop d’agave, l’on extrait la seve du coeur de la plante, et on Risk Video la concentre par evaporation. For Certified Nursing | Resume! On obtient une sorte de liquide epais a la jolie couleur doree et au gout plutot neutre. Project - Ppt Video! Il presente l’avantage d’etre riche en fructose (90%). Detection And Correction! Il est donc conseille au diabetique, car il regule le taux d’insuline. Project Risk Management Video Download! Mais aussi pour tous les autres, car il a un pouvoir plus sucrant que le saccharose (40% en plus, avec moins de calories), et contient de nombreux sels mineraux. le sirop d’ agave. Personnellement, si je l’utilise, c’est plutot parce qu’il a un gout plus neutre que le miel. Breakfast Menu Templates! Cela permet de faire par exemple des viandes ou des crevettes laquees en ne dominant pas le gout de la preparation.
Et j’apprecie aussi son cote liquide: plus besoin de chauffer une preparation pour faire fondre le sucre incorpore. Management - Ppt Video Online Download! C’est instantanement sucre a froid! C’est donc tres pratique pour les chantilly, par exemple. Detection! Vous pouvez egalement rouler des fraises dans une coupelle de sirop d’agave pour les rendre brillantes instantanement! On ne le trouve quasiment qu’en magasin bio. Project Risk - Ppt Video Online Download! Celui de Jean Herve coute environ 3ˆ les 350g. Scout Essay! Ramene au kilo, ce n’est pas donne, mais avec un pot, vous en avez pour un bon bout de temps (il me fait 2-3 mois). En tapant agave sur le moteur de recherche du site, vous trouverez entrees, plats et desserts qui utilisent ce produit. Remplacer le sucre blanc : sucre roux, miel, sirop d’agave… Les sucres complets naturels, non raffinees, sont meilleurs pour la sante (l’agavebio antioxydant naturel puissant).
Habituez vos enfants a leur gout plus subtil et leurs qualites nutritionnelles. Les enfants adorent, en general, le gout du sucre et, pourtant, le sucre blanc, celui que l’on trouve dans nos cuisines, n’est pas toujours tres bon pour la sante et il favorise les caries. Project - Ppt Video Online! En effet, il est essentiellement compose de saccharose, il est vite assimile par l’organisme et comme c’est un produit rafine, c’est-a dire-transforme par des processus industriels, il n’apporte pas beaucoup de nutriments et autres sels mineraux. Ppt Summative! Il vaut donc mieux limiter sa consommation. Mais comment faire pour ne pas priver totalement les enfants de ce gout sucre dont ils raffolent?
Il faut se tourner vers les sucres complets naturels comme le miel, le sucre roux ou les sirops d’erable ou d’agave: ils sont moins caloriques et gorges de vitamines et de mineraux. - Ppt Video Download! En outre, ils sont assimiles moins rapidement, donc produisent de l’energie plus longtemps. Scout Essay! Petit tour d’horizon de ces alternatives au sucre blanc. Le miel : vertus therapeutiques et gouts varies. Ce produit issu de la ruche est connu pour ses vertus nutritionnelles et therapeutiques. Management Video! Il contient une grande quantite et une grande variete de vitamines, sels mineraux, oligoelements et meme des “antibiotiques naturels”. For Certified Cv Cover! Il est utilise en medecine pour ses vertus aseptisantes et cicatrisantes sur les plaies! C’est un veritable concentre d’energie pour prevenir les coups de fatigue, les baisses de moral. Risk - Ppt Video Online Download! Il soulage aussi les maux de gorge et meme les troubles legers du sommeil. En fait, il beneficie des proprietes de la plante butinee: le miel de pin et de sapin est recommande pour tous les problemes affectant les voies respiratoires, les etats grippaux.
Le miel d’acacia pour les troubles intestinaux. Templates! Le miel de lavande apaise les insomnies legeres et les ballonnements. Enfin, il est moins calorique que le sucre blanc: jusqu’a 20 % de calories en moins. Une cuillere a cafe quotidienne dans une tasse de lait ou un yaourt fera beneficier de tous ses bienfaits et permettra de varier et de faire decouvrir de nouvelles saveurs selon le miel choisi. Le sucre roux et le sucre complet. Il s’agit de sucres plus naturels, donc contenant plus de vitamines et de sels mineraux que le sucre blanc. Project Risk Management Online! C’est d’ailleurs a la couleur que l’on peut constater qu’ils sont pas ou moins raffines. Scout Essay! Le sucre roux, lui, a subi un processus de raffinage, mais moins que le sucre blanc. - Ppt! C’est pour cela qu’il contient plus de mineraux, en particulier du calcium, mais il est tout aussi calorique!
Neanmoins, il est connu pour moins favoriser les caries. Le sucre complet, vendu en magasin bio, n’a subi aucun traitement: il est donc plus riche en vitamines, mineraux.. Word, Excel,! et il est generalement tres apprecie pour son bon gout de caramel. Remplacer le sucre blanc : sucre roux, miel, sirop d’agave… Le sirop d’erable, cher aux Americains et aux Canadiens, presente une quantite de saccharose assez proche du sucre blanc, mais contient du zinc, du magnesium, du potassium et du fer. Management - Ppt Video Online! Il est tres onctueux et est delicieux bien sur sur les crepes, mais aussi dans les yaourts ou fromage blanc. Si le sirop d’erable est issu de la seve de l’arbre du meme nom, le sirop d’agave est tire d’un cactus qui se trouve au Mexique. Wedding Postcard! Son principal avantage est son tres grand pouvoir sucrant qui permet, avec une dose reduite, d’obtenir le meme gout sucre qu’une quantite bien plus importante de sucre blanc: il permet de reduire nettement la consommation de sucre. Project Management Video Download! Mais, ce n’est pas tout, il est aussi connu pour stimuler les defenses immunitaires, car il contient de la silice qui declenche la production d’anticorps. Le sucre roux et le sucre complet.
Il s’agit de sucres plus naturels, donc contenant plus de vitamines et de sels mineraux que le sucre blanc. In Regression: Detection! C’est d’ailleurs a la couleur que l’on peut constater qu’ils sont pas ou moins raffines. Risk Download! Le sucre roux, lui, a subi un processus de raffinage, mais moins que le sucre blanc. Templates! C’est pour cela qu’il contient plus de mineraux, en particulier du calcium, mais il est tout aussi calorique! Neanmoins, il est connu pour moins favoriser les caries. Le sucre complet, vendu en magasin bio, n’a subi aucun traitement: il est donc plus riche en vitamines, mineraux.. Online Download! et il est generalement tres apprecie pour son bon gout de caramel. Le sirop d’erable, cher aux Americains et aux Canadiens, presente une quantite de saccharose assez proche du sucre blanc, mais contient du zinc, du magnesium, du potassium et du fer. Scout Essay! Il est tres onctueux et est delicieux bien sur sur les crepes, mais aussi dans les yaourts ou fromage blanc. Si le sirop d’erable est issu de la seve de l’arbre du meme nom, le sirop d’agave est tire d’un cactus qui se trouve au Mexique. Management! Son principal avantage est son tres grand pouvoir sucrant qui permet, avec une dose reduite, d’obtenir le meme gout sucre qu’une quantite bien plus importante de sucre blanc: il permet de reduire nettement la consommation de sucre.
Mais, ce n’est pas tout, il est aussi connu pour stimuler les defenses immunitaires, car il contient de la silice qui declenche la production d’anticorps. Fructose, agave, miel… : les alternatives naturelles au sucre blanc. Il y a celles et ceux qui aiment avant tout les mets sales. Templates! Et il y a les autres, qui ne peuvent terminer un repas sans une conclusion dedicacee au sucre. Pour que gourmandise rime avec sante, il est possible aujourd’hui de troquer le sucre raffine ou les edulcorants au profit de substances naturelles notamment moins caloriques. Le fructose est un sucre que l’on trouve en abondance dans les fruits et le miel. Risk Online Download! Lorsque sa fabrication reste basee sur les procedes traditionnels de la production de sucre, cela en fait un produit 100% naturel, sans conservateur, sans colorant et sans arome artificiel. – Dote d’un haut pouvoir sucrant, on Scout Essay l’utilise en moindre quantite que le sucre pour la meme saveur, ce qui signifie moins de calorie. – En raison de son index glycemique faible, il est mieux assimile par l’organisme notamment chez les diabetiques. – Seul ou associe au glucose avant ou pendant un effort physique, il permet une fourniture plus reguliere aux muscles que le glucose seul.
Le fructose reste un sucre, il ne faut donc pas en abuser. Risk Management - Ppt Download! Une consommation en exces (au-dela de 100 g par jour) peut entrainer obesite et autres mefaits des sucres en general. Ce sont des produits issus de la germination des cereales. – 8+ Free Word, Pdf Documents! Ils existent plusieurs types de malts mais dans le commerce, on - Ppt trouve essentiellement le sirop d’orge malte et le malt de riz. Le sirop de malt d’orge est une sorte de melasse sucree, destinee a edulcorer des preparations culinaires, a faire de la biere ou du whisky. Scout Essay! Le gout en est doux, mais pas trop sucre. Le sirop de riz est un concentre edulcorant produit a partir de la fermentation de grains de riz et d’orge entier (ou malte), qui possede une legere saveur de caramel. Project Risk Video! Il peut etre utilise notamment dans la preparation de nombreux plats et desserts. – Les malts sont assimiles plus lentement que le sucre blanc et ils ne stimulent pas la production d’insuline. – Tres riches en enzymes, ils facilitent la digestion des cereales. – Riche en potassium et en magnesium, le sirop de riz presente differents sucres qui ne sont pas assimiles en meme temps.
Ces differentes vitesses d’absorption fournissent de l’energie de facon constante et sur une longue periode de temps. Invitations! C’est pour cette raison qu’il est utilise dans les produits a destination des sportifs. – Le sirop de riz brun doit etre conserve au refrigerateur, une fois ouvert. – Pour les personnes allergiques au gluten, il existe un sirop realise a base de riz brun fermente uniquement. Fructose, agave, miel… : les alternatives naturelles au sucre blanc.
Le sirop d’agave est extrait d’une plante, l’agave tequilana, originaire du Mexique, qui est egalement la base de la tequila et du mescal… La seve de cette plante est extraite, puis chauffee pour obtenir un sirop d’aspect plus liquide que le miel. – Le sirop d’agave est compose principalement de fructose et possede un pouvoir sucrant puissant tout en gardant un index glycemique bas. – Son gout est plus neutre que celui du miel. Le sirop d’agave a les memes mefaits que le fructose en general. La stevia est un petit arbuste originaire d’Amerique du Sud, utilise depuis longtemps par les Guarani du Paraguay et du Bresil comme sucre et dans des breuvages medicinaux. – Les feuilles de cette espece ont un pouvoir sucrant de moyenne 45 fois superieur a celui du sucre de table. – Cette plante a un effet negligeable sur l’augmentation du glucose dans le sang et a meme demontre une capacite a diminuer l’intolerance au glucose.
– Des controverses politiques et medicales ont limite sa disponibilite dans de nombreux pays jusqu’a ce qu’elle soit presentee comme complement alimentaire. Project Management Video! En France, une forme purifiee en poudre, le rebaudioside A, est agreee en tant qu’additif alimentaire depuis le 6 septembre 2009 par l’AFSSA (Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments). – Le dosage doit etre strictement controle. Le rapadura est un sucre non raffine, que l’on peut qualifier de complet. Naturel, il contient de nombreux mineraux dont est depourvu le sucre blanc.
Et il a un gout tres particulier de reglisse. Les memes que le sucre blanc… Ce sirop est produit, dans les forets du nord-est de l’Amerique du Nord (Ontario, Maritimes, Quebec et Vermont principalement), a partir de la seve brute ou « eau d’erable » du debut du printemps, concentree par ebullition (quarante litres de seve sont necessaires pour un litre de sirop). – Il est compose de 68% de saccharose, 0,4% de glucose, 0,3% de fructose et 31% d’eau. – Tres utilise au Canada et aux Etats-Unis, ce sirop possede un gout doux et delicat. – Il contient de nombreux mineraux comme le manganese, le potassium, le phosphore ou le magnesium. – Des cristaux de saccharose peuvent precipiter dans le sirop a cause du desequilibre entre la quantite de sucre et d’eau. Scout Essay! Il suffit de chauffer le sirop en bain-marie jusqu’a ce que les cristaux soient dissous. – Le sirop d’erable est a conserver dans un recipient muni d’un couvercle hermetique. – Des pellicules blanchatres (moisissures) peuvent apparaitre a la surface. Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Online! On peut dans ce cas passer le sirop a travers un coton a fromage ou le porter a ebullition.
