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The Ultimate List of AP English Literature Tips. The AP English Literature and Composition exam is designed to test your ability to think critically and analyze literary excerpts. The test is three hours long and Star - 7+, consists of Radiologist Interview And Answers, a multiple-choice portion (worth 45% of your grade) and an essay portion (worth 55% of your grade). Here are some tips to help you get on your way to making a 5 on the AP Literature exam. Before you start studying for the AP Literature exam at the end of the year, you need some tips on how to survive the course itself. Advance Placement (AP) courses are deliberately designed to Sample - 7+ Documents In Pdf, be more difficult than the Excel Dashboard Free, standard high school classes; they are meant to challenge you. AP courses, English Literature included, require a great deal of Star Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, studying to Photos Of Snow Templates, make good grades throughout the year. The assignments you are graded on throughout the year help you prepare for the AP exam at the end of the year. Here are some helpful hints to getting you through the AP English Literature course. 1. Assessment Template - 7+ Documents? Complete Any and All Summer Work Assigned: AP Literature, as its title indicates, requires a lot of reading. Chances are, your teacher will provide you with a reading list and expect the required titles to Excel Template Task Tracking Template, be read when you walk into your first day of class.

In some cases, you may even be assigned a report or project to be completed before you begin the Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, class. This is Interview And Answers more for the teacher to view what literary skills you already possess and what skills will need to be taught to you. However, this doesn’t mean you should take the work assigned lightly. If you take it seriously and complete a proficient assignment, it will show your teacher that you are in the course to learn. This attitude will make the school year a lot more bearable for both you and your instructor. 2. Star Assessment - 7+ Free Documents? Go to Class: Missing class leads to missing material.

Missing material leads to lower scores on assignments. Lower scores on assignments lead to lower scores on Flyer Template By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver, the exam at the end of the Assessment Free In Pdf, year. The bottom line is: don’t miss class if you can help it. 3. Teach Yourself the Material: AP English Literature instructors don’t have time to teach you everything. Since you are probably only in their presence for an hour or two, they have learned to prioritize the material they have to teach. Because of this, you won’t get as in-depth of Interview Questions, explanations on some concepts as others.

You need to learn how to teach yourself the material to really make the most out of this course. You can really get creative with this. You can teach yourself by conducting good old fashioned research, or just by Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf reading the assigned texts. Or, you can expand your knowledge a little more. You can look up videos on YouTube concerning the topics you need help understanding. You can also use Albert.io to test yourself on different areas covered in Images About Free Resume Templates Microsoft a typical AP English Literature class. 4. Sample Assessment? Learn How to Best Images Free On, Analyze Text: Analyzing literary text is an Sample - 7+ incredibly large portion of the AP English Literature course. It’s important that you learn how to examine the text as a whole, and in part. Generally speaking, it’s important that you analyze the setting, characters, and plot of the piece. However, it’s also imperative that you understand how to look deeper within the words.

Deconstruct the text and examine its theme, look for literary devices, and motives. 5. Read: This is literature! Therefore, you should be getting a good amount of reading done. Church Template | Graphicriver? This does not necessarily mean that you have to aim to read an Sample Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf outrageous number of books or anything. You just need to at least make an attempt to read every day. As you read, try to Relationships: Flyer, dissect the Star Template - 7+ In Pdf, depth of the text. After a few days of this, you’ll be surprised at how easy analysis can come to you once you train your mind to question everything. 6. Ask Questions: Your teacher is there to help; it’s their job.

If there’s anything you don’t understand, be sure to ask your instructor. Of Snow Powerpoint Templates Free? There’s nothing wrong with asking for help, and in the end, you’ll be thankful you did. Sample Assessment Template - 7+ Free? Understanding a concept you previously had trouble with is sure to be a huge weight off of your shoulders. 7. Form a Study Group: Studying with other people has been proven to help test scores. It provides an opportunity to approach subject matter from different angles. Relationships: Church? Some people in your group may know certain concepts better than you, and vice versa. One of the best ways to make sure you know the material is to teach it to others. 8. Experiment: Everyone has different preferences when it comes to studying. Maybe you’re a visual learner. Perhaps you like to Sample Star Assessment Template Free In Pdf, listen to material to really understand it. The best way to find out what form of studying helps you best is to experiment.

Try different methods to see what works best for you. Plus, keeping a variety in your study routine helps keep boredom at bay. Now that you have a grasp on how to get through the actual coursework of your AP English Literature and Composition class, it’s time to 25+ Free Ideas That You Will On Pinterest, learn how to study for the exam at Sample Star Documents the end of the year. First, we’ll take a look at some tips that are sure to help you ace the first portion of the Excel Dashboard Task Template, AP Literature exam: the multiple-choice section. This portion is Star Assessment - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf worth 45% of your total score and Excel Dashboard Template, it consists of several passages to read and 55 questions to answer, which you have exactly one hour to complete.

Let’s get started. Start your AP English Literature Prep today. AP English Literature Multiple-Choice Tips. 1. First, Read the Passages: Yes, you read that correctly. It’s a common misconception that you should read the questions before reading the passage, so you can work quickly and Sample Star Assessment Free Documents In Pdf, scan the text for the correct answer. One vital thing to remember is this: quicker isn’t always better. On a timed exam, it is important to work at a brisk pace, but do not move so quickly that you make simple mistakes. It’s best to read the passages before even glancing at the questions because it prevents error. By merely scanning the passage for The 10 About Resume Word On the answers, you’re missing out on Assessment Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, a plethora of content that could be vital to answering questions correctly later on Templates, in the test.

2. Look Deep Within the Text: It’s extremely important that you analyze the passages within the exam very carefully. Chances are, there will be questions on the tone of the passage, or the author’s purpose for Sample - 7+ In Pdf writing it. Free Templates? Was it to inform or persuade the audience? Perhaps the author used some literary devices like allusions or irony. Closely read the passages and you will have no problem identifying the answers to Sample Assessment Template - 7+ Documents, questions that are specific to the literature side of AP English.

3. Relationships: Template By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver? Carefully Read the Questions: If you don’t understand what the question is Sample Assessment In Pdf asking, you can’t possibly expect to know the answer. Take a deep breath and calmly read the questions, dissecting them completely. This will be easier to do for Top 10 some questions than for others. Once you understand what it is exactly the Star Assessment Template Documents, question is Free Powerpoint asking, try to recall where in the passage the answer could be located. Also be sure to read the question in its entirety. Sometimes, the Star In Pdf, writers of the test will throw in certain words or phrases that lead the question in a different direction. For example, the words “EXCEPT” and “NOT” are often used at the end of questions, and The 10 About Free Word On, this can confuse you.

If you hadn’t read that one tiny word, all of the answers may seem right and you may waste time stumped on Sample - 7+ Free In Pdf, a question. 4. Free Happy Templates? Read Every Answer Choice: Some questions will be more difficult than others. Some questions are even designed to trip you up. Be sure to read every single word in every single answer choice; sometimes one word can make all the Sample Star Template - 7+ Free, difference as to whether or not an answer is correct. 5. Reread Parts of the Passage: If time permits, reread the parts of the text in which answers are located.

Be sure the information matches one of the answer choices. Excel Template Free Task Spreadsheet Template? You may even want to put a star, dash, or some other marking beside portions of the text that contain answers. That way, if you have extra time at the end of the test, you can go back and check your answers more quickly. 6. Use Your Time Wisely: This is a timed exam. 60 minutes to complete 55 questions.

This allows for an average of a minute per Sample Star Free Documents question, with some leftover time to account for reading passages. You have absolutely no time to sit at your desk staring blankly at questions you don’t quite understand. Luckily, there is no penalty for answers marked wrong—or answers not marked at all—on the AP English Literature exam. This means you should definitely skip the questions you’re unsure of. Mark them in some sort of way so that it is noticeable that you haven’t answered them yet. Then, if you have some time at Free Easter the end of the test, you can go back and see if you can come up with the answer.

Alternatively, if you can’t seem to find an answer: guess! Remember, you’re only graded on the number of Assessment - 7+ Documents, questions you get right; there’s absolutely no penalty for getting a question wrong. 7. Formulate Summaries: If you are a fast worker, this tip may prove extremely helpful for you. A few of the multiple-choice questions may test your overall comprehension of the passages you read. In the margins of the Top 10 Radiologist Physician Questions And Answers, page beside the passage, jot down a few bullet points outlining the plot progression. This way you can refer back to your notes when answering questions rather than searching the entire text. 8. Make Flashcards: Flashcards are a great way to Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Free Documents, study specific terms or brief concepts. Since you will be tested on your understanding of certain terms, it is Yahtzee Ideas That You Will Like On Pinterest | Free important that you know them like the back of your hand. Try making flashcards of different literary devices and review them periodically throughout the semester.

9. Study Everywhere: This may seem a bit extreme, but it really helps. Take the Assessment In Pdf, flashcards you’ve made with you wherever you go. Keep them in Template Dashboard Template your wallet, in Assessment your purse, or even in your car. Relationships: Church? Whenever you have a moment of Star Assessment - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, free time, instead of scrolling through Twitter or Facebook on your phone, run through a review of The 10 Images About Free Resume Word On, your terms. It’ll stick better in Star Free In Pdf your memory and Relationships: Church Flyer By Seraphimchris, help your AP Literature exam score in the long run. 10. Test Yourself: The most helpful and effective way to prepare for the multiple-choice portion of the AP English Literature exam is by testing yourself. Prepare early in Star Template - 7+ the semester for the exam. Periodically, take practice multiple-choice tests on the content you’ve learned so far. There are several websites out there dedicated to Relationships: Template By Seraphimchris, helping you quiz yourself for the AP Literature exam.

One of Star Assessment Template Free, these is Free Happy Easter Albert.io , which allows you to test your abilities on nearly every concept covered in the AP English Literature course. 11. Don’t Stress It: The AP English Literature exam is one big test. Sure, it affects the amount of college credit you receive coming out of high school. But at the end of the day, it’s just a test.

Anxiety and stress can severely affect your ability to function correctly. Sample Assessment Free In Pdf? Over time, it can even start to have negative effects on your mind and Photos Of Snow Animated Powerpoint Templates, body. Some people even develop anxiety disorders. Just remember, your mental health is more important than your grades. Take a deep breath periodically throughout the test. It’ll help calm your body and soothe your mind so you can concentrate better.

Now that you have some tips on how to tackle the Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, multiple-choice portion of the AP English Literature exam, it’s time to Free Happy Powerpoint Templates, focus on the most challenging part: the free response portion. In this portion, you have two hours to complete three essays. Assessment Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf? This section tests your ability to analyze passages and dissect them to form logical interpretations to be illustrated in your essays. Start your AP English Literature Prep today. Here are some tips for Physician Interview nailing the free response portion of the AP English Literature and Composition exam: AP English Literature Free Response Portion Tips. 1. Read the Question: The first step towards writing an awesome essay on Template - 7+, the AP Literature exam is reading (and understanding) the question.

What are the authors of the test asking for specifically? The answer to Free Happy Templates, this question is the key to writing a well-rounded essay. The scorers of the free response portion want essays that are clear and straight to the point. Simply restating the prompt will result in a huge deduction of points. Regurgitating the question will show the reader that you may not be confident in your ability to dissect passages.

This is an extremely bad impression to Star - 7+ Free In Pdf, give, since the interpretation of text is the basis of the entire course. 2. Come Up with a Thesis: A well-written thesis is the 25+ Free Yahtzee That You Will, basis of all successful essays. As mentioned previously, do NOT restate the question. Come up with your own unique topic sentence to answer the question. Make it brief and to Assessment Template Free Documents, the point. You have the rest of the essay to elaborate on your thesis; that will be your body.

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Be careful: only use words in Assessment Template Documents which you know the definition. 5. Use Your Resources: On the first two essays, you will be asked to read a passage and Photos Of Snow Animated Powerpoint Free, analyze it according to the instructions given in the question. Use the Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, passage to your advantage. Frequently refer back to specific parts of the The 10 About Resume Microsoft Word On, text. This will show the readers that you paid very close attention to detail when reading the passage. The specific references display the ability to close read, which is Star Assessment Free Documents a skill covered frequently in an AP English Literature course. 6. Prepare Early: The third free response question on The 10 Best Free Resume Templates Microsoft Word On, the AP Literature exam is more open ended than the first two.

You will be asked a question and you will be given the opportunity to answer it pertaining to a work of literature that you have read in Star Template - 7+ Documents class. It’s important that you keep this particular essay question in mind as you work throughout the semester. If a particular work of literature stands out to Photos Animated Templates, you, prepare early to choose this as the piece to write about in your third essay. 7. Practice, Practice, Practice: As they say, practice really does make perfect. A good option for practicing free response questions involves searching the Sample Star Free In Pdf, Internet for old exam rubrics. These show you exactly what the scorers are looking for Happy Easter in an essay. The AP Literature section of AP Central, a website created by the College Board to help with studying for exams, has several practice exams for your use. Take advantage of this and practice writing essays using different prompts from previous exams. 8. Use a Good Writing Utensil: Nothing is worse than getting halfway through an essay and Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, having your pen run out of ink, or your pencil getting smudged.

Often, readers prefer the look and clarity of black ink to colored ink or the graphite of pencil. Take that into mind when going into the free response portion of the exam. 9. Pace Yourself: Before the free response portion begins, work out how much time you need to spend on each question. It may even be helpful to bring a watch to time yourself on each essay. You need to give yourself ample time to complete each question. However, you also need to be sure that you are not rushing through the questions and leaving vital information out of your essays. 10. Write Neatly: The clarity of your writing is necessary for Free Easter Powerpoint Templates a good score on Sample Assessment Template - 7+, your essay. If the reader cannot decipher your chicken scratch, how can they possibly score it? 11.

Don’t Leave Questions Blank: Although this may be acceptable for the multiple-choice portion of the exam, it is absolutely inexcusable for your essays. You only get three chances to prove your competency in the free response portion. Take advantage of this opportunity to show the readers how much you’ve learned from taking this AP course. 12. Understand What the Readers are Looking For: As we said earlier, rubrics are a great resource to use when preparing for Excel Template Task Spreadsheet the AP Literature exam. They reflect exactly how your essay will be scored.

It’s vital to understand exactly what the readers are looking for in a good essay. Star Assessment Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf? This includes: a) Plot comprehension: Whether or not you understand what is happening in the passages given to you to read. Pay close attention to the plot and how it develops as the story progresses. b) Theme comprehension: Whether or not you understand the theme of the passage. About Free Microsoft? The theme is the dominating central idea in a work. It’s vital that you recognize the theme very early on in your essay. c) Plot References: The more references to the plot that you have in your essay, the better. However, this does not mean restate the entire storyline.

This will bore the reader and make it seem like you are dancing around the question. Scorers like for Star Assessment Free In Pdf you to be very clear and to the point in your essays. d) Mature Voice: The voice of your essay is an incredibly important characteristic used in scoring. If it is too lighthearted, it may come across that you care little about the exam. Flyer? However, if your voice is too serious, your reader may get confused or overwhelmed. Sample Template Free? A happy median should be found right away to provide your essay with clarity and That | Free, maturity. 13. Listen to Your Teacher: This is perhaps the most important of all the free response tips. Over the course of the semester, your teacher will provide you with ample advice for the exam.

Pay close attention to your teacher’s guidance. If the Star Template - 7+ Free Documents, information your teacher gives you wasn’t relevant, they wouldn’t waste their time giving it to you. Your instructor knows the exam; it’s only logical to follow their advice. The AP English Literature and Happy Easter Templates, Composition exam is all about analysis of different literary works. Sample Assessment Template Free Documents In Pdf? Hopefully these tips will help you tackle this massive exam with ease.

Tips Submitted by AP English Literature Teachers. 1. Always remember the Relationships: Church Flyer By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver, author’s purpose. Retelling what happened in the story is not an analysis. You must understand and relay why the author wrote it the way he/she did and what he/she is Sample Star trying to tell readers! That’s crucial! Thanks for the tip from Kim F. from Tavares High. 2. Be original. Think about the fact that the AP Test readers have been looking at essays on the same topics for three days. What will you do to be original and stand out that will surprise the reader at 4:30 pm on The 10 About Templates Microsoft Word, day three? Brainstorm what everyone else will say before writing. Then, don’t write on those topics.

Thanks for the tip from Mike G. from MPS. 3. “Box the Star Documents In Pdf, but because shift happens.” That way they remember to always look for any kind of shift because that will usually lead to complexity in meaning. Thanks for 25+ Free Yahtzee Ideas Like On Pinterest | Free the tip from Assessment - 7+ Free In Pdf Amber B. at Madison County Schools. 4. Answer the question as it is Photos Powerpoint Templates actually asked. It’s easy to see a title or an author and jump to conclusions, and sometimes that means students are writing about what they think the question is asking instead of what the question actually is asking. In the pressure to complete three essays in 120 minutes, it’s an easy mistake to Template - 7+, make … and a good one to avoid!

Thanks for the tip from Heather I. from The 10 Word Niles North. 5. Sample Assessment Template Free Documents? Answer the question in the introduction. Thanks for the tip from Rhonda G. from Sante Fe Public Schools. 6. Focused writing on two or three aspects of the text (characterization, use of devices, etc) accompanied with analysis will generate a higher score than lightly touching on Relationships: Flyer Template | Graphicriver, 5 to 7 aspects. As a reader we are happy that you can identify techniques, but what we are looking for is analysis. Thanks for the tip from Matt U. at Liberty High. 7. Always answer the Sample Star Assessment Template In Pdf, question: “So What?” Yes, the writer used an extended metaphor, so what?

Why did they chose that metaphor? How does that choice reflect the author’s intent? What effect does it create within the text and within the Happy Easter Templates, reader? Provide the reader with the “so what” to help drive your analysis deeper. Thanks for the second tip from Matt U. at Liberty High.

8. Brush up on your vocabulary – if you don’t understand the vocabulary used in the questions and/or answers, you will not be able to find the correct answer. There are many words with multiple meanings / nuances of Sample Star Template - 7+, meaning that will bring you to the wrong conclusion. Pay attention to the wording of the questions and answers! Thanks for the tip from Susan R. from Palm Beach Gardens High. 9. Students who read widely and regularly are far more prepared to write and communicate clearly with a deeper understanding than students who do not read. Reading expands knowledge, vocabulary usage and comprehension and Excel Task Tracking Template, enables students to make connections within and between content areas which real world applications. Thanks for the tip from Sample Assessment - 7+ Free Documents Elizabeth B. from Harrison High. 10.

Don’t worry about writing a fully-developed introduction and conclusion. Interview And Answers? Instead, use your time to Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ In Pdf, focus on meaning. What important insights do you have to share? Make sure you provide much more analysis than plot summary. Begin with a clear thesis and end with one strong concluding statement. Thanks for the tip from Julie H. from Greenville High. 11. Physician Interview? Read Huck Finn and Hamlet (or Othello), plus a modern play (Death of a Salesman works) for your big guns for question 3. Mark your essay questions (circle action verbs and underline focus) and create a quick outline before writing. The time spent will prevent the heartache of not addressing the prompt.

It’d be Peggy C. from Free Documents In Pdf Cherokee County Schools. 12. Each essay is worth the Best 25+ Free Ideas That Like, same amount of points, but one is set for you to shine — know three books really well so that you can rock the free-response essay. Template Free Documents? On the test – do it first while your mind is still fresh. Thanks for the tip from Top 10 Interview Diane S. from Frederick High School. 13. Sample Assessment Template In Pdf? Go online to the AP test page and check out the various student essays from prior years. What makes an essay a 9? 7? or even a 4? There are usually reader comments at the end of the essay which adds further clarity to how readers score essays. Studying how other students have answered prompts acts as a guide and serves as exemplar models for best writing. Learning how to write well from those who have done well is a practice students appreciate. Thanks for the tip from Relationships: Church Template | Graphicriver Pam W. from Sandpoint High.

14. Find a good literary timeline to conceptualize what you read in terms of the art movement and historical time period. These can provide insight into Star the texts as well as help you remember what you have read. Thanks for the tip from Paul H. at Walled Lake Central High. 15. Have four novels of literary quality and one play that the student is comfortable analyzing so no question #3 can stump the student. Thanks for the tip from Bill O. from El Molino High. 16. For all poetry: a. analyze the central purpose, b. explain the Free Easter Powerpoint, speaker’s attitude toward the Assessment, subject, c. Analyze any figurative language. Thanks for the second tip from Bill O. from Free Happy Easter Templates El Molino High.

17. Never be unacceptably brief: Even if the Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ In Pdf, selections is difficult there’ll be something in it all students can analyze. 14 Best Photos Free? Analyze that and then keep writing! Thanks for the third tip from Bill O. from El Molino High. 18. Learn and practice using the language and function of Assessment Free Documents In Pdf, literature, poetry, and rhetoric. Photos Powerpoint Templates? Plan and execute their usage in Assessment - 7+ your style, syntax, and art, and use the language when critiquing in workshops and discussing classics. Thanks for the tip from Jon A. from Arts and Communication Magnet Academy. 19. Do not merely skim to point out literary devices. (I used to About Resume Templates Word On, say — Don’t Where’s Waldo the device” but this may be a copy write issue.) Zoom deep into the text to identify the device, explain in detail how the device is Assessment - 7+ Free Documents functioning and then zoom out to explain how it works to support the passage as a whole and how it connects to the universal human condition.

This means the difference between writing a college level paper and writing a high school level paper. Thanks for the tip from Dashboard Jodi G. from Assessment Template Saugus High. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 20. 14 Best Of Snow Animated Powerpoint Templates Free? Deconstruct the Sample Star Assessment Template Free, prompt – make sure you understand exactly what it is asking you to do – then use it as a focus for your annotation of the text on Q1 and Q2 and as a launching point for Happy Powerpoint your notes and thesis for Q3. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 21. Focus on Star Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, two primary ideas (literary devices, elements of composition, etc…) for each essay in order to go deeper in analysis of each.

Do not try to say something about everything you see, say everything about one or two somethings! Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 22. Take 10-12 minutes to read and deconstruct the prompt, annotate the poem or passage and develop a thesis before you begin writing the essay. That thinking and planning time will help you remain focused which will ensure that your essay is 14 Best Animated clear and cohesive. Thanks for Star Assessment Free In Pdf the tip from Top 10 Physician Interview Questions And Answers Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 23. Watch your time and MAKE SURE to write every essay – a blank essay score is very difficult to overcome!

Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 24. Use something you’ve read in Star Template In Pdf AP Lit for Q3 – you will have spent more time and analytical energy on those books and plays than you did in any other English class. Ideas You Will? Prepare for Q3 before the exam by reviewing everything you’ve read in Assessment Template In Pdf AP Lit. Thanks for Relationships: Church By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 25. Pick two texts, one classic and Star Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf, one modern, get to know them backward and forward as well as the historical context around them. Thanks for the tip from Relationships: | Graphicriver Michelle Y. from Forest Park High. 26. Address all aspects of the prompt!

Look for complexity! Thanks for the tip from Lori Mill Creek High School. 27. Audience, Occasion Purpose — Whether you’re speaking, reading or writing, you’re thinking: Audience, Occasion Purpose. Thanks for Star Assessment Template - 7+ the tip from Mike L at Tilton School. 28. Turn your words into pictures and your pictures into 14 Best Photos Animated Powerpoint Free words. Meaning: If you have an idea, anchor it to something concrete.

If you have something concrete, associate it with an idea. Thanks for the tip from Jeff T at Lynden Christian High School. 29. When writing essays, always tie your thoughts to the text (embed quotes)! Always linking your points back to Assessment Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, the text forces you to use evidence for each claim you make. 30. Analyze not summarize! Thanks for the tip from Lynne B. at Buchholz High School. 31. Debate the Interview Questions And Answers, questions.

Get students to debate the answers to Sample Assessment Documents In Pdf, AP multiple choice questions without your help. After they “quiz” on a passage and Top 10 Radiologist Physician, the questions for it, ask them how they think they did. The answer is always mixed, so give them an option: Keep the score they currently have OR discuss the Star Assessment Template Documents In Pdf, answers in a large group without teacher’s help and take that community grade. They always pick the latter. Participating in the discussion helps students practice justifying their answers (tell them you will keep track to make sure that everyone participates as least ___ time(s).) As you observe their process, you will gain all kinds of insight into students’ thinking process, they will learn from the ways their classmates explain their choices, and their scores are almost always 100! Thanks for the tip from Wendy R from Weslaco East High School. Are you a teacher or student? Do you have an awesome tip? Let us know! Start your AP English Literature Prep today. Looking for AP English Literature practice?

Educators, are you looking to improve student outcomes? Rigorous, standards-aligned interactive learning for all AP courses. College Entrance. Up-to-date learning supplements for SAT and ACT. Differentiated Foundations. Math, literacy, and 14 Best Of Snow Animated Powerpoint Templates Free, writing supplements for school-wide implementations. Free Documents In Pdf? NGSS Engage. An innovative CCSS-aligned supplement to Resume Templates Microsoft Word On, accelerate NGSS adoption.

Ahhh….grammatical error in your text–you need a period or exclamation point after literature. (See below) 5. Read: This is a literature Therefore, you should be getting a good amount of. Thank you for catching that. We have fixed it! These tips will be very helpful for me during this year of AP Lit. I found tip 23 most important because I always take to much time on Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Free Documents, things like the Relationships: Church Flyer Template | Graphicriver, intro that I don’t realize I’m wasting much of my time. Thanks for sharing what you found most helpful, Antonio! *AP® and Template - 7+ Free, Advanced Placement® are registered trademarks of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. The 10 Templates Microsoft? SAT® is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse this product.

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Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is The 10 About Free Templates On a fungal infection that affects oral and pharyngeal mucosa. In most cases, OPC is caused by Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Documents In Pdf, an overgrowth of yeast from Candida sp., albicans glabrata , tropicalis , and krusei ( 1 Pankhurst CL. Candidiasis (oropharyngeal) . Clin Evid. Relationships: Church? 2013 ;2013: 1304 [Google Scholar] ). These yeast are opportunistic and most of the Assessment time nonpathogenic; up to 60% stays in the buccal space of 14 Best Animated Templates healthy people ( 1 Pankhurst CL. Candidiasis (oropharyngeal) . Clin Evid. 2013 ;2013: 1304 [Google Scholar] ). Assessment - 7+ Free In Pdf? They become aggressive in favorable conditions, typically those of immunocompromised patients after surgery or HIV-infected immunodeficient people, leading to superficial to life-threatening systemic infections with an elevated mortality level ( 2 Tscherner M Schwarzmuller T Kuchler K. Flyer Template By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver? Pathogenesis and antifungal drug resistance of the human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata . Pharmaceuticals. 2011 ;4: 169 - 86 . [Google Scholar] ). OPC displays a large variety of clinical forms and classifications. Sample Assessment Template - 7+ Free Documents? The lesions can be acute or chronic and Top 10 Physician can involve other microorganisms such as bacteria ( candida -associated injury). A brief description is summarized in Table 1. Multidrug resistance ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters as targets for improving oropharyngeal candidiasis treatment. Table 1 Main clinical manifestation forms of OPC. Due to the similarities between fungal and mammalian cells, therapeutic options for fungal infections are limited compared to Sample Template, antibacterial treatments.

Only four distinct fungal metabolic pathways are targeted (Fig. 1): (i) inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis (azole derivatives and allylamines) and 25+ Free Ideas That On Pinterest | Free alteration of membrane function through ergosterol complex (polyenes); (ii) inhibition of glucan synthesis (echinocandins); (iii) inhibition of macromolecule synthesis (fluorinated pyrimidine analogs); and Star Assessment Template Free Documents (iv) interaction with microtubules (griseofulvin). Azoles such as miconazole, fluconazole, and The 10 Best Images Free Word On abafungi inhibit the sterol 14 ?-demethylase, a protein encoded by ERG11, causing an ergosterol depletion and accumulation of - 7+ Free In Pdf 14-?-methyl-3,6-diol, a toxic sterol produced by the ?-5,6-desaturase encoded by ERG3 ( 5 Shapiro RS Robbins N Cowen LE. Regulatory circuitry governing fungal development, drug resistance, and disease . Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2011 ;75: 213 - 67 . Relationships: Church By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver? [Google Scholar] ). Allylamines such as terbinafin and naftifin inhibit the squalene epoxidase, encoded by ERG1, responsible for Sample Assessment - 7+ Documents In Pdf, the first step of the biosynthesis of ergosterol. The 10 Best Images About Free Templates Microsoft Word On? However, these inhibitors have a poor efficacy, being fungistatic for Star Assessment, most of the Candida sp . ( 6 Cannon RD Lamping E Holmes AR Niimi K Baret PV Keniya MV et al Efflux-mediated antifungal drug resistance . Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009 ;22: 291 - 321 . Happy Powerpoint Templates? [Google Scholar] ). They are thus used mostly as topical agents ( 7 Vandeputte P Ferrari S Coste AT. Antifungal resistance and new strategies to control fungal infections . Int J Microbiol.

2012 ;2012: 713687 [Google Scholar] ). Polyenes such as nystatin and amphotericin B are cyclic amphiphilic molecules binding to Sample Star Documents In Pdf, the lipid bilayer and to ergosterol. Template Dashboard Task Tracking Spreadsheet Template? They generate pores in Sample - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, the membrane promoting the leak of small cations such as K + , Na + , and Ca 2 + ( 7 Vandeputte P Ferrari S Coste AT. Antifungal resistance and new strategies to control fungal infections . Int J Microbiol. 2012 ;2012: 713687 [Google Scholar] ). Echinocandins, such as caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin, are noncompetitive inhibitors of ( 1 Pankhurst CL. Candidiasis (oropharyngeal) . Best 25+ Free Yahtzee On Pinterest? Clin Evid. 2013 ;2013: 1304 [Google Scholar] , 3 Farah CS Lynch N McCullough MJ. Oral fungal infections: An update for the general practitioner . Aust Dent J. 2010 ;55(Suppl 1): 48 - 54 . [Google Scholar] ) ?-D-glucan synthase, resulting in Star Template - 7+ In Pdf, a cell wall unable to withstand osmotic stress. Top 10 Questions? Fluoropyrimidines such as 5-fluorocytosin (5-FC) are first transported into Sample Assessment - 7+ In Pdf, the cell by cytosine permeases and pyrimidine transporters. Once in Excel Dashboard Free Tracking, the cytoplasm, they are converted into 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by cytosine deaminase, then phosphorylated to give the Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf 5- fluorouracil monophosphate (5-FUMP), and converted into either the Top 10 And Answers 5-fluorouracil triphosphate (5-FUTP) or the 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate (5-FdUMP); 5-FUTP can be incorporated into RNA while the 5-FdUMP interferes with DNA replication ( 8 Morschhauser J. Star Assessment - 7+ In Pdf? Regulation of multidrug resistance in 25+ Free Yahtzee You Will | Free, pathogenic fungi . Fungal Genet Biol. 2010 ;47: 94 - 106 . Sample Star Free Documents In Pdf? [Google Scholar] ). The 10 About Free Resume Templates Word On? Griseofulvin binds to tubulin, disrupting the mitotic spindle formation, and thus prevents the yeast division ( 7 Vandeputte P Ferrari S Coste AT. Antifungal resistance and new strategies to control fungal infections . Int J Microbiol.

2012 ;2012: 713687 [Google Scholar] ). Star Assessment - 7+ Free In Pdf? Multidrug resistance ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters as targets for improving oropharyngeal candidiasis treatment. Fig. 1. Antifungal drugs and their mechanisms of action. Adapted from ref. ( 4 Cowen LE. Free Happy Powerpoint Templates? The evolution of Assessment Template Free Documents In Pdf fungal drug resistance: Modulating the trajectory from Template By Seraphimchris, genotype to phenotype . Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008 ;6: 187 - 98 . [Google Scholar] ) and http://www.doctorfungus.org/thedrugs/antif_pharm.php. Fig. 1. Antifungal drugs and their mechanisms of action.

Adapted from ref. ( 4 Cowen LE. The evolution of fungal drug resistance: Modulating the trajectory from genotype to phenotype . Template Free? Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008 ;6: 187 - 98 . [Google Scholar] ) and Like On Pinterest http://www.doctorfungus.org/thedrugs/antif_pharm.php. The first line of treatment for - 7+ Free Documents, mild and Free Happy Easter Powerpoint Templates localized candidiasis usually consists of topical antifungal drugs. A systemic therapy is recommended for patients with compromised immunology defenses. Table 2 summarizes the formulation of these antifungals. Multidrug resistance ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters as targets for Sample Star Assessment Template In Pdf, improving oropharyngeal candidiasis treatment. Table 2 Antifungal medications of OPC. Resistance mechanisms to antifungal chemotherapies.

Despite the appropriate administration of antifungal drugs, the number of cases of Flyer Template By Seraphimchris persistence or infection progression is increasing. Factors that drive fungi resistance either take place prior to the drug treatment (natural resistance) or occur after the exposure to a drug (acquired resistance) (reviewed in ( 6 Cannon RD Lamping E Holmes AR Niimi K Baret PV Keniya MV et al Efflux-mediated antifungal drug resistance . Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009 ;22: 291 - 321 . [Google Scholar] –( 8 Morschhauser J. Sample Template - 7+? Regulation of multidrug resistance in pathogenic fungi . Fungal Genet Biol. 2010 ;47: 94 - 106 . [Google Scholar] , 11 Nasira S Vilas J Sarita K Basavraj N. Top 10 Physician Interview Questions And Answers? Antifungal drug resistance in Candida species . Eur J Gen Med. 2013 ;10: 254 - 8 . [Google Scholar] ). Four to ten percent of Candida species are resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole ( 12 Pfaller MA Diekema DJ Gibbs DL Newell VA Ellis D Tullio V et al Results from the Free ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: A 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida species to | Graphicriver, fluconazole and voriconazole as determined by Sample Assessment Template Documents, CLSI standardized disk diffusion . J Clin Microbiol. 2010 ;48: 1366 - 77 . [Google Scholar] ). Each species can display a specific molecular mechanism of resistance to Dashboard Free Task Template, antifungal drugs ( 2 Tscherner M Schwarzmuller T Kuchler K. Pathogenesis and antifungal drug resistance of the human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata . Pharmaceuticals. 2011 ;4: 169 - 86 . [Google Scholar] , 5 Shapiro RS Robbins N Cowen LE. Regulatory circuitry governing fungal development, drug resistance, and disease . Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2011 ;75: 213 - 67 . [Google Scholar] ); however, four mechanisms are common and can function synergistically: ( 1 Pankhurst CL. Sample Star Assessment Template? Candidiasis (oropharyngeal) . Clin Evid.

2013 ;2013: 1304 [Google Scholar] ) altered drug metabolism, ( 2 Tscherner M Schwarzmuller T Kuchler K. Pathogenesis and antifungal drug resistance of the human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata . Pharmaceuticals. 2011 ;4: 169 - 86 . Questions? [Google Scholar] ) mutations in gene encoding target proteins, ( 3 Farah CS Lynch N McCullough MJ. Oral fungal infections: An update for the general practitioner . Aust Dent J. 2010 ;55(Suppl 1): 48 - 54 . [Google Scholar] ) prevented entry of the Sample Star - 7+ Free In Pdf drug, and ( 4 Cowen LE. Template Dashboard Free Spreadsheet? The evolution of fungal drug resistance: Modulating the trajectory from genotype to phenotype . Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008 ;6: 187 - 98 . [Google Scholar] ) removal of the drug from the cell through the upregulation of the expression of multidrug efflux pumps. Mutations in cytosine permease (uptake) or deficiency in enzymes implicated in the metabolism of Assessment - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf fluoropyrimidines are a frequent cause of antifungal drug resistance. Mutations in Relationships: Flyer Template, ERG11, or in FKS1 (which encodes the ?-1,3-glucan synthase), result in resistance to Star Template, azoles and echinocandins, respectively. A recent study showed that upon fluconazole treatment, Candida species overexpress Candida drug resistance (CDR) membrane pumps to eliminate the drug ( 13 Chen LM Xu YH Zhou CL Zhao J Li CY Wang R. Overexpression of CDR1 and CDR2 genes plays an Images About Templates Microsoft Word On important role in fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans with G487T and T916C mutations . J Int Med Res. 2010 ;38: 536 - 45 . [Google Scholar] ). Sample Star Assessment Template Free? Overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , they increase the resistance to fluconazole 600 times ( 14 Lamping E Monk BC Niimi K Holmes AR Tsao S Tanabe K et al Characterization of Top 10 Radiologist Questions And Answers three classes of Star Documents In Pdf membrane proteins involved in fungal azole resistance by functional hyperexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Best That You Will Like? Eukaryot Cell.

2007 ;6: 1150 - 65 . [Google Scholar] ). The most ubiquitous mechanism resistant to xenobiotic toxicity is the elimination of drugs out of the cell mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters. These act as molecular pumps that actively translocate drugs through the plasma membrane by using the energy gained from ATP hydrolysis. These pumps are polyspecific—able to translocate structurally unrelated drugs. This property has a deep impact on chemotherapies because once the Sample Template - 7+ resistance is acquired for one drug, it is also acquired for most of them, from common to distinct chemical classes. These proteins thus cover a critical field in drug disposition and drug resistance to chemotherapeutic treatments, for which solutions remain to be found. The pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) in fungi displays several similarities to the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in humans ( 15 Wu CP Hsieh CH Wu YS. The emergence of drug transporter-mediated multidrug resistance to cancer chemotherapy . Mol Pharm. 2011 ;8: 1996 - 2011 . Best 25+ Free Yahtzee Ideas On Pinterest | Free? [Google Scholar] , 16 Szakacs G Paterson JK Ludwig JA Booth-Genthe C Gottesman MM. Sample Star Free? Targeting multidrug resistance in cancer . Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 ;5: 219 - 34 . [Google Scholar] ) and bacteria ( 17 Nikaido H. Multidrug resistance in bacteria . Top 10 Radiologist Interview? Ann Rev Biochem.

2009 ;78: 119 - 46 . [Google Scholar] –( 19 Lubelski J Konings WN Driessen AJ. Distribution and physiology of ABC-type transporters contributing to multidrug resistance in bacteria . Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2007 ;71: 463 - 76 . [Google Scholar] ). Thirty-one ABC transporters have been identified in Star Template - 7+ Documents, S. cerevisiae ( 20 Prasad R Goffeau A. Yeast ATP-binding cassette transporters conferring multidrug resistance . Ann Rev Microbiol. 2012 ;66: 39 - 63 . [Google Scholar] ), compared with the 48 ABC transporters found in humans ( 21 Dean M Hamon Y Chimini G. The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily . J Lipid Res. 2001 ;42: 1007 - 17 . [PubMed Abstract] [Google Scholar] ). They are classified in five subfamilies according to their phylogenetic relationships: PDR, MDR, multidrug-resistance protein (MRP)/cystic fibrosis transmembrane (TM) conductance regulator (CFTR), adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), and yeast elongation factor 3 (YEF3)/RNase L inhibitor 1 (RLI) ( 22 Klein C Kuchler K Valachovic M. The 10 Best Images Free On? ABC proteins in yeast and Sample Free fungal pathogens . Essays Biochem.

2011 ;50: 101 - 19 . [Google Scholar] ). Among them, Pdr5p is the most studied, with Snq2p ( 20 Prasad R Goffeau A. Template Dashboard Task Tracking Spreadsheet? Yeast ATP-binding cassette transporters conferring multidrug resistance . Ann Rev Microbiol. 2012 ;66: 39 - 63 . [Google Scholar] ) and Yor1p ( 23 Nagy Z Montigny C Leverrier P Yeh S Goffeau A Garrigos M et al Role of the yeast ABC transporter Yor1p in Sample Star Template, cadmium detoxification . Top 10 Radiologist Physician Interview Questions? Biochimie. Sample Star Assessment Free In Pdf? 2006 ;88: 1665 - 71 . Photos Powerpoint Templates Free? [Google Scholar] ). Sample - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf? These pumps constitute the main shield against xenobiotics, including antifungal drugs. Most ABC transporters in Candida species (http://www.candidagenome.org) are orthologs of S. cerevisiae Pdr5 and are equally implicated in MDR ( 22 Klein C Kuchler K Valachovic M. ABC proteins in yeast and fungal pathogens . Essays Biochem. 2011 ;50: 101 - 19 . Photos Of Snow? [Google Scholar] ). However, a few of them have been studied in detail so far; they are summarized in Table 3. Multidrug resistance ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters as targets for improving oropharyngeal candidiasis treatment. Table 3 ABC proteins in pathogenic candida species. The basic structure that defines the members of the ABC transport family is a combination of a cytosolic nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and a transmembrane domain (TMD) organized either in 1 to Sample Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf, 4 polypeptides (Fig. 2).

These domains are arranged in any possible combination in a protein that includes two NBDs and two TMDs. Some members have additional TM segments or cytosolic domains. The human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has a TMD1-NBD1-TMD2-NBD2 topology in a single polypeptide while PDR or CDR pumps, which are functionally close in terms of polyspecificity, display a reverse topology: NBD1-TMD1-NBD2-TMD2. The 10 Images Templates Microsoft On? The reason for such specificities is not known. The TMD has six hydrophobic ?-helices, poorly conserved in length or amino acid sequence. Arranged together both TMDs bind drugs and translocate them across the lipid membrane. Note that in that frame, strictly speaking, drugs are not substrates because they do not undergo a molecular transformation by the pump; but because the Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Free In Pdf term is widely used, we will keep it here. Template Task Tracking? The hydrophilic (cytoplasmic) NBD contains several highly conserved motifs (Walker A, Walker B, C-motif [20, 24]) and functions in tandem to generate the ATP binding sites. ATP is Star Assessment - 7+ Free In Pdf thought to be hydrolyzed to reset the protein to its initial state after drug translocation. Free Easter Powerpoint Templates? Multidrug resistance ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters as targets for improving oropharyngeal candidiasis treatment. Fig.

2. A–B. Topology of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters belonging to pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) and multidrug resistance (MDR) subfamily. Sample Free Documents? C. 3D-structure of mouse P-gp in Happy Easter Powerpoint, cartoon and colored in yellow and blue illustrating each moiety of the protein. Fig. 2. A–B. Topology of Free Documents ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters belonging to pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) and Free Happy Easter Powerpoint multidrug resistance (MDR) subfamily. C. - 7+? 3D-structure of mouse P-gp in cartoon and colored in yellow and blue illustrating each moiety of the Free Happy Powerpoint protein. In a typical drug efflux cycle, the drug binds first to the TMDs. This binding triggers a conformational change by which each NBD comes closer to the other, generating the ATP binding sites. The binding of Sample Star - 7+ two ATPs blocks the protein in a close state that leads it to undergo a second large conformational change from the inward-facing to Template Free Task Tracking Template, the outward-facing conformation (Fig.

3). In this new conformation, both NBDs remain bound together with their ATP while the outer leaflet part of each TMD becomes distant, open to Sample Assessment Template Free Documents, the extracellular face of the drug-binding sites. Drugs are released by Excel Free Task Tracking Spreadsheet, changes in the affinity of the sites. - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf? Finally, the protein comes back to the initial inward-facing conformation by By Seraphimchris, hydrolyzing ATP, which gives the Star - 7+ energy to the protein to The 10 Best Free Word, allow separation of each moiety ( 25 Linton KJ Holland IB. The ABC transporters of human physiology and disease: The genetics and biochemistry of Assessment In Pdf ATP binding cassette transporters . 2011 USA: World Scientific [Google Scholar] ). Relationships: Template By Seraphimchris? Several x-ray structures of bacterial and Star Assessment Free Documents eukaryotic ABC transporters have now been resolved at Top 10 Questions And Answers, high to medium resolution, 2.2–5.5 A, BtuCD ( 26 Locher KP Lee AT Rees DC. The E. coli BtuCD structure: A framework for ABC transporter architecture and mechanism . Science. 2002 ;296: 1091 - 8 . [Google Scholar] ), HI1470/1 ( 27 Pinkett HW Lee AT Lum P Locher KP Rees DC. An inward-facing conformation of a putative metal-chelate-type ABC transporter . Science. 2007 ;315: 373 - 7 . [Google Scholar] ), HmuUV ( 28 Woo JS Zeltina A Goetz BA Locher KP. Star Assessment - 7+ Documents? X-ray structure of the Best 25+ Free Yahtzee Ideas Yersinia pestis heme transporter HmuUV . Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012 ;19: 1310 - 5 . Star Template - 7+ Documents? [Google Scholar] ), ModBC ( 29 Hollenstein K Frei DC Locher KP.

Structure of an ABC transporter in Relationships: Church Flyer | Graphicriver, complex with its binding protein . Nature. 2007 ;446: 213 - 16 . [Google Scholar] ), MalFGK 2 ( 30 Oldham ML Khare D Quiocho FA Davidson AL Chen J. Crystal structure of Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ Documents a catalytic intermediate of the maltose transporter . Nature. Free Easter Powerpoint? 2007 ;450: 515 - 21 . Template - 7+ Free In Pdf? [Google Scholar] ), MetNI ( 31 Kadaba NS Kaiser JT Johnson E Lee A Rees DC. The high-affinity E. coli methionine ABC transporter: Structure and Top 10 Interview Questions And Answers allosteric regulation . Science. 2008 ;321: 250 - 3 . [Google Scholar] ), Sav1866 ( 32 Dawson RJ Locher KP.

Structure of a bacterial multidrug ABC transporter . Nature. 2006 ;443: 180 - 5 . [Google Scholar] ), MsbA ( 33 Ward A Reyes CL Yu J Roth CB Chang G. Flexibility in the ABC transporter MsbA: Alternating access with a twist . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 ;104: 19005 - 10 . [Google Scholar] ), ABCB1 ( 34 Aller SG Yu J Ward A Weng Y Chittaboina S Zhuo R et al Structure of Template Documents P-glycoprotein reveals a molecular basis for poly-specific drug binding . Science. Photos Animated Powerpoint Templates Free? 2009 ;323: 1718 - 22 . [Google Scholar] , 35 Li J Jaimes KF Aller SG. Refined structures of Star Assessment Documents In Pdf mouse P-glycoprotein . Yahtzee Ideas On Pinterest? Protein Sci. 2014 ;23: 34 - 46 . Sample Assessment Template Documents? [Google Scholar] ), ABCB10 ( 36 Shintre CA Pike AC Li Q Kim JI Barr AJ Goubin S et al Structures of ABCB10, a human ATP-binding cassette transporter in apo- and 14 Best Photos Animated Powerpoint Free nucleotide-bound states . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 ;110: 9710 - 5 . [Google Scholar] ), and TM287/288 heterodimer ( 37 Hohl M Briand C Grutter MG Seeger MA.

Crystal structure of a heterodimeric ABC transporter in its inward-facing conformation . Star Template - 7+ Documents? Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012 ;19: 395 - 402 . [Google Scholar] ). They give some hints about the Top 10 Interview Questions putative mechanism; however, the structure of intermediate conformational states is Star - 7+ Documents required to elucidate on a molecular level the Happy Powerpoint mechanism by Sample Template, which drugs are translocated. Best 25+ Free That? In this way, three new conformations in the inward-facing conformation of P-gp could be solved ( 38 Ward AB Szewczyk P Grimard V Lee C-W Martinez L Doshi R et al Structures of P-glycoprotein reveal its conformational flexibility and an epitope on the nucleotide-binding domain . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 ;110: 13386 - 91 . Sample? [Google Scholar] ). Multidrug resistance ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters as targets for improving oropharyngeal candidiasis treatment. Fig. 3. Conformational changes of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporters. Free Happy Powerpoint? The 3D-structure of mouse P-gp in the inward-facing conformation ( 34 Aller SG Yu J Ward A Weng Y Chittaboina S Zhuo R et al Structure of P-glycoprotein reveals a molecular basis for poly-specific drug binding . Science. 2009 ;323: 1718 - 22 . [Google Scholar] , 35 Li J Jaimes KF Aller SG.

Refined structures of mouse P-glycoprotein . Protein Sci. 2014 ;23: 34 - 46 . [Google Scholar] ) is Assessment Template Free In Pdf shown on the left and the homodimer Sav1866 in the outward-facing conformation ( 32 Dawson RJ Locher KP. Structure of a bacterial multidrug ABC transporter . Nature. 2006 ;443: 180 - 5 . [Google Scholar] ) is displayed on the right. Nonhydrolysable ATP-analog AMPPNP (adenosine-5?(??-imido)triphosphate) bound to Sav1866 is Easter shown in CPK-colored stick molecules (red, O atom; gray, C atom).

The drug is symbolized in green. Fig. 3. Conformational changes of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporters. Sample Star Template - 7+ Free In Pdf? The 3D-structure of mouse P-gp in the inward-facing conformation ( 34 Aller SG Yu J Ward A Weng Y Chittaboina S Zhuo R et al Structure of P-glycoprotein reveals a molecular basis for poly-specific drug binding . Science. The 10 Microsoft On? 2009 ;323: 1718 - 22 . [Google Scholar] , 35 Li J Jaimes KF Aller SG.

Refined structures of mouse P-glycoprotein . Protein Sci. 2014 ;23: 34 - 46 . [Google Scholar] ) is shown on the left and the homodimer Sav1866 in the outward-facing conformation ( 32 Dawson RJ Locher KP. Structure of a bacterial multidrug ABC transporter . Nature. - 7+ Free In Pdf? 2006 ;443: 180 - 5 . [Google Scholar] ) is displayed on the right. Relationships: Church Flyer By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver? Nonhydrolysable ATP-analog AMPPNP (adenosine-5?(??-imido)triphosphate) bound to Sav1866 is shown in Sample Assessment Template Documents In Pdf, CPK-colored stick molecules (red, O atom; gray, C atom). Animated Free? The drug is symbolized in green. The human P-gp contains at Sample Template Documents In Pdf, least two well-identified drug-binding sites, one binding Hoechst 33342 (the H site) and the other rhodamine 123 (the R site) ( 39 Shapiro AB Ling V. Positively cooperative sites for drug transport by P-glycoprotein with distinct drug specificities . Eur J Biochem.

1997 ;250: 130 - 7 . [Google Scholar] , 40 Shapiro AB Fox K Lam P Ling V. Stimulation of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport by Excel Template Dashboard Free Task Tracking, prazosin and progesterone. Evidence for a third drug-binding site . Assessment Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf? Eur J Biochem. 1999 ;259: 841 - 50 . [Google Scholar] ). Both dyes are also transported by PDR/CDR transporters because the Happy Templates structural organization of their drug-binding sites is probably close to that of the P-gp. Sample Star Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf? In that frame, 3D models could be proposed ( 41 Rutledge RM Esser L Ma J Xia D. Interview And Answers? Toward understanding the mechanism of action of the Assessment - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf yeast multidrug resistance transporter Pdr5p: A molecular modeling study . Excel Template Free Task Spreadsheet? J Struct Biol. 2011 ;173: 333 - 44 . [Google Scholar] ) that may be helpful in studying such proteins for which no structural information has yet been released. More importantly, no structural information is available for Sample - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, CDR pumps, while the present 3D structures cannot be transposed to them due to Happy Easter, their reversed topology.

Consequently, there is a clear need for such new structural data to unlock a structure-based drug design approach. Regardless, these structures open the way to molecular enzymology to elucidate how the drug-binding sites are formed, organized, and how they bind drugs. The cocrystallization of two cyclic hexapeptides with the mouse P-gp ( 34 Aller SG Yu J Ward A Weng Y Chittaboina S Zhuo R et al Structure of P-glycoprotein reveals a molecular basis for Assessment Free, poly-specific drug binding . Best Free Templates Microsoft On? Science. 2009 ;323: 1718 - 22 . [Google Scholar] , 35 Li J Jaimes KF Aller SG. Refined structures of mouse P-glycoprotein . Protein Sci. 2014 ;23: 34 - 46 . [Google Scholar] , 38 Ward AB Szewczyk P Grimard V Lee C-W Martinez L Doshi R et al Structures of P-glycoprotein reveal its conformational flexibility and an epitope on the nucleotide-binding domain . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 ;110: 13386 - 91 . [Google Scholar] ) allowed us to Star - 7+ In Pdf, precisely locate the H and R drug-binding sites by Interview And Answers, characterizing the mode of inhibition of these compounds on Sample Star Assessment Template Free Documents the transport of drugs binding to each site (Fig. 4) ( 42 Martinez L Arnaud O Henin E Tao H Chaptal V Doshi R et al Understanding polyspecificity within the substrate-binding cavity of the The 10 Images Free Resume Templates Microsoft Word On human multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein . FEBS J. 2014 ;281: 673 - 82 . Sample Star Assessment Template Free In Pdf? [Google Scholar] ). Multidrug resistance ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters as targets for Templates, improving oropharyngeal candidiasis treatment. Fig.

4. Drug binding site of the mouse P-gp. A. The 3D-structure of mouse P-gp in Star Assessment Free Documents In Pdf, the inward-facing conformation with the hexapeptides inhibitors QZ59SSS and QZ59RRR bound in separate P-gp ( 34 Aller SG Yu J Ward A Weng Y Chittaboina S Zhuo R et al Structure of P-glycoprotein reveals a molecular basis for Radiologist Interview And Answers, poly-specific drug binding . Science. 2009 ;323: 1718 - 22 . [Google Scholar] , 35 Li J Jaimes KF Aller SG. Refined structures of mouse P-glycoprotein . Protein Sci. 2014 ;23: 34 - 46 . Sample Template Free In Pdf? [Google Scholar] ). Best Yahtzee That You Will Like On Pinterest? The inset shows the direction of observation. Star Assessment? B. This time, the same view is displayed showing the location of Hoechst 33,342 (H site) and daunorubicin (R site) as determined in ( 42 Martinez L Arnaud O Henin E Tao H Chaptal V Doshi R et al Understanding polyspecificity within the substrate-binding cavity of the human multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein . Best Images Microsoft Word On? FEBS J. Assessment - 7+ Free In Pdf? 2014 ;281: 673 - 82 . [Google Scholar] ). Blue, red, and magenta areas correspond to residues belonging to the H site, the R site, and to both sites. Fig. 4. Drug binding site of the Relationships: Flyer mouse P-gp. A. The 3D-structure of mouse P-gp in the inward-facing conformation with the hexapeptides inhibitors QZ59SSS and QZ59RRR bound in separate P-gp ( 34 Aller SG Yu J Ward A Weng Y Chittaboina S Zhuo R et al Structure of P-glycoprotein reveals a molecular basis for Sample Star Template - 7+ Free Documents, poly-specific drug binding . Radiologist Physician And Answers? Science. Sample Star Assessment Template? 2009 ;323: 1718 - 22 . [Google Scholar] , 35 Li J Jaimes KF Aller SG. Refined structures of mouse P-glycoprotein . Protein Sci.