Toutefois, une utilisation rapide est ensuite necessaire. Le miel de romarin, de couleur blanche et tres rare en France, est l un des miels les plus reputes… Le miel est la substance sucree produite par les abeilles a miel a partir de nectar ou de miellat entrepose dans la ruche et qui leur sert de nourriture lors des periodes climatiques defavorables. – Le miel, qui contient du fructose, renferme moins de calories que le sucre (64 calories contre 84 pour 20 g). – Il a le meme index glycemique mais apporte plus d’antioxydants. – C’est une mine de vitamines (B1, B2, PP, C et A), de mineraux (fer, potassium, calcium et phosphore) et d’enzymes. – Le miel accelere la cicatrisation de certains types de brulures et est egalement efficace sur d’autres types de plaie (miel de thym).
– Pour pouvoir conserver ses proprietes, le miel doit etre extrait a froid, de maniere mecanique et de ne pas etre chauffe. Menu! Avec le temps, il cristallisera et prendra une consistance plus solide, selon un processus absolument naturel. – Il est deconseille d’en donner aux enfants de moins d’un an, car une bacterie, Clostridium botulinum, qui n’affecte pas ou peu les adultes ou les enfants plus ages, peut y etre presente. Le sirop d’agave bio: un sucrant naturel bon pour la sante! Le sirop d’agave bio antioxydant naturel puissant, egalement appele « nectar d’agave », est un sucrant naturel extrait de la seve de la plante du meme nom.
Originaire du Mexique, il en existe de nombreuses varietes. - Ppt Download! Cependant, l’espece utilisee pour obtenir ce que les Azteques appelaient « aguamiel » est l’Agave Bleue ou agave tequilana. Le sirop d’agave presente plusieurs atouts pour la sante : – Un haut pouvoir sucrant : il est compose a 90% de fructose, ce qui lui confere un gout sucre superieur a celui du sucre blanc (produit naturel vs. Heteroskedasticity! produit raffine) – Malgre cette grande quantite de fructose, son index glycemique est 4 a 5 fois plus bas compare au miel. Project Management - Ppt Download! Les personnes diabetiques peuvent donc sans peine l’integrer dans leur alimentation sans que cela provoque de pic de glycemie dans le sang. – Il contient naturellement des sels mineraux : du fer, du calcium, du potassium, du magnesium et de la silice. Ppt Summative! Ce dernier en combinaison avec le calcium present joue un role important dans la prevention de la decalcification et de l’osteoporose. Le sirop d’agave bio: un sucrant naturel bon pour la sante! D’un aspect fluide, ce nectar s’utilise facilement, en preparations chaudes ou froides. Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Download! D’un gout plus doux, il ne denature pas la saveur des aliments. En sucre, juste a mettre dans un yaourt, dans du fromage blanc, dans une boisson ou pour des appareils plus elabores comme les crepes ou les gateaux.
En sale, il peut remplacer le miel dans la marinade de certains produits a laquer comme la viande de canard, de porc ou les crevettes. Wedding Postcard - Destroybmx.com! Cependant, la cuisson ne doit pas depasser les vingt minutes au risque de retrouver un leger gout amer dans le plat. Une idee d’assaisonnement pour vos salades qui pourrait surprendre vos convives : un melange d’huile d’olive, de vinaigre balsamique et quelques gouttes de sirop d’agave… A essayer ! A titre d’information, 150g de sirop d’agave correspond en moyenne a 200g de sucre. Risk Management - Ppt Video Online Download! Il se presente sous forme de pot dans les magasins bio. Le sirop d’agave bio, bienfaits et usages. Sirop d’agave bio antioxydant naturel puissant, jus d’agave, recettes a l’agave, tequila a l’agave, l’agave est a la mode et ce n’est pas pour rien. Le sirop d’agave possede en effet de nombreuses qualites, notamment en etant un tres bon substitut au sucre blanc. Expenditure Budget Template Word, Excel,! Mais il a d’autres vertus pour la sante et pour la cuisine. Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Online! Goutons donc ce fameux sirop d’agave. Le sirop d’agave fait son miel de la mode anti-sucre.
Le sirop d’agave bio, bienfaits et usages. Le sirop d’agave, un sucre naturel. Le sirop d’agave est un sucrant naturel qui est issu de l’extraction de la seve de cactus, les agaves, qui poussent sur les sols volcaniques du sud Mexique. Les agaves sont de grandes plantes qui ressemblent egalement aux yuccas et a la famille des Aloe-Vera. Templates! On trouve parfois des agaves dans le sud de la France, mais sont tres commun au Mexique. Il existe plus de 100 varietes d’agave, mais la plus utilisee est l’Agave Bleue, la pina d’agavecar, car c’est celle qui contient le plus de fructose. L’agave, l’eau de miel fabuleuse des Azteques. Le sirop ou nectar d’agave est utilise depuis bien longtemps au Mexique et etait deja connu des Azteques qui appreciaient son leger gout. Fabuleux nectar, le sirop d’avage est aussi appele nectar d’agave, « eau de miel » ou « aguamiel » car il est plus liquide que le miel. Les Azteques donnaient l’agave en offrande aux dieux.
Ils utilisaient le sirop d’agave pour ameliorer la nourriture et les boissons. L’agave etait aussi utilise a des fins therapeuthiques, notamment comme antibacterien pour soigner les maladies de la peau. Le sirop d’agave, un produit naturel edulcorant. Le sirop d’agave est donc un produit naturel sucrant. Extrait de cactus et a l’index glycemique tres faible, le sirop d’agave est un tres bon ingredient pour tous ceux qui souhaitent limiter leur consommation de sucre. Le sirop d’agave de couleur blond clair est les jus sucre extrait de l’agave bleu, un cactus qui pousse au Mexique. Project - Ppt Video! Filtre et concentre par evaporation, il est naturellement constitue de fructose (sucre naturel du fruit). Comment est produit le sirop d’agave ? Pour produire du sirop d’agave, il faut extraire son jus du coeur de la pina lorsque la plante a entre 7 et 10 ans. .Le jus de la pina d’agave est filtre, chauffe doucement, pour d’hydrolyser les glucides en sucres.
.Le principal glucide est une forme complexe de fructose appele inuline. .Le jus de l’agave est ensuite concentre en un sirop liquide. .Les vegetaliens considerent que le sirop d’agave est un aliment acceptable, c’est a dire un aliment « cru » dont la temperature de cuisson ne depasse pas 45°C. Pas de sucre, merci. Assessment! Mais du sirop d’agave bio, oui ! Mieux que les sucrettes a l’aspartame, voici le sirop d’agave bio antioxydant naturel puissant.
Cet edulcorant d’origine naturelle prend d’assaut vos thes et vos cafes pour remettre le sucre au placard. Et si je vous disais que le sirop d’agave est en realite du jus de cactus ! Eh oui, le precieux sirop est extrait de la seve d’un cactus originaire du Mexique, l’agave bleu. Risk Management - Ppt! Les Azteques l’utilisaient et le surnommaient l'”eau de miel” a cause de sa couleur doree et son cote onctueux. Pas de sucre, merci. Postcard - Destroybmx.com! Mais du sirop d’agave, oui ! Son avantage ? Sa forte teneur en fructose lui confere un pouvoir sucrant deux fois superieur au sucre blanc, contre un index glycemique 4 a 5 fois plus bas ! Il est, de plus, riche en fer, en calcium, en potassium et en magnesium. Risk Management Video! Mais attention, le sirop d’agave reste du fructose, il ne faut pas non plus en abuser ! Le sirop d’agave en cuisine. Cote cuisine, on Budget Template – 8+ Free Word, Excel, l’adopte tres vite et tres facilement. Risk Video Download! Son gout neutre permet de l’employer dans toutes nos envies culinaires sucrees ou salees.
On l’utilisera en remplacement du sucre dans les gateaux ou pour carameliser des viandes. Scout Essay! Et comme il se dissout bien, c’est l’ideal pour les thes glaces et tous les liquides froids en general. Sinon, on Project Risk Management - Ppt Download peut tout simplement en glisser dans son cafe, son yaourt ou y tremper des fraises…. Breakfast Menu Templates! Miam ! Pour vous en procurer, rendez-vous dans les magasins specialises bio ou dans certaines grandes surfaces. Categories de www.sirop-agave-bio.com.
Recherche sur www.sirop-agave-bio.com. Visionnez la video de l’emission de 100% MAG. Sur M6 avec le champion français Yoann Lecouster, sponsorisé par la marque Baomix, la poudre de pulpe de fruit de Baobab biologique antioxydante.
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TOEFL Prep Online Guides and Tips. The Writing section can be the most daunting section of the TOEFL. You’ll have 50 minutes to write two complete essays that must meet multiple requirements and show a strong grasp of English. Knowing what graders are looking for and reviewing TOEFL Writing samples can go a long way towards helping you get a high score on this section. This guide will go over both of the TOEFL Writing tasks, explain how they’re graded, go over a high-scoring TOEFL Writing sample for Management Video each essay type, and end with TOEFL Writing examples for you to analyze.
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Each essay receives a score from 0-5. Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Online Download! For both essay types, you can check out the complete rubric used for official grading. For Certified Assistant Resume | Resume Cv Cover! Below are key points from the Integrated Writing rubric. (You can view complete rubric for both essays here.) Successfully selects the important information from the lecture. Coherently and accurately presents information from both the lecture and the reading.
Well organized with few language errors. Generally good in selecting the important information from the lecture and reading. May have minor omission, inaccuracy, vagueness, or imprecision of Project Risk, some content. More frequent or noticeable minor language errors. It conveys only vague, global, unclear, or somewhat imprecise information about the Wedding, lecture and reading. Key points may be missing. Errors of usage and/or grammar may be more frequent and obscure meanings.
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Limited development in response to the topic and task. Lack of details to Risk Management Video Download, support or illustrate generalizations in response to the task. Wedding Invitations! An accumulation of errors in sentence structure and/or usage. Little or no detail, or irrelevant specifics, or questionable responsiveness to the task. Serious and Project Risk Management - Ppt, frequent errors in sentence structure or usage.
Merely copies sentences from the reading, rejects the topic or is not connected to the topic, is written in a foreign language,or is blank. Top-Scoring TOEFL Integrated Writing Sample. Below is an official TOEFL Integrated Writing sample question and as well as an essay response that received a score of 5. It includes a written passage, the transcript of a conversation (which would be an audio recording on the actual TOEFL, and the essay prompt. After the Menu, prompt is an example of a top-scoring essay. You can read the essay in full, then read our comments on what exactly about this essay gives it a top score.
Integrated Writing Example Prompt. You have three minutes to read the following passage and Project Management - Ppt Video, take notes. In many organizations, perhaps the best way to Scout Essay, approach certain new projects is to assemble a group of people into a team. Project Management - Ppt Download! Having a team of people attack a project offers several advantages. First of all, a group of people has a wider range of knowledge, expertise, and skills than any single individual is likely to possess.
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Also, the individual team member has a much better chance to Project - Ppt Download, “shine,” to get his or her contributions and ideas not only recognized but recognized as highly significant, because a team’s overall results can be more far-reaching and have greater impact than what might have otherwise been possible for the person to accomplish or contribute working alone. Now listen to Wedding - Destroybmx.com, part of a lecture on the topic you just read about. (Professor) Now I want to tell you about what one company found when it decided that it would turn over some of its new projects to teams of people, and Management - Ppt Video Download, make the team responsible for planning the projects and Menu Templates, getting the work done. After about six months, the company took a look at how well the teams performed. On virtually every team, some members got almost a “free ride” … they didn’t contribute much at all, but if their team did a good job, they nevertheless benefited from the recognition the team got.
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You have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response will be judged on the basis of the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the points in the lecture and their relationship to Risk - Ppt Online, the reading passage. Typically, an Objective For Certified Nursing Resume effective response will be 150 to 225 words. We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at getting your target TOEFL score. Download it for free now: Summarize the Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Online Download, points made in Breakfast Menu Templates, the lecture you just heard, explaining how they cast doubt on Project Risk Management - Ppt Video points made in the reading. TOEFL Integrated Writing Sample Essay. The lecturer talks about research conducted by a firm that used the group system to handle their work. He says that the theory stated in the passage was very different and somewhat inaccurate when compared to what happened for real. First, some members got free rides.
That is, some didn’t work hard but gotrecognition for the success nontheless. Assessment! This also indicates that people who worked hard was not given recognition they should have got. In other words, they weren’t given the oppotunity to Management - Ppt Video, “shine”. This derectly contradicts what the passage indicates. Second, groups were slow in progress.
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This essay clearly organizes the three main points made in Assessment, the lecture, which is what the Management Video Online, first part of the prompt asked for. (“Summarize the points made in the lecture you just heard.”) There is one paragraph for Scout Essay each point, and the point is clearly stated within the first sentence of the paragraph followed by Risk Management - Ppt Download, specific details from the lecture. This organization makes it easy to follow the - Sage, writer’s thinking and see that they understood the lecture. Additionally, the Project Risk Online Download, essay clearly contrasts points made in the lecture with points made in the reading. Objective For Certified Assistant Resume! Each main paragraph includes an example of Download, how the two are different, and the writer makes these differences clear by using words and phrases such as “however” and “this directly contradicts.” Stating these differences answers the second part of the prompt (“explain how they cast doubt on points made in the reading”) and shows that the writer understood both the lecture and Expenditure Budget Template Word,, reading well enough to differentiate between the two. Finally, there are only a few minor spelling and grammar error s, the most noticeable of which is the Management Online, incorrect use of the word “influent” in the final paragraph (it should be “influential”), and Heteroskedasticity In Regression:, they do not detract from the meaning of the essay. This writer shows a strong grasp of the English language, a key TOEFL skill. This essay shows that the writer understood the main points of both the lecture and the reading well enough to both describe them and contrast them. That, along with the relatively few mechanical errors, gives the essay a top score.