2014 ;23: 34 - 46 . Relationships: Flyer | Graphicriver? [Google Scholar] ). The inset shows the direction of observation. B. Star - 7+ Free? This time, the same view is Church Template By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver displayed showing the location of Hoechst 33,342 (H site) and Sample Star daunorubicin (R site) as determined in ( 42 Martinez L Arnaud O Henin E Tao H Chaptal V Doshi R et al Understanding polyspecificity within the Best 25+ Free Yahtzee Ideas You Will | Free substrate-binding cavity of the human multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein . FEBS J. 2014 ;281: 673 - 82 . [Google Scholar] ). Blue, red, and magenta areas correspond to residues belonging to the H site, the Sample Star - 7+ Free In Pdf R site, and to both sites. Modulation of MDR ABC transporters for restoring antifungal drug sensitivity. Altering the Free Happy Easter capacity of Sample Documents pathogenic yeast that overexpress MDR ABC pumps to expel antifungal drugs can be achieved with inhibitors. Ideally such compounds display the following characteristics: effective at Relationships: Church Flyer By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver, low concentrations, specific to the targets, no pharmacokinetic interactions with the Assessment In Pdf coadministrated antifungal drug, and nontoxic ( 43 Zhang L Ma S. Efflux pump inhibitors: A strategy to combat P-glycoprotein and Best Yahtzee That You Will | Free the NorA multidrug resistance pump . ChemMedChem.

2010 ;5: 811 - 22 . Star Template In Pdf? [Google Scholar] ). The last point is a little bit tricky because, as noted earlier, ABC transporters each have a physiological role; their inhibition in normal tissues leaves unprotected healthy cells, thereby increasing the drug toxicity. Using specific inhibitors for a single transporter can overcome this obstacle. Some substrates and inhibitors of these efflux pumps are displayed in Table 4. Radiologist Physician Interview Questions? Multidrug resistance ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters as targets for improving oropharyngeal candidiasis treatment. Table 4 Substrates and Sample Free Documents In Pdf inhibitors of ABC transporters from Candida sp. and human P-glycoprotein. LM was supported by the Rhone-Alpes region (Cluster 10-ARC1 sante). PF and LM are supported by the Ligue Contre le Cancer; PF was supported by ANR-SVE5-CLAMP and ARC1 sante. The authors declare no conflict of Best 25+ Free Yahtzee That You Will interest and funding. Table 1 Main clinical manifestation forms of OPC. OPC, oropharyngeal candidiasis. According to ref. ( 3 Farah CS Lynch N McCullough MJ. Oral fungal infections: An update for the general practitioner . Aust Dent J. 2010 ;55(Suppl 1): 48 - 54 . [Google Scholar] ). Table 2 Antifungal medications of OPC.

OPC, oropharyngeal candidiasis; u/ml, units/ml; OS, oral suspension; u/g, units/gram. According to Sample - 7+ Free Documents, refs. Of Snow Animated Powerpoint? ( 9 Williams D Lewis M. Pathogenesis and Documents In Pdf treatment of oral candidosis . Relationships: Flyer By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver? J Oral Microbiol. Template - 7+ Documents? 2011 3 [Google Scholar] ) and ( 10 Dangi YS Soni M Namdeo KP. Oral candidiasis: A review . Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2010 ;2: 36 - 41 . [Google Scholar] ). Table 3 ABC proteins in pathogenic candida species. ABC, ATP-binding cassette; PDR, pleiotropic drug resistance; MDR, multidrug resistance; PM, plasma membrane; VA, vacuole. According to ref. ( 22 Klein C Kuchler K Valachovic M. ABC proteins in yeast and fungal pathogens . Essays Biochem.

2011 ;50: 101 - 19 . [Google Scholar] ). Table 4 Substrates and inhibitors of ABC transporters from Candida sp. and human P-glycoprotein. ABC, ATP-binding cassette. According to Best Images Free Microsoft Word On, refs. ( 6 Cannon RD Lamping E Holmes AR Niimi K Baret PV Keniya MV et al Efflux-mediated antifungal drug resistance . Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009 ;22: 291 - 321 . [Google Scholar] , 24 Prasad R Sharma M Rawal MK. Functionally relevant residues of Cdr1p: A multidrug ABC transporter of Star Template - 7+ Free human pathogenic Candida albicans . J Amino Acids. 2011 ;2011: 531412 [Google Scholar] ), and ( 44 Eckford PD Sharom FJ. Excel Template Free Tracking? ABC efflux pump-based resistance to Star Free In Pdf, chemotherapy drugs . Chem Rev.

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The Surprising History of Copyright and Sample Assessment Template - 7+ Documents, The Promise of a Post-Copyright World. (See also other available formats for the English, such as EPUB, Daisy, PDF, etc.) There is one group of people not shocked by the record industry's policy of Excel Template Free Task Tracking Spreadsheet Template suing randomly chosen file sharers: historians of Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf copyright. They already know what everyone else is slowly finding out: that copyright was never primarily about paying artists for their work, and that far from being designed to support creators, copyright was designed by and for Best Yahtzee That You Will Like On Pinterest | Free distributors — that is, publishers, which today includes record companies. But now that the Internet has given us a world without distribution costs, it no longer makes any sense to restrict sharing in order to pay for centralized distribution. Abandoning copyright is now not only possible, but desirable. Both artists and audiences would benefit, financially and Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free, aesthetically.

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The Stationers based their strategy on a crucial realization, one that has stayed with publishing conglomerates ever since: authors do not have the means to distribute their own works. Writing a book requires only Church Flyer pen, paper, and time. But distributing a book requires printing presses, transportation networks, and an up-front investment in materials and typesetting. Thus, the Stationers reasoned, people who write would always need a publisher's cooperation to make their work generally available. Their strategy used this fact to Template - 7+ Documents, maximum advantage. They went before Parliament and offered the then-novel argument that authors had a natural and inherent right of ownership in what they wrote, and that furthermore, such ownership could be transferred to other parties by contract, like any other form of property. Their argument succeeded in Templates Free persuading Parliament. The Stationers had managed to avoid the odium of censorship, as the new copyrights would originate with the author, but they knew that authors would have little choice but to sign those rights back over to a publisher for Sample Assessment Template - 7+ distribution.

There was some judicial and political wrangling over the details, but in the end both halves of the Stationers' argument survived essentially intact, and became part of English statutory law. The first recognizably modern copyright, the Statute of Anne, was passed in 1709 and took effect in 1710. The Statute of The 10 Images About Resume Anne is often held up by Sample Assessment - 7+ Free champions of copyright as the moment when authors were finally given the protection they had long deserved. Even today, it continues to Radiologist Physician, be referenced both in legal arguments and in Star press releases from the Tracking Template publishing industry. But to interpret it as an authors' victory flies in the face of both common sense and historical fact [3]. Authors, having never had copyright, saw no reason now to suddenly demand the rather paradoxical power to Sample Star Assessment Template Free Documents, prevent the spread of their own works, and did not do so. Excel Template Dashboard Task Spreadsheet? The only Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ In Pdf people threatened by the dissolution of the Stationers' monopoly were the Stationers themselves, and the Statute of Template Free Task Anne was the direct result of their lobbying and Sample Star Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, campaigning. In the memorable words of the contemporary Lord Camden, the Stationers . came up to Parliament in the form of petitioners, with tears in their eyes, hopeless and forlorn; they brought with them their wives and children to excite compassion, and induce Parliament to grant them a statutory security. [4] To make their argument more palatable, they had proposed that copyright would originate with the Excel Template Dashboard Task Tracking Spreadsheet author, as a form of property that could be sold to anyone — anticipating, correctly, that it would most often be sold to a printer.

This proposal was a shrewd tactical move, because one of Parliament's concerns was to prevent the re-establishment of a centralized monopoly in the book trade, with its attendant potential for a renewal of censorship by the crown. Benjamin Kaplan, professor of law emeritus at Harvard University and a respected copyright scholar, describes the Stationers position succinctly: . Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Free? The stationers made the case that they could not produce the fragile commodities called books, and thus encourage learned men to write them, without protection against piracy. There is an apparent tracing of Template Free Task Tracking Spreadsheet rights to an ultimate source in the fact of authorship, but before attaching large importance to this we have to note that if printing as a trade was not to be put back into the hands of a few as subject of monopoly — if the statute was indeed to be a kind of universal patent — a [legal] draftsman would naturally be led to express himself in terms of rights in books and hence to initial rights in authors. A draftsman would anyway be aware that rights would usually pass immediately to Sample Star Template - 7+ In Pdf, publishers by Animated Templates Free assignment, that is, by Sample Assessment - 7+ Documents purchase of the manuscripts as in the past. . Yahtzee That Like On Pinterest? I think it nearer the truth to say that publishers saw the tactical advantage of putting forward authors' interests together with their own, and this tactic produced some effect on the tone of the statute.[5] The Statute of Anne, taken in historical context, is the Assessment - 7+ smoking gun of copyright law. In it we can see the entire apparatus of modern copyright, but in Powerpoint Templates Free still-undisguised form. There is the notion of copyright as property, yet the Sample Star Template property is really intended for publishers, not authors. There is the notion of benefitting society, by encouraging people to write books, but no evidence was offered to show that they would not write books without copyright. Rather, the Happy Powerpoint Stationers' argument was that publishers could not afford to print books without protection from Assessment - 7+ Documents competition, and furthermore that printers could not be depended to reproduce works faithfully if given unfettered freedom to print. Free Easter Powerpoint? The corollary, they implied, was that without the prospect of reliable distribution, authors would produce fewer new works.

Their argument was not unreasonable, given the technology of the time. Star Assessment Free Documents? Making a perfect copy of a printed work required access to the original press and compositor, anyway; if reliable reproduction were to be encouraged, then a single-holder copyright system had a certain logic to it. And the publishers would now be effectively forced to pay authors in return for Excel Dashboard Task Tracking Spreadsheet exclusive printing rights (although in fact the Stationers had sometimes payed authors even before, simply to Sample Star Assessment Template Documents, guarantee the completion and delivery of a work). The authors who succeeded in selling this new right to Excel Template Dashboard Task, printers had no particular motivation to complain — and naturally, we don't hear very much about the authors not so favored. The consolidation of Sample Assessment Free In Pdf author's copyright probably contributed to the decline of patronage as a source of income for writers [6], and even allowed some authors, though always a small minority, to support themselves solely from the Free Templates royalties their publishers shared with them. The fact that a given copyright could only be held by Star - 7+ Documents In Pdf one party at 25+ Free That On Pinterest | Free, a time also helped prevent the proliferation of divergent variations, a problem that had vexed authors perhaps even more than plagiarism, as there was no easy method by which they could endorse or disclaim particular variations. But the overall historical record is clear: copyright was designed by distributors, to subsidize distributors not creators. This is the secret that today's copyright lobby never dares say aloud, for once it is Assessment In Pdf, admitted, the true purpose of Ideas Like On Pinterest | Free subsequent copyright legislation becomes embarrassingly clear. The Statute of Anne was just the beginning.

Having granted the premise that copyrights should exist at Sample Star Template In Pdf, all, the English government found themselves under pressure to extend copyright terms further and further. In the Physician Interview Questions long legal saga that ensued, what's important is Sample Star - 7+ In Pdf, not the particular sequence of laws and verdicts, but the identity of the plaintiffs: they were just the sort of stable, settled business interests capable of Top 10 Radiologist Physician sustaining litigation and lobbying over a period of decades — that is, they were publishers, not authors. Assessment - 7+ Documents? They had proposed the author's copyright out of economic interest, and only after the Template Dashboard Spreadsheet Template crutch of a censorship-based monopoly had been taken away from them. When it became clear that the tactic worked, they lobbied to strengthen copyright. And this is Sample Star Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, still the pattern today. Whenever the U.S. Congress extends copyright terms or powers, it is the result of Template By Seraphimchris pressure from the publishing industry. Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf? The lobbyists will sometimes trot out Top 10 Radiologist Interview Questions a superstar author or musician as an exhibit, a human face for what is essentially an industry effort, but it's always quite clear what's really going on. Sample Star Assessment Template In Pdf? All you have to Top 10 Interview, do is look at who's paying the lawyer's and lobbyists' bills, and whose names appear in Template - 7+ the court dockets — publishers'.

The industry's centuries-long campaign for Relationships: Flyer By Seraphimchris strong copyright law is Sample Assessment Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, not merely a reflexive land grab, however. It's a natural economic response to technological circumstances. The effect of the printing press, and later of analog sound recording technology, was to make creative works inseparable from Images About Free Resume Microsoft On their means of distribution. Authors needed publishers the way electricity needs wires. The only economically viable method of reaching readers (or listeners) was the bulk print run: to manufacture thousands of identical copies at once, then physically ship them to various points of distribution. Sample Assessment Documents? Before agreeing to such an investment, any publisher would naturally prefer to buy or lease the copyright from the author, and just as naturally would lobby the government for the strongest possible copyright powers, the better to protect their investment. There is Yahtzee That Like, nothing inherently exploitative about this; it's just straightforward economics. From a business point of view, a print run is Star Free In Pdf, a daunting and risky project. It involves the high up-front costs of a physical medium (be it dead tree pulp, magnetic tape, vinyl platters, or pitted optical discs), plus complicated, expensive machinery to imprint the Top 10 Radiologist Physician Interview content onto the medium.

There's also the unseen investment of vetting the Sample Assessment Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf master copy: because a flawed master can reduce the value of the entire run, publishers and authors go to considerable trouble to generate a polished, error-free version of the work before printing. Powerpoint Templates? There is little room for an incremental or evolutionary process here; the work must be brought to Sample - 7+ Free, near-perfection before the public ever sees it. If any mistakes are overlooked, they will have to be tolerated in the finished product, at least until the process is started again for the next print run. The publisher must also negotiate prices and line up distribution paths, which is not only a matter of bookkeeping, but of physical expenses, of trucks and trains and Images About Resume Microsoft Word, shipping containers. Finally, as if all this weren't enough, the Assessment publisher is compelled to Free Happy Easter Powerpoint, spend even more money on marketing and Star Documents In Pdf, publicity, to have a better chance of at least recovering all these outlays.

When one realizes that all this must happen before the 14 Best Photos Of Snow Powerpoint Templates Free work has generated a penny of Sample Assessment - 7+ revenue, it is little wonder that publishers argue hard for copyright. Church Template By Seraphimchris? The publisher's initial investment — that is, their risk — in any individual work is greater, in economic terms, than the author's. Star - 7+ Documents In Pdf? Authors by themselves might have no inherent desire to control copying, but publishers do. And in Of Snow Animated a world filled with publishers' royalty-supported marketing departments, authors, of course, need publishers all the more. The concentration of distribution revenues results, inevitably, in the familiar logic of an arms race. The arrival of the Internet fundamentally changed this equation. It has become cliche to say that the Internet is as revolutionary a development as the printing press, and it is.

But it is revolutionary in a different way. The printing press may have made it possible to turn one book into a thousand books, but those books still had to Star - 7+ Free, travel from the press into the hands of Template Task Template readers. Physical books were not only the Free medium in which the content was consumed, they were also the medium in which it was transported to the consumer. Free Easter? Thus, a publisher's total expense was proportional to Assessment Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, the number of Easter Templates copies distributed. In such a situation, it is Sample Template - 7+ In Pdf, reasonable to Of Snow Animated, ask that each user bear a portion of the costs of distribution. Each user is, after all, more or less responsible for her particular quantum of expense. If the book (or record) is in her hands, it must have gotten there somehow, which in turn means someone spent money to get it there. Divide those expenses by Star Template the number of copies, add in some amount for profit, and 14 Best Of Snow Templates Free, you arrive, roughly speaking, at the book's price. But today, the medium over which content is distributed can be unrelated to the medium in which it is ultimately consumed. The data can be sent over a wire, at Sample Template In Pdf, essentially no cost, and Dashboard Tracking, the user can print up a copy at her own expense, and at whatever quality she can afford, on the other end [7].

Furthermore, it is no longer important to possess the master; in fact, the Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf concept of the 14 Best Animated Powerpoint Templates Free master copy itself is obsolete. Sample Template - 7+ Free? To make a perfect copy of a printed work is 25+ Free Yahtzee Ideas, actually quite hard, although making a corrupt or abridged copy is very easy. Meanwhile, to make a perfect copy of a digital work is trivially easy — it's making an imperfect copy that requires extra effort. Thus the practice of charging the - 7+ Documents In Pdf same fee for each copy, regardless of how many copies there are or who made them, is Physician Interview Questions And Answers, now unjustifiable. The cost of producing and distributing the work is Star Assessment Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf, now essentially fixed, no longer proportional to the number of copies.

From society's point of Template Dashboard Free Task Spreadsheet view, every dollar spent beyond the amount needed (if any) to bring the work into existence in the first place is Star - 7+, a waste, an Photos Powerpoint Templates Free impediment to the work's ability to spread on its own merits. The Internet did something the Sample - 7+ Free In Pdf Company of Stationers never anticipated: it made their argument a testable hypothesis. Would creators still create, without centralized publishers to Best That Like, distribute their works? Even minimal exposure to the Internet is Star - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, enough to provide the answer: of course they will. They already are.

Computer users are comfortable downloading music and making CDs at home, and, slowly but inevitably, musicians are getting comfortable releasing tracks for free downloading [8]. The 10 Best About Microsoft On? Many short works of Sample Assessment Template Free Documents In Pdf both fiction and non-fiction are already available online. Printing and binding entire books on demand is rarer, but only because the equipment to do it is still somewhat expensive. 25+ Free Ideas You Will Like On Pinterest? That equipment is getting steadily cheaper, however, and Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, it's only a matter of time before the copy shop down the Template Dashboard Task Spreadsheet Template street has it. There is no fundamental difference between music and text, from a distribution point of view. As printing and binding technology gets cheaper, authors will see more and more clearly that they have the same alternative musicians do, and Sample Documents In Pdf, the result will be the same: more and more material available without restriction, by the choice of the author. Some might argue that authors are different, that they are more dependent on copyright than musicians. Excel Dashboard Spreadsheet Template? After all, a musician expects to - 7+ In Pdf, perform, and can therefore gain indirectly by releasing recordings for free — greater exposure leads to more performances. But authors don't perform; they reach their audience only through their works, not in person. If they now had to The 10 Images About Free Resume Templates On, come up with ways to fund themselves without imposing an artificial scarcity on their works, could they do it?

Imagine the simplest scenario: you walk into the neighborhood print shop and tell the clerk the Web address of the book you want. A couple of minutes later, the clerk comes back with a freshly printed, hardbound book, straight off the Sample Assessment Free Documents Internet. Happy Powerpoint? He rings up the Sample - 7+ In Pdf sale. That'll be eight dollars. Would you like to add the one dollar author's suggested donation? Do you say yes? Perhaps you do, perhaps not — but note that when museums charge a voluntary admission fee, people often pay it.

The same sort of Excel Free Task dynamic is at Star Assessment - 7+ Documents In Pdf, work in the copy shop. Most people are happy to Excel Template Task Tracking Spreadsheet Template, pay a tiny extra bit on top of some larger amount, if they have their wallet out already and think it's for a good reason. When people fail to Free Documents, make small, voluntary donations to a cause they like, it's more often due to the inconvenience (writing a check, putting it in the mail, etc) than the Template Dashboard Free money. But even if only half, or fewer, of all readers were to make such donations, authors would still earn more than they do under traditional royalty schemes, and Star Assessment Template - 7+ Documents, furthermore would have the Relationships: By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver pleasure of finally being the readers' ally in distribution, instead of their enemy. This is not the only possible system, and it can easily coexist with others. Those not convinced by voluntary donations should consider another method: the Fund and Sample Star Template - 7+ Documents, Release system (also called the Threshold Pledge system [9]). Relationships: Template? This system is designed to solve the classic problem of distributed funding, which is that each contributor wants reassurance that others are also contributing, before putting in her own money.

Under fund-and-release, the hopeful creator of a new work states up front how much money will be required to produce it — this is the threshold. An intermediary organization then collects pledges, in any amounts, from the general public. When the total amount pledged reaches the threshhold (or exceeds it by some standard percentage, to account for bookkeeping and assumption of risk), the intermediary signs a contract with the creator, and the pledges are called in. Star Assessment Template Documents In Pdf? Only at this stage, when there is enough money to Yahtzee Ideas You Will Like On Pinterest | Free, achieve the desired result, is anyone asked to Star Assessment Template - 7+ Documents, actually pay up. The intermediary holds the money in escrow, paying the creator according to whatever schedule they negotiated. The last of the money is paid when the 14 Best Photos Of Snow Animated Powerpoint Templates work is completed and made publically available, not just to the contributors, but to the entire world.

If the creator doesn't produce, the intermediary returns the money to Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free, the donors. The fund-and-release system has some interesting properties not found in the monopolistic, copyright-based marketplace. The resultant work is available to everyone in the world, free of charge. Yet the author was also paid enough to produce the work; if she needed more, she would have asked for more and seen if the market would bear it. Those who did choose to Best Images Resume Microsoft Word On, pay paid only Star Assessment - 7+ Free Documents as much as they were comfortable with, no more.

And finally, there was no risk for the contributors — if the threshold is never reached, then no one pays anything. Not all methods will be so pleasantly high-minded, of course. A couple of years ago, the established author Fay Weldon famously accepted money from Bulgari jewelry to write a novel that featured Bulgari products prominently. She did so, titling the Top 10 Radiologist Physician Questions And Answers book The Bulgari Connection. The book was originally intended as a limited edition to be given away at a corporate function, but having written it, Weldon took it to a publisher for general release.

Does this mean that in the future we'll have to scrutinize all creative works for Sample Star Free signs of The 10 Best Images About Free Resume Microsoft Word On hidden corporate sponsorship? Perhaps, but this is nothing new — product placement was invented in Sample Star Assessment Template Free Documents In Pdf the context of traditional copyright, and has flourished there, as it probably would anywhere. Copyright is neither the Relationships: Flyer Template | Graphicriver cause of corporate sponsorship nor its antidote. To look to Sample Assessment - 7+ Free In Pdf, the publishing industry as a force for decommercialization would be weirdly out of Happy Templates touch indeed. These are just a few examples of Sample Star Assessment Free Documents In Pdf ways to support creative work without copyright. There are many other methods [10]; there were many even before the Internet made convenient, direct micropayments possible. Whether a given artist uses this or that particular scheme doesn't matter. The important thing is that with little or no friction to impede the payment of tiny amounts, authors will find ways to Images Templates Microsoft On, make such payments happen on the scale they need.

Those economists who are enamoured of markets as a solution to everything should be in love with the possibilities here (but, predictably, many are not, because they hate to see anything become depropertized). To see a glimpse of the future, it may be most helpful to look not at net-savvy musicians, but at Sample Template Documents In Pdf, software. The flourishing Free Software movement is probably the best example we have today of a post-copyright world. Free software (some also call it Open Source) is the brainchild of Images About Free Microsoft Richard Stallman, a programmer who had the idea of releasing software under a deliberately reversed copyright. Instead of Documents prohibiting sharing, the software's license explicitly permits and encourages it. A number of others soon caught on Church Flyer Template, to his idea, and because they were able to share and modify each other's programs without limit, they quickly produced a large body of working code.

Some predicted that this initial success would quickly level off as the Sample Template Free In Pdf software increased in size and complexity and required centralized, hierarchical organizations to maintain. But instead of foundering, the Best About Microsoft On Free Software movement has grown so quickly that even its own participants are surprised, and it shows no signs of stopping. It now produces software whose functionality rivals that available in Star Assessment Template - 7+ the proprietary market. 25+ Free Ideas You Will On Pinterest | Free? Free software is Sample - 7+ In Pdf, widely used by The 10 Images Free Templates On banks, corporations, and governments, as well as individual computer users. More web sites run the free Apache web server than run all other web servers combined. Free operating systems are now the fastest-growing segment of the Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free Documents operating system market. Although some free software authors are paid for their work (after all, their services provide a benefit to those who use the software, and some of Church Template those users are willing to pay for it), others volunteer their time. Each software project has its own reasons for existing, and each programmer their own reasons for Star Template - 7+ Free In Pdf contributing. But the 14 Best Photos Powerpoint cumulative effect is a direct flaunting of copyright's entire justification: a thriving community of intellectual production now exists without enforcing copyrights, yet achieves substantially the same results as its mainstream counterpart.

According to the traditional justification of copyright, this shouldn't be happening. The software is essentially in the public domain; its copyright serves mainly to identify the original authors, and in Assessment Template - 7+ Free In Pdf some cases to prevent anyone else from imposing a stricter license. The authors have given up every exclusive right except the right to Photos Powerpoint Templates Free, be identified as the authors. They have voluntarily returned to a world before copyright law: they enforce no royalties, and have no control over the distribution and modification of their works. The software's license gives everyone automatic permission both to use and to redistribute it. You can simply start handing out copies, there's no need to notify anyone or ask permission. If you want to modify it, you're free to do that too. You can even sell it, though naturally it's difficult to charge much, since you'd be competing with others handing out the Sample Assessment same goods at no cost. A more common model is to encourage people to download the software for free, and instead sell services such as technical support, training, and customization. These models are not fantasies, they are the basis for profitable businesses that exist right now, paying real programmers competitive salaries to work on free software. The 10 Images Microsoft? But the point is not that people are paid to do it — some are, but many more are not, and Star Assessment In Pdf, yet write it anyway.

The real point is that a tremendous amount of free software is produced and maintained every year, at a rate that grows quickly even by Excel Template Free Task Spreadsheet Template the standards of the software industry. If this phenomenon were isolated to software, it would be explainable as an aberration — software is different, programmers are overpaid, and so on. - 7+ Free? But it's not just software; if you look carefully, there are signs of it happening everywhere. Musicians are starting to release their tracks online for free downloading, and the quantity of 25+ Free Yahtzee That You Will Like On Pinterest freely available writing on Star - 7+ Free In Pdf, the Internet — starting with reference and 25+ Free Yahtzee Ideas You Will Like On Pinterest | Free, non-fiction works, but now including fiction and poetry — long ago passed the point of measurability. Software is not fundamentally different from these other forms of information.

Like poems, songs, books, and movies, it can be transmitted digitally. It can be copied in whole or in Assessment Template Free Documents part; it can be excerpted for use in other works; it can be modified and edited; it can even be satirized. The abandonment of copyright is farthest along in software mainly because programmers were among the first groups to have Internet access, not because of anything special about the nature of software. Gradually, creators in other areas are realizing that they too can disseminate their works without publishers or centralized distribution chains, by simply allowing the freedom to copy. And increasingly, they are choosing to do so, because they have little to lose, and because it's the easiest way for their work to find its way to an appreciative audience. Far from 14 Best Photos Of Snow being especially dependent on copyright law, creators gain the most by abandoning the Sample Assessment Free Documents copyright monopoly. Even in their early stages, these trends raise an obvious question.

If copyright is Free Happy Easter Powerpoint Templates, not really needed to stimulate original creation, then what purpose does it serve today? For it is quite clear that if copyright did not exist already, we wouldn't invent it now. We just finished building ourselves a gigantic copying machine (the Internet) that doubles as a communications device, and Sample Assessment Template, incidentally makes it convenient to 14 Best Photos Powerpoint Templates Free, transfer small amounts of money between people. Star Documents In Pdf? Sharing is now the most natural thing in The 10 Free Resume Templates Microsoft Word the world. Sample Star Template - 7+ In Pdf? The idea that artists are somehow harmed by it is demonstrated false every day, by the thousands of new works that appear online, credited and fully acknowledged by their authors, yet free for the taking.

If someone were to argue that creativity would soon dry up unless we immediately institute a system of strict controls over who can copy what, we could reasonably look on them as insane. Yet, in slightly more diplomatic language, this is essentially the argument used by the copyright lobby to press for ever stronger laws. Creativity is not what's at stake here, and in its more honest moments the publishing industry even tacitly admits this. Although for public relations purposes industry leaders make token declarations about the need for poor artists to earn a living, their most detailed and compelling statements are usually about the Excel Template business effects of copyright. Template Documents? Larry Kenswil of Free Universal Music Group, the world's largest record company, was quoted in the New York Times of Jan. Star Assessment? 5th, 2003, in an article about digital copy protection schemes, saying You're not buying music, you're buying a key. 25+ Free? That's what digital rights management does: it enables business models. It's hard to imagine a more succinct statement of the industry credo. He might as well have said That's what copyright does: it enables business models. Unfortunately, not all of the propaganda put out by the industry is as straightforward and honest as Kenswil's.

The Recording Industry Association of America, for Star Template example, explains copyright this way on their web site at Free Happy Templates, http://www.riaa.org/: You don't need to Sample Assessment Template Free In Pdf, be a lawyer to be a musician, but you do need to know one legal term — copyright. To all creative artists — poets, painters, novelists, dancers, directors, actors, musicians, singers, and 14 Best Powerpoint, songwriters — the term matters dearly. To all artists, copyright is more than a term of intellectual property law that prohibits the unauthorized duplication, performance or distribution of a creative work. To them, copyright means the chance to hone their craft, experiment, create, and thrive. It is a vital right, and over the centuries artists have fought to preserve that right; artists such as John Milton, William Hogarth, Mark Twain, and Charles Dickens.

Twain traveled to Sample Star Template In Pdf, England to protect his rights, and 14 Best Photos Animated Powerpoint Templates Free, Dickens came to America to do the Sample Free In Pdf same. Recognize that? It's a page straight out of the Photos Of Snow Powerpoint Templates Free Stationers' playbook — an undisguised retelling of the copyright myth, complete with references to individual authors, designed to arouse our support for struggling artists valiantly fighting for their artistic integrity. Apparently, all those artists throughout history who did just fine without copyright aren't included in all creative artists as far as the RIAA is concerned. Professor Patterson's comments, about the Stationers' similar use of - 7+ In Pdf authors as a foil in front of the eighteenth century English parliament, are equally applicable today: They [the Stationers] did so by arguments intended to elicit sympathy for the author (conveniently ignoring their role in creating the poor plight of the author that they bemoaned) and avoided sound logic and reason. [11]. The next paragraph in the RIAA's introduction to copyright is even worse. Happy Powerpoint? It's a brief — very brief — introduction to Sample Star Template - 7+ Documents, the origins of Easter Powerpoint Templates copyright law, heavy with the cadence of historical inevitability, but rather loose with the Sample Star Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf facts: Copyright law all started with the Church Flyer Template By Seraphimchris The Statute of Anne, the world's first copyright law passed by the British Parliament in 1709. Sample Star Assessment Free In Pdf? Yet the principle of protecting the rights of artists predates this. It may sound like dry history at first blush, but since there was precedent to establish and rights to protect, much time, effort, and money has been spent in legal battles over the centuries. This breathless summary is the copyright equivalent of Christopher Columbus sailed to America to prove the Earth was round and make friends with the Indians.

Yes, much money has indeed been spent in legal battles, but the Physician Interview RIAA is careful not to say who spent it, nor are any further details given about the principle of Template Free protecting the rights of artists that is alleged to predate these developments. The rest of their page continues in a similar vein, with so many omissions, mischaracterizations, and outright lies that it's hard to imagine how anyone doing even a modicum of Relationships: Church Flyer Template By Seraphimchris research could have written it. It is, basically, low-grade supporting propaganda in their ongoing campaign to convince the public that copyright is as fundamental to civilization as the Sample Assessment In Pdf laws of thermodynamics. The RIAA also indulges in one of the favorite tactics of the Happy Templates modern copyright lobby: equating illegal copying with the unrelated, and Sample Assessment Template - 7+ In Pdf, much more serious, offense of plagiarism. For example, Hilary Rosen, the (now former) head of the RIAA, used to speak at schools and colleges, urging the students to Photos Powerpoint, adopt the Star Template - 7+ In Pdf industry's views about information ownership. Here is her own description of how she presents the case: Analogies are what really work best. Best Ideas That Like On Pinterest | Free? I ask them, What have you done last week?

They may say they wrote a paper on this or that. So I tell them, Oh, you wrote a paper, and you got an A? Would it bother you if somebody could just take that paper and get an A too? Would that bug you? So this sense of personal investment does ring true with people. Since people who duplicate CDs do not usually replace the Star Assessment - 7+ Documents artist's name with their own, let's ask the question Hilary Rosen should have asked: Would it bother you if somebody could just show a copy of your paper around, so other people could benefit from what you wrote, and see that you got an A? Of course, the students would have answered No, we aren't bothered by Template Dashboard Free Task Tracking that at Sample Assessment - 7+, all, which isn't what Rosen wanted to hear. The RIAA is Tracking, extreme only in the clumsiness of Sample Documents their propaganda.

Their message is, in essence, the same one offered by the rest of the copyright industry, which maintains a constant drumbeat of warnings that online content swapping will deprive creators of their reputations and Best 25+ Free Yahtzee You Will On Pinterest, their ability to work, despite overwhelming evidence that copyright never provided them with much of a livelihood anyway, and that they would happily continue to create without it as long as they have a way to distribute their works. The campaign might sound harmless or silly when described as I have described it here, but because they are fighting for survival, with large budgets and Free In Pdf, skilled publicity departments, the publishers have succeeded in shaping public opinion to a surprising degree. Consider this poor woman, from the Free Easter Powerpoint International Herald Tribune of Sep. 11th, 2003, in an article about the RIAA file-sharing lawsuits: One woman who has received a subpoena from the recording industry association said she had struggled to Sample Assessment Template In Pdf, explain to her 13-year-old son why file-sharing was wrong. I said, 'Suppose you wrote a song and a famous rock group sang it and you didn't get paid,' said the mother, who declined to give her name because of her legal situation. The 10 Free Resume Microsoft Word? He said: 'I wouldn't care. That would be awesome.' They're still just in Free Documents In Pdf that young age where money doesn't matter. The mother said she had better results when she compared taking someone's song to plagiarizing a school paper. (One can only Excel Template Free Task hope the sensible 13-year-old manages to keep his head, when so many around him are apparently losing theirs.)

The combination of a still-sympathetic public and Star Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf, deep pockets has unfortunately allowed the copyright industry to exercise dangerous influence at the legislative level. The result is a disturbing trend: mutually reinforcing physical and Template Free, legal barriers that, while ostensibly designed to combat illegal copying, have the inevitable effect of Star - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf interfering with all copying. Physician Questions? Digital copy-protection schemes are increasingly enforced by your computer's hardware itself, rather than by malleable and Star Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, replaceable programs. And the same companies that own content often also manufacture the hardware that makes distribution possible. Have you bought a computer from Sony? What about Powerpoint, a CD from Assessment Template - 7+ Documents Sony's music division? That's the same company, and its left hand knows what its right hand is doing. Church Template By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver? With government cooperation, this combination becomes even more powerful. In the United States we now have a law — the Star Documents Digital Millennium Copyright Act — that makes it illegal to circumvent a digital protection scheme, or even to produce software that helps others circumvent a digital protection scheme.

Unfortunately, since much hardware and software automatically imprints such schemes on any media it produces, the Act effectively stifles authorized copying and many other activities that would otherwise fall into Best Yahtzee Ideas Like | Free, the category of Sample Star Free Documents In Pdf fair use under current copyright law. It is vital to understand that these side effects are not accidents, not unexpected consequences of an Relationships: Church Template By Seraphimchris otherwise well-intentioned effort to protect artists. Rather, they are an integral part of a strategy that, at bottom, has nothing to do with encouraging creativity. The purpose of this three-pronged industry effort — the publicity campaign, the Star Assessment legal campaign, and the hardware protections — is simply this: to Easter Templates, prevent the Sample Template Free Internet experiment from being carried out to completion. Any organization that is deeply invested in the concept of copy control cannot be pleased to see a system arise that makes copying as easy as clicking a mouse. To the extent possible, such organizations would like to see the same pay-per-copy model that we've been using for Photos centuries continue, even though the fundamental physics of information have changed to Documents, make pay-per-copy obsolete.

Although the copyright lobby succeeds in getting new laws passed, and even in Best Like On Pinterest winning some court cases, these victories rest on Star Assessment Template, a disintegrating foundation. The 10 Best About Free? How much longer will the public continue to Template - 7+ In Pdf, believe in the copyright myth, the notion that copyright was invented to make creative work possible? The myth has been maintainable so far because it always had a tiny a grain of truth: although copyright was not inspired by authors, and was not enacted to protect them, it did enable the widespread distribution of many original works. Furthermore, there are still many publishers (generally the smaller or individually-owned ones) who behave with an admirable sense of cultural stewardship, subsidizing unprofitable but important works with money earned by stronger sellers, sometimes even losing money outright in order to Templates, print things they think worthwhile. But because they are all bound by the economics of Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ Documents large-scale printing, they are all ultimately dependent on 14 Best Photos Templates Free, copyright. There won't be a dramatic battle between the publishing industry and the copying public, with a climax, a denouement, and Sample Assessment - 7+ Documents, a clear winner striding out of the dust. Images About Resume On? Instead, what we will see — are already seeing — is the emergence of two parallel streams of creative work: the proprietary stream, and the free stream. Every day, more people join the free stream, of their own volition, for all sorts of reasons. Some enjoy the fact that there are no gatekeepers, no artificial barriers. Template - 7+? A work can succeed by its merits and word of mouth alone: although there's nothing to Relationships: Flyer Template | Graphicriver, stop traditional marketing techniques from being used in Star Assessment Template Documents In Pdf the free stream, there's less to subsidize them, so word of mouth and peer-review networks are taking on a greater importance there.

Others enter the free stream as crossovers from the proprietary, releasing a portion of their work into the free domain as an advertisement or an experiment. Powerpoint Templates? Some simply realize that they have no chance of success in the proprietary world anyway, and figure they might as well release what they have to - 7+ Free, the public. As the stream of freely available material gets bigger, its stigma will slowly vanish. It used to be that the difference between a published author and an unpublished one was that you could obtain the former's books, but not the latter's. Being published meant something.

It had an aura of respectability; it implied that someone had judged your work and given it an Best 25+ Free Yahtzee That Like institutional stamp of approval. But now the Sample Free In Pdf difference between published and unpublished is narrowing. Soon, being published will mean nothing more than that an editor somewhere found your work worthy of a large-scale print run, and possibly a marketing campaign. This may affect the popularity of the Of Snow Free work, but it won't fundamentally affect its availability; and there will be so many unpublished but worthwhile works, that the lack of a publishing pedigree will no longer be considered an automatic strike against an author. Although the free stream does not use traditional copyright, it does observe, and unofficially enforce, a credit right. Works are frequently copied and excerpted with attribution — but attempts to steal credit are usually detected speedily, and Star Assessment Documents, decried publicly. The same mechanisms that make copying easy make plagiarism very difficult. It's hard to Like | Free, secretly use someone else's work when a Google search can quickly locate the original. Sample Star In Pdf? For example, teachers now routinely do Google searches on representative phrases when they suspect plagiarism in student papers. The proprietary stream cannot survive forever, in the face of such competition.

The abolition of Free Happy Templates copyright law is optional; the real force here is Sample Template - 7+ In Pdf, creators freely choosing to release their works for unrestricted copying, because it's in their interests to do so. At some point, it will be obvious that all the interesting stuff is Interview And Answers, going on in the free stream, and Sample Star Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, people will simply cease dipping into the proprietary one. Radiologist Physician Interview And Answers? Copyright law may remain on the books formally, but it will fade away in practice, atrophied from disuse. Or, we can sit back and Star Assessment Template Free Documents, allow this process to be halted, by permitting manufacturers to Animated Templates Free, build in hardware protections that interfere with our ability to copy legitimately; by allowing the copyright lobby to capture our legislatures, to the point where we are constantly looking over our shoulders for the copyright police; and by hesitating to Sample Template, use the free stream to Relationships: Church | Graphicriver, its full potential, because we've been taught a false story of what copyright is all about. We can, if we choose, have a world where concepts like out of print or rare book are not only obsolete, but actually meaningless.

We can live in a fertile and Sample Star - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, vibrant garden of constantly evolving works, created by people who wanted deeply to Free Happy Easter Powerpoint, make them available, not mandated by a publisher's market research. Sample Template - 7+ In Pdf? Schools would never be forced to Top 10 Interview, stay with out-of-date textbooks because of the Star Assessment In Pdf per-copy prices set by publishers, and your computer would always let you share songs with your friends. One way to get there is to question the Resume On copyright myth. Copying isn't theft, and it isn't piracy. It's what we did for millennia until the Sample Assessment - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf invention of Dashboard Task Spreadsheet copyright, and we can do it again, if we don't hobble ourselves with the antiquated remnants of a censorship system from the sixteenth century.

This article is Assessment Template In Pdf, released under free copyright, and may be redistributed, excerpted, and Ideas Like On Pinterest | Free, modified without restriction. If you distribute a modified version, please adjust the attribution accordingly. [1] These events can be read in any history of copyright. A good online resource regarding their legal implications is Copyright And `The Exclusive Right' Of Authors http://digitalcommons.law.uga.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1342context=fac_artchop Journal of Intellectual Property, Vol. 1, No.1, Fall 1993, by Professor Lyman Ray Patterson, Pope Brock Professor of Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Free Documents Law at the University of Georgia and a noted copyright scholar. His description of Tracking Template this earliest copyright is concise and revealing: The event in the history of Anglo-American copyright that led to the shaping events of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was the Charter of the Stationers' Company granted in 1556 by Sample Star Template Free Philip and Photos Of Snow Powerpoint, Mary . The Charter gave the stationers the power to make ordinances, provisions, and statutes for the governance of the art or mistery of Star Assessment Documents [s]tationery, as well as the power to search out illegal presses and books and things with the power of seizing, taking, or burning the Of Snow Templates Free foresaid books or things, or any of them printed or to be printed contrary to the form of Sample Assessment Free Documents In Pdf any statute, act, or proclamation . The power to burn offending books was a benefit to the sovereign (a weapon against unlawful publications), and Template Dashboard Free Task Tracking, a boon to the stationers (a weapon against Star Assessment - 7+ Free, competition).

The book-burning power thus shows the Excel Free Template real motivation for the Charter, to secure the allegiance of the stationers as policemen of the press for the sovereign in an uncertain world. (Note that the Company actually received its royal charter on Star Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf, May 4, 1557; thus one sometimes sees 1556 and other times 1557 as the date for Happy Powerpoint Templates the incorporation of the Company of Star - 7+ Documents Stationers.) [2] An Unhurried View of Copyright, Benjamin Kaplan Columbia University Press, 1967, pp. 4-5. [3] Patterson, in [1], goes so far as to say The characterization of the Best 25+ Free Yahtzee Ideas You Will On Pinterest statutory copyright as an Sample Star - 7+ Free In Pdf author's copyright, however, is one of the Top 10 Radiologist Interview great canards of Sample Template - 7+ Documents history. [6] Five Hundred Years of Printing pp. 218-230, S. H. Steinberg, Penguin Books, 1955, revised 1961. [7] When I started this article, I assumed such developments were a few years away from commercial viability, but I was wrong: the print-on-demand service newspaperkiosk.com launched (note: it later apparently folded, but then came lulu.com, which is still going strong). [8] See www.mp3.com, for one example. (Although many of the offerings on the site are nominally copyrighted, it's more a legal reflex than anything else. The tracks are meant to be freely downloaded, listened to, and Free Microsoft On, shared -- and Sample Free Documents, that's exactly what people do with them.) [9] The original version of this article called this the Threshold Pledge system. However, Brandt Cannici of strayform.com, who independently invented the same system, came up with the much better name Fund and Release , and I now try to use that term instead.

[10] For a description of Best Yahtzee Ideas | Free one funding technique, and a survey of others, see The Street Performer Protocol and Digital Copyrights by John Kelsey and Bruce Schneier, at http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/673/583. [11] Patterson; see [1]. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2006-05-27 13:24. Thanks for this brilliant treat. Very illuminating and inspiring. I love it. I like the idea of uncovering this copyright myth. Die Gedanken sind frei, as we say or sing it in Sample Star Template Documents In Pdf German, meaning thoughts are free. Thank you very much!

Spread the word. Copyright is the nemesis of Top 10 free toughts. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2007-06-17 04:24. For me Copyright is Star Assessment - 7+ Documents, like Sony and Microsoft anti trust companies.We can benefit from working together not against each other.Law suit in America loose some 500 billions dollar a year. Powerpoint Templates Free? Imagine how many book we could be buy with that kind of money. Most of the laws around us are for Sample Template Free Documents the benefit of the few.I will pay gladly 15$ to an author if I have to. There's to many distributor and middle man in this world. And we have to pay taxes on top of that.And the lawsuit profit not the individual but the corporation. So long live the internet. Live free and prosper that my saying.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-05-22 13:41. Apart from the middle man and distributors its probably Lawyers who benefit the most from these **laws**. You can neither create, implement or enforce the Best Resume Word copyright without them. One only Star Assessment - 7+ has to look at the case of RIM ( Blackberry ) in Canada who was forced to pay 600 Million to what was in Top 10 Radiologist Questions And Answers essence a group of 30+ lawyers who pro bono backed a patent that was actually overthrown in Sample Star Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf court ( but not before RIM was told to pay ). This is not an isolated example where a claim jumper has been given a ridiculous patent by the patent office ( who frequently revokes them after they are challenged ) My uncle, who is somewhat of an economist, likes to Free Easter Templates, say that lawyers are one of the very few professional groups who do not contribute to the gross national product of a country. I am not against lawyers, they are a useful bunch. But like many government employees ( which they are not ) when allowed, too many of them actively attempt to Sample Star Template Free In Pdf, overvalue their services within the scope or measurement of a country's forward economic progress. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2008-06-08 12:14. I agree very much with the previous poster. How many lawsuits are brought up about copyright a year.

The millions of dollars which are thrown at law companies around the world to up hold a 'companies' intellectual rights is pathetic to say the least. The only person who truely has a right to claim stack is the writer, producer artist. I qould pay my way to anyone who does work for me. If they provide a service like my electric or water company I pay them. Template? But what do these middle men companies do? They look out for themselve and only themselve. It is time the power was taken away from the big corperations and given back to the people who really deserve to be paid. Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ In Pdf? Those who created it in the first place. Submitted by Happy Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2008-06-09 14:34. Today, I note that RedHat Founder Bob Young also weighed in on the copyright issue : A new open source software group has added its voice to Sample Template - 7+ In Pdf, the opposition against the Conservative government’s ( Canada )impending copyright reform bill. Photos Powerpoint Free? Lulu CEO Bob Young likens the legislation to banning screwdrivers because they could be used by burglars.

Young said the proposed bill will cater too heavily to the content industry and not to the engineers and software developers that are going to be most severely impacted by Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf the new laws. The proposed anti-circumvention legislation, he said, is Church Flyer By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver, similar to making the Sample Star Documents use and ownership of screw-drivers and pliers illegal because they can be used to Top 10 Radiologist Physician, commit crimes such as burglary. Incidently, this entire conversation takes place within a Canadian Context. “The copyright philosophy behind the U.S. Star Template - 7+ In Pdf? DMCA is Flyer By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver, that it’s illegal to do what software engineers do every day of the week and what they’ll have to continue to do in order to build better technology for all companies,” Bob Young, spokesperson for the Canadian Software Innovation Alliance (CSIA) and a former founder and CEO at Red Hat Inc., said. “The biggest concern is we’re going to have law substitute for good technology.

We’re crafting these laws without having anyone from the technology industry engaged in the process.” The complete article is here itworldCanada.com. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2008-09-21 17:48. Responding to: I'm not sure the Sample Assessment Free In Pdf copyright industry uses [the term, intellectual property] deliberately to confuse people Given the way in which the industry is definitely trying to muddy the Free Easter Powerpoint Templates waters by equating copyright infringement with theft, I think it is reasonable to assume that they are deliberately relying on the loaded nature of the term, intellectual property, as part of the same general drive to Sample Star Assessment Free, entrench the idea into the public consciousness that copyright is a morality-based system. Why? Because the term inherently draws on Free Easter Powerpoint Templates, existing conceptions of property in order to imply that creative works are naturally owned by their creators, who therefore have an inherent right to assert such ownership and control the works' distribution. The term attempts to Sample Star - 7+ Free In Pdf, link creative works with personal and real property, the ownership and control of which already tends to Best 25+ Free Yahtzee, be perceived as being the product of a natural right that results from its possession.

This leads us on to one of the other big things the Star Template Free Documents industry never admits: while it likes to 14 Best Photos Templates, imply that creators of works are both the natural and legal owners of them (prior to transferring that ownership to corporations, of Sample - 7+ Documents course), in fact neither is the case. Excel Template Spreadsheet Template? They don't own the works legally because copyright law does not assign such ownership to *works*; the Sample Assessment Template - 7+ Free In Pdf property that copyright law creates is the copyright itself. And they don't own the works naturally because it is impossible for *anyone* to own intangible things like songs or films or novels. If I sing you the song I just wrote I can't possibly exert any dominion over those sound waves - it's not like I can tell you to unhear the song and give them back to me - and such dominion is necessary for anything to be described as property in Ideas That any meaningful sense. So not only do I think the industry is Sample Template Documents, deliberately using intellectual property as part of the same semantic manipulation as arguments like, copying songs is stealing music, they're also using it to create a class of property that does not exist legally and cannot exist naturally.

[lightly edited by the site editors] Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2009-01-30 10:01. Thank you very much for this useful article and the comments. I love this site as it contains good materials. if it looks like a socialist and acts like a socialist. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on 14 Best Of Snow Powerpoint Templates, Tue, 2009-06-02 03:22. SO if someone would be kind enough to explain to me how robbing the most successful artists (however small you'd like to imagine that demographic is. )of their copyright-afforded paychecks, in essence dragging them back down to the level of a common street performer is in anyway NOT tantamount to wealth distribution and forced socialism? . i assume any such answers will themselves carry the same wretched stink of Star Assessment Template - 7+ patchouli and Powerpoint, idealism that the article immediately reeked of -- but i am willing to be surprised. i would also love to hear the reasons why freely-released works and Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, proprietary works can't coexist in harmony? under evil, oppressive copyright, people are still able to self-publish, to blog, to post their creations for everyone. for free, if they wish. Of Snow Animated Powerpoint Templates? everyone has the RIGHT to not utilize copyright. so what's the problem?

is it just good old-fashioned JEALOUSY that's given rise to this copyright abolitionist movement? a few artists make money, where most of the talentless, indiscernible, AVERAGE masses do not? could that be why, despite the Sample Template - 7+ fact that the collected works of britney spears, steven spielberg, and j.k rowling have absolutely NOTHING to do with the failed, hobbyist or otherwise obscure artists, you still want to strip them of their rights? even though their considerable wealth has as much to do with you, as your considerable obscurity has to do with them? well how dare they be successful! the abolitionists say. artists shouldn't be rich! if they wanted to get rich they should have gone into investment banking! i have a second job to pay the bills, so should steven spielberg! if i haven't gotten rich from art then OBVIOUSLY IT IS AN INJUSTICE AGAINST HUMANITY THAT ANYONE ELSE HAS! manufactured conflict, born out of jealousy. check. i think most people familiar with the internet would agree -- that an equally minuscule portion of derivative works end up being worth their cost in bandwidth (let alone actually matching the quality of the Best Yahtzee You Will creations they ripped off. err, i mean derived from). I would go so far as to say it's an EVEN SMALLER fraction in sum than those artists who actually pull in a substantive royalty check every now and again. given the rarity of a derivative work's merit, why then should the most successful artists give up their rights in favor of an even smaller minority of derivative artists who so rarely produce anything worthwhile? by your own socialist logic, they shouldn't. furthermore, when you state that very few artists actually make their living through copyright you of course completely ignore all the artists who make their living INDIRECTLY through copyright via upfront payments doled out by those companies who directly make money through copyright. and despite whatever fantasy you've convinced yourself of, that's a pretty substantive body of people you are discounting and seeking to dismantle; especially when you consider the countless corollary jobs in the music and film industries who also indirectly benefit from the Sample Assessment Documents In Pdf trickle down effect of copyright. not all content creators are created alike. some are more successful than others as some voices are more inclined to a wider appeal than others. there's room for the hobbyists and the professionals to Templates, coexist peacefully so long as they respect each other. Star Assessment Template - 7+ Documents? as much as your views disgust me, i wish you luck with your creative commons endeavors and hope that one day you stop trying to prosecute those of us lucky enough do this professionally, who DO BENEFIT FROM COPYRIGHT, and Top 10 Interview And Answers, who, above all else, DO NOT want to become investment bankers in order to feed our families. Re: if it looks like a socialist and Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Free In Pdf, acts like a socialist. You are living in Free Powerpoint a fantasyland of imaginary economics. Copyright doesn't pay for Template - 7+ Documents most creativity, and was never designed to.

Furthermore, copyright is precisely a state-granted monopoly, an interference with an otherwise free market. I'm not sure socialism is a bad thing, but you seem to Top 10 Physician Interview Questions And Answers, think it is, and copyright is much closer to it than freedom-to-copy would be. The latter would mean a truly free market, rather than the monopoly landscape we have now. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-12-09 20:42. Yeah I get it. I understand what your saying. Sorry, I am a creative professional. I would, and will copyright my work. Yes I want to get paid for it. It's my job why shouldn't I? I think it's dumb to just give away everything you work hard for.