Top-Scoring Independent TOEFL Writing Sample. Below is an official Independent Writing prompt and top-scoring sample essay. Beneath the essay we analyze what about the essay resulted in it receiving a top score. Independent Writing Example Prompt. Directions Read the question below.
You have 30 minutes to plan, write, and revise your essay. Typically, an effective essay will contain a minimum of 300 words. Do you agree or disagree with the Video, following statement? Always telling the truth is the most important consideration in Heteroskedasticity In Regression:, any relationship. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Want to improve your TOEFL score by 15 points? We have the world's leading TOEFL course. Built by - Ppt Video Online Download, world-class instructors from Wedding Invitations - Destroybmx.com, Harvard and MIT, the program combines machine learning and human feedback to identify the fastest way to Management Video Online, hit your target TOEFL score. Try our 5-day full access trial for free: Independent TOEFL Writing Sample Essay. the traditional virtue of telling the truth in all situations is increasingly doubted by many in today’s world. many believe that telling the truth is Heteroskedasticity And Correction - Sage not always the best policy when dealing with people. moreover, the line of a “truth” is becoming more and more vague. this essay will explore the Risk Management - Ppt, importance of telling the truth in relationships between people.
we all understand that often the truth is offending and may not be a very nice thing to both hear or say. Objective Assistant Resume! lies or white lies often have their advantages. the manipulation of white lies is the most obvious the business world. Risk Management - Ppt! how many times have we heard that some product is “the finest” or “the cheapest”? how many times have we heard that products have such and such “magical functions”? advertising is about persuasion, and many would agree that if a company is to tell the absolute truth about Ppt Summative Assessment, it’s products, no one would be interested in even having a look at Project Risk Download the products. the same logic applies to Scout Essay, human relationships. if your friend had worn a newly purchased dress on her birthday and energetically asked you if it was a worthy buy, would you freely express your opinion that you had never seen a dress as the one she’s currently wearing? and spoil her birthday? unarguably, hiding(entirely or particially) the Management Video Online, truth in some situations can be quite handy indeed. Objective For Certified Assistant Resume | Resume! confrontations and Management Video Download, disputes can seemingly be avoided. however, there is Ppt Summative Assessment always the risk factor of the - Ppt Video, truth emerging sooner or later when telling an untruth. the basic trust in any relationships(businessman/customer, friends, parents/children) will be blotched, and would have an impact on the future relationship between both parties. the story of the “the boy who cried wolf” fully illustrates the consequenes of telling untruths. no one will believe you when you’re telling the truth. your word will have no weighting. in addition, another “bad factor” of telling untruths is that you have absolutely no control over when the Heteroskedasticity In Regression: And Correction, truth(of previous untruths) will emerge. untruths breed pain in both parties: tears when the truth is Download uncovered after a period of Invitations, time; fear and the burden of sharing a “secret”. in Project Video Download, the long run, it seems that hiding the truth is not beneficial to either party. everyone hates betrayal. even if it is the trend to occasionally hide the truth in relationships, it is strongly recommended that not to follow that trend as the risk and the consequences of the truth unfolded overwhelms the minimal advantages one can derive from not telling the truth. afterall, it is understood that relationships are founded on “trust” which goes hand in hand with “truth”. Wedding - Destroybmx.com! indeed telling the truth is the most important consideration in any relationship between people. always. There are three key things this essay does that results in its high score, and each is explained in more detail below. Is well organized Uses specific examples Few grammatical/spelling errors. The essay, like the Risk Video, first one, is well organized. For Certified | Resume Cv Cover! The writer’s position is clear within the first few sentences, and the rest of the essay elaborates on that position.
Each paragraph begins with a new major point that is then explained. This logical flow of ideas is easy for Project Risk Management - Ppt readers to follow and shows that the Expenditure Word, Pdf Documents, writer knows how to set up a clear argument. Another reason the essay received a top score is because the writer used specific examples to make her point. By using specific examples, such as a friend buying a new outfit and asking your opinion and Project, phrases businesses use to sell products, the writer makes her argument stronger and more concrete. Finally, despite the lack of capitalization throughout the essay, there are few spelling and grammatical errors, and the ones that do exist don’t detract from the Postcard, meaning of the - Ppt Online Download, essay or make it confusing to understand. This shows a strong command of English and the ability to write in-depth essays that are clear and get their point across.
Where to Find More TOEFL Writing Samples. Below are a list of other places, official and unofficial, where you can find TOEFL Writing examples. Objective Nursing Resume! You can use these examples to get a better idea of what a high-scoring essay looks like and what graders are looking for on the Writing section. Official resources are always the best to Risk Video, use since you can be sure the Scout Essay, essay prompts are accurate and the sample essays were accurately scored. TOEFL iBT Writing Sample Responses. This resource contains several sample essays (including the two sample responses used above). The essays from on Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Online this site received different scores as well as analysis of Wedding Postcard - Destroybmx.com, why they received the score they did.
This can be helpful if you want more information on, say, what differentiates an essay that got a “5” from an essay that got a “4”. Want to improve your TOEFL score by 15+ points? Check out our bes online TOEFL course. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your TOEFL score by 15 points or more. Check out our 5-day free trial now: This is Project Download a complete practice TOEFL, but it does include several sample essays along with score explanations so you can get a more in-depth look at how and Breakfast Templates, why different essays received the Project Risk Video Download, scores they did. There are numerous unofficial TOEFL writing samples out there, of varying quality. Below are two of the best.
This site has several dozen sample essays for both the Integrated and Independent Writing topics. There’s no scoring analysis, but you do get a good variety of essay topics and essay samples so that you can get a sense of how to approach different essay prompts. Good Luck TOEFL has seven sample Independent Writing essays (no Integrated Writing). There’s no scoring analysis, but the essays and Heteroskedasticity Detection, prompts are similar to official TOEFL essay topics. Review: Analyzing TOEFL Writing Examples. Writing can be a particularly tricky TOEFL section, and seeing TOEFL Writing samples can go a long way to Risk Management - Ppt, helping you feel more confident. For TOEFL Writing, you’ll need to write two essays, the Integrated Writing Task and the Independent Writing Task. Looking over the rubrics for both these essays and understanding what graders will be looking for can help you understand what to Objective Nursing Assistant Resume | Resume, include in your own essays. Both essays are scored on a scale of 0-5. Top-scoring essays generally need to have good organization, specific examples, answer the prompt completely, and minor spelling and grammar errors.
It can also be useful to review other TOEFL writing samples to get a better idea of what a great TOEFL essay looks like. Looking for more information on the TOEFL Writing section? Learn all the Project Video Online Download, tips you need to know in order to ace TOEFL Writing! Looking for Assessment a great TOEFL prep book? A good prep book can be the most important study tool you use, and we have information on all the best TOEFL prep books you should consider. Ready to improve your TOEFL score by 15 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Christine graduated from Michigan State University with degrees in Environmental Biology and Geography and received her Master's from Management - Ppt Video Download, Duke University. In high school she scored in the 99th percentile on the SAT and was named a National Merit Finalist.
She has taught English and biology in several countries. View all posts by Christine Sarikas. Get FREE tips to start mastering the TOEFL today. Join our Facebook TOEFL Study Group! Read Our Top 10 Favorite TOEFL Guides. Applying to US Schools (6) English Language Learning (3) TOEFL General Info (26) TOEFL Listening (3) TOEFL Logistics (5) TOEFL Prep (18) TOEFL Reading (4) TOEFL Speaking (6) TOEFL Writing (7) © PrepScholar 2013-2017.
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Counterfactual Theories of Causation. The basic idea of counterfactual theories of causation is that the meaning of causal claims can be explained in terms of counterfactual conditionals of the form “If A had not occurred, C would not have occurred”. While counterfactual analyses have been given of type-causal concepts, most counterfactual analyses have focused on singular causal or token-causal claims of the form “event c caused event e ”. Analyses of token-causation have become popular in the last forty years, especially since the Risk Management Online Download development in the 1970's of possible world semantics for counterfactuals. The best known counterfactual analysis of causation is David Lewis's (1973b) theory. However, intense discussion over Breakfast Menu forty years has cast doubt on the adequacy of any simple analysis of singular causation in terms of counterfactuals. Recent years have seen a proliferation of Online different refinements of the basic idea to achieve a closer match with commonsense judgements about In Regression: Detection - Sage causation. The first explicit definition of causation in terms of counterfactuals was, surprisingly enough, given by Hume, when he wrote: “We may define a cause to be an object followed by another, and where all the objects, similar to the first, are followed by objects similar to the second . Or, in Project other words, where, if the first object had not been, the second never had existed .” (1748, Section VII). Heteroskedasticity In Regression: And Correction. It is difficult to understand how Hume could have confused the first, regularity definition with the second, very different counterfactual definition.
At any rate, Hume never explored the alternative counterfactual approach to causation. Project Risk Video Download. In this, as in much else, he was followed by generations of empiricist philosophers. The chief obstacle in empiricists' minds to explaining causation in terms of counterfactuals was the obscurity of counterfactuals themselves, owing chiefly to their reference to unactualised possibilities. Starting with J. Menu Templates. S. Mill (1843), empiricists tried to analyse counterfactuals ‘metalinguistically’ in terms of implication relations between statements. Project Risk Management Video Online Download. The rough idea is that a counterfactual of the form “If it had been the case that A, it would have been the case that C ” is true if and Wedding Invitations only if there is an auxiliary set S of true statements consistent with the antecedent A , such that the members of S , when conjoined with A , imply the consequent C . Online Download. Much debate centred around the issue of the precise specification of the set S . Nursing Assistant. (See N. Risk Video Online. Goodman 1947.) Most empiricists agreed that S would have to include statements of laws of Scout Essay nature, while some thought that it would have to include statements of singular causation.
While the truth conditions of - Ppt Online Download counterfactuals remained obscure, few empiricists thought it worthwhile to try to explain causation via counterfactuals. Indeed, the first real attempts to present rigorous counterfactual analyses of For Certified Nursing Assistant Resume | Resume causation came only in the late 1960's. (See A. Lyon 1967.) Typical of these attempts was J. Management - Ppt Video. L. Mackie's counterfactual analysis in Chapter 2 of his seminal book The Cement of the Universe (1974). As well as offering a sophisticated regularity theory of causation ‘in the objects’, Mackie presented a counterfactual account of the concept of a cause as “what makes the difference in relation to Invitations - Destroybmx.com some background or causal field” (1980, p.xi). Mackie's account of the concept of causation is rich in Risk Management - Ppt insights, especially concerning its relativity to a field of background conditions. However, his account never gained as much attention as his regularity theory of causation ‘in the objects’, no doubt because his view of counterfactuals (in his (1973)), as condensed arguments that do not have truth values, compounded empiricists' scepticism about counterfactuals. The true potential of the counterfactual approach to causation did not become clear until counterfactuals became better understood through the Scout Essay development of possible world semantics in the early 1970's. 2. Lewis's 1973 Counterfactual Analysis. The best known and most thoroughly elaborated counterfactual theory of causation is David Lewis's theory in his (1973b), which was refined and extended in articles subsequently collected in his (1986a). In response to doubts about the theory's treatment of preemption, Lewis subsequently proposed a fairly radical revision of the theory. - Ppt Online. (See his Whitehead Lectures, first published in his (2000), and reprinted in his (2004a).) In this section we shall confine our attention to the original 1973 theory, deferring the later changes he proposed for consideration below.
2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence 2.2 The Asymmetry of Assessment Causal Dependence 2.3 Preemption and Transitivity 2.4 Chancy Causation 2.5 The Theory's Advantages. 2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence. Like most contemporary counterfactual theories, Lewis's theory employs a possible world semantics for counterfactuals. Such a semantics states truth conditions for counterfactuals in Project - Ppt Video Online terms of similarity relations between possible worlds. Lewis famously espouses a realism about possible worlds, according to which non-actual possible worlds are real concrete entities on a par with the Ppt Summative actual world. (See Lewis's defence of modal realism in his (1986e).) However, most contemporary philosophers would seek to deploy the explanatorily fruitful possible worlds framework while distancing themselves from full-blown realism about possible worlds themselves. For example, many would propose to understand possible worlds as maximally consistent sets of propositions; or even to treat them instrumentally as useful theoretical entities having no independent reality. The central notion of a possible world semantics for Project Risk Online counterfactuals is Budget Template Free Word, Pdf Documents a relation of comparative similarity between worlds (Lewis 1973a). One world is said to Management Online be closer to actuality than another if the first resembles the actual world more than the second does.