That is what you are doing when you choose to not protect your work. You leave it open for everyone including pirates. You know I could literally take Sita Sings the Blues right now burn it on to DVDs, distribute it, sell it, and heck why not claim it's mine. How do you like that? I would earn all the money and attention from the sales and you get nothing. Star Assessment Template Free Documents In Pdf? You wouldn't even have a legal claim. Why should anyone credit the artist who fails to copyright? Hell, not to mention why should anyone even donate when you give it to Church Template | Graphicriver, public domain? I wouldn't. I'd steal public domain and not credit the creative. Too late to change your mind now.

It's on the internet now. Things placed freely on the internet get distributed freely forever. Plagiarism is both easily detected and easily prosecuted. It's unrelated to copying -- when people download songs from the Sample Star Assessment Template Free Internet and Top 10 Radiologist Physician Interview Questions, share them with their friends illegally, do they remove the artist's name and Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Documents In Pdf, replace it with their own? No, they don't.

Copyright isn't about Best 25+ Free Ideas You Will Like, credit, it's about - 7+ Free Documents, copying. That's why it's called copyright, not creditright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2009-12-14 12:41. No it is not! Ever hear of P2P? It is related to copying. I know a lot of kids who do change the names of music around just so they are not caught with an illegal download. Also you can change your IP which make tracking thieves and pirates impossible.

Learn about the internet. Copyright is about credit and the protection of creativity that is why it's called copyright. It's people like you that make it impossible to make a living as professional creative in this world. Your the reason why rates and royalties shrink. You give away something for free not only will everybody take it, they will expect you to give away your work for Excel Template Free Template free all the time. Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Documents? Please quit trying to supress creativity the the protection thereof. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2011-03-23 06:37. We are living in Relationships: Flyer Template By Seraphimchris a world where bleach-blonde fashion bimbos make a good living blithering about nonessential crap on their free-to-access blogs, and Sample Star Assessment Template Free Documents, where you can sell bottled water at a thousand times the Relationships: Template By Seraphimchris production price with a brand name alone. Now here's a tip; Evian doesn't feel their market ended when the Soda Streamer was introduced and artists who have amassed a faithful fan base have managed to Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, sell the same work they gave away for free in the millions. Trent Reznor alone netted a gross 5 mil in one year from the sale of one measly record alone, which he'd already given away to all and Powerpoint Free, sundry for free.

Tiger Woods doesn't recoup the cost of Sample Template - 7+ Documents living and travel from his tournaments. Which doesn't prevent his every step from going ka-ching as another thousand bucks drops into his pocket from Nike and Excel Template Dashboard Template, Adidas. Assessment - 7+ In Pdf? Or did until he mishandled his brand. Copyright doesn't work in any reality. It's as simple as that. Free Happy Easter Powerpoint? At least where noncommercial filesharing is concerned, most IP laws are completely incompatible with any paradigm which allows the ownership of Sample In Pdf a computer or a mass media communications medium like the internet. If you want to put an end to copyright infringement your one and only way of doing so in any practical way is by removing the internet and computers altogether. End of story. What that means is Church By Seraphimchris, simple. Sample Assessment Free? To live as an 14 Best Animated Powerpoint artist, find another revenue model which actually works in the real world.

If you can't manage to do so simply don't quit your day job. Honestly, I've had it up to here with straw man arguments and outright lies. 99% of Star Assessment Template - 7+ what we call culture was created entirely without the benefit of Photos Animated Templates Free copyright law so your arguments have no basis in Sample Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf fact. What's even more laughable is that you think some small cadre of pirates (people like you, indeed, heh) are sitting around ruining your entire life and livelyhood. I'm afraid it's a bit worse than that. Human nature itself is what you're up against. I humbly submit to you that any system where enough people voluntarily will follow your paradigm on copyright is a system where theorethical communism also becomes a practical possibility. I.e. for all intents, a world where humanity has ceased to Template Dashboard Task Template, be recognizably human.

No, managing to live from Assessment - 7+ Free In Pdf being an artist alone isn't like a 9-to-5 office job. Excel Template Task Tracking? It's about being outstanding in your field, much like a professional athlete. If you have that quality earning revenues through your brand will be no problem. Sample Star - 7+ Free In Pdf? If you don't, find another field to earn your way in. It's that simple. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2011-03-23 06:45. And I'll tell you something else. Happy Powerpoint Templates? Socialism fails at all levels simply because it assumes that human nature can be changed.

Copyright fails because it does the Sample Star Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf same. Capitalism, at Church Template By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver, it's most basic level is founded on one assumption and one alone; The law of Supply and Demand . If you can obtain or manufacture a copy of Star Assessment - 7+ Free In Pdf anything for literally no cost at all then the Church Template | Graphicriver monetary worth of said copy becomes zero as the supply is de facto infinite whereas the Assessment Template Free Documents In Pdf number of consumers with the demand for said product is limited. Copyright, in essence, shares more of old stale socialist ideals than anything else, right up to Best 25+ Free Like On Pinterest, and including the view on controlled information. Template - 7+ In Pdf? Which is true for almost any IP law in general. The idea that IP belongs under a capitalist system at The 10 Best Images Microsoft Word On, all is nothing more than a convenient excuse thought up by special interests who were deathly afraid of Assessment Template - 7+ Documents having to act under a market paradigm in the first place. So what you're saying is: copyright laws are causing people to strip attribution information from works. That sounds like an argument against Best 25+ Free Ideas On Pinterest, copyright, not for Star Assessment - 7+ Free it. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2010-02-03 01:24. I am a creative professional. I would, and will copyright my work. Yes I want to get paid for Best Yahtzee Ideas That Like it.

It's my job why shouldn't I? I think it's dumb to just give away everything you work hard for. (ed. note: Is comment spamming now a creative profession? You did just give your creative work away for free. And then I removed the Star Free commercial link.) Submitted by Best Like Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-01-03 10:55. I agree with yo, article is realy useful.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2008-03-26 10:59. typo in the promise of a post-copyright world Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2006-08-05 21:48. hi, just a quick comment to point out a typo. in Sample Star Template - 7+ Free In Pdf the para where you mentioon fay weldon, it reads: Not all methods will be so pleasantly high-minded, of course. A couple of years ago, the established author Fay Weldon famously accepted money from Top 10 Radiologist Physician Interview Bulgari jewelry to write a novel that featured that featured Bulgari products prominently. note that that featured is repeated. Re: typo in the promise of Star Assessment Template Free Documents In Pdf a post-copyright world Thanks for pointing it out! Fixed now. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2008-01-28 11:19.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2006-08-14 07:36. I've just recommended this article on Top 10 Physician Interview Questions, my blog www.digitalproductions.co.uk, and added the site to my list of 'principles'. Note that the www.digitalartauction.com once reached prototype stage - this enabled a member of the audience to propose a retail price and pledge to purchase the work if so priced (or lower). The artist could then choose the retail price that maximised total revenue. A far simpler version of this site has been created www.quidmusic.com. I'm currently working on a general purpose engine (free to use) that can support these sites and those that anyone else can think of: www.contingencymarket.com. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2008-06-15 11:23. It certainly sounds good in Sample Star Template In Pdf theory, any updates on progress with that model - is it commercially viable?

The Digital Art Auction has now been implemented by a company called PropagateLtd. The Contingency Market will be demonstrated by a site called 1p2U.com that lets readers pledge a penny to a blogger each time they publish a new article. I expect this to happen early 2009. microPledge.com is another site worth checking out (based on the Street Performer Protocol). As to whether these things are commercially viable, time will tell. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on That You Will On Pinterest | Free, Fri, 2008-06-27 10:48. A misunderstanding with our domain registrar has caused Propagate Ltd to move its web site from PropagateLtd.com to LiberateIP.com. Sadly, until we can afford domain arbitration, the obsolete domain name will lead you to an ad-ware/mal-ware site run by a Russian cyber-squatter. :(

Jeffry R. Fisher. President, Propagate Digital Content, Limited. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2007-03-21 00:11. I would think that the notion of Free software as essentially public domain would come as a surprise to Richard Stallman. Without copyright, the Assessment Template Free Documents In Pdf single most important requirement in the GPL -- requiring a program's source code to be made available whenever it is copied or distributed in Flyer By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver executable form -- would be unenforceable. While its true that some other Free software licenses (BSD, MIT, etc.) use copyright in the largely insignificant ways that you mention in your article, that is not true for all of them, and certainly not for the GPL.

To point to Stallman and his Free software movement and Star Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, say, See, these guys don't need copyright! is disingenuous at best. Re: Essentially in the public domain? guyjohnston already said exactly what I would have said. Free software (open source software) does not depend on copyright's existence in The 10 Best About Free Resume Templates Word any fundamental way. The fact that in an armed world everyone needs guns is not an argument in favor of guns in general! Also: not everyone would agree that the requiring a program's source code to be made available whenever it is copied or distributed in executable form is the single most important provision in Sample Assessment Template the GPL. It's certainly been a controversial provision, but when I watch the dynamics of Flyer Template By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver GPL'd software projects, I do not see them differing significantly from other open source (but non-GPL'd) projects. Do you, and if so how?

In an essay about copyright in Assessment Template In Pdf general, detouring into the details of one clause of the GPL would have brought no benefit to Best Images About Resume Microsoft, the reader. I think that at the level of detail at which I was writing, the description essentially in the public domain was both accurate and appropriate. Re: Essentially in the public domain? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2010-05-14 01:00. Requiring a program's source code to be made available whenever it is copied or distributed in executable form is indeed the key provision in the GPL. While some may chose the GPL over other licences for no reason other than it's popular and they don't know better, others explicitly chose the GPL in - 7+ In Pdf order to restrict how the software may be used.

For example, Bruno Haible chose to Physician Questions, license libgmp uner the GPL because, in Sample - 7+ Free In Pdf his own words, Building libgmp.a was just too hard work. Other people shouldn't get it for free. The GPL is actually against the stance expressed in this article. Relationships: Church? It grates to hear Stallman described as originating open source both for that reason and Sample Assessment Template In Pdf, because software for personal computers and its source code had been freely distributed for many years before Stallman came along. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2007-03-24 12:37. This is a copy of my post about this article from Slashdot, but I think the critical commentary is worthy of cross-posting: I'm replying to this post because of this statement (the rest of the parent spends its time either misinterpreting what I said in my last post (http://politics.slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=227979threshold=1commentsort=0mode=threadcid=18470807) or putting words in Templates Free my mouth, and I think my original post speaks for Sample Star - 7+ itself).

The article that it's linked to The 10 About Free Microsoft On, is a very interesting one, it expands on the role of the Stationer's Log (which is a form of Sample Star Free In Pdf copyright protection predating the Act of Queen Anne), but it has a certain tunnel vision and spin that often appears in the extremist grass-roots anti-copyright movement, and I think that it's worth looking at it critically. When you'll read it, you'll find an important assertion: that authors didn't have copyright protection before, so why would they suddenly need it? This is very misleading for a couple of reasons: 1. It's a rather spurious historical argument, mainly because it's not taking the context of Best Images About Free Resume Word society into Sample Star Assessment Template Documents In Pdf, account. In my original post, I noted that our modern society has three things - literacy as a norm, technology to reproduce art, and a focus on capitalism. The society of the Stationer's log had a growing literacy, and 25+ Free Ideas That On Pinterest | Free, the technology, but capitalism was still emerging. Star Assessment - 7+ Documents? Creative artists made their living not through proceeds of publication, but instead through a system of 14 Best Photos Of Snow Templates patronage where a noble patron would pay the artist a stipend to compose work in Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf his/her honour. Top 10 Physician And Answers? It wasn't a great system, partly because you had to tow the Star In Pdf line your patron wanted you to, but at least it kept a roof over your head. Free Spreadsheet Template? Society is not a static system, however. By the time the first proper copyright act was written in 1709, a capitalist system was emerging, and by the end of the 19th century, the patronage system was completely gone - it was now all capitalist. So, creators may not have needed a copyright system at the very beginning, but there are no wealthy patrons around today, and an author's income is Sample Star - 7+ In Pdf, derived from royalties.

2. It is a very questionable moral argument, partly because it assumes that the The 10 About Free Microsoft Word situation was fair when the Stationer's Log was established, and it really wasn't. If I said that homosexuals have never had gay marriage in the past, and it didn't stop them from Sample Template In Pdf shacking up then, so why should they need it now? everybody would immediately see the injustice. The argument the article makes is very much the same. Best 25+ Free Yahtzee Ideas That | Free? Correcting an In Pdf injustice is Dashboard Spreadsheet Template, always good. And there is this: Authors, having never had copyright, saw no reason now to suddenly demand the rather paradoxical power to prevent the spread of their own works, and did not do so. This is one of the Sample Star Template Free In Pdf most common arguments put into play for Template Task Tracking the abolition of copyright, and it reverses the very idea of modern copyright. It's based on Star Assessment - 7+ Free, the assumption that a creator, having taken a year or so to write a novel/paint a painting, etc., immediately wants to make certain that nobody ever sees it. What copyright does is allow the Best That You Will On Pinterest creator to Star Assessment Free Documents, set the terms by which the work is distributed, so that a publisher doesn't shaft him/her, and if a third party circumvents those terms, to Relationships: Flyer Template | Graphicriver, be able to take some reasonable action against them.

It isn't prevention - it's creator's rights. It's also spin along the sames lines as marriage is a terrible thing because it keeps you from dating other people - basically, focusing on one negative while ignoring the context and all of the positives. So, when you read the linked article, please keep in mind that part of it is rhetoric, and facts are taken out of context. Sample Star Assessment Template Free Documents? But, the historical details are quite nice, and fill in some of the details quite well. Author, the EverQuest Companion, Garwulf's Corner, Diablo: Demonsbane.

Thanks for The 10 Templates On the long and thoughtful comment, Robert. We're certainly not trying for Sample Star - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf spin here, so let me address your points one by one: You say that patronage was gone by Relationships: Flyer the end of the Sample Star - 7+ Free Documents 19th century, and that there are no wealthy patrons around today, and an author's income is derived from royalties. This is Excel Free Task Tracking Spreadsheet Template, just not true. Some author's livings may come from royalties, but not all. Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf? Open up a lot of books and you'll see in the acknowledgements that the author thanks the Ford Foundation, or the MacArthur Foundation, or whomever. Patronage not only wasn't gone by Best Images About Free Resume Templates Word of the 19th century, it isn't even gone today! Not even a majority of writers earn their living through copyright royalties (although of course assertions like that always end up getting bogged down in definitional issues, like who counts as a writer). It is not an accurate portrayal of economic reality to imply that most authors earn their living through copyright. They don't, and I think if you honestly consider the lives of authors, you'll have to admit that. Only by defining an author as someone who earns her living from royalties can you make it be true.

The fact that you are an Sample Assessment - 7+ Free Documents agented author who earns income from royalties (taking that from your original post, not your comments above) is fine, more power to you! But it is 14 Best Of Snow, not really connected to the argument I'm making in the essay. The important question for society is not Do some people earn significant amounts of money from copyright today? but Would the world suffer from a lack of creative output if copyright restrictions were much shorter and narrower? Unless you think it is the Star Assessment Free In Pdf job of the Happy Easter Templates government to enable a particular business model at the expense of other business models, in which case you might find the Sample Assessment Template - 7+ Free In Pdf first question more compelling! But that's exactly what we're arguing against here.

For what it's worth, I am also a published author and a member of the Authors Guild, although, as you might guess, I strongly disagree with their lawsuit over Google Book Search. Regarding your point (2), I think you have a valid criticism of the Easter essay there, and I should add to it some material better explaining the situation in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The essay doesn't do a good enough job of - 7+ Free acknowledging that part of the purpose of the Yahtzee That Statute of Anne was to give authors more power relative to printers — that is, to give authors a real bargaining chip that they could use to see to it that their books were printed as they wanted. In this, the Statue was successful, but note that in Sample Template Free Documents today's world of And Answers zero-cost distribution (which didn't exist then, of Star Assessment In Pdf course) there are other, non-monopolistic methods of doing the same thing: tort law, for example. The method used by the Statue of Anne was appropriate for a world in which reliable reproduction was physically difficult to 14 Best Templates, achieve and in Sample Assessment Documents In Pdf which corrupt copies were difficult to track down: granting a statutory monopoly for printing makes sense when only the original compositor can possibly make more copies reliably anyway.

But in a world where perfect copying is the physical default (as it is on Radiologist Physician, the Internet), and discovery and comparison of copies are easy, this long-term monopoly makes no sense. I also think it's spin (albeit unintentional) to - 7+ Documents, talk of creator's rights in the way you do. I would say I'm talking about creator's rights too, namely, the right to build on the work of one's predecessors and peers. Here's an example. 25+ Free Yahtzee That You Will Like On Pinterest? I like to play the piano, and currently I'm accompanying a singer in - 7+ Free In Pdf a cycle of songs by Franz Schubert (Die schone Mullerin). Or rather, the music is by Schubert, but the texts are by the poet Wilhelm Muller, who was still living when Schubert set the poems to The 10 Best Images Free Resume Templates, music in Assessment - 7+ Free In Pdf 1823. In doing so, Schubert created one of the About Free Templates Microsoft masterpieces of Star Assessment - 7+ Free 19th century music; any singer who sings German classical song is at least familiar with the set, and most have sung at Happy Powerpoint, least part of it. What if Schubert had had to Star, enter into Easter, rights negotiation with Muller to set those songs? Today what he did would be a clear violation of copyright, unless he had the poet's permission. The poet might have demanded artistic veto power over the settings, which in this case could have been fatal, because another composer (working in cooperation with Muller) had already set some of them once before, and Muller might have felt some loyalty to In Pdf, those original settings.

Of course, these concerns would only have come up in modern times; fortunately for 25+ Free Ideas That Like | Free posterity, Muller and Schubert both lived at a time when artists were free to make use of each other's work. Schubert never asked Muller for permission, and Muller apparently never even knew of Schubert's work, and even if he had, it would not have occurred to him that he had some kind of moral right to prevent Schubert from Star Documents In Pdf making new settings. So, it is not by any means obvious that creators should have the long-term power to control distribution or reuse of The 10 Best Images About Free Resume Templates their work. Attribution? Sure, that's a no-brainer. Sample Star? Society is only harmed when people claim to have done something that someone else actually did.

But this isn't about attribution. It's about attributed copying and the right to make derivative works, without getting bogged down in Best 25+ Free Ideas Like complex negotiations that sap energy better spent on artistic concerns. There's no tunnel vision going on here; we're making a straightforward economic and social-benefit case. And I'm certainly not arguing that the Statute of Anne was a bad thing in its time. Sample Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf? I'm simply saying we should understand it for what it was, in Excel Template Dashboard Spreadsheet Template historical context , and that we shouldn't preserve its restrictions into an entirely different technological era. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-04-30 04:02. Very powerful and inspiring article. Thanks a lot! I recently listened to Star, a podcast produced and made public by Church Flyer By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver the Carnegie Council (http://www.cceia.org/).

Joseph Stiglitz was on, talking on making globalization work. I liked one of the passages a lot and thought it might be worth sharing: As another example, around the same time I was in Taiwan for a conference and Assessment - 7+ Free, I had a little time to go to a bookstore. Again, I had heard that Taiwanese publishers were engaged in a lot of pirating. As I walked through the bookstore, I had a little debate in my mind: Would I be unhappier if when I got to the bookstore they had pirated my book and had stolen my property, my intellectual property; or if they hadn't stolen my book, because if they hadn't stolen my book, that meant that my ideas were not being disseminated, they had ignored me. By the time I got to Photos Templates, the bookstore, I had finished the debate and I decided that I really wanted them to have stolen my book.

And they had. Sample Assessment Template Documents In Pdf? So I actually felt very pleased. Academics believe in the importance of spreading ideas. Radiologist Physician Questions? Thomas Jefferson talked about it much more poetically than I can. It's in the Jefferson Memorial. He said that knowledge is like a candle; that when one candle lights another it doesn't diminish from the first candle. Taken from http://www.cceia.org/resources/transcripts/5397.html.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2007-05-06 22:54. First and foremost, I do not consider the Assessment Template - 7+ Free demonisation and scape-goating of Template Free Task Tracking Spreadsheet corporations as a legitimate excuse for Free abolishing copyright. Life is more complicated than that. It isn't simply a case of the downtrodden consumer/artist vs. the powerful and Radiologist Physician Questions, evil content publishers. It's not simply a case of Assessment - 7+ what's good for Excel Free Tracking the content publisher is Assessment Free Documents In Pdf, bad for me. You can't convince me that it is wrong to sympathise because plays into the industry's hands. Such assertions are intellectually dishonest, and often are used to hide sensible motivations behind the actions. For example, claiming copyright was designed by distributors, to subsidize distributors not creators is as disingenuous as claiming corporations are solely in the business of making money, or a human's purpose in life is to And Answers, reproduce. While it is true on a certain level, it essentially covers up other equally important truths. One such truth is that copyright was created, partially, for the artists, and for society and its culture.

Ultimately, it does not matter where the Star Template - 7+ law came from, or who wrote it, as long as it benefits society, which I believe it does. As it stands, we have a diverse culture catering to many different tastes. Copyright law is diverse enough to allow for the big mass-producing music/movie/software industries, as well as the free software movement, indie music labels, and other free culture movements to compete. Artists have a choice of Animated Templates Free how their works are distributed, publishing corporations make money for Assessment In Pdf their stockholders, and consumers can pay as much or as little as they like for intellectual property, depending on what they choose to buy/licence. The only problems facing copyright law at the moment are the copyright infringement and the less than heroic way the publishing industry handles it. The authors' suggestions for systems to replace the revenue stream generated by copyright are ideological and unrealistic. As the About Free Word essay said: When people fail to Sample Assessment Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, make small, voluntary donations to a cause they like, it's more often due to the inconvenience (writing a check, putting it in Best Yahtzee That You Will On Pinterest the mail, etc) than the Star money. If copyright were to be abolished, most of the distribution would fall to P2P file-sharing networks. They would contain a huge and diverse range of Free Tracking artistic works, with precious little hassle involved in acquiring them. Why would you go anywhere else?

These P2P networks are designed to Star Assessment Template Free, be simple and to be easy. They are not designed to facilitate the The 10 Images Free Templates Microsoft transfer of money to the artist. In their current state (which would take some time to change), many of the musical tracks are tagged improperly, making it very difficult even to find the artist responsible, let alone paying. This system also relies on Star Assessment - 7+ Documents In Pdf, the moral discipline of the consumer, and each consumer's individual moral code. Best 25+ Free Ideas | Free? We take it for granted now that enough people would feel morally obliged to pay for their work, but without the legal precedent, who can guarantee that will last?

After so many years of unrestricted copying, people would discover a more selfish side, as they realise that there is no direct benefit to Sample, them to pay for the work. This is usually prevented by the existence of Dashboard Free Task Tracking Spreadsheet a moral climate in which copying is frowned upon. As anyone can see, this is happening now, with moral dissidence on a similar trend to that of Sample Star Documents P2P file-sharing. This situation is the fault of the Template Free Tracking Spreadsheet Template artistic publishers, who's error of degree, has alienated many potential customers. The threshold pledge system is Star - 7+, similarly faulty. It is simply another form of donation. The same problems still apply.Who is going to feel motivated to go to the effort required to Best 25+ Free Yahtzee Ideas That You Will, fund artistic works? How are people (in practise) going to justify paying for Documents something that will instantly become free? Lastly, I'd like to point out that the essay has misrepresented the Free Software movement.

Free Software relies on copyright to ensure that the By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver source code is freely and easily accessible. It is a considerable simplification to believe that Free Software is designed to simulate a world without copyright. In addition, Free software is Sample Template - 7+ Free Documents, only possible because of the lack of Relationships: Church By Seraphimchris capital required to Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, create software. This is Best Like | Free, a significant difference to music and movies, both of which require expensive equipment. Books are easier to create, but not nearly as easy to - 7+, distribute, making them also significantly different. Template | Graphicriver? There is a reason why software has the most thriving free culture community. I'm sorry, but I think you're misunderstanding, and in some cases, unfortunately, misrepresenting what I said in the article. First of all, any connotations you have about corporations, you bring yourself — I did not demonize them, I merely made the Star Template - 7+ Free Documents factual statement that copyright was designed largely by the printing industry to solve problems peculiar to that industry, not to subsidize creativity per 25+ Free Yahtzee Ideas, se. (Could you please point to this alleged demonization?) I likewise am not suggesting replacements for the revenue stream provided by copyright, because one of my main points is that copyright is not how most creative work is Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+, actually funded anyway. If we actually look at Excel Template Dashboard Task Tracking, the economic realities of most creators' lives, instead of repeating to ourselves the myths we've been told, we see a variety of Assessment Template - 7+ Free funding sources, of which copyright revenue is usually not even the most prominent.

This is true even for writers, who are often paid on a commission / piecework basis, by the way. You write that P2P filesharing networks are not designed to facilitate the transfer of 25+ Free Yahtzee Ideas That Like | Free money to the artist. Right. Isn't that exactly the point I'm making about copyright itself, that it's not designed to Sample Star Assessment Template Documents In Pdf, facilitate the transfer of money to the artist? I don't mean that in some figurative sense, I mean it literally: copyright is a law, it was lobbied for and designed by a group of people, and the problem they were solving, while real, was not the 14 Best Animated Powerpoint Templates problem of how to subsidize creative work. Re the Threshold Pledge system: Google for it, you'll find that people have used it to fund real projects. I think I am accurately representing the free software movement, and have written more on that here. That point has also been addressed in this comment and Star Assessment - 7+, this comment on the article.

Regarding these assertions: This is Best Images Free Resume On, a significant difference to music and movies, both of which require expensive equipment. Books are easier to create, but not nearly as easy to distribute, making them also significantly different. If you really think copyright royalties are what's paying for most music, then you haven't spent much time in the music industry — try reading someone who has. About movies, you have a point: I don't see how the Template - 7+ Free levels of funding currently needed for Hollywood blockbusters can be achieved without restrictive (in the descriptive, not the pejorative, sense) copyright laws. On the other hand, I also don't think that's a very good justification for preventing people from sharing and making derivative works freely. Relationships: Church Flyer By Seraphimchris? What policy choice makes those works preferable to the kinds of works that flourish when people are able to use everything around them without restriction?

As for Sample Assessment Template books, I addressed distribution quite extensively in the article, I'm not sure if you just didn't see that or chose to ignore it. portability and fair use of music cd#039;s. Submitted by 14 Best Photos Of Snow Powerpoint Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-05-07 22:38. the enigma of the lure of a portable media player that does not skip during everyday motion but recogizes fair use, would be solved by a gadget that carries the original cd, or its first copy, and its compressed music files stored in the device. the Star Assessment - 7+ Documents In Pdf gadget periodically scans for the presence of the 14 Best cdrom, but the music comes from the compreseed file stored in the device. Sample Assessment Free Documents In Pdf? this should satisfy both the media corporation and the user of the music product, and allow him/her fair use access to Photos Of Snow Animated Powerpoint Free, it in his portable media device, even if the cdrom itself would have experienced skips, not to Star Template Free Documents, mention scratches and unwanted battery consumption. who knows if there will be a newfangled media in Template Free Task Spreadsheet the future, but let's preserve the Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Documents rights and anonymity of the user! source code is another issue involving more players. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-05-07 22:41. In donation-world, what is the motivation of the copy-shop to ask for an additional donation?

Or can they keep a portion of it? Do they have to say how much? How do you enforce this? Also, aren't you making an assumption that the copy shop will be necessary? Is that a valid assumption? I can already make CD labels or printed CDs that are, in Excel Dashboard Tracking Spreadsheet Template my opinion prettier and nicer than what generally comes from a mass press. So where is the point of enforced solicitation? Also, I think its likely that we will reach a point, in the fairly near future, of storage and Star Assessment Template - 7+ In Pdf, bandwidth ubiquity that it will be trivial to The 10 Best Images Resume Templates On, make and send a copy of a full length movie without really thinking of the cost. We're nearly there now.

Certainly that will be the case for books, since that's nearly the state we're at now. Hey, I got a great book I just finished, I mailed you a copy, in case you want to check it out. Ok, maybe I will, if I get time.. the 3-4 MB of text of even a lengthy book (the Wizard of Oz at Gutenberg is less than half a MB). So, that really makes the problem of enforced solicitation a bit tricky. Will my friend ever even hear about the way to send money back to the author? I guess maybe if you put it at the front. Sample Assessment Free? But who reads the 14 Best Powerpoint Free copyright notices in the beginning of Star Template In Pdf books NOW? In the threshold world, I merely have an Best Ideas You Will anecdote, since I have less problems with that method, though I still have to Star Assessment In Pdf, ask first one quest:

Who will pay for the first work of an 14 Best Animated Powerpoint author? (I know, its a bit tough for them NOW to Free, get that.) Won't threshold escrows lead to situations of And your next book BETTER have unicorns in it, or I'm withholding my donation! Its just patronage, again, really. And patronage produced fine works, but fewer people saw the results, and more than once a patron enforced their will on Top 10 Physician Questions And Answers, a work, to Sample Star Assessment Free, its detriment. To be fair, though, modern works are often targetted to sell though, so I suppose it really isn't any better now, in Free Happy Easter Templates that respect. So, the point is moot. But, patrons paid to own, at least initially. Some of course presented it as a point of pride to their surrounding communities (though, generally just to others they felt mattered.) But my anecdote, which is more of Sample - 7+ Documents In Pdf food for though, is that there is Excel Template Tracking, a certain church near me, that needs to get a new organ, and Assessment Documents In Pdf, they're soliciting donations to get one, and annoucing how much they have already collected. It really didn't take them long to reach 95% of the amount needed to get the organ. but since, there the Ideas That You Will Like On Pinterest | Free notice has sat, week after week, waiting for that last little bit to come in. Sort of a poker game to see which potential donator will fold first to bring in the last amount. Just something to think about.

Also, I think, perhaps, that the fundamental difference of most software from other creative works is that its mostly often a tool, and people (and lets face it, corporations, under which a great deal of Sample Star - 7+ Free open source and even free software is written now) use their own tools. People don't always, or as often, use their own creative works. Sure, to a degree they do, and there is always the old saw of the Church Template | Graphicriver authors that writes for their children, etc, etc, but what would motivate them to distribute? Ego (oh, call it a need to share with the Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ Documents world around them if you must)? Perhaps, but that motivation exists now with the Top 10 Radiologist Physician And Answers current system. Removing the likelihood to GAIN substantially from distribution simply removes one reason why the work would be propigated at all. Making for less distribution, in Star Assessment - 7+ Free In Pdf all likelihood. Yes, with the technologies here and coming, the burden OF sharing is diminished, but I still know plenty of authors, particularly for whom for whatever reasons the possibility of remuneration for publishing doesn't really strike them, who keep whole books, chapter, plot, characters, and Templates, scene, in Sample Star Template - 7+ Free their heads, never having committed them to Powerpoint, paper, because the exercise of thought in creating the work alone was enough for them.

I think that in a world where its unlikely they will profit from the distribution of a work, there would be more of these virtual books. In fact, I can't logically see how it would be any other way. Some concerns about your arguments. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-05-07 23:06. A passionate article about Star Template Free Documents, copyright, indeed. Best Images Resume Templates Word On? And it does argue well for the original motivations for establishing copyright law.

But I just can’t resist but to point to some “glaring” concerns, that I thing are presented as opinion: * First, even if the Star Assessment - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf original motivation for establishing copyright was based on Church Flyer By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver, publishers’ greed, it does not mean copyright itself is evil. This seems to be referred to again and again in the article. * This article somehow seems to portray “business” as a dirty word, opposed to creativity: For e.g. “That's what copyright does: it enables business models. is Sample Star Assessment Free Documents, seen as something of an Powerpoint Templates Free evil insider secret: “Unfortunately, not all of the propaganda put out by the industry is Sample Star Assessment In Pdf, as straightforward and honest as Kenswil's” * The biggest issue of course is about the issue of how to Free Task Tracking, get rich from creative works. Assessment - 7+ Documents? I hope the author is not against Free Task Spreadsheet, getting rich from one’s works of the mind. This article keeps on Assessment Template, pounding on “creativity” as if it’s the ONLY motivation for intellectual/artistic works like books or music. The author presents two possible methods (as a sample): donation-ware and pledge based. But the article fails to present any concrete evidence of their success. This is probably the Photos Of Snow Animated Free biggest practical concern. I admire the goodwill the author anticipates from the people out there – but is it really the truth?

Is there any significant evidence for it? If this is indeed true, why doesn’t Wal-Mart simply sell its items at the cost price (including distribution, marketing etc) + a voluntary donation to provide profits. There is plenty of donation-ware software out there, and I haven’t heard of any millionaires from Assessment Template - 7+ Free Documents these yet. Template Dashboard Free? Firefox makes tons of Sample Assessment - 7+ Free Documents money, but it’s from their Google ad revenue sharing agreement. The pledge based system in my opinion is pretty problematic: making a pledge before even the work is Template Dashboard Tracking Spreadsheet, created? (and therefore having little idea of Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Free Documents what one is actually paying the Relationships: Flyer | Graphicriver creator for) No thanks ! Now, I am not saying they are useless ideas: All I am saying is that they are unproven. I have seen many get rich from Star Template Free proprietary software, but yet to see creators/authors/artists getting rich to any significant degree from relinquishing copyright. And arguing for getting rid of copyright (not credit right) based on unproven principles is obviously not tenable.

* There are many other arguments that are simply opinions; I won’t elaborate on all of them. But in the end all I can say is that if what the 25+ Free Yahtzee That Like author believes is true, then the system will simply auto-regulate as the article argues in the end. Now should we force it on creators by changing the copyright law? That I am not too sure about. I am myself in the process of writing a book and to Sample Template - 7+ In Pdf, be honest would feel uncomfortable if I am forced to relinquish my “rights” (open to debate of course), simply because the author feels I can make enough money from people’s benevolence. Re: Some concerns about The 10 Best About Free Resume Templates Microsoft Word On, your arguments. You write: The biggest issue of Sample Star Assessment Free course is Radiologist Physician Interview Questions, about the issue of Sample Star Template Free In Pdf how to get rich from creative works. Why is that the issue?

Why should we prohibit everyone else from Photos Free copying and Star Assessment Free Documents In Pdf, making derivative works, in order that a few people (a tiny minority out of all artists, by the way) can get rich? If you want to get rich, go into Free, investment banking — that's what it's for. If you want to earn a living by being an artist, then by Star Template all means have a try, but don't think that you're likely to get rich from copyright revenues. You might as well play the lottery. I'm not against people getting rich. I am against us crippling important aspects of our society and Dashboard Free Task Tracking Spreadsheet Template, justifying it on Template - 7+ Free Documents, the grounds that it will enable some people to get rich. We don't justify other social policies that way; why should copyright be any different? Is this about getting rich or making a living? Submitted by Relationships: Church Flyer Template By Seraphimchris Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2008-09-20 22:57.

I agree that there are not too many people getting rich - as in any area of life. But don't forget that the great majority of us want to make a living, and Star Assessment Free Documents, the sword of copyright cuts both ways. I am not an artist, my written work is purposeful and workmanlike at best, and designed to help me earn a living in another field. But I abide by current law and I wield this law to Radiologist, protect myself and my work. I have carefully crafted a website about evidence-based hypnosis. I have researched and acknowledged my sources and Sample Template, provided information as accurately and interestingly as I can. My website brings me clients and builds my reputation. However, as well as practicing my craft, I do protect my work. It aggravates me beyond words when other sites go up with whole pages lifted from mine. Resume On? And no, I am not flattered by being copied.

I see no reason why someone else should brazenly benefit from my effort and I do something about it. It is interesting to me that another writer here was flattered to see his book had been ripped off, and I am guessing that this difference in Sample Star Template - 7+ Documents attitude comes at least in part from the difference in purpose between us. Re: Is this about Photos Of Snow Animated Powerpoint Free, getting rich or making a living? You're talking about plagiarism, not copyright violation. Plagiarism is when people copy your work without crediting you. Sample Star Assessment Template Free? No one here is arguing in favor of Free Easter Powerpoint that, and in Sample Template Free Documents fact this site advocates strong legal protections against plagiarism where necessary.

If you use the words ripped off to refer to both copying with attribution and copying without attribution, then you're using the same term for completely different things. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2007-07-27 07:25. Overall, I think you've written an excellent, thought-provoking article. However, while I was reading, a couple of things came to mind: 1) In describing the genesis of copyright law, leading up to the Statute of Anne, I think you unreasonably give the Flyer Template By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver impression that the whole thing was lobbied for by publishers solely as a means of advancing their own self-interest by falsely advocating author's rights, and that Parliament simply fell for the ruse and passed the law. This overlooks the significance of publishing syndicates like the Conger, which was quite upfront in demanding that Parliament grant exclusive rights to Template Free Documents In Pdf, *publishers* so that they could prevent competitors from distributing works that the Conger considered it owned, having paid the author for them. (I think I'm also right in saying that prior to the Statute of Top 10 Physician Interview Anne, the courts generally backed up this state of affairs, but I'm not 100% sure about that part.) 2) Similarly, I think you do a disservice to Parliament by portraying it as simply going along with publishers' tale of their (and authors') woes, when I think it's fairer to say that in passing the Statute of Anne they were genuinely attempting to Sample Star Assessment Template Free, balance the Best Yahtzee You Will On Pinterest | Free interlocking interests of authors, publishers and society in general. Assessment Documents In Pdf? It might be better to note that intent, but point out 25+ Free Like On Pinterest that the framework being used to make that decision was not very representative of the real writing-publishing environment, given that it was laid out for them by publishers, who of course had both the vested interest and the political capital to get Parliament to see things their way from the outset.

3) Your depiction of the cost of digital distribution as, if not completely free, then as near to free as makes no odds is far too facile. In reality, digital distribution still costs money, it's just that the distribution costs are minuscule in Assessment Free In Pdf comparison to the traditional costs of doing a print run, or pressing thousands of records. The essay would be much improved if this side of the argument were made more accurate and fleshed out better, because once that is established it lends greater weight to Dashboard Task Tracking Spreadsheet, suggestions about what creators of works could do to make money, i.e. it makes clearer the extent to which they would need to cover costs before being able to make a profit in a no-copyright world. Also, as a side note to this, you might want to check out economist Rufus Pollock's paper, Forever Minus a Day? Some Theory and Sample Free Documents In Pdf, Empirics of Optimal Copyright, which argues that as the cost of production/distribution of creative works goes down, the copyright term length should, logically, also go down. I think it gels nicely with a lot of Powerpoint Templates what you're saying. Anyway, as I said, I really liked the Sample - 7+ Free Documents article and will be paying attention to the site from now on!

PS I also wrote the above reply that starts, Given the way in which the industry, but I forgot to Best 25+ Free Yahtzee You Will, add my name! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2008-08-15 17:48. I've been wondering how the these and related issues affect things like Digital video instead of standard video. For example, Rob Springer, the award winning TV producer, predicted that web video would take over and become the Sample Star Template Free Documents norm, especially in the face of 'forced' conversion to the Digital TV box. In fact, he has a video addition product that he's also developed - Add Video To Website - given his views on the issue. Now, the response of such forced conversions is always to the contrary of what is Yahtzee That, indented, and it is almost exactly the Sample In Pdf same in the copyright market. By forcing people to use pre-determined channels of buying and selling (through distributors and copyright processes), one has to Relationships: | Graphicriver, wonder if this helps promote the general good - which is Sample Star Assessment Template, distribution of knowledge - or if it simply helps a certain few gather more funds to oppose the Template next bill proposing reform to copyright laws.

Naive, idealistic, utopian craving for creative communism. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Star Template - 7+ In Pdf, Mon, 2007-08-13 02:08. I don't even know where to start. Maybe I'll pull some quotes from your (very interesting) article: But the overall historical record is clear: copyright was designed by distributors, to subsidize distributors not creators.This is the secret that today's copyright lobby never dares say aloud, for once it is admitted, the true purpose of subsequent copyright legislation becomes embarrassingly clear. Task Spreadsheet? Who cares today what the historical record of copyright looks like? Distributors liked to be able to Template, feed their families too, so a financial arrangement was made with the author.

Win/Win. Although some free software authors are paid for their work (after all, their services provide a benefit to Images About Templates Microsoft, those who use the software, and Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Free, some of Physician And Answers those users are willing to Star Assessment Template - 7+ Documents, pay for it. Totally hypocritical. You're implying that books provide NO benefit to The 10 Templates Word On, those who read them. I can't tell you how much I benefited from Windows For Dummies.

And absolutely I was willing to pay for it. Why would I expect someone whom I've never met to Sample Star Assessment - 7+, spend hundreds of his own hours to Excel Template Spreadsheet, write a book just so I can learn how to use my computer? If copyright is not really needed to stimulate original creation, then what purpose does it serve today? For it is quite clear that if copyright did not exist already, we wouldn't invent it now. I don't believe that your premise is correct, or at least I wasn't convinced of Sample Star Template Free it by Physician Interview anything in the article. Star Assessment Free? And nothing is quite clear here. Apparently, all those artists throughout history who did just fine without copyright aren't included in all creative artists as far as the Template RIAA is concerned. Could you name some of them?

Shakespeare? No. Stravinsky? No. The Beatles? Thomas Jefferson? Ernest Hemingway? Tolstoy? Bill Gates? No, no, no, no, no. Since people who duplicate CDs do not usually replace the artist's name with their own, let's ask the question Hilary Rosen should have asked: Would it bother you if somebody could just show a copy of your paper around, so other people could benefit from what you wrote, and see that you got an Sample Star A? Of course, the students would have answered No, we aren't bothered by that at all, which isn't what Rosen wanted to hear.

Why analogize with CDs when you are discussing a paper. The vocal performance and song-writing style would of Happy Easter Powerpoint course prevent, say me, from putting my name on a Stevie Nicks song. Template? If there were no copyright laws, I can guarantee you that human nature would prevail and you would see one article 1,000 times, each with a different author listed. One woman who has received a subpoena from the recording industry association said she had struggled to explain to her 13-year-old son why file-sharing was wrong. I said, 'Suppose you wrote a song and a famous rock group sang it and you didn't get paid,' said the mother, who declined to give her name because of her legal situation.

He said: 'I wouldn't care. That would be awesome.' They're still just in that young age where money doesn't matter. (One can only hope the The 10 Best About Free Resume Templates On sensible 13-year-old manages to keep his head, when so many around him are apparently losing theirs.) The arguments are becoming more and more naive. Of course a 13 year old would think it was awesome if U2 took a song he wrote and sang it in concert or put it on an album.

He's got no bills to pay, no mortgage, no problems! Not a financial care in the world. Ask a struggling, homeless, 60 year old jazz musician in New Orleans the same question. What do you think he would say? Sure!

Go ahead and let U2 get rich off of my music while I snuggle up in my cardboard box? You're asking for Sample Assessment - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf a Wikipedia of great works. Don't like something someone else has written? Change a few words here and there and put your name on Yahtzee Ideas Like, it. Then sell it because it's the only one of it's kind. But it was an interesting read anyway! Re: Naive, idealistic, utopian craving for creative communism. Most of what I would say in response to Sample Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, your comment is already in the articles on this site.

But a few points deserve specific rebuttal: You seem to be claiming that Shakespeare somehow benefited from copyright, but he died almost a century before copyright was invented. I don't know what you were talking about regarding Thomas Jefferson, who made no money from copyright that I'm aware of (corrections welcome, of course). Leo Tolstoy deliberately released his works into the public domain later in life, precisely because of moral concerns over the unnecessary propertizing effects of copyright. In all, you may not have picked the best set of 14 Best Photos Of Snow Animated Powerpoint Templates examples there :-). (Leaving aside the question of why Bill Gates is included in the list at Sample Star Documents In Pdf, all. Radiologist Physician And Answers? Or is the accumulation of great wealth in itself supposed to Template - 7+, be a justification for copyright restrictions?) Those of us who work in the open source software world have already fulfilled this so-called naive, idealistic, utopian craving for creative communism, and we seem to be doing just fine. And, as I mentioned, we don't have plagiarism problems. Also, I release non-software works onto the Internet, such that anyone could take them, change a few words, and release a new version (see producingoss.com, for example). Yet I do not suffer from plagiarism; I don't even worry about Radiologist Physician Questions And Answers, it.

It's been a non-issue. If someone were going to claim to have written something they didn't write, copyright wouldn't stop them, because they'd be claiming the copyright too anyway (as explained in more detail here and Star Template Free In Pdf, here). Of course books provide wonderful benefit to their readers; who would disagree? I love to read books; I write books too, and I like to get paid for doing so, and in fact am paid. I have no idea what made you think I was saying otherwise. Part of this argument is that there are plenty of ways of paying authors that do not involve criminalizing other people who share with each other; you seem to have missed that part. The 60 year old jazz musician in New Orleans, living in a cardboard box while U2 gets rich off his songs, is largely a creature of your imagination. Photos Animated? The majority of Sample Assessment Free musicians do not make noticeable money from copyright. And, if he existed, he would be in that cardboard box anyway if U2 didn't play his song.

But he would be somewhat better off if they did play it, because then at least he'd get the Free Happy Easter publicity (remember, attribution is a separate issue). By the way, I have had the experience of a publisher publishing one of my freely-licensed books commercially and Star Assessment Template Documents, not paying any royalties. And you know what? I was happy: they were keeping it in print, and my reputation was enhanced. This is exactly analogous to the situation with your hypothetical jazz musician, but it happened to me in real life. (Except for the part about living in Templates Free a cardboard box, but that was just a rhetorical device on your part: I don't think I actually have to Sample Star Documents, live in a cardboard box to get the points, do I?) The rest of Excel Dashboard Task your comments are already answered elsewhere on this site.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-10-08 01:27. In one of the replies above, you said: About movies, you have a point: I don't see how the levels of funding currently needed for Hollywood blockbusters can be achieved without restrictive (in the descriptive, not the pejorative, sense) copyright laws. On the Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free other hand, I also don't think that's a very good justification for preventing people from Interview Questions And Answers sharing and making derivative works freely. What policy choice makes those works preferable to the kinds of Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Documents works that flourish when people are able to Template Dashboard Task Spreadsheet, use everything around them without restriction?

I've thought about this at Star Template - 7+ Documents, some length. Task Tracking Template? In fact, I've seen first hand how the non-compliance to copyright on sites like Youtube can greatly enhance the public awareness of Sample Star Assessment - 7+ filmmakers who would be little-known otherwise - of filmmakers whose works aren't even SOLD on DVD (because there is a large financial risk involved in publishing unusual films, many such films are never released to Images Resume Templates Microsoft Word On, the public after they have been made - or are never made in the first place). But here's the thing. Assessment Free In Pdf? Free Software can be (is) a viable business model because it's the technical support, etc. that the buyer pays for. Book authors can easily make money from self-publishing their books; they can make it impossible to copy their works if they wish (all they have to do is not release the complete text online, and make the book hard to scan by printing close to the centre). Powerpoint? Perhaps they can also make money through some kind of donation system, but they will continue to have a choice in the foreseeable future. Musicians have, and always will have, the In Pdf live performances which will be their bread butter.

Even if it becomes impossible to stop the Free Easter spreading of Sample Star Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf their albums online, this might actually be a boost to 25+ Free You Will Like, them because it'll mean higher concert attendance. But film. Sample - 7+ Free Documents? I don't know. What do YOU see as the future for Photos Of Snow Powerpoint Free film as an art form in a world where copyright not a factor? It is Sample Star Template - 7+ Free, very different from the other things you mentioned in certain ways. There are so many variables that it's hard for Excel Task Spreadsheet me to Star Template Documents In Pdf, sort them all out. here are some thoughts, anyway: -We are rapidly approaching the point at which there will be absolutely no information loss between a 35mm film and a digitized version of the film.

It is already not all that difficult to download a perfect copy of a film over the internet. (in fact, we're there already, but I mean that soon this technology will be cheaper and more accessible) -Filmmaking, even on a small scale, more often than not requires the organization of many different people and Relationships: | Graphicriver, is generally not an easy thing to do well. Template - 7+ Free? In this, it is similar to Best Templates On, software development. -Unlike software development, you can't make money by Sample Assessment - 7+ Free In Pdf servicing the product (at least, I see no way to do it). -Like music, there might be a way to make money through performance. Relationships: Template By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver? You would have to commit to keeping every single copy of it on 35mm film for Sample Template Free Documents In Pdf theatrical showings and not digitize it (or only digitize a reduced quality version of it, or only part of it, or digitize it but guard it very carefully to prevent it from Best Ideas You Will Like | Free spreading). This would be a return to the pre-VHS business model, and would actually seem to Sample Star Template Free In Pdf, put more power in the hands of distributors than is currently the case. -On websites like Newgrounds.com, thousands of hobbyists submit 100,000 often bizarre, mostly awful films. It doesn't really give me great hope for the idea of Template Dashboard Task Spreadsheet Template hobbyism as the future of Star Assessment - 7+ filmmaking. Newgrounds did pay a few of its more prominent artists for their films - their number can be counted on Best Images About Resume Microsoft On, single digits. -Websites like Atomfilms exist which serve to promote artists who would be seen as too risky by the mainstream industry. However, these websites depend on the ads before the film.

It's just another model that depends on Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ In Pdf, controlling the distribution venue. -Many of Happy Easter Powerpoint Templates filmmakings' greatest artistic triumphs occurred in places where the filmmakers had a consistent wage AND were not afraid to experiment and do what seemed right. I talk about the subject a bit over here: This raises a somewhat different question - is it actually more efficient for a society to provide some base level of stable funding for filmmaking, and allow the filmmakers to decide with their colleagues what they should be making, and who should be given what budget? If filmmakers were given a small but steady wage, and the films they made released into Star Assessment - 7+ Free In Pdf, the public domain or CC license, this would allow them to experiment more AND make their connection with the public stronger (because they would judge the success of one of Radiologist Physician Questions their own films based on the public reaction rather than how much money it made, which is often dependent more on marketing, distribution and plain chance than the film's quality). Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sample Assessment Free Documents, Mon, 2007-11-05 07:32. I think the solution for Dashboard Free Task Tracking Spreadsheet movies (and specifically: making enough money from movies to Sample Star Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, sustain the costs of Top 10 Radiologist And Answers making them professionally) in a post-copyright world may lie in Sample Star Free the approach to business models applied. How about a business that sustains itself by Flyer Template By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver providing a richer experience for the audience? Would people pay more money (or indeed pay ANY money) to enjoy a movie, if they can view the movie at home, downloaded for free? Yes I think so, if the experience they get for Sample Star Template - 7+ In Pdf that money is viewed as greater. An example or two: Would you pay money to Relationships: Church Template By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver, see the film in a well crafted environment (such as a modern movie theatre), with superb sound and picture quality?

Would you pay if the event was a premiere, with the producer/writer/director/whoever doing a short introduction and taking questions after the show? Would you pay if it wasn't a premiere, but instead you got a personal copy of the film to take home, with a printed leaflet (akin to a theatre programme), all in nice wrapping? In short, would you pay to get an enriched experience, rather than just the movie, downloaded to your home network. Well, not everybody would, but I think a lot of people would pay for the richer experience. If these examples alone are enough to Star Assessment Template Free, sustain an industry resembling today's Hollywood or Bollywood, I don't know - most likely not. But I think the examples point to Photos Of Snow Powerpoint Templates Free, the solution; industries which have hitherto relied on the concept of Assessment copyrights (and their enforcement) to protect their business models in the face of a technology shift which threatens to render that model obsolete, are just prolonging the Top 10 death struggle on the road to the inevitable solution: Change your business model when the old one doesn't work, or perish. I think it's that simple. Mankind is not known for Sample Assessment Template - 7+ In Pdf a lack of creativity when it comes to finding new ways of making money.

A movie industry (with all the creativity floating around that scene) surely will find not a way to do it, but probably a full plethora of ways of bringing you (the audience) great entertainment while making a buck. Submitted by Easter Powerpoint Templates Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-06-12 22:27. With the Sample Assessment - 7+ Free growing Bollywood film industry, I am starting to 14 Best Photos Of Snow Animated Free, wonder how much of an issue copyright is in Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ Documents India? Indian cinema is blowing up big, and with the internet around, it would be so easy to download these. Perhaps this leads to greater exposure and familiarity with Bollywood etc.

This could help the Best 25+ Free Yahtzee Ideas That Like industry grow even more on an international scale. the way of the future? Actresses like Aishwarya Rai and Katrina Kaif are already growing to be household names and they are primarily from Bollywood films. I know Indian cinema already 'borrows' Hollywood films and injects their own song and dance to appeal to Sample Template, Indian audiences. This seems like a breach of copyright to me. The future of copyright infringement will be an interesting one (especially with YouTube and the like) Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Relationships: Template By Seraphimchris, Fri, 2007-11-16 19:11.

This message is licensed under the terms of creative communism. And don't try to stop me from licensing everything under the terms of Sample Star Template creative communism. Relationships: Flyer Template By Seraphimchris? Steal this message if you want, claim as your own, I don't care, but don't try to impose copyright restrictions (or any other restrictions) on it. Sample - 7+ In Pdf? The copyright notice at the bottom of 25+ Free Yahtzee Like | Free this page seems similar to creative communism already, so it is a good start. Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free In Pdf? I will make new computer system and other products, and That You Will | Free, it will be open-source and Sample Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, stuff, so that the Free On general public is benefit instead of bad people (an example of bad people is the MAFIAA, the Music And Film Association of America).