Shortly we shall consider the respects of similarity that Lewis says are important for the counterfactuals linked to causation. For now we simply note two formal constraints he imposes on this similarity relation. First, the relation of similarity produces a weak ordering of worlds so that any two worlds can be ordered with respect to For Certified Nursing Resume | Resume their closeness to the actual world, with allowance being made for ties in closeness. Secondly, the actual world is closest to - Ppt Online Download actuality, resembling itself more than any other world resembles it. In terms of this similarity relation, the truth condition for Scout Essay the counterfactual “If A were (or had been) the case, C would be (or have been) the case” is stated as follows: We shall ignore the first case in Project Management Video which the counterfactual is vacuously true. Scout Essay. The fundamental idea of Risk Video this analysis is that the counterfactual “If A were the Ppt Summative case, C would be the case” is true just in case it takes less of a departure from Risk - Ppt Video Online actuality to make the antecedent true along with the consequent than to make the antecedent true without the consequent. In terms of counterfactuals, Lewis defines a notion of causal dependence between events, which plays a central role in his theory of causation (1973b). This condition states that whether e occurs or not depends on whether c occurs or not. Where c and e are actual occurrent events, this truth condition can be simplified somewhat.
For in this case it follows from the second formal condition on the comparative similarity relation that the counterfactual “If c were to occur e would occur” is automatically true: this formal condition implies that a counterfactual with true antecedent and true consequent is Ppt Summative itself true. Consequently, the truth condition for causal dependence becomes: The right hand side of this condition is, of course, Hume's second definition of causation. (As we shall see shortly, Lewis's official definition of causation differs from Project Risk Management Video Online Download it, as he defines causation not in terms of causal dependence directly, but in terms of chains of causal dependence.) Why is it plausible to Templates think that causation is conceptually linked with counterfactuals in the way specified by this definition of causal dependence? One reason is that the idea of a cause is conceptually linked with the Risk - Ppt idea of something that makes a difference and this idea in turn is best understood in terms of Breakfast Menu counterfactuals. In Lewis's words: “We think of a cause as something that makes a difference, and the difference it makes must be a difference from Management Video Online what would have happened without it. Had it been absent, its effects some of them, at least, and usually all would have been absent as well.” (1973b, p.161)
There are three important things to note about the Template – 8+ Word, Excel, definition of causal dependence. Risk Management Online. First, it takes the primary relata of causal dependence to be events . Lewis's own theory of events (1986b) construes events as classes of possible spatiotemporal regions. Menu. However, very different conceptions of events are compatible with the basic definition. Indeed, it even seems possible to Risk formulate it in terms of facts rather than events. (For instance, see Mellor 1996, 2004.) Secondly, the definition requires the causally dependent events to Expenditure Budget Template Free Word, Excel, Pdf Documents be distinct from each other. Distinctness means that the events are not identical, neither is part of the other, and Project Risk Management Online Download neither implies the other. This qualification is important if spurious non-causal dependences are to be ruled out. (For this point see Kim 1973 and Scout Essay Lewis 1986b.) For it may be that you would not have written “Lar” if you had not written “Larry”; and you would not have said “Hello” loudly if you had not said “Hello”. But neither dependence counts as a causal dependence since the paired events are not distinct from each other in the required sense. Thirdly, the counterfactuals that are employed in the analysis are to be understood according to what Lewis calls the standard interpretation. There are several possible ways of Video Online Download interpreting counterfactuals; and some interpretations give rise to spurious non-causal dependences between events.
For example, suppose that the events c and Objective Resume e are effects of Project - Ppt Download a common cause d . It is Ppt Summative tempting to reason that there must be a causal dependence between c and e by engaging in Management - Ppt Video Download the following piece of counterfactual reasoning: if c had not occurred, then it would have to have been the case that d did not occur, in which case e would not have occurred. But Lewis says these counterfactuals, which he calls backtracking counterfactuals, are not to be used in the assessment of causal dependence. Scout Essay. The right counterfactuals to be used are non-backtracking counterfactuals that typically hold the past fixed up until the time at which the counterfactual antecedent is supposed to obtain. 2.2 The Temporal Asymmetry of Causal Dependence. What constitutes the direction of the causal relation? Why is this direction typically aligned with the temporal direction from past to future? In answer to these questions, Lewis (1979) argues that the direction of causation is the direction of causal dependence; and it is typically true that events causally depend on earlier events but not on later events. Project Management. He emphasises the contingency of the latter fact because he regards backwards or time-reversed causation as a conceptual possibility that cannot be ruled out a priori . Accordingly, he dismisses any analysis of Ppt Summative Assessment counterfactuals that would deliver the temporal asymmetry by conceptual fiat. Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactual dependence is based on a de facto asymmetry about the actual world. He defines a determinant for an event as any set of conditions jointly sufficient, given the laws of nature, for Risk the event's occurrence. (Determinants of an event may be causes or traces of the event.) He claims it is contingently true that events typically have very few earlier determinants but very many later determinants. As an illustration, he cites Popper's (1956) example of a spherical wavefront expanding outwards from a point source.
This is a process where each sample of the wave postdetermines what happens at the point at Ppt Summative Assessment which the wave is emitted. He says the reverse process in which a spherical wave contracts inward with each sample of wave predetermining what happens at the point the wave is absorbed would obey the laws of nature but seldom happens in actual fact. Lewis combines the de facto asymmetry of overdetermination with his analysis of the comparative similarity relation (1979). According to this analysis, there are several respects of similarity to be taken into account in evaluating non-backtracking counterfactuals: similarity with respect to laws of nature and also similarity with respect to Project Video Download particular matters of fact. Worlds are more similar to the actual world the fewer miracles or violations of the actual laws of nature they contain. Again, worlds are more similar to the actual world the greater the spatio-temporal region of perfect match of particular fact they have with the actual world. If the actual world is governed by deterministic laws, these rules will clash in assessing which counterfactual worlds are more similar to Templates the actual world. For a world that makes a counterfactual antecedent true must differ from the actual world either in allowing some violation of the actual laws, or in differing from the actual world in particular matters of fact.
Lewis's analysis allows a tradeoff between these competing respects of similarity in such cases. It implies that worlds with an Risk Management - Ppt Video Online extensive region of perfect match of particular fact can be considered very similar to the actual world provided that the For Certified Assistant Cv Cover match in Project Management - Ppt Video Download particular facts with the actual world is achieved at Ppt Summative the cost of a small, local miracle, but not at the cost of a big, diverse miracle. Taken by itself, this account contains no built-in time asymmetry. That comes only when it is combined with the asymmetry of overdetermination. To see how the two parts combine, consider the famous example of Risk Management - Ppt Video Online Download Nixon and the Nuclear Holocaust. An early objection to Lewis's account of counterfactuals (Fine 1975) was that, counterintuitively, it makes this counterfactual false:
The argument is that a world in which Nixon pressed the button, but some minute violation of the laws then prevented a nuclear war, is Scout Essay much more like the actual world than one in which Nixon pressed the button and Project Online Download a nuclear war took place. Lewis replied (1979) that this does not accord with his account of the similarity relation. On this account, a button-pressing world that diverges from the actual world by virtue of a miracle is more like the Budget Free Word, Excel, Pdf Documents actual world than a button-pressing world that converges with the Management actual world by virtue of a miracle. For in Wedding - Destroybmx.com view of the asymmetry of overdetermination, the divergence miracle that allows Nixon to Risk Management press the button need only Scout Essay, be a small, local miracle, but the Project Risk Management - Ppt Video convergence miracle required to wipe out the Expenditure Budget Template – 8+ Pdf Documents traces of Nixon's pressing the button must be a very big, diverse miracle. Project Risk Management - Ppt. Of course, if the asymmetry of Assessment overdetermination went in the opposite temporal direction, the very same standards of Risk Management - Ppt Online similarity would dictate the opposite verdict. In general, then, the symmetric analysis of similarity, combined with the Postcard - Destroybmx.com de facto asymmetry of overdetermination, implies that worlds that accommodate counterfactual changes by preserving the actual past and allowing for divergence miracles are more similar to the actual world than worlds that accommodate such changes by allowing for convergence miracles that preserve the Project Risk Management Download actual future. This fact in turn implies that, where the asymmetry of Breakfast overdetermination obtains, the present counterfactually depends on the past, but not on the future. According to Lewis, causal dependence between actual events is sufficient for causation, but not necessary (1973b): it is possible to Management Video have causation without causal dependence. This can happen in the following way.
Suppose that c causes d in virtue of the fact that d causally depends on Nursing | Resume Cv Cover c , and Project Video Online d causes e in virtue of the Budget Template – 8+ Free Pdf Documents fact that e causally depends on Project - Ppt Online d . Then because causation is transitive, Lewis insists, c must cause e . However, because causal dependence is not transitive like causation, the Objective For Certified Assistant Resume Cv Cover causal relation between c and e may not be matched by a causal dependence. (We shall shortly consider an Project Risk - Ppt Video Online example of this kind.) To overcome this problem Lewis extends causal dependence to a transitive relation by taking its ancestral. He defines a causal chain as a finite sequence of actual events c , d , e , where d causally depends on c , e on d , and so on throughout the Heteroskedasticity In Regression: sequence. Risk Online Download. Then causation is finally defined in these terms: This definition not only ensures the transitivity of causation, but it also appears to solve an additional problem to do with preemption that is illustrated by the following example. Suppose that two crack marksmen conspire to assassinate a hated dictator, agreeing that one or other will shoot the dictator on Ppt Summative a public occasion. Acting side-by-side, assassins A and B find a good vantage point, and, when the dictator appears, both take aim. A pulls his trigger and fires a shot that hits its mark, but B desists from firing when he sees A pull his trigger.
Here assassin A 's actions are the actual cause of the dictator's death, while B 's actions are a preempted potential cause. (Lewis distinguishes such cases of preemption from cases of symmetrical overdetermination in which two processes terminate in the effect, with neither process preempting the other. Lewis believes that these cases are not suitable test cases for a theory of causation since they do not elicit clear judgements.) The problem raised by this example of preemption is that both actions are on Management - Ppt Online a par from the point of view of causal dependence: if neither A nor B acted, then the dictator would not have died; and if either had acted without the other, the dictator would have died. However, given the definition of causation in terms of causal chains, Lewis is able to distinguish the preempting actual cause from the preempted potential cause. There is a causal chain running from A 's actions to the dictator's death, but no such chain running from B 's actions to the dictator's death. Postcard - Destroybmx.com. Take, for example, as an intermediary event occurring between A 's taking aim and the dictator's death, the bullet from A 's gun speeding through the air in mid-trajectory. The speeding bullet causally depends on Download A 's action since the bullet would not have been in mid-trajectory without A 's action; and the dictator's death causally depends on the speeding bullet since by the time the bullet is in mid-trajectory B has refrained from firing so that the dictator would not have died without the presence of the speeding bullet. (Notice that this case illustrates the failure of transitivity of causal dependence since the Ppt Summative dictator's death does not causally depend on A 's actions.) Hence, we have a causal chain, and Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Online Download so causation.
But no corresponding intermediary can be found between B 's actions and the dictator's death; and for this reason B 's actions do not count as an actual cause of the death. So far we have considered how the counterfactual theory of causation works under the assumption of determinism. But what about causation when determinism fails? Lewis (1986c) argues that chancy causation is Heteroskedasticity Detection And Correction - Sage a conceptual possibility that must be accommodated by a theory of causation. Indeed, contemporary physics tells us the actual world abounds with probabilistic processes that are causal in character. Risk - Ppt Video Online. To take a familiar example (Lewis 1986c): suppose that you mischievously hook up a bomb to Breakfast Menu a radioactive source and geiger counter in such a way that the bomb explodes when the counter registers a certain number of clicks.
If it happens that the counter registers the required number of clicks and Risk Online the bomb explodes, your act caused the Breakfast explosion, even though there is no deterministic connection between them. In order to accommodate chancy causation, Lewis (1986c) defines a more general notion of causal dependence in terms of chancy counterfactuals. These counterfactuals are of the form “If A were the case Pr ( C ) would be x ”, where the counterfactual is an ordinary would-counterfactual, interpreted according to the semantics above, and the Pr operator is a probability operator with narrow scope confined to the consequent of the counterfactual. Lewis interprets the probabilities involved as temporally indexed single-case chances. Risk Online Download. (See his (1980) for the theory of - Sage single-case chance.) The more general notion of causal dependence reads: This definition covers cases of deterministic causation in which the chance of the effect with the cause is 1 and the chance of the effect without the Video cause is 0. But it also allows for cases of Wedding Postcard irreducible probabilistic causation where these chances can take non-extreme values. It is Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Download similar to the central notion of Assessment probabilistic relevance used in probabilistic theories of type-causation, except that it employs chancy counterfactuals rather than conditional probabilities. (See the discussion in Lewis 1986c for the advantages of the counterfactual approach over Project Management the probabilistic one.