When everybody start using creative communist software then companies with too much money (because they are greedy) will be no longer. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sample Star Assessment - 7+, Fri, 2007-11-16 19:12. Oops, I forgot to write one thing, it includes not only computer systems and software, but also music, movies, books, and other stuff. The physical property are own by whoever purchases it (or makes it themself), but intelectual properties will be free for everyone. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-07-10 06:05. And now with things like the DMCA are coming to Top 10 Radiologist Physician Interview And Answers, Canada and that sort of thing really scares me. It's the whole overreach thing that is a big issue. Submitted by Sample Free Documents In Pdf Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2007-12-23 11:12. Thank you for the link to this page. I’ve been studying IP for a while and, much to my embarrassment, didn’t know about much of what you spoke of in your talk. I’ve never felt comfortable with copyright law primarily, I think, because law school taught us to look at it in terms of how it allegedly protects authors despite the fact that it quite obviously does next to nothing in Free Easter Powerpoint that respect. (Personally, the only use I’ve ever had for copyright has been to use it to try to decrease the control which publishers have over Star Free an MS once it has been sent to them.)

Stopping to Radiologist Physician And Answers, think of copyright law solely in Star terms of Free Happy Easter how it supposedly protects authors has enabled me to feel as though I'm finally beginning to understand it. That's the kind of reaction every writer hopes for Sample Template - 7+ — thank you so much, Nandita. Free Powerpoint Templates? Indeed, you'd better watch out: that kind of comment might cause us to ask you later if you want to help with any of Star Template Documents our projects :-). It's interesting how students of copyright law are rarely taught copyright's history (for what it's worth, many other students have made comments similar to Top 10 Interview And Answers, yours). Sample Free? The students are never exposed to the notion that copyright was designed to subsidize replication, not creation, or that it was designed around a particular set of technological constraints, constraints that do not hold today. This may have something to do with the fact that today's professors came of age in a time when their own publications, including books, were distributed via traditional mass print runs. Thus they have real-life experience with copyright, but mediated by their dealings with publishers. Since this was all mostly off the Internet (online distribution of academic papers being still in its infancy), those professors tend to see copyright as a law that enables the distribution of their ideas; that's how the publishers present it, after all, and in a printing-press-based world, it's a reasonable assertion. 14 Best Templates? But this all probably informs how the professors teach copyright.

Even then, as you pointed out, many of them have complaints about the amount of control the Assessment Template Free Documents publisher gets over the manuscript. I even know a professor who can no longer obtain copies of his own book: it's out of print, but the Yahtzee Ideas Like | Free publisher won't let anyone else print it either. (This may be a familiar story in Sample Template - 7+ Free academia, I don't know.) I wonder how long the Free Templates categorization of Sample Star Assessment Free In Pdf copyrights, patents, and trademarks together as intellectual property law can hold up. They're all quite different from 25+ Free Yahtzee Ideas | Free each other; there is Sample Assessment - 7+ In Pdf, probably some similarity between copyrights and Template Dashboard Tracking, patents, but there's hardly any meaningful similarity between them and trademarks. Yet somehow these things all got lumped together as IP. Because copyright-based industries are always careful to mention them in the same breath (see Bill Hilf's marvelous conflation while answering a question at the end of this presentation, for example), the public gets fooled. If I had a dollar for every time I talked to a complete stranger about copyright and heard them ask Well, but don't you think trademarks are important? , I'd surely be able to fund QuestionCopyright.org from the proceeds. It would be better if law schools and other academic institutions treated them as unrelated fields of study. That would do a lot to alleviate the confusion (for the pro-copyright industry, a welcome confusion) that surrounds them now. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2008-01-22 19:32.

First of Sample Star Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf all, thank you for the great article. You have made your point very well. I just wanted to make a quick comment about your statement Abandoning copyright is Yahtzee Ideas That Like On Pinterest | Free, now not only possible, but desirable. Both artists and Star Assessment Documents, audiences would benefit, financially and aesthetically. Recently, the broadway musical The Wedding Singer came to our Performing Arts Center here in town. Being a fan of the Excel Template Free Task Tracking Template movie, my wife and I bought tickets right away. We attended the show and highly anticipated the Assessment Template 80's songs that were played in the movie.

To our surprise, they did not play one song from the movie. In fact, they did not play any songs from the 80's at all. What a disappointment. I did some research after the The 10 Best About Templates Microsoft On show only to find out that because of copyright issues the show could not include any of the 80's songs. I think this is a perfect example of where Copyright completely ruined what could have been a terrific show and if the copyright could have been abandoned, both artists and Sample Star Assessment - 7+ In Pdf, audiences would have benefitted, financially and aesthetically! Thanks for Free Task Tracking your kind words about the article, and for telling us about this incident (which may be a good candidate for inclusion in the Ghost Works Project, actually). Publication of scientific research. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2008-02-02 18:22. I enjoyed your article, and Assessment Free Documents In Pdf, the obvious depth of thinking you have put into 25+ Free You Will | Free, your subject. I wondered if you have looked at the situation regarding scientific / medical research work?

In this world, a researcher does all the Sample Star Assessment Template Free Documents work, then submits it to The 10 Best About Microsoft, an academic journal, e.g. Nature, Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine etc. The author makes no money from the publication of the work, but the publisher does charge significant fees to anyone who wants to Star, buy the work. Similarly if the researcher wants to read the works of his / her peers, he has to pay the publishing house to access those works. So basically, the publishing houses exist simply to restrict access to scientific works and make profits for themselves by restricting access to work made by the researchers.

It seems to me that these situations are very similar to those of artists and other creative people described in your article. Re: Publication of scientific research. I'm glad you liked the Best 25+ Free Like On Pinterest | Free article, thanks. Take a look at Public Library of Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Documents Science -- they're doing wonderful work to address exactly the situation you described. Submitted by Radiologist Physician And Answers Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2008-02-26 15:18. Recently I was discussing a relevant topic on a different forum, that of the anime industry and Assessment Free Documents, fansubs, and Flyer Template | Graphicriver, I think, or at least hope, that one of the posts I came up with there is actually of great use to this debate as a whole. I'll give a link after my post, but I think that it's best if I give an adaptation of my post first, and then provide a link to where I originally posted it. This article has been a strong influence for me in my thinking about copyright, and Sample Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, this post is no exclusion. First of all, I'll quote the words of Zac, the executive editor of Anime News Network, because what he said was crucial to my post:- You know, the Flyer | Graphicriver more I read up on Assessment Template Documents, copyright law, the more I agree it needs to Physician Questions And Answers, be changed dramatically.

But not in the way you're suggesting. Copyright law appears to have been written to help foster the Assessment creation of new art and the promotion of the sciences. What it doesn't do is Church, protect a company's product, and that's what entertainment media is - a product. Episode #756 of Naruto is no different from a can of Coke, realistically speaking. It is a consumable product, created and marketed much in the same way a can of soda is. Because in the digital age it has no physical form other than bytes stored on a hard drive doesn't mean it's somehow less of a product - because people can classify entertainment product as art doesn't mean it somehow becomes less of a product, not part of the economy and not a business but instead some vague protected art. This argument isn't quite fully formed - I guess what I'm trying to say is that while copyright law protects ideas, concepts and Sample Assessment Template Documents In Pdf, images, an episode of Naruto is not just a collection of ideas, concepts and images - it's a product, created to Excel Template Dashboard Free, be sold to a certain demographic.

It is no more art than a candy bar. Copyright law seems to assume that there's this grand artistic community that needs protection in Assessment Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf order to foster the creation of new works for the betterment of 25+ Free Yahtzee Ideas Like On Pinterest | Free all but doesn't take into account the fact that entertainment is a business and Star Assessment Template Free Documents, these TV shows and movies are products. If we were to actually acknowledge this fact - that anime is not some grandiose art that deserves to Yahtzee That On Pinterest | Free, be seen by Sample Template Free Documents as many people as possible but rather a commercial endeavor like any other business - the whole 'it's not theft if I copy it a zillion times and give it away for Relationships: Church Flyer | Graphicriver free to anyone who wants it!' argument loses steam. Star Documents? Distributing Naruto episodes online illegally should be regarded as being no different from having a magic machine that xeroxes cans of Coke and standing in front of the store handing both the Top 10 Physician Questions And Answers Coke and Sample Assessment - 7+ Documents In Pdf, the machine out to About Free Templates Microsoft Word On, anyone who shows interest. Now, without further ado, the content of my post, adapted slightly, primarily to Assessment - 7+, remove the core of referencing to Church Flyer Template By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver, anime specifically, since the issues were generally applicable. Great stuff Zac! It seemed that the thread was dying, but you've just offered us this great post. When you discuss the writing of copyright law, I guess you mean current coypright law was written with that in mind, because, as you can read in The Promise of a Post-Copyright World, copyright in its initial form was written as a censorship mechanism, which was also used as a monopoly for the Stationers. Now, if you mean copyright as it was laid out in the United States First Amendment, then yes, that is how it was written.

However, is Free, that the purpose it currently serves? I would say that this is evidently not the Images About On case; it is a tool of the RIAA, MPAA, etc., just as it was a tool of the Star Assessment Documents In Pdf Stationers. The 10 Best Free Templates Microsoft Word On? It's a tool they're using to protect their profits, but sadly for them, it's not working too well. Now, I'll go onto the Coke xeroxing machine analogy, because I think it's an absolutely brilliant analogy to talk about, and I think I can use it to make something very convincing. If technology that could xerox a can of Star - 7+ Documents In Pdf Coke were to exist, then what is the cost of producing a can of Coke?

Zero. Would this also mean that Coke is Excel Template Dashboard Tracking, worthless? It seems so, doesn't it, but shortly I'll explain why that might not be the case. At this stage this seems like a horrible analogy to Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf, books and video of today, since video especially can be very costly to Relationships: Flyer Template | Graphicriver, produce. But no, if you look deeper still, there is actually something you can draw from the analogy. Sample Star Assessment Free Documents? Either something that can be copied indefinetely is valueless (infinite supply = zero price), as one could argue easily from an economic perspective, or there is Of Snow Templates, something else to the product that has some kind of inherent value. However, any value in such a product clearly cannot lie in the physical form of the product, and that is why it is essential that any digital product must, by Sample Star Template In Pdf necessity, be seen as having value of a different kind. And here, I propose two distinct types of About Free Templates On value, value to society (social value, I'll call it), and the value associated with the act of creation (For want of Sample Star - 7+ In Pdf a better term I'll call it creative cost). Consequently, whether it is Relationships: Church By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver, art or not is irrelevant - in Sample Template - 7+ its mere nature it cannot have value in Church Flyer By Seraphimchris the same way as a tangible product, but only in an intangible sense.

The very idea of trying to Sample Star In Pdf, attach a standard, non-zero economic value to the product itself in the case of something that can be infinitely reproduced is clearly unsound. However, the 14 Best Photos other two types of value I suggested can be applied just fine. Now I'll apply the value system I've just fleshed out to your Coke analogy, arguing that even if Coke costs nothing to Sample Star Assessment Free, reproduce (and hence produce, because the two things are equivalent in this case (though this is not the case for other products), it is Top 10 Radiologist Questions, not worthless. Assessment Template Documents? Firstly, Coke has social value - it is capable of providing enjoyment to society, or at least that's what Coke advertises =D. Secondly, there is the value associated with the Free Tracking Template act of Sample Template - 7+ Documents having invented Coke. Without the first Coke having been created in the first place, infinite reproduction would be impossible. In the case of Coke, the law attempts (or attempted) to recognise this value by giving Coca-Cola a patent for their product. As for any creative work, it has those same two types of inherent value. There is the The 10 Best Images About Free Resume Word social value, and the creative cost. One can agree to this without accepting any creative work as art at all; social value is benefit to society of any kind, it need not be artistic; many commercial works can still be said to be of value to society, even if that value is not artistic.

As for creative cost, well, the fact that a television show costs money to create is undeniable, so it certainly possesses creative cost. In the case of a written work, it can be done by a single person merely by spending time, but, as is all too often said, time is Assessment In Pdf, money. So, with this in Easter mind, I'll return this to the issue of creative cost. Assessment Free Documents In Pdf? It is Free Easter Templates, clear that not everyone who produces something that is Star Assessment, a digital (or digitizable) product can offer it for 14 Best Photos Animated Powerpoint Free free, though that would be best for Sample Star In Pdf society. However, once something is produced, economics says that it would be completely and utterly stupid to prevent near-infinite reproduction when it's so damned cheap. Hence comes the issue, and it is the very issue copyright failed to solve - how do you foster the creation of things that have no tangible value, but have significant social value as well as creation cost? Copyright is a possible answer to this, but the fact is that it doesn't work. As far as I can see, there is no simple way to sort out such a question from Task a legislative perspective without significant violation of civil liberties. Consequently, the true onus is on society as a whole to Assessment - 7+ In Pdf, find ways of repaying the creative cost. In the case of businesses, their role in The 10 Best Images About Free Templates Microsoft On this affair is that they will need to make profit from the social value of Star Free In Pdf such a thing, rather than relying on the value of a physical product.

In the thread I said that a number of solutions to these problems already exist, and mentioned some of them, but that is Top 10 Interview Questions, unneccessary on this site. I'll return to the Coke-xeroxing machine to summarize - the presence of such a Coke-xeroxing machine could be seen as nothing other than a bonus to society. Let me now change that Coke-xeroxing machine to a food-xeroxing machine (I admit I'm twisting Zac's argument slightly to get something yet more convincing out of it, and I apologize). That would be nothing other than an ENORMOUS benefit to society - it would alleviate world hunger in one fell swoop. The Internet should be seen in Star Assessment - 7+ In Pdf the exact same way. I believe a lot of what I'm saying is rather similar to what I read in this article, but I hope I'm adding something of Happy Powerpoint Templates value. Now a link to the original posts, though I think it's unneccessary:-

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2008-02-26 16:31. Having thought about this further, I think there's a slight correction I need to make. When I use the analogy, I assert value in the form of Star creative cost, and then I use two different examples of such, the Physician Questions And Answers invention of Coke, and the creation of Star Assessment - 7+ some kind of work. It makes for a good analogy, but I may have fallen prey to Free Happy Powerpoint, the whole grouping IP together fallacy. Now, Coke have chosen not to patent their formula, but the Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf fact that the Templates patent was available to them remains.

However, if it were something infinitely reproducible, then, in Star - 7+ Documents the same way it has for software, patent law would be subject to real, mainstream debate, which is a way in which we can only wish copyright would behave. Excel Template Free Template? A Coke xeroxing machine would, in fact, (or at least I would hope so) be seen as a whole new invention having merits of its own. Consequently, while parallels can be drawn between patent and copyright, that is not to say that the same course of action should be taken for both. Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+? While both are about providing incentive to creators, patent is Excel Template Dashboard Free Task Tracking Spreadsheet, indeed wholly different; and, more crucially, the current patent system is Template Free Documents, viable, while the copyright system certainly is not. The current patent system is viable?? . the current patent system is viable ? Those who have the most experience with it are the Happy Easter ones most likely to disagree with this statement :-). I tend to think that abstract economic analyses (I've made many myself, so I'm guilty too) of creativity vs products vs distribution, etc, miss the Star - 7+ main point: We've just built a world-wide copying machine.

It makes perfect copies every time, and Church Flyer Template, costs almost nothing per-copy. So, are we going to let ourselves use it or not? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2008-02-27 07:32. I'm sorry, I was just afraid I'd made a mistake in drawing a parallel in the way that I did, so I basically tried to cover my tracks as far as that parallel was concerned, and it didn't really help. Sure, one might say that the core principle is that we have this world-wide copying machine and it would make no sense whatsoever to limit its use, but I think analysis such as mine helps to understand how society can adapt to its presence. I think that what analysing the value behind products like digital media offers us at the least a viable outlook on how people can be reimbursed for their work, even an overall idea as to how a business can produce digital media and give it away for free. The basic principle for a business would be a simple one - harnessing the social value of the product to Star Assessment - 7+, repay the creative cost, and make a profit as well. Sure, I understand what you're saying, but I also think we tend to fetishize familiar economic models -- indeed, we fetishize economic value itself, forgetting that economics is as capable of adjusting to new policy as policy is to Template Free, economics. Here's another way to think about it: If it were the mid-1400s right now, but instead of inventing the printing press, Gutenberg had somehow invented the Internet, would anyone ever seriously have proposed anything resembling copyright law?

No, surely not. Free circulation of texts, etc, had been the norm up till then. The only restrictions were physical: how quickly and how accurately you or your scribes could copy. There is Sample Star Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, no reason to think that the appearance of a perfect, global copying machine into that environment would have led to Best Resume Microsoft On, an urge to restrict sharing (except for purposes of political censorship, of Star course, but that's not an acceptable motivation today). When the printing press (not the Template Free Task Tracking Template Internet) did appear, it had certain physical limitations, and economics and policy both adjusted to that. Star Assessment - 7+ In Pdf? Now those limitations are gone -- not merely alleviated, but entirely obliterated. Economics can adjust again to the real world, as it should. The 10 Images About Templates Microsoft? To argue that we should preserve economics adjustments that were designed specifically around earlier physical limitations implies that either the adjustments or the limitations still serve some purpose, but if so, what? The mere preservation of Sample Assessment Template - 7+ In Pdf a business model seems to me to be a weak goal. If the value we attribute to copyrighted works today partly depends on Animated Powerpoint Free, the monopoly restrictions of Assessment - 7+ Documents copyright, then where in Yahtzee Ideas this accounting do we figure in the negative number -- that is, the inverse value of those who wished to copy and make derivative works but couldn't? (Like Eldred, the Sample Star Assessment Template In Pdf publisher in Eldred vs Ashcroft, for example; see the Ghost Works article for another example. ) What bothers me is so-called economic analyses that leave out whole sides of the equations, and calculate value using the narrowly-defined formulas with which the publishing industry determines its profits.

Those don't represent value from Free Powerpoint Templates society's point of view, they only represent the Star Template Free Documents value to one party in a multi-party transaction. If we're going to do economic analysis, let's do it for | Graphicriver real, instead of Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf letting the terms be defined in such a way that the outcome is The 10 Best Free Resume Templates Microsoft Word, a foregone conclusion! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2008-03-03 03:37. Well, I guess that's basically what I was trying to do - include a broader definition of value in - 7+ my analysis, and see where that lead. It still gave me the same conclusions that you came up with - everyone with a stake in the issue needs to realise that the current copyright model is unneccessary, and ineffective. Yup. Sorry, I get too caught up in tactics sometimes (and have been debating economists perhaps a bit too much lately -- it makes for bad reflexes :-) ). The 10 About Resume Templates Microsoft Word? I didn't mean to imply that you had come to Sample Star Assessment Documents In Pdf, a conclusion other than the one you came to.

Submitted by Church Template By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2008-07-11 16:13. I dont think that the current patent system is viable at all. The way it is set up it only Sample Star Free Documents In Pdf serves the purpose of making sure copyright lawyers drive mercedes instead of Radiologist Physician Questions And Answers honda. Do you have any idea how much it costs to get pattent protection? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free Documents, Wed, 2008-09-24 08:21. This is an interesting article, when it comes to japanese animation industry, the fansub community (represented by some web sites like AnimeSuki and Fansub-BT) are having some troubles with copyright owners when they translate unlicensed animes into different languages but it really helps the industry in choosing what anime they need to buy a license on a specific country. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2008-04-13 07:07. A friend and I were actually talking about the subject of Copyrights and she sent me a link to your article. Very interesting points you've made and Church | Graphicriver, I have to Template - 7+ In Pdf, say that my stance on the topic has changed considerably as a result of your arguments.

Submitted by Flyer Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2008-05-03 21:25. Bingo this is exactly what I was after, answered a lot of questions I was pondering about. very neat paper definitely adding this to bookmarks as I'll be covering this subject more in Star Template - 7+ depth next semester. Submitted by Top 10 Radiologist Interview Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2008-05-23 09:52. The copyright of a work is initially assigned to the person(s) that created it. Selling the copyright (the work) to a publisher is one major way a creative person makes money from their work. Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free In Pdf? Prices publishers pay for 14 Best Animated Powerpoint copyrighted works have to Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ Documents, do with their marketability just like any business. A song by the Rolling Stones will bring more money than a song by the local high school rock band. A new book by J.K.

Rowling commands a bigger rate than, say, a book by you. No one I know is making money off of what you call the The 10 Images Resume Microsoft On free stream. It gets a lot of ink from Internet types but no creative person is making money on it. Suggested donation? the Template Free day I can buy my groceries with a suggested donation is the day I'll allow a suggested donation for my labor. Anyone else out there want to turn their paycheck into Best Ideas Like | Free, a suggested donation? how much have you made with your paypal donate button on this site??

I am not the RIAA, I am not a corporation. Star Assessment - 7+ Free In Pdf? What you are describing here would take away my ability to feed my family. And if you ever succeeded in doing that you would soon see how fast your battle for Best 25+ Free Ideas That Like On Pinterest | Free copyright would become a personal one. I've made my living for about 15 years from the free stream. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2008-10-26 02:52. Obviously you are talking from a very personal point of view and no-one would deny your right to feed your family but there must be better ways of implementing copyright laws than the way they are today. With the reach of the internet, they simply are not enforceable anyway. Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf? Anything you can get your hands on in data form (words, code, music etc) you can get for free on Excel Template Dashboard Free Tracking Spreadsheet, the net and some countries do not respect the copyright of Star Template - 7+ Free Documents others so what are we to do?

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2010-01-18 06:16. copyright is not needed to Free Happy Templates, protect from Template Documents In Pdf fraud. the best protection is knowing the reputation of Interview those you work with just like all other businesses not protected by Sample Assessment Template Free Documents In Pdf copyright. copyright will become obsolete as more authors and artists make their works of authorship(information) freely available on the internet as an advertisement for Church Flyer Template By Seraphimchris the sale of a packaging(physical object) or service(presentation or website or concert) which embodies the information. with millions of creative works being published every single day, modern musicians or authors should fear obscurity. far more than piracy. authors who insist on Sample Assessment Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf, being monopolists of information will eventually fail and those who are able to get their information copied and in widespread usage will thrive. 14 Best Photos Of Snow Animated Powerpoint Free? this is how things were before copyright existed. if copyright was abolished then the - 7+ Free In Pdf internet would become a vast source of information for everyone to access and to use and to benefit from Top 10 as it should be in Sample Star Documents a free society. society has decided that it will not be deprived of the. free flow of information. this is called progress and Of Snow Powerpoint Free, you cannot stop it. what society needs to do now is abolish copyright to Sample Template - 7+, stop the cruel and arbitrary punishment from copyright infringement. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Radiologist Interview Questions And Answers, Thu, 2010-08-12 08:58. It's apparent that you have no understanding of the Sample Assessment - 7+ Free Documents real music industry. You've obviously never sat in a room alone with a musical instrument and a blank page and emerge hours later with art so powerful it changes lives, encourages the hopeless or time stamps a special memory.

This act of creativity takes years or even decades to perfect. Your theory suggests that if I master quantum physics and just because I have the technology to move objects that were designed, created and manufactured by others who spent countless hours perfecting their skills, then it would be justified to share with everyone for the good of the people. I find it amusing that advocates of free music and Free Happy Powerpoint, those who frown upon Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Free copyright law like, Chris Anderson, are still charging me for my Wired Magazine subscriptions. Excel Template? Your post sounds like a socialist agenda but please humor me and enlighten me step by step, (which I will outline the process for you below) as to how this aforementioned artist would be able to, not only support themselves, but underwrite the associated costs. Let's assume the artist is already established so we won't have the argument that, Well maybe this artist doesn't have what it takes. Artist writes a song that by today's standards feels like a hit.

The artist will need to record the song and will either have to purchase a computer with recording software and learn how to engineer or go to the local recording studio, which is Sample Template - 7+, like the chicken or the egg scenario. Recording studios exists because the income artists receive from selling music flows back to other professionals like engineers, photographers, graphic design etc… This is why so many recording studios no longer exist. Artist pays modestly 20k to record one song, which includes the studio, an Radiologist Interview Questions engineer, a mix engineer, 4 musicians, a producer, background vocalists etc. Depending on the song, this would be the bottom-line budget by today's standards. If strings, horns or specialty instruments are needed, that would be additional costs. Basic strings will cost 7500.00 to 15k per session. Lastly, travel costs for the artist would likely be added above this budget, so let's say the artist is all-in for 25k. Artist now goes on Template Free Documents, the road to promote the Excel Template Dashboard Task Spreadsheet song. The travel cost associated with touring is complex and Assessment Free Documents, involves hundreds of people who depend on getting paid as well.

However, now that the Template | Graphicriver song is finished and the artist is Sample Star Assessment Template Documents In Pdf, ready to promote the song, we give the song away for free online. Please tell me how said artist gets paid or even recoups production costs. If you're telling me that word of mouth will make people go buy the music at iTunes, that's not realistic. I have an artist with 60 million youtube views. We sold 50k singles last year because everyone knows they can get it for free on youtube.

Guess who's making the Free Templates money there? Tell me how not only the artist, but the producer, writer, musicians, photographer, graphic designer, marketing department, booking agent and Sample Template Free Documents In Pdf, all others associated with making the one piece of music gets paid if we're to give it away? Submitted by The 10 About Free Microsoft Word Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2010-08-12 16:53. Maybe that artist should make music for Sample Star Assessment Template Documents hire instead of Easter making it without pay and then expecting people to pay him? You don't agree to do any other service before some form of payment is Template - 7+ Free Documents, established do you? Fund and release. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2008-06-16 04:21. Just wanted to let you know that we posted a large part of your article at LawMatters.in.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2008-06-18 13:53. Great articles and comments, how can I translate it in Template Spreadsheet Template another language? I mean, am I allowed to Assessment Template Documents In Pdf, translate it and Microsoft Word, post it on my web site if I send you the address and Sample Assessment Template Free, all? Re: Translation into 14 Best Free, more languages. Free copyright means free copyright: you don't have to ask my permission to make translations. I'd appreciate it if you'd send back a link if you do, though, so we can point people to it. Submitted by Sample Template Documents Anonymous (not verified) on Best 25+ Free Yahtzee Ideas That You Will Like On Pinterest | Free, Thu, 2008-06-19 16:17. A distinction needs to be made between different kinds of Sample Assessment - 7+ Free media and creativity. Written material is Images Microsoft Word, extremely easy to duplicate and tag your name to as compared to more 'live' material such as music and video.

For example, a site such as Sean Nalewanyj - the guy's entire income is dependent upon the fact that he INDEED is the author of the Star Assessment Template - 7+ program in question. If there was no copyright, tons of people could simply stick their name up on the program and Excel Template Tracking, start selling it. On the Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ Documents other hand, it is rather obvious that there is a HUGE difference between sharing content and Best Images Free Resume Templates Word On, copying content. Sample Star Template Documents? As time goes on, I'm sure the The 10 Best About Free Microsoft distinction will become clearer and many of these issues will start dying down. Good article nonetheless! Re: A distinction needs to be made. You're confusing copyright with protection from plagiarism. They're unrelated: one is about making copies, the Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ other is about attribution.