Also see the entry “Probabilistic Causation”.) The rest of the Invitations - Destroybmx.com theory of chancy causation follows the outlines of the theory of deterministic causation. Project Risk Management Video Download. Causal dependence is extended to a transitive notion by taking its ancestral. Scout Essay. As before, we have causation when we have one or more steps of causal dependence. Before turning to Management Online survey some of the problems confronting Lewis's theory of causation, it is Heteroskedasticity And Correction - Sage worthwhile pausing to consider some of the advantages it affords. At the time that Lewis advanced his original theory, regularity theories of Online causation were the orthodoxy. Taking Hume's first definition as their point of Expenditure – 8+ Free Word, Excel, departure, these theories defined causation in terms of subsumption under lawful regularities.
A typical formulation went like this: c is a cause of e if and only c belongs to a minimal set of conditions that are jointly suficient for Risk - Ppt Online Download e , given the laws. It was well known that theories of Breakfast Menu Templates this kind were faced with a number of recalcitrant counterexamples. Thus, while c might belong to a minimal set of Project Risk Management sufficient conditions for e when c is a genuine cause of e , this might also be true when c is an effect of e an effect which could not have occurred, given the laws and the actual circumstances, except by Wedding Invitations being caused by Project Management - Ppt Video Online Download e . Or it might be true when c and e are joint effects of a common deterministic cause. Free Pdf Documents. Or when c is a preempted potential cause of e something that did not cause e , but would have done so if the Project Risk - Ppt Video Download actual cause had been absent. In contrast, Lewis's counterfactual analysis of causation is Templates not subject to the same counterexamples, so long the counterfactuals in the definition of causal dependence and causation are interpreted in a non-backtracking fashion. The theory implies that even if c belongs to a minimal set of - Ppt Online sufficient conditions for For Certified Assistant | Resume Cv Cover e , e will not causally depend on c when c occurs after e as its effect, since earlier events do not typically causally depend on later events. Risk - Ppt. Nor will e causally depend on c when c and e are joint effects of a common cause, since the Assessment non-backtracking counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would still have occurred” will be true in view of the fact that it holds fixed the presence of the common cause. Nor will c count as a cause of e when c is a preempted potential cause of e in a typical case of preemption. For, as we have seen, c will not be connected to e by a chain of causal dependences. So at the time it was first proposed, Lewis's counterfactual analysis offered considerable explanatory benefits. (For a more negative assessment of the Project Risk Online Download explanatory benefits of Lewis's theory see Horwich 1987.
For extensive discussions of the Wedding Invitations - Destroybmx.com merits of counterfactual theories of causation, including Lewis's, see Moore 2009: Chaps. 16-17; Paul 2009; Paul and Project - Ppt Video Hall 2013 passim ). 3. Problems for Lewis's Counterfactual Theory. In this section we consider the principal difficulties for Lewis's theory that have emerged in discussion over the last thirty years. 3.1 Context-sensitivity 3.2 Temporal Asymmetry 3.3 Transitivity 3.4 Preemption. In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to the context-sensitivity of causal statements. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Hitchcock, forthcoming; Hitchcock 1996a, 1996b, 2007; Hitchcock and Heteroskedasticity In Regression: And Correction Knobe 2009; Maslen 2004; Menzies 2004a, 2007, 2009; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005, 2013) In so far as Lewis's theory overlooks this context-sensitivity, it represents a shortcoming of the theory. The theory assumes that causation is an Project Management - Ppt Video Online Download absolute relation whose nature does not vary from one context to another. Objective Nursing Assistant Resume. (This follows from the Risk Management - Ppt Download way the counterfactuals that define the central notion of causal dependence are governed by a unique, context-invariant system of Objective Assistant Resume Cv Cover weighted respects of similarity.) According to - Ppt the theory, any event but for which an Objective Nursing Resume effect would not have occurred is one of the effect's causes.
But this generates some absurd results. For example, suppose a camper lights a fire, a sudden gust of wind fans the fire, the fire gets out of control and Project Risk - Ppt Video Online the forest burns down. Postcard Invitations. It is true that if the Project Risk Management - Ppt camper had not lit the fire, the forest fire would not have occurred. But it is also true that the forest fire would not have occurred if any of a vast number of contingencies, including the camper's birth and his failure to be struck down by a meteor before striking the match, had not occurred. But commonsense draws a distinction between causes and background conditions, ranking the camper's lighting of the fire among the Scout Essay former, and his birth and his failure to be struck down by a meteor, among the latter. H. Risk Management Video Online Download. L. Heteroskedasticity In Regression: Detection - Sage. A. Hart and A. Honoré (1965; 2nd ed 1985) argue that the distinction between causes and conditions is relative to context in at least two different ways. One form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of occurrence.
If a forest is destroyed by fire, the presence of oxygen would be cited as a mere condition of the forest's destruction. On the other hand, if a fire breaks out in a laboratory where oxygen is deliberately excluded, it may be appropriate to cite the presence of oxygen as a cause of the fire. The second form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of enquiry. Management - Ppt Video. For example, the Heteroskedasticity In Regression: Detection - Sage cause of a great famine in India may be identified by an Indian farmer as the drought, but the World Food Authority may identify the Indian government's failure to build up reserves as the cause, and the drought as a mere condition. For the most part, Lewis ignores these subtle context-sensitive distinctions, as he says he is interested in a broad, non-discriminatory notion of cause. In his view (1986d), every event has an objective causal history consisting of a vast structure of events ordered by causal dependence. - Ppt Video Online. The human mind may select parts of the causal history for attention, perhaps different parts for different purposes of enquiry. Expenditure Template – 8+ Excel, Pdf Documents. However, Lewis does not specify the ‘principles of invidious selection’ by which some parts of the causal history are selected for attention, except to mention the Project Risk Management - Ppt Video relevance of Objective For Certified Nursing Assistant Cv Cover Grice's maxims of conversation. But Grice's maxims of - Ppt conversation, as general principles of rational information exchange, are not well suited to explaining the causation-specific distinctions we draw. As several philosophers have pointed out (A.
Garfinkel (1981); C. Hitchcock (1996a, 1996b); P. Lipton (1990); J. Woodward (1984); and B. Van Fraassen (1981)), some of the contextual principles behind our causal judgements seem to rely on Breakfast considerations concerning which class of situations the effect is Project Management - Ppt Video Online Download contrasted with. Thus, in the example of the Indian famine, we contrast the actual situation in which a famine occurs with another situation in which normal conditions prevail and a famine does not occur. A cause is Objective For Certified Assistant | Resume then thought of Project Risk Management Online as a factor that makes the difference between these situations; and the background conditions are thought of as those factors that are common to the two situations. In different contexts of enquiry, the contrast situation is framed in different terms. A farmer may take the contrast situation to be the Assessment normal situation in which the government does not stockpile food reserves but there is no famine. In this case it would be reasonable for Project Management the farmer to identify the Heteroskedasticity In Regression: drought as the Project Management - Ppt Online Download factor that makes the difference between this contrast situation and the actual situation in which there is famine.
On the Wedding Postcard other hand, an Management - Ppt official of the World Food Authority with a different conception of what normally happens may take the contrast situation to be one in which governments build up food reserves as a precaution against droughts. Consequently, it would be reasonable for the official to see the failure of the government to build up food reserves as the factor that makes the difference between the contrast situation and the actual situation in Wedding Postcard Invitations which there is a famine. (For discussion of the relevance of contrastive explanation to the causes/conditions distinction see Menzies 2007 and Schaffer 2005.) A good case can be made that causal statements display contrast-relativity not only at the effect-end but also at the cause-end. (See Hitchcock, 1996a, 1996b; Maslen 2004; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005) Recognising this helps to deal with a problem affecting Lewis's original theory. In evaluating whether an event c caused an event e , Lewis's theory says we have to consider what would have happened in those closest worlds in which c did not occur. For example, in evaluating whether the Risk Video camper's lighting of the fire caused the forest, we have to consider what would have happened in those closest possible worlds in which the camper's action of Heteroskedasticity Detection lighting the fire did not occur. Are these worlds in which the Project Risk - Ppt Online camper does not light the fire but does something else instead, or are they worlds in which he lights the fire in slightly different manner (perhaps with a lighter instead of matches) or at a slightly different time (three minutes later when the wind died down)?
In order to answer such questions, Lewis says it is necessary to say how much of a change or a delay it takes for Heteroskedasticity In Regression: Detection And Correction - Sage an event to become an Project Risk Management - Ppt Online Download altogether different event, rather than a different version of the same event. (Lewis sometimes discusses this issue as the question of how fragile events are: a modally fragile event is one which cannot occur in a different manner or at a different time from its actual manner and time of occurrence. Templates. See Lewis 1986b.) The problem, as he sees it, is that there is no unique principled way in which we do this: there is linguistic indeterminancy about what event nominals refer to. He writes: “We have not made up our minds: and if we presuppose sometimes one answer and sometimes another answer, we are entirely within our linguistic rights. This is itself a big problem for a counterfactual analysis of causation, quite apart from the problem of Project Management - Ppt Online preemption.” (2000, p.186) However, if we recognise that the cause-end of causal statements displays contrast-relativity as well as the effect-end, we can obviate the need to provide an For Certified Nursing | Resume account of the identity of events under counterfactual changes. For example, suppose we are interested in Project Risk Management - Ppt Download why the forest fire took one path P 1 rather than another path P 2 . Variation in the starting point of the fire will be relevant to this difference. So it would be appropriate to say that the camper's lighting the fire in location L 1 rather another location L 2 caused the forest fire to take path P 1 rather than P 2 . On the other hand, suppose that we are interested in why the forest occurred rather did not occur at all. Variation in the starting point of the Scout Essay fire will probably not be relevant to this contrast. Rather the appropriate causal statement will be one that says the Project Risk Management Online camper's lighting the fire (in some or other location) rather his not lighting it (in any location) caused the fire to occur rather than not to occur. Such causal statements reveal the relevant contrasts at both the cause- and the effect-ends. Breakfast Menu Templates. Sometimes, such contrasts are indicated by the use of - Ppt Video Online Download emphasis as in “The fire's starting in location L 1 caused the fire to take path P 1 ”.
But more often than not the surface form of causal statements does not disclose the contrasts that are intended and Objective Assistant Resume | Resume they must be supplied by Project Risk context. This fact means that there may be linguistic indeterminacy in causal statements. But it is not indeterminacy about the reference of event nominals, but rather about the situations that are intended as contrasts for the cause and the effect. Once these are resolved the linguistic indeterminacy is Scout Essay resolved as well. The contrast-relativity of causal statements, if it is genuine, has significant implications for the form that a counterfactual analysis should take. Those who accept the arguments above for the context-relativity of causal statements think that the canonical form of causal statements is “ c rather than c* caused e rather than e* ”, where the contrast situations c* and e* are supplied by context. This suggests that the definition of causal dependence should not be formulated in terms of the counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would not have occurred”, but the more specific counterfactual “If c* had occurred instead of c , then e* would have occurred instead of e ”. This formulation has several advantages over the old formulation. (For discussion of this point see Schaffer 2005. For criticisms see Steglich-Petersen 2012; Reiss 2013) Its chief advantage from the point of our discussion is that it obviates the need for the counterfactual theory to provide an account of the identity of Risk - Ppt Video events under hypothetical changes. With this new formulation, there is no need to work out whether c* and e* are identical with, or different from, c and Heteroskedasticity Detection And Correction - Sage e ,respectively. It is simply stipulated on the basis of Project Management Online Download contextual considerations that c* and For Certified Assistant Resume | Resume Cv Cover e* are intended to act as contrasts to Risk Online Download c and e . There have been several important critical discussions of Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of causation. (See Elga 2000; Frisch 2007; Hausman 1998: Chap.
6; Horwich 1987: Chap. 10; Loewer 2007; Kutach 2013: Chaps. 3-7; Price 1996: Chap. 6.; Price and Weslake 2009) One kind of criticism has focused on the psychological implausibility of Lewis's explanation. (See Horwich 1987.) Recall that the explanation appeals, on the one hand, to a system of weighted respects of similarity between possible worlds that is delivered by a priori conceptual analysis and, on Expenditure Free Word, Excel, the other hand, to - Ppt an asymmetry of overdetermination that is claimed to be a contingent a posteriori truth about the actual world. The two-part explanation is supposed to employ facts that are sufficiently well known to play a role in Objective For Certified Nursing | Resume Cv Cover the explanation of our linguistic use of counterfactuals. However, it is psychologically implausible that the intricate system of Project Management - Ppt Video Online Download weighted respects of similarity involving comparison of miracles of - Destroybmx.com different sizes could capture the intuitive similarity relation used in counterfactual reasoning. Project Risk Video Online. Why should we have developed such a baroque notion of And Correction - Sage similarity?
Moreover, the asymmetry of overdetermination is an Project Risk Management - Ppt esoteric scientific hypothesis that is not common knowledge to everyone using counterfactuals. So it is very unlikely that this hypothesis could account for ordinary speakers' mastery of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. (For Lewis's reply to this criticism see Postscript E to “Counterfactual Dependence and Menu Time's Arrow” in his (1986a, p. 66).) Another criticism is that the asymmetry of overdetermination does not exist in the form required to support Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. Lewis's idea is that any event e has many postdeterminants and few predeterminants, where a predeterminant or postdeterminant of an event is Online Download a set of conditions that are jointly sufficient, given the Scout Essay laws of Risk Online Download nature, for the occurrence of the event. But if Lewis is assuming that the laws involved are like those of classical mechanics, he is mistaken on this score. For a theory that is For Certified Resume | Resume Cv Cover time symmetric and deterministic in Management - Ppt both the forward and backward direction will imply that for any local event e and any time t , there is a unique set of Postcard - Destroybmx.com conditions obtaining at t that are necessary and Project sufficient, given the laws, for the occurrence of the event e . The conditions may not be localized conditions that are typically regarded as events, but nonetheless they will qualify as predeterminant or postdeterminants. For example, consider Popper's example of the wave spreading out from a point source. Wedding Postcard Invitations. If there is a process that postdetermines what happens at - Ppt Video Download the point at which the Budget Template – 8+ wave is emitted, there is also a process, perhaps a very unlocalized process, that predetermines this. Pace Popper and Lewis, both processes are equally likely; and whether they occur depends on the boundary conditions of the system. (For discussion of this point see Arntzenius 1993; Frisch 2005; North 2003; Price 1996. Also see the entry “Thermodynamic Asymmetry in Time”.)
A related criticism concerns the asymmetry of miracles that is central to Lewis's account of the temporal asymmetry of causation. The asymmetry of miracles consists in the fact that a miracle that realises a counterfactual antecedent about particular facts at time t by having a possible world diverge from the actual world just before the time t is smaller and Online Download less diverse than a miracle that realises the Breakfast Templates same counterfactual antecedent and makes a possible world converge to the actual world after the time t . Risk Management - Ppt Video Online. Adam Elga (2000) has argued that the asymmetry of Postcard Invitations - Destroybmx.com miracles does not hold in many cases. Elga's argument proceeds by way of an example: Gretta cracks an egg into a hot frying pan at 8:00am and at 8:05am the Project Risk Video egg is cooked. Consider the process that occurs in the period from 8:00am to Wedding Postcard - Destroybmx.com 8:05am, run backwards in time: a cooked egg sits in the frypan; it coalesces into a raw egg and leaps upward; and a shell closes around it. The laws of thermodynamics allows that this process is physically possible but extremely rare. These laws also state that the process is Management - Ppt Video very sensitive in its initial conditions: even the slightest changes in the molecules making up the state of the cooked egg would result in Breakfast the process evolving in such a way that the cooked egg continues to sit in the pan rather than coalescing into a raw egg and leaping upwards. But this is, Elga points out, exactly the kind of change that would make for a “convergence miracle”. Take the Project Risk Management Video Online state of the actual world at 8:05am, holding fixed its future after this point; make some small changes to the molecules making up this state; and then run the laws of thermodynamics backwards in Ppt Summative Assessment time, and we will almost certainly arrive at a state in which the egg sits in the pan growing colder.
This state will be one in which Gretta does not crack the Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Download egg. The small change in the state of the actual world at Scout Essay 8:05am is a “convergence miracle” that yields a possible world that realises the Risk - Ppt Video Online counterfactual proposition that Gretta does not crack the egg at 8:00am while holding fixed the actual future after 8:05am. Breakfast Templates. But this miracle is Project Management Video Download not the large, diverse miracle that Lewis claims a convergence miracle would have to be. As we have seen, Lewis builds transitivity into Budget Template Word, Excel,, causation by defining it in terms of chains of causal dependence. The transitivity of Project Video Download causation fits with some of our explanatory practices.
For example, historians wishing to explain some significant historical event will trace the explanation back through a number of causal links, concluding that the event at Breakfast Menu the beginning of the causal chain is responsible for Project Risk Video Online the event being explained. On the other hand, a number of counter-examples have been presented which cast doubt on transitivity. (Lewis 2004a presents a short catalogue of these counterexamples.) Here is a sample of two counterexamples. First, an Expenditure Free Word, Pdf Documents example due to Ned Hall (2004). Project Risk - Ppt Online. A person is walking along a mountain trail, when a boulder high above is - Destroybmx.com dislodged and comes careering down the Risk Management - Ppt mountain slopes. The walker notices the boulder and ducks at the appropriate time. The careering boulder causes the walker to duck and Assistant this, in turn, causes his continued stride. Risk Management Download. (This second causal link involves double prevention : the duck prevents the Menu Templates collision between walker and boulder which, had it occurred, would have prevented the walker's continued stride.) However, the careering boulder is the sort of thing that would prevent the walker's continued stride and so it seems counterintuitive to say that it causes the stride. Second, an example due to Douglas Ehring (1987). Jones puts some potassium salts into a hot fire.
Because potassium compounds produce a purple flame when heated, the flame changes to Project - Ppt Online a purple colour, though everything else remains the same. Expenditure – 8+ Free. The purple flame ignites some flammable material nearby. Here we judge that putting the potassium salts in the fire caused the purple flame, which in turn caused the Project Management Video Download flammable material to ignite. But it seems implausible to judge that putting the potassium salts in the fire caused the Ppt Summative flammable material to ignite. Various replies have been made to Management Video Online these counterexamples. The second counterexample seems the most easily deflected. For example, Maslen (2004), who endorses the contrast-relativity of causal statements, has argued that this example is misdiagnosed as a counterexample to transitivity, as the contrast situation at the effect-end of the first causal statement does not match up with the Menu Templates contrast situation at the cause-end of the second causal statement. Thus, the first causal statement should be interpreted as saying that Jones's putting potassium salts in Risk - Ppt Video Download the fire rather not doing so caused the flame to turn purple rather than yellow ; but the second causal statement should be interpreted as saying that the purple fire's occurring rather than not occurring caused the Scout Essay flammable material to ignite rather not to ignite. Where there is a mismatch of this kind, we do not have a genuine counterexample to transitivity.
L. Project Management - Ppt Video Download. Paul (2004) offers a similar diagnosis of the second example, though her diagnosis proceeds in terms of event aspects, which she takes to be causation's primary relata. She argues similarly that there is mismatch between the event aspect that is the effect of the first causal link (the flame's being a purple colour) and the event aspect that is the cause of the second causal link (the flame's touching the flammable material). The first example cannot be handled in the same way. Some defenders of transitivity have replied that our intuitions about the intransitivity of Menu Templates causation in Risk Management - Ppt Video Online these examples are misleading. Assessment. For instance, Lewis (2004a) points out that the Project Risk Management - Ppt Video counterexamples to transitivity typically involve a structure in which a c -type event generally prevents an e -type but in the particular case the c -event actually causes another event that counters the threat and causes the e -event. If we mix up questions of what is generally conducive to what, with questions about what caused what in Expenditure Budget Word, this particular case, he says, we may think that it is reasonable to deny that c causes e . But if we keep the focus sharply on Risk - Ppt Video Download the particular case, we must insist that c does in fact cause e . The debate about the transitivity of causation is Ppt Summative not easily settled, partly because it is tied up with the issue of how it is best for a counterfactual theory to deal with examples of preemption. As we have seen, Lewis's counterfactual theory relies on the transitivity of causation to Management - Ppt Video handle cases of preemption. If such cases could be handled in some other way, that would take some of the theoretical pressure off the theory, allowing it concede the persuasive counterexamples to transitivity without succumbing to the difficulties posed by preemption. (For more on this point see Hitchcock 2001.
For an extensive discussion of the | Resume issues around transitivity see Paul and Hall: Chap. 5.) As we have seen, Lewis employs his strategy of defining causation in terms of Risk - Ppt Video Online Download chains of causal dependence not only to make causation transitive, but also to deal with preemption examples. However, there are preemption examples that this strategy cannot deal with satisfactorily. Difficulties concerning preemption have proven to Breakfast Menu Templates be the Risk Video biggest bugbear for Lewis's theory.(Paul and Invitations Hall 2013: Chap 3 contains an extensive discussion of the problems posed by preemption and Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Online Download other kinds of redundant causation for counterfactual theories.) In his (1986c), Lewis distinguishes cases of early and Invitations late preemption . In early preemption examples, the process running from the preempted alternative is cut short before the main process running from the preempting cause has gone to completion. The example of the two assassins, given above, is an example of this sort. The theory of causation in terms of - Ppt Video Download chains of Menu causal dependence can handle this sort of example.
In contrast, cases of late preemption are ones in which the process running from the preempted cause is cut short only after the main process has gone to Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Online completion and Ppt Summative brought about the effect. The following is an example of late preemption due to Hall (2004). Billy and Suzy throw rocks at a bottle. Suzy throws first so that her rock arrives first and shatters the glass. Without Suzy's throw, Billy's throw would have shattered the bottle. However, Suzy's throw is the actual cause of the shattered bottle, while Billy's throw is Risk Management - Ppt Video Online Download merely a preempted potential cause. This is a case of late preemption because the alternative process (Billy's throw) is cut short after the main process (Suzy's throw) has actually brought about the effect. Lewis's theory cannot explain the judgement that Suzy's throw was the actual cause of the shattering of the bottle. For there is no causal dependence between Suzy's throw and the shattering, since even if Suzy had not thrown her rock, the bottle would have shattered due to Billy's throw. Nor is Ppt Summative Assessment there a chain of stepwise dependences running cause to effect, because there is no event intermediate between Suzy's throw and the shattering that links them up into a chain of dependences.
Take, for Project Risk instance, Suzy's rock in mid-trajectory. Certainly, this event depends on Suzy's initial throw, but the problem is that the shattering of the Assessment bottle does not depend on it, because even without it the bottle would still have shattered because of Billy's throw. To be sure, the bottle shattering that would have occurred without Suzy's throw would be different from the bottle shattering that actually occurred with Suzy's throw. For a start, it would have occurred later. This observation suggests that one solution to Project Risk Management Download the problem of late preemption might be to insist that the events involved should be construed as fragile events. Accordingly, it will be true rather than false that if Suzy had not thrown her rock, then the Expenditure Template Free Word, actual bottle shattering, taken as a fragile event with an essential time and manner of occurrence, would not have occurred. Lewis himself does not endorse this response on the grounds that a uniform policy of construing events as fragile would go against our usual practices, and would generate many spurious causal dependences. For example, suppose that a poison kills its victim more slowly and painfully when taken on a full stomach. Then, the victim's eating dinner before he drinks the poison would count as a cause of his death since the time and manner of the death depend on the eating of the dinner. (For discussion of the limitations of this response see Lewis 1986c, 2000.) When we turn from Project Risk Online Download preemption examples involving deterministic causation to those involving chancy causation, we see that the problems for Lewis's theory multiply.
One particularly recalcitrant problem is described in Menzies 1989. Assessment. (See also Woodward 1990.) Suppose that two systems can produce the same effect, perhaps at Project Management - Ppt Video Online the same time and in the same manner. (It does not matter whether this is an example of early or late preemption.) However, one system is much more reliable than the other. The reliable system starts and, left to itself, will very probably produce the effect. But you do not leave it to Invitations itself. You throw a switch that shuts down the reliable system and turns on the unreliable one. As luck would have it, the unreliable system works and brings about the effect. This kind of example presents a problem for the probabilistic generalisation of the counterfactual theory because the preempting actual cause decreases the chance of the effect while the preempted potential cause increases its chance. In addition to the problem of explaining how the preempting cause qualifies as a cause when the effect does not causally depend on it, the probabilistic counterfactual theory faces the problem of explaining how the preempted cause is Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Online Download not really a cause when the effect does causally depend on it.(Examples of this kind have been the subject of Scout Essay extensive discussion in the context of both counterfactual and probabilistic theories of causation. For discussions about how best to deal with them within theories admitting of indeterminism, see Barker 2004; Beebee 2004; Dowe 2000, 2004; Hitchcock 2004; Kvart 2004; Noordhof 1999, 2004; Ramachandran 1997, 2004.) In this section we shall consider some recent developments of the counterfactual approach to causation, which have been motivated by Project Risk Video Online the desire to overcome the deficiencies in Lewis's 1973 theory, especially with respect to preemption. 4.1 Lewis's 2000 Theory 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.
In an attempt to deal with the various problems facing his 1973 theory, Lewis developed a new version of the counterfactual theory, which he first presented in his Whitehead Lectures at Harvard University in Ppt Summative Assessment March 1999. (A shortened version of the lectures appeared as his (2000). The full lectures are published as his (2004a).) Counterfactuals play a central role in the new theory, as in the old. But the counterfactuals it employs do not simply state dependences of whether one event occurs on whether another event occurs. The counterfactuals state dependences of whether , when , and how one event occurs on whether , when , and how another event occurs. A key idea in the formulation of these counterfactuals is that of an alteration of an event. This is an actualised or unactualised event that occurs at Project - Ppt Video Online Download a slightly different time or in a slightly different manner from the given event. An alteration is, by definition, a very fragile event that could not occur at a different time, or in Assessment a different manner without being a different event. Lewis intends the terminology to Project Risk be neutral on the issue of whether an alteration of an event is a version of the same event or a numerically different event.
The central notion of the new theory is that of influence. Where one event influences another, there is For Certified Resume a pattern of counterfactual dependence of Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Online Download whether, when, and how upon Ppt Summative Assessment whether, when, and how. As before, causation is defined as an ancestral relation. One of the points Lewis advances in favour of this new theory is that it handles cases of Risk Video late as well as early pre-emption. (The theory is Budget Template Free restricted to deterministic causation and so does not address the example of probabilistic preemption described in section 3.4.) Reconsider, for instance, the Risk Management - Ppt Online Download example of late preemption involving Billy and Wedding Postcard - Destroybmx.com Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle. The theory is supposed to explain why Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, is the cause of the shattering of the bottle. If we take an alteration in which Suzy's throw is slightly different (the rock is lighter, or she throws sooner), while holding fixed Billy's throw, we find that the Project - Ppt shattering is different too. But if we make similar alterations to Billy's throw while holding Suzy's throw fixed, we find that the shattering is unchanged. Another point in Scout Essay favour of the new theory is that it handles a type of preemption Lewis that have come to be called trumping . (Trumping was first described by Jonathan Schaffer(2000).) Lewis gives an example involving a major and a sergeant who are shouting orders at Risk Management - Ppt the soldiers. The major and sergeant simultaneously shout “Advance”; the soldiers hear them both and advance. Since the Ppt Summative soldiers obey the superior officer, they advance because the major orders them to, not because the sergeant does.
So the major's command preempts or trumps the sergeant's. Where other theories have difficulty with trumping cases, Lewis's argues his new theory handles them with ease. Altering the Management - Ppt Video Online Download major's command while holding fixed the sergeant's, the soldier's response would be correspondingly altered. In contrast, altering the Breakfast Templates sergeant's command, while holding fixed the major's, would make no difference at all. There is, however, some reason for Project Risk Management Video Download scepticism about whether the Scout Essay new theory handles the examples of Project Management - Ppt Download late preemption and trumping completely satisfactorily.
In the example of late preemption, Billy's throw has some degree of influence on the shattering of the bottle. For if Billy had thrown his rock earlier (so that it preceded Suzy's throw) and in a different manner, the bottle would have shattered earlier and in a different manner. Likewise, the sergeant's command has some degree of influence on the soldiers' advance in that if the sergeant had shouted earlier than the major with a different command, the soldiers would have obeyed his order. In response to Menu these points, Lewis must say that these alterations of the events are too-distant to be considered relevant. But some metric of Project Online Download distance in alterations is required, since it seems that similar alterations of Suzy's throw and the major's command are relevant to their having causal influence. It has also been argued that the new theory generates a great number of spurious instances of Objective For Certified Nursing Assistant Resume Cv Cover causation. (For discussion see Collins 2000; Kvart 2001.) The theory implies that any event that influences another event to a certain degree counts as one of its causes. But common sense is more discriminating about causes. To take an example of Jonathan Bennett (1987): rain in December delays a forest fire; if there had been no December rain, the forest would have caught fire in January rather than when it actually did in February. The rain influences the fire with respect to its timing, location, rapidity, and so forth.
But common sense denies that the rain was a cause of the fire , though it allows that it is a cause of the delay in the fire . Similarly, in the example of the poison victim discussed above, the Project - Ppt Video Online victim's ingesting poison on a full stomach influences the time and manner of his death (making it a slow and painful death), but common sense refuses to countenance his eating dinner as a cause of his death , though it may countenance it as a cause of its being a slow and painful death . Pace Lewis, common sense does not take anything that affects the time and manner of an event to be a cause of the event simpliciter . 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation. One way of treating preemption that has been recently discussed departs from Menu a purely counterfactual analysis of causation. It has been argued that preemption examples highlight the intuitive idea that causation is an Project Risk Management Online intrinsic relation between events, which is to say it is Objective Resume a local relation depending on the intrinsic properties of the Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Download events and what goes on between them, and nothing else. The proposed treatments of preemption marry this intuitive idea with a crucial deployment of Invitations counterfactuals. At one time Lewis himself resorted to this way of treating late preemption examples when he invoked the notion of quasi-dependence . Project Risk Online. (See his (1986c).) To explain this notion consider a case that resembles the case of Objective Nursing Assistant Resume | Resume Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle.
Suzy throws a rock and shatters the Project Risk - Ppt Video Online Download bottle in exactly the Ppt Summative same way in which she does in the original case. Project - Ppt Download. But in this case Billy and his rock are entirely absent. Lewis argued that since the process in the original case and Scout Essay the process in the comparison case are intrinsically alike (and also obey the same laws), both or neither must be causal. However, the comparison process is surely a causal process since, thanks to Billy's absence, it exhibits a causal dependence. Accordingly, the process in the original case must be a causal process too, even though it does not exhibit a causal dependence. In such examples Lewis has said that the actual process that does not exhibit causal dependence is, nonetheless, causal by courtesy: it exhibits quasi-dependence in virtue of its intrinsic resemblance to the causal process in the comparison case.
A related idea is pursued in Management Video Online Menzies (1996; 1999). Budget Template – 8+ Free Excel,. Menzies argues that there is an element in Risk - Ppt Download our concept of causation that resists capture in purely counterfactual terms. Wedding. This element consists in the idea that causation is a structural relation that underlies and supports causal dependences. This idea can be captured by treating the concept of causation as the concept of a theoretical entity. Applying a standard treatment of theoretical concepts, he argues that causation should be defined as the unique occupant of Project Online Download a certain characteristic role given by the platitudes of the folk theory of causation. One platitude is Wedding Invitations that causation is an intrinsic relation between events. Project Risk Online. Another platitude is that it is typically , but not invariably, accompanied by causal dependence.
Accordingly, causation is defined in the following way: On this account, causation is Template – 8+ Free Excel, Pdf Documents not constituted by causal dependence. It is, in fact, a distinct relation for Project Risk - Ppt Video Online which causal dependence is, at best, a defeasible marker. The relation may be identified a posteriori with some physically specifiable relation such as energy-momentum transfer. Menu. It may, indeed, be identified with different relations in different possible worlds. This definition is supposed to explain common sense intuitions about Risk Management Video preemption examples.
For example, Suzy's throw, and Heteroskedasticity In Regression: Detection - Sage not Billy's throw, caused the shattering of the bottle, because the intrinsic relation that typically accompanies causal dependence connects Suzy's throw, but not Billy's throw, with the shattering of the bottle. Lewis later rejected the approach to preemption via quasi-dependence in favour of Project Risk Management - Ppt Video his 2000 theory in terms of influence. In Lewis 2004a and 2004b, he claims that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation do not do justice to Invitations - Destroybmx.com the full range of our intuitions about causation. (For related points see Hall 2002, 2004.) He offers several reasons, but one reason will suffice for our discussion. The intuition that causation is an Risk Download intrinsic matter does not apply to cases of double prevention. Postcard Invitations. Suppose that billiard balls 1 and 2 collide, preventing ball 1 from continuing on its way and hitting ball 3. If the collision of balls 1 and 3 had occurred, ball 3 would not have later collided with ball 4. So, we have double prevention: the collision of balls 1 and 2 prevented the collision of balls 1 and 3, which would have prevented the later collision of - Ppt Video balls 3 and 4. Here it seems reasonable to say that the collision of balls 1 and Expenditure Template – 8+ Free Word, Excel, Pdf Documents 2 was a cause of the later collision of Risk - Ppt Video Online Download balls 3 and 4. Lewis observes that the causation in such cases of double prevention is partly an extrinsic matter. If there had been some other obstruction that would have stopped ball 1 from hitting ball 3, the collision of 3 and 4 would not have depended on the collision of 1 and 2. Moreover, he notes that much of the spatiotemporal region between the collision of balls 1 and 2 and the collision of balls 3 and 4 is simply empty so that there is no chain of events to serve as a connecting process between cause and effect. The intuition that causation is an intrinsic relation does not apply in Breakfast Templates this case. More generally, he argues that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation are overhasty generalisations of one specific kind of causation, and they fail to do justice to our intuitions about causation involving absences (as causes, effects or intermediaries). 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.
A number of contemporary philosophers (Hitchcock 2001, 2007; Woodward 2003; Woodward and Hitchcock 2003) have explored an alternative counterfactual approach to causation that employs the structural equations framework. This framework, which has been used in - Ppt Online Download the social sciences and biomedical sciences since the 1930s and 1940s, received its state-of-the-art formulation in Breakfast Menu Templates Judea Pearl's landmark 2000 book. Hitchcock and Woodward acknowledge their debt to Project - Ppt Pearl's work and to the related work on causal Bayes nets by Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour, and Richard Scheines (1993). However, while Pearl and Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines focus on issues to do with causal discovery and inference, Woodward and Hitchcock focus on Expenditure Budget – 8+ Free Excel, issues of the meaning of causal claims. For this reason, their formulations of the structural equations framework are better suited to Project - Ppt Video the purposes of this discussion.
The exposition of this section follows that of Hitchcock 2001, in particular. While philosophical work using this framework has only just begun, it would seem that this framework looks likely to rival Lewis's framework in Scout Essay terms of its theoretical richness and fruitfulness. The structural equations framework describes the Risk - Ppt Video Online Download causal structure of a system in Invitations - Destroybmx.com terms of a causal model of the system, which is identified as an Risk - Ppt Download ordered pair V , E , where V is a set of variables and E a set of structural equations stating deterministic relations among the Breakfast variables. (We shall confine our attention in this section to deterministic systems.) The variables in V describe the different possible states of the system in question. While they can take any number of values, in the simple examples to be considered here the Risk Management Video Online Download variables are typically binary variables that take the value 1 if some event occurs and the value 0 if the event does not occur. For example, let us formulate a causal model to describe the system exemplified in the example of late preemption to Scout Essay do with Billy and Management - Ppt Online Download Suzy's rock throwing. We might describe the system using the following set of variables: BT = 1 if Billy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; ST = 1 if Suzy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; BH = 1 if Billy's rock hits the Breakfast bottle, 0 otherwise; SH = 1 if Suzy's rock hits the bottle, 0 otherwise; BS = 1 if the bottle shatters, 0 otherwise. Here the variables are binary. But a different model might have used many-valued variables to represent the different ways in which Billy and Project Online Suzy threw their rocks, their rocks hit the Expenditure Budget – 8+ Free Word, bottle, or the bottle shattered.
The structural equations in Project Risk Video a model describe the dynamical evolution of the system being modelled. In Regression: Detection - Sage. There is a structural equation for each variable. The form taken by a structural equation for a variable depends on which kind of variable it is. The structural equation for an exogenous variable (the values of which are determined by factors outside of the model) takes the form of Y = y , which simply states the actual value of the variable. The structural equation for Risk an endogenous variable (the values of which are determined by factors within the model) states how the value of the variable is Ppt Summative Assessment determined by the values of the other variables.
It takes the form: What does this structural equation mean? There are in fact competing interpretations. Pearl (2000) regards the structural equations as the conceptual primitives of his framework, describing them as representing the basic mechanisms of the system under investigation. However, for the purposes of exposition, it is Video Online Download more convenient to follow the interpretation of Woodward (2003) and Hitchcock (2001), who think of the structural equations as expressing certain basic counterfactuals of the following form:
As this form of counterfactual suggests, the structural equations are to be read from right to left: the antecedent of the counterfactual states possible values of the variables X 1 through to X n and the consequent states the corresponding value of the endogenous variable Y . There is a counterfactual of this kind for every combination of possible values of the variables X 1 through to X n . Breakfast Templates. It is Risk - Ppt Online Download important to note that a structural equation of this kind is not, strictly speaking, an Template Free Word, Pdf Documents identity since there is a right-to-left asymmetry built into it. Project - Ppt Online. This asymmetry corresponds to Postcard Invitations - Destroybmx.com the asymmetry of non-backtracking counterfactuals. For example, supposing that the actual situation is one in which neither Suzy nor Billy throws a rock so the bottle does not shatter, the non-backtracking counterfactual “If either Suzy or Billy had thrown a rock, the bottle would have shattered” is - Ppt Online true. But the counterfactual “If the bottle had shattered, either Suzy or Billy would have thrown a rock” is false. As an illustration, consider the set of structural equations that might be used to model the Heteroskedasticity And Correction - Sage late preemption example of Billy and Suzy. - Ppt. Given the variables listed above, the structural equations might be stated as follows: In these equations logical symbols are used to represent mathematical functions on Objective | Resume Cv Cover binary variables: X = 1 − X ; X v Y = max X , Y ; X Y = min X , Y . The first two equations simply state the Risk Management - Ppt Video Online actual values of the exogenous variables ST and BT . The third equation encodes two counterfactuals, one for each possible value of ST . It states that if Suzy threw a rock, her rock hit the Expenditure Budget Pdf Documents bottle; and if she didn't throw a rock, her rock didn't hit the bottle. Project Management - Ppt Video Online. The fourth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of values for BT and. SH . It states that if Billy threw a rock and Suzy's rock didn't hit the In Regression: - Sage bottle, Billy's rock hit the bottle; but didn't do so if one or more of Video Online these conditions was not met.
The fifth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of values for SH and BH . It states that if one or other (or possibly both) of Suzy's rock or Billy's rock hit the bottle, the bottle shattered; but if neither rock hit the bottle, the bottle didn't shatter. The structural equations above can be represented in terms of Budget Template – 8+ Word, Excel, Pdf Documents a directed graph . Video Online. The variables in the set V are represented as nodes in Assessment the graph. An arrow directed from one node X to another Y represents the Risk Management Video Download fact that the variable X appears on the right-hand side of the structural equation for Y . In this case, X is Objective Nursing Assistant Resume | Resume Cv Cover said to be a parent of Y . Exogenous variables are represented by nodes that have no arrows directed towards them. A directed path from X to Y in a graph is Risk - Ppt Online Download a sequence of arrows that connect X with Y . The directed graph of the Budget Template Word, model described above of Billy and Suzy example is depicted in Figure 1 below: The arrows in this figure tell us that the bottle's shattering is a function of Suzy's rock hitting the bottle and Billy's rock hitting the bottle; that Billy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of Billy's throwing a rock and Suzy's rock hitting the bottle; and that Suzy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of her throwing the rock. As we have seen, the structural equations directly encode some counterfactuals. Online Download. However, some counterfactuals that are not directly encoded can be derived from them. Consider, for example, the counterfactual “If Suzy's rock had not hit the bottle, it would still have shattered”.
As a matter of Breakfast Templates fact, Suzy's rock did hit the bottle. But we can determine what would have happened if it hadn't done so, by replacing the structural equation for the endogenous variable SH with the equation SH = 0, keeping all the Project Online Download other equations unchanged. So, instead of having its value determined in the ordinary way by the variable ST , the value of SH is set “miraculously”. Pearl describes this as a “surgical intervention” that changes the Templates value of the variable. In terms of its graphical representation,this amounts to wiping out the arrow from the variable ST to the variable SH and treating SH as if it were an exogenous variable. After this operation, the value of the variable BS can be computed and shown to be equal to 1: given that Billy had thrown his rock, his rock would have hit the bottle and Risk Video Download shattered it. So this particular counterfactual is Scout Essay true. This procedure for Project Management - Ppt evaluating counterfactuals has direct affinities with Lewis's non-backtracking interpretation of counterfactuals: the surgical intervention that sets the variable SH at its hypothetical value but keeps all other equations unchanged is similar in its effects to Lewis's small miracle that realises the Wedding Postcard - Destroybmx.com counterfactual antecedent but preserves the - Ppt Video past. In general, to evaluate a counterfactual, say “If it were the case that X 1 ,,X n , then ”, one replaces the Free Word, Excel, original equation for Project - Ppt Video Online each variable X i with a new equation stipulating its hypothetical value,while keeping the other equations unchanged; then one computes the values for the remaining variables to see whether they make the consequent true. This technique of replacing an equation with a hypothetical value set by a “surgical intervention” enables us to capture the Heteroskedasticity In Regression: Detection - Sage notion of counterfactual dependence between variables:
How does the structural equations framework deal with examples of late pre-emption that pose such problems for Lewis's counterfactual theory? Can this framework deliver the intuitively correct verdicts in Risk Management - Ppt Online Download the example about Suzy and Billy? Halpern and Pearl (2001,2005), Hitchcock (2001),and Woodward (2003a) all give roughly the same treatment of examples of late preemption. The key to their treatment is the employment of a certain procedure for Wedding Postcard testing the existence of a causal relation. The procedure is to Project Management - Ppt Online look for an intrinsic process connecting the putative cause and effect; suppress the influence of their non-intrinsic surroundings by “freezing” those surroundings as they actually are; and then subject the Invitations putative cause to a counterfactual test. So, for Project Risk Management Online example, to Invitations - Destroybmx.com test whether the variable Suzy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to shatter, we should examine the process running from ST through SH to BS ; hold fix at its actual value the Project Risk - Ppt variable BH which is extrinsic to Assessment this process; and then wiggle the variable ST to see if it changes the value of BS . The last steps involve evaluating the counterfactual “If Suzy hadn't thrown a rock and Billy's rock hadn't hit the bottle, the bottle would not have shattered”. It is easy to Project Risk Online see that this counterfactual is Postcard Invitations - Destroybmx.com true. Project Risk. In contrast, when we carry out a similar procedure to Template Free Pdf Documents test whether Billy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to shatter,we are required to consider the counterfactual “If Billy hadn't thrown his rock and Video Download Suzy's rock had hit the Nursing Resume bottle, the bottle would not shattered”. This counterfactual is false. It is the difference in the truth-value of these two counterfactuals that explains the fact that it was Suzy's rock throwing, and not Billy's, that caused the bottle to shatter. (A similar theory is developed in Yablo 2002 and 2004 though not in the structural equations framework.) Hitchcock (2001) presents a useful regimentation of this reasoning.
He defines a route between two variables X and Z in Download the set V to be an ordered sequence of variables X , Y 1 ,, Y n , Z such each variable in the sequence is in V and is a parent of its successor in the sequence. A variable Y is intermediate between X and Z if and only if it belongs to some route between X and Z . Then he introduces the new concept of an active causal route: This definition generalises the informal idea sketched in the example of Suzy and Billy. There is an active causal route going from Suzy's throwing her rock through her rock hitting the bottle to Wedding - Destroybmx.com the bottle shattering: when we hold fixed Billy's rock not hitting the Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Online bottle, which is the actual value of the Scout Essay only intermediate variable BH that is not on this route, we see that the bottle's shattering counterfactually depends on Suzy's throwing her rock. There is, however, no active causal route between Billy's throwing his rock and the bottle shattering. In terms of the notion of an active causal route, Hitchcock defines actual or token causation in the following terms: A crucial notion in this definition is that of “an appropriate” model. It would be undesirable to have multiple structures of causal relations being posited by different models willy-nilly. So Hitchcock insists causal relations are revealed only by “appropriate models”.
He mentions a number of criteria for appraising whether a model is appropriate, the most important one being that the structural equations posited by the model must not imply any false counterfactual. Risk Management - Ppt Download. In order to deal with examples of symmetric overdetermination, Hitchcock (2001) defines a notion of a weakly active route , the essential idea being that there is a weakly active route between X and Y just when Y counterfactually depends on X under the freezing of some possible, not necessarily actual, values of the variables that are not on Budget Template Word, Pdf Documents the route from X to Y . As we shall not be considering any examples of oversymmetric overdetermination, we shall focus on the stronger notion of an active causal route. This account of causation differs from Lewis's accounts in a number of respects. One difference is that the account does not appeal to the transitivity of causation to deal with preemption examples, in Management - Ppt Video Online contrast to Lewis's accounts, both early and late. Template Excel, Pdf Documents. Hitchcock (2001) is at pains to Video Download stress that the structural equations framework described above allows for failures of transitivity. Another difference between the accounts is that the structural equations account appeals to special counterfactuals with complex antecedents in order to handle preemption examples. These counterfactuals describe what would happen if a causal variable were changed when certain other variables are held fixed at their actual values. (Hitchcock calls these “explicitly nonforetracking counterfactuals”.) Lewis's accounts does not make use of such counterfactuals, relying as it does on counterfactuals with simple antecedents that describe single changes in the causal variables. The differences between the accounts should not, however, overshadow the similarities that also exist. Both accounts make central use of non-backtracking counterfactuals and Breakfast Menu they interpret these counterfactuals in roughly the same fashion. Setting aside complications to Risk - Ppt do with backwards causation, Lewis's account and the structural equations account have us evaluate a non-backtracking counterfactual in much the same way: we are to hold fixed the Objective Nursing | Resume past history of the system, imagine that the antecedent is realised “miraculously” by a surgical intervention from outside the system, and then consider how the new state of the system would evolve in conformity with the structural equations or laws of the Project Management Online system without any further interventions. How plausible is this new counterfactual approach to - Destroybmx.com causation?
It is too early to say with any confidence, as the approach is Risk Video Download still being developed. Nonetheless, some early problems have emerged. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Pearl 2005; Halpern and Ppt Summative Assessment Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock 2007; Menzies 2004b; Weslake forthcoming.) Consider, for instance, the following example, which is a variant of one described by Hitchcock (2007). An assassin puts poison in the king's coffee. The bodyguard responds by pouring an antidote in the king's coffee. If the bodyguard had not poured the antidote in the coffee, the Project Management king would have died. On the other hand, the antidote is fatal when taken by itself; and if the poison had not been poured in first, it would have killed the king. The poison and the antidote are both lethal when taken singly but neutralise each other when taken together. Expenditure – 8+ Excel,. In fact, the king drinks the coffee and survives. Suppose we model this scenario using the following variables: A = 1 if the assassin pours poison into Project Risk Management Video Online, the king's coffee, 0 otherwise; G = 1 if the bodyguard responds by pouring antidote into the coffee, 0 otherwise; S = 1 if the king survives, 0 otherwise. And also suppose that we employ these structural equations:
The directed graph for this model is depicted in Figure 2. Testing for active causal processes, we can see that the process that goes directly from the assassin's pouring the poison in the coffee to the king's survival is active. Holding fixed the fact that the bodyguard poured the lethal antidote into Expenditure – 8+ Pdf Documents, the coffee, we note that the Risk Management Video Online Download king would not have survived if the Scout Essay assassin had not put the poison in Project - Ppt Online the coffee first. So the theory licenses the verdict that the assassin's pouring in the poison caused the king to survive. However, many regard this as a mistaken causal verdict: putting poison in Breakfast the king's coffee is exactly the kind of thing that is likely to kill the king. Risk. It might be argued that the causal verdict is justified in view of the fact that the assassin's action caused the bodyguard's action, which in turn caused the king's survival. But this appeal to the transitivity of causation is Wedding - Destroybmx.com not open to Management Video the defenders of Menu this theory, who deny the Risk - Ppt Video Online Download validity of Scout Essay transitivity.
One counterexample by itself is not enough to disprove the - Ppt Video Download whole structural equations framework. Strictly speaking, it only casts doubt on Scout Essay the theory of Project Management - Ppt Online Download causation that defines causation in Ppt Summative terms of the presence of an active causal route. There are alternative definitions within the structural equations framework that might fare better. (See Halpern and Pearl 2005; Weslake forthcoming.) One possibility explored by Project Management - Ppt Video several philosophers is to appeal to a distinction between what Hitchcock has called “default” and Breakfast Templates “deviant” values of Project Risk - Ppt Video variables.(See Hitchcock 2007.) The default value of some variable represents a normal or to-be-expected state of the system, whereas a deviant value represents an abnormal or unusual state of the system. The correlative notion of the default course of evolution for Wedding Invitations - Destroybmx.com a system can be characterised as a temporally-ordered sequence of values that the variables in - Ppt Online Download a model take when the default values of the exogenous variables are plugged into the structural equations of the model. Wedding Postcard. Thus, if we set the value of the exogenous variable A in the example above at its default value 0 instead of its actual value 1, we can see that the scenario described above will evolve in the following way: the assassin doesn't put the poison in the coffee, the Video Online bodyguard doesn't put the antidote into the coffee, and Templates the king survives. Project Management - Ppt Online. Now if we evaluate counterfactual dependences with counterfactuals centred on the default course of evolution rather than the actual course of evolution, we can see that the bodyguard's action counterfactually depends on Postcard the assassin's action and the king's survival depends on the bodyguard's action, but the king's survival doesn't depend on the assassin's action. If counterfactual dependences centred on the default course of Project Risk Management - Ppt Video Download evolution are taken to indicate causal relations, these counterfactual dependences more accurately reflect our intuitive causal judgements. (For further discussion of Expenditure Budget Template – 8+ this idea, see Hall 2007 and Menzies 2004b, 2007.) It remains to be seen whether the various attempts to augment the Project Risk Video Online structural equations framework with a distinction between default and Assessment deviant values are successful or not. (For other attempts see Hitchcock 2007; and Halpern and Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock and Video Online Download Knobe 2009. For a critical discussion of these attempts see Schaffer 2013. For general discussion of the role of the default/deviant distinction in Wedding causal judgements see Maudlin 2004.)
Arntzenius, F., 1993. “The Classical Failure to Account for Electromagnetic Arrows of Time”, in G. Risk Video Online Download. Massey, T. Horowitz and A. Janis (eds.), Scientific Failure , Lanham: Rowman and Littlfield, pp. 2948. Scout Essay. Barker, S., 2004. “Analysing Chancy Causation without Appeal to Chance-raising”, in P. Project Risk Management Video Online Download. Dowe and P. Noordhof (eds.) 2004, pp. 120137. Beebee, H., 2004. - Sage. “Chance-changing Causal Processes”, in P. Dowe and P. Noordhof (eds.) 2004, pp.
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