Anyway, if someone is Top 10 Radiologist Questions, going to falsely claim authorship of a work, then they'll falsely claim the copyright at the same time. All the copyright laws in the world won't help the original author then -- the Sample Assessment - 7+ case needs to be prosecuted as fraud. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2008-07-09 11:58. They're fighting to maintain a state of mind, an attitude toward creative work . You've got it in a nutshell, right there. That's the crux of the issue. Until the creative community can foster a different state of mind, the insanity of current copyright enforcement will continue. Submitted by Free Templates Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-07-10 11:33. Copyright is a legal concept, enacted by governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time, after which the work enters the public domain. Generally, it is the right to copy, but also gives the Star Free copyright holder the right to be credited for the work, to determine who may adapt the Relationships: By Seraphimchris work to other forms, who may perform the Star In Pdf work, who may financially benefit from it, and other, related rights. It is an intellectual property form (like the patent, the The 10 Best Images Free Microsoft Word On trademark, and the trade secret) applicable to Assessment Documents In Pdf, any expressible form of an idea or information that is substantive and discrete. i hope we get this prtected as we protect our kids and save this for our future. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Questions, Wed, 2009-06-03 07:24.

A century of censorship is hardly a limited amount of time. That means artists can live their whole lives without ever being able to participate in Sample Star Assessment Template Documents In Pdf the culture they exist in. Your kids won't be able to create art that has anything to Free Easter Templates, do with the art owned by Assessment Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf corporations during their lifetimes. Creative Commons and New Music Business Models. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-02-11 10:51. I offer all my songs under the Best 25+ Free You Will On Pinterest | Free Creative Commons because as an Template Free independent music producer I am well aware of the changing of the tides you have mentioned. The fact is 14 Best Photos Of Snow Animated Powerpoint Templates, that the Internet, Peer 2 peer networks are comparable to one big radio station that is great for promoting artists (my site increases in traffic daily), but bad, bad, bad for record companies. So whats my business model? Same as any blog, and my music gets the word out.

Re: Creative Commons and New Music Business Models. Submitted by Star Assessment Template Documents In Pdf Anonymous (not verified) on Best Images Free, Fri, 2010-10-22 17:43. What sort of donations do you receive on average per download? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2009-06-21 01:17. You have made good article to share. I will destribute it to my friends via email. I think in the today's modern industry of technology and internet it is almost impossible to Assessment - 7+ Documents In Pdf, stop unauthorised destribution. That is because everyone can place any content over Happy Powerpoint the internet and - 7+ Documents, people will not pay any money if they are getting the Free Happy Easter same thing for free. Sample Template Free In Pdf? However, i never knew the history of copyright and i surprised that the copyright is Radiologist And Answers, not for authors, but for destributor companies. End of something, but maybe not copyright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2009-11-02 10:24.

I think you'll find that a large portion of creators who seek another way are abandoning, not copyright, but publishers. They retain their copyright, and one of the big reasons is to protect themselves from someone taking a copy commercial and then opening an Sample Assessment Template Free Documents In Pdf expensive war against the sharers. Look carefully, for example, at the GNU General Public License (the copyleft) and you will see that it cannot operate without the existence of copyright *and its retention by the creator*. Other models are possible. There's nothing to Yahtzee Ideas You Will On Pinterest, prevent an author offering a limited-term exclusive license to publish his work while retaining copyright, including the right to offer other licenses to others when the term of Assessment Template - 7+ exclusivity has expired. Can that sort of agreement be used to optimize the benefit to the author? Beats me, but I'm sure that someone will try it, if it hasn't been tried already. But again it depends on the author's copyright -- he just uses it differently. Without copyright, there would be only *one* viable business model: the if you liked this, you might send me some money model.

Works for some, maybe not for others. Excel Free Task? Let's keep copyright and encourage creators to use it *ahem* creatively, and see what develops. There's a different axis for free culture. End of something, but maybe not copyright. There are many business models that work without monopolizing content. We've documented real-life examples of some of Documents them here (see the Photos Animated Templates Free Sita Distribution Project results, for example). You're writing from the Sample Free perspective that this is just a matter of the author's choice, that whatever the Flyer author chooses to do is okay, isn't it great how the Internet gives authors so many more possibilities today, etc. It is great, but the Internet also gives everyone more possibilities: authors, sometime authors, readers, filmmakers, composers, everyone.

The argument we're making is in essence a civil rights argument, not an Sample Assessment Documents In Pdf economics argument: why should anyone (publisher, author, author's estate, etc) have a monopoly over what you can do with your copies? Or what I can do? Given that there are so many more ways to 14 Best Of Snow, use copies now than there used to be, it doesn't make sense to monopolize them. I wasn't sure what you meant about taking a copy commercial and then opening an expensive war against the sharers. Without copyright, how would one wage war against sharers? The GNU GPL and other copyleft licenses do not fundamentally depend on copyright; they could be implemented without copyright too very easily. See this article excerpt for more on that. Re: End of something, but maybe not copyright. Submitted by Assessment Free Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-12-09 10:48. I think the question here--and I'm curious about Flyer Template, this, too--is how to make sure others follow the CC license, or whatever license the author uses.

For example, what would happen if Paramount Pictures decided to issue Sita Sings the Blues on a DVD and Assessment Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf, copyright it. Then Paramount's lawyers started issuing Cease and Best 25+ Free Ideas That You Will, Desist orders to the file sharers and other DVD distributors. (This is a pretty extreme example, I know.) How is the CC license enforced? Who keeps somebody else from Copyrighting your work? I know Nina Paley is the author of Sita, but technically what could she do to stop this? I almost think she (or any other author) would then, oddly enough, rely on the existing copyright laws to stop them. Is this correct? Just curious. Re: End of something, but maybe not copyright. Falsely claiming copyright or authorship is like any other kind of fraud. What keeps me from claiming to be you?

It's difficult to do it successfully, and there's a good chance that if you catch me, you'll have me punished (and after all, proving your case is easy -- once a fraud is detected, there's rarely any difficulty to Sample Star Template, prove it, since the closer people look, the Best Images About Free Resume Templates Word On more fraudulent the Assessment fraud appears). This dynamic is as true with copyright as with anything else. Another way to say it is, this has nothing to do with free licenses. If copyright were so easy to Top 10 Radiologist Physician Interview, steal, then it would happen all the time for the traditional restrictive licenses too. Star Template - 7+ Free In Pdf? The reason it doesn't is that fraud is hard to Template Free Task Template, do right. Re: End of something, but maybe not copyright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-12-16 10:00. Okay. I guess that makes sense.

BTW, I'm very much in favor of the Creative Commons license model, but, I just want to understand, legally, how it works.I know my example above about Paramount seemed abusrd, but there are smaller examples of things like this happening. I know of a company that colorized a 1936 public domain film, then tried to claim that it had restored the copyright on it--even the Sample Assessment Free In Pdf original Black and White version. I don't know if it would hold up in court or not, but cease and desist letters can scare distributors and Free Happy Powerpoint Templates, websites away from hosting material. In this case, they weren't claiming authorship, but they were claiming ownership. - 7+ Documents In Pdf? Now, I know we're not talking about Public Domain material here. Templates Free? But, what exactly are we talking about? I am going to make a film soon which I want to Assessment In Pdf, release for free with a CC-pro license. Do I need to Copyright it first? Is there any other legal means to claim authorship?I don't mind doing so, but it does make me wonder about the 14 Best Photos Animated Free wisdom of Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free In Pdf abolishing all copyright laws, if, in the end, we still rely on The 10 Best About Free Resume Word On, them to legally claim authorship of our work. Would everything otherwise become Public Domain, with a hope that people abide by the CC license?Does my question make sense?

Re: End of something, but maybe not copyright. Your question doesn't make sense -- but it's not your fault, it's the Assessment Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf fault of the rather confusing copyright system. First of all, you automatically get copyright for what you produce. You don't need to register copyright, or pay a fee; technically you don't even have to put a copyright notice on the work, though for various reasons your life will be easier if you do. It's automatically copyrighted by you no matter what. What license terms you choose, though, is up to you.

(Remember, this is not about Church By Seraphimchris, claiming authorship. You claim authorship by putting your name on the work. That's independent of copyright. Even if you released the work to the public domain (i.e., explicitly gave up your copyright), you would still be the work's author. Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free Documents? Tolstoy's works are in the public domain, not under copyright at all, but Tolstoy is still known as their author. So you have to separate the idea of claiming authorship from claiming the right to restrict people from copying the work. Those are two totally different things.) Now, copyright is The 10 Best Images About Free Resume Templates Word, currently the Sample Star Template Free Documents only mechanism the law offers by Excel Template Free Template which you can enforce a sharing-friendly license (i.e., a license that says derivative works must be freely shareable too). So, use a copyright license, no problem. Someday, as described in that excerpt I referenced earlier, the law may provide you another way to Star - 7+ Free, encourage sharing, in which case you could switch to 25+ Free That Like On Pinterest | Free, using that way.

Choosing a free license is not an endorsement of the copyright system. It is a use of the copyright system to Assessment - 7+ Documents, achieve something that copyright was not designed for. Free Easter Powerpoint Templates? If there were no copyright in the first place, there would be no need for your license to Template - 7+ In Pdf, specify that sharing is okay, because sharing would automatically be okay in the first place. Re: End of Top 10 Physician Interview something, but maybe not copyright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sample Template Documents, Sun, 2010-01-31 18:18. Proving fraud is not easy. Ask a lawyer. Currently, the article The Street Performer Protocol and Digital Copyrights can be found at Excel Template Tracking Template, http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/673/583. Fixed now, thank you. I'm an undergraduate student who became interested in this issue after watching Nina Paley's Sita Sings the Blues which, I might add, was a brilliant film. Recently I have begun work on my term paper for a Social Sciences class on this subject, and I have been using this article as well as the video talk you gave as some of Sample Star - 7+ Documents my references.

I am also planning my presentation on this topic, and want to cover all my bases. To that end, there is one question I have so far, specifically with incentives for creation and other methods of profit. You said that singers hold concerts which provide them with additional income, and there is 14 Best Photos, Ms. Star Free? Paley who has grants and funds. I'm not sure if you have already mentioned it, but what are alternatives for writers? Thanks in advance for Church Template | Graphicriver your time, I hope it's an easy question to answer!

newspaperkiosk.com link is Sample - 7+ In Pdf, dead and seemed to be something else. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2010-04-21 04:56. A great and well-reasoned article. many thanks for laying these points down so clearly. However, http://www.newspaperkiosk.com/ is dead and now redirects to some domain name holding company, while search engines claim that it used to be a site for Best Yahtzee Ideas Like On Pinterest | Free Publication racks and newspaper kiosks for sale in durable hardwood (!) A current example of paper print-on-demand is Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+, www.lulu.com. Re: newspaperkiosk.com link is dead and seemed to be . Thanks, Martin. I'll make a note in the reference. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Free Resume Templates Microsoft Word, Fri, 2010-05-21 01:11. Re: The Surprising History of Sample - 7+ Free Documents Copyright and Best Ideas That You Will Like, The Promise of a . Thank you so much! We link to it from the translations list at Assessment Free Documents In Pdf, the top now. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Of Snow Templates Free, Fri, 2010-06-11 04:25.

Well done admin! Removing the comments that showed the one fatal flaw in Sample Star Assessment Free In Pdf your plight for the use of copyrighted material?, let's all welcome hypocritical censorship as in sixteenth-century England. Do you remember what your comment said? Please repost if you have it (our editorial policy explicitly asks you to save copies, in The 10 Templates Microsoft Word case we accidentally delete something). The volume of spam comments we get insures that there will be occasional accidental deletions of non-spam. If you're volunteering to help us filter the spam, then you get to complain :-). Note that our comment policy (which is displayed when you make a comment) says we don't promise to publish every comment. Failing to publish someone's comment is not the same as censorship. Electrons are cheap; you're free to get your own web site. Nonetheless, we wouldn't have knowingly deleted a good comment.

So if you still have yours, please repost. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2010-06-11 13:23. Do you remember what your comment said? Please repost if you have it (our editorial policy explicitly asks you to save copies, in case we accidentally delete something). I do remember what my comments said, but I will gladly look up the posts from my original backups to confirm. The volume of spam comments we get insures that there will be occasional accidental deletions of non-spam. Template Free Documents? If you're volunteering to help us filter the spam, then you get to complain :-).

The volume of spam comments shows just how easy your site can be exploited, perhaps you should put your finger on the real pulse of the Internet and avoid such spam?. I will gladly volunteer to help with anything, but if you persist in deleting 'spam' comments from a comment poster along with responses by a resident artist (Nina Paley), just what exactly is accidental about that? Note that our comment policy (which is Template Free Task Tracking Template, displayed when you make a comment) says we don't promise to publish every comment. Failing to publish someone's comment is not the same as censorship. The comment (actually plural) was (= comments were) published. You were clearly cornered, Nina Paley attempted two feeble counters, but she failed miserably. Electrons are cheap; you're free to get your own web site. I have my own website, in fact I have much more, please DO NOT use the loser response (so let's brush off the hecklers) when you are surely beyond that. Nonetheless, we wouldn't have knowingly deleted a good comment. So if you still have yours, please repost.

I do not think a repost is justifiable just yet, a stunning post which counters your basic principles is obviously just too much for you to grasp at present. As an alternative, I'll give you time to rethink your basic strategy towards your goal. Trying to 'cloud over' the Sample Assessment Template Free Bible quote with copyright is a very poor response, with your resources you should know that copyright on Physician Interview Questions And Answers, the Bible is in most cases restricted to 'derivative', my original (deleted) comments were in Sample Star Template Free Documents In Pdf fact copyrighted to me as the author of a 'derivative'. If you are going to fight for Questions something, make sure you cover ALL bases against attack!, counter ALL attacks successfully and Assessment Template Documents In Pdf, you might just win. It's true: the That You Will Like admin accidentally deleted a comment thread including replies by me, in which I eloquently proved you, Anonymous, were a big fat poopy-head. Tragically, those comments are gone forever, leaving you with the false impression that I am a big fat poopy head. Oh cruel fate! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2010-06-18 09:31. It's true: the admin accidentally deleted a comment thread including replies by me, in which I eloquently proved you, Anonymous, were a big fat poopy-head. It appears that your idea of eloquence is weak replies along with immature insults including what some would consider prejudice against Star Assessment - 7+ Free Documents, people with weight disorders.

Your 'accidentally deleted' replies proved nothing about me of course, but certainly proved something much more substantial about questioncopyright.org. Tragically, those comments are gone forever Fortunately those comments are not gone forever, because as someone who owns and maintains several websites - I backup EVERYTHING (especially any web pages with which I participate). leaving you with the false impression that I am a big fat poopy head. Unless you consider mind reading a part of your talents you have absolutely no idea what true or false impressions I have of you, but your entire post does leave an outstanding impression of professionalism for Excel Task Tracking Spreadsheet Template public consumption. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2010-07-22 06:39. Thank you very much for the free work shared in this website. Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free In Pdf? I?ll pack some of your content and will sell this nice free work and make some profit. Excel Dashboard Free? Yep, some people dont have time (or patience) to dig your site, so I will offer a compilation and make mone with your free work, selling this compilation. Thank you again! Thank YOU!

Packaging and distributing books is a lot of work, and Star Template - 7+ In Pdf, demands upfront monetary investment. 14 Best Animated Powerpoint? Glad you're willing to take the financial risk on behalf of our message. Submitted by Star Assessment Free Documents In Pdf Anonymous (not verified) on Flyer Template By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver, Thu, 2010-07-22 08:47. No, no. No financial risk, no work either! I?ll just copy and past the work in a DVD or CD and sell it.

Or even setup a paid download. And I will ask you to not get pissed, because I?ll use your work to make money, but will never share it with you. Assessment Template - 7+ In Pdf? Sue me! OOps, without a copyright law this will be quite impossible. :^) If burning DVDs and setting up paid downloads is Church Flyer, no work for you, great. It's work for me. I say, go for it! Then come back and tell us how much $$$ you made.

I promise I won't sue - selling copies of my work doesn't violate the CC-BY-SA license. Seriously. Go crazy. Star Template - 7+ Free? I kid you not. Why are you still reading this? Get burnin' and sellin'! You've got big bucks to Relationships: Template By Seraphimchris, make!

Re: I?ll sell your free work Why give him $ when it#039;s free here? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2011-02-25 10:03. I'll just download the entire article for Star Assessment - 7+ free at this website instead of Happy Easter Powerpoint giving this. Jackass any of my money. Thank you for a monumental and interesting body of work that we will be linking to. Re: I?ll sell your free work Why give him $ when it#039;s free here? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2011-03-06 23:35. You appear to be missing the point of the Star article completely. The idea is that having the information spread freely is a good thing.

So if you want to make a copy and Interview Questions, try to make money off it, thats great! It means it will be seen and enjoyed by more people. If you end up making lots of money from it, we would be HAPPY ( aside from your attitude about it being rather hostile). The point is that sharing is good. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sample Assessment Free Documents, Thu, 2010-07-22 08:39. Because this cause is clearly socialist, and as an artist that cant manage to pay the bills with utopic ideas, I would like to ask what is the amount of artists that jumped in to this cause? I mean REAL artists, that spends lots of money and time studing his art? Any with children to grow up?

Any that pay taxes? If I would like to share my production freely, I dont need any change in the law, I just give it. Abolition of the copyright laws only benefit copiers (i.e. parasites). Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Top 10 Radiologist, Tue, 2010-08-17 05:37. Actually, many libertarians and classical liberals question copyright on philosophical or economic grounds. For example, See N. Stephen Kinsella's essay Against Intellectual Property. In short, he believes the concept of intellectual property weakens both physical property, and basic freedoms like freedom of speech. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2010-10-15 10:57. I enjoyed most of the Assessment In Pdf article, but you have the Statute of Anne completely inside-out, and it really weakens your case.

Consider the Yahtzee That You Will real story: First off, it's extremely disingenuous to Star Template Documents, refer to the Stationers' law as a copyright measure. It doesn't resemble what we think of as copyright in any way. True copyright began with the Statute of Anne, not the Stationers. The Stationers' publishing monopoly may have been based on Free Powerpoint Templates, censorship, but it also proved to be a highly efficient way to encourage the creation and Star Assessment - 7+ Free, distribution of Physician Interview Questions And Answers books. Because it worked well, much better than patronage, by the time the Stationers' monopoly ended, the Star Assessment Template Free In Pdf patronage system was on the way out. The monopoly had done a great deal of damage to the system, but with it gone, and no strong, viable alternative, all that remained was anarchy. When anyone with a press could publish a written work, that frequently turned out to be exactly what happened.

And without regulatory laws and contracts to keep them in Church Flyer Template By Seraphimchris line, they would publish their works under their own terms, frequently without any compensation to the authors. The simple truth is Star Assessment In Pdf, that authors asked for a copyright law in The 10 Images About Free Templates Word On order to keep the publishing houses from abusing expensive modern technology that wasn't generally available (the printing press) to their detriment and, quite frequently, their financial ruin. Template Free In Pdf? Once authors were able to harness the publishing companies, they could use the The 10 Best Images About Microsoft Word law to suppress abusive publishers and be able to maintain an income based on Assessment Template Documents, their work. Parliament passed it with a very important provision: the expiration date. Template Dashboard Task Template? (Would a group of publishers seeking the restoration of a perpetual monopoly really lobby for one?) The idea is not to use copyright as an incentive to get authors to Sample Star - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, create works, but as an incentive to get authors to enrich the public domain ; the same idea that's been used so successfully (originally, at least,) in patents. When you see the origins of copyright as a means to And Answers, suppress the abuses of publishing companies rather than enable them, then the true scope of the abominations they've perpetrated over the last 40 years or so becomes clear. The Statute of Anne was developed for the explicit purpose of Sample Star Assessment - 7+ preventing wealthy publishing companies from abusing expensive modern technology to the detriment of authors. Relationships: Template? (It even says so in the preamble.) And ever since then, they've been patiently working to restore status quo ante.

The Digital Millenium Copyright Act finally brings things full circle: It was developed for Sample Template - 7+ Free Documents the explicit purpose of permitting wealthy publishing companies to abuse expensive modern technology, to the detriment of not only authors but the general public. That's the The 10 Best Images About On story that you need to Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free Documents, be telling. The publishers have turned a legal tool meant to keep them under control into a tool by which they can control the rest of us. The DMCA turns both law and Top 10, common sense inside-out. DRM takes the Assessment Template - 7+ Free Documents control of a computer's functionality out of the hands of the computer's owner, overriding it and bending it to Physician Questions And Answers, the will of some other programmer, against the owner's will. In any other context, this is known as computer hacking, and it's a serious crime. Instead, the DMCA arbitrarily declares that this is legal, and that it is in fact a crime for a computer owner to reassert their own natural right to control of their property by disabling or bypassing the hacker's DRM software. Copyright, as originally conceived, is Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Free In Pdf, a good idea, both for authors and for society as a whole.

The only people it harms are the publishers, and this is by design. That's why they've spent so much effort to work on Happy Easter, changing it ever since it was invented. We need to work to Assessment Template Documents, restore it, to roll back the abusive mutations that have been introduced to the law, not abolishing it and leaving another power vacuum like the Powerpoint one that led to the creation of copyright law in Free Documents the first place. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2010-11-14 19:45. Hi, Anonymous; thanks for your critique. Resume Word? (I'd love some sources for those points, if you have time to give them.) I don't completely agree, because there are important respects in which the original Stationers' monopolies really were like copyrights: they were treated as property by the Stationers themselves, within the Company. The resemblance is too strong to Assessment - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, pass over unremarked. Also, the driving force behind the Statute of Anne was primarily the publishers, not authors. It is true that some authors understandably felt abused by printers, and this shaped the statute, but there seem to Top 10 Questions And Answers, have been very few authors -- who were not also Stationers, that is -- directly lobbying for the model in the Statute of Anne.

Indeed, it would have made much more sense for authors to argue for a mandatory royalty rate and some statutory protections as to integrity of content, rather than for Template Free a transferable monopoly. Yet we ended up with a transferable monopoly. Why? Because the model was designed for the sustainability of the publishing industry, not for authorship per se. Thus it seems to Best 25+ Free Like, me more accurate to Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+ Free, say that the Excel Free Task Tracking Template Statute of Anne was essentially a publisher-driven law that contained important concessions to Assessment - 7+, authors and to the public domain in order to get passed.

Undoing both types of concessions has been the great project of the content industry in modern times. I think I actually agree with you that it was a good idea for its time. But today, when we have a zero-marginal-cost, worldwide copying and editing machine, the opportunity cost of copyright is much higher -- even of copyright as originally formulated by the Statute of Anne. If instead of the printing press, the Internet had been invented in the 1400s, I do not think we would see a development like copyright, because it wouldn't make much economic sense. Relationships: Flyer Template By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver? The right thing to do today is Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, not simply to restore copyright to its former balance, because it was only balanced in world that is Flyer, now vanished. We need much more fundamental reform than that, to make copyright in the Internet age compatible with freedom of speech and with people's clear desire to Sample Star Template Free Documents, share information and art without artificial restrictions.

-Karl Fogel (too lazy to log in, so just signing here) Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Happy Easter, Sat, 2010-10-30 01:55. There's an amazing book by Sample Assessment In Pdf Eckhard Hoffner Geschichte und Wesen des Urheberrechts (ISBN-10 : 3930893169). I'm afraid it's not yet available in english, but hopefully it will be some day. Hoffner claims that the rise of germany from a rather insignificant agrarian nation to an economic super power during the 19th century is mainly due to the absence of copyright in Best Resume Word On germany during that time, causing an explosion of wisdom.

Hoffner gives numerous intersting examples and comparisons to other countries of that time. The book is just as eye-opening as this great article by kfogel. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of Sample Template Documents a . Submitted by Photos Of Snow Animated Powerpoint Templates Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2010-11-14 19:47. Thanks! Yes, we've been hearing a lot about that book. I'd like to read it. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . By the Sample Star - 7+ Free In Pdf way, in a world without copyright restrictions, you wouldn't have to hope that someday Eckhard Hoffner's book will be available in English. 25+ Free Yahtzee On Pinterest | Free? Instead, anyone who wanted to translate it could do so -- and probably would: see this article for more about what happens when spontaneous translation is permitted.

Re: The Surprising History of Sample Star Assessment Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Radiologist Physician Interview Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2010-11-03 01:41. Re: The Surprising History of Assessment - 7+ Free Documents Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2010-11-14 19:48. Minor correction to above comment: though many articles on this site are by Free Happy Templates Nina Paley, this one isn't (it's by Karl Fogel). Re: The Surprising History of Sample Star Assessment Free Copyright and The Promise of a . Yes! Karl Fogel wrote this article, not me. It certainly influenced me.

Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2012-05-01 06:33. yes you are right. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Physician And Answers Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2011-01-19 18:23. Well, there's so much here to comment on, but I would point out that despite all the talk about protecting the artist, I haven't heard of any artist actually receiving any payment from sync or mechanical rights. The recording companies keep these. In fact, Roger McGuinn of the Byrds testified before Congress that he hadn't received one cent of promised royalties from the Byrds' albums despite the albums being in Sample Star Assessment Documents print continuously for Powerpoint Templates over 40 years! The record company keeps telling him that the Sample Assessment records haven't made a profit yet, as if it would be logical to keep something in print for Relationships: Church By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver 40 years that hasn't made money! So now, McGuinn releases his songs over the Internet and controls all of his rights and Star Assessment - 7+ In Pdf, collects all of his money.

Copyrights use to be only 20 years like patents. Thanks to the movie and recording industries, they've pushed corporate copyrights terms to 95 (!) years and individual copyrights to 150 years (or more). And nothing new has entered the public domain since 1998, nor will it until 2018 (if there isn't another copyright revision). The whole idea of copyright wasn't to Easter Powerpoint, tie up the rights so creative works would be squirreled away for a century. If a book publisher drops a book, the author can find another publisher. Sample Star Assessment - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf? But if a record company drops an artist, it keeps their recordings forever. It's not right. These films and recordings are our national culture.

Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and Free Happy Easter Powerpoint, The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2011-02-06 20:53. So could I treat it like this: Authors have the right to Star Documents In Pdf, keep secret. THose who want to share the secret should comply with the Flyer Template By Seraphimchris authors' terms and conditions. The terms and Sample Star Template Documents In Pdf, conditions was to be made in Best Ideas On Pinterest synergy with the law as a whole. Secrets that were made public by the authors were not secrets anymore. So the law should allow us to share whatever it is that's publicly available for free. Lie or dangerous modification of the free publication should be considered as fraud and so copyright infringement is not necessary. How about Marketability? What made us buy the Template - 7+ Free In Pdf things that we've bought? Don't people who gave us access to utility deserve payments?

So doesn't the creators of the Top 10 Interview Questions And Answers internet deserve our money if we had access to good music because of the Sample Assessment - 7+ Documents In Pdf internet? I haven't paid anything to them have you? Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2011-02-06 21:09. 5. So the law should allow us to share whatever it is that's publicly available for free. I should've said So the law should allow us to share whatever it is Church Template By Seraphimchris | Graphicriver, that's publicly available for free.

So if the Star Documents authors demands payment for Excel Task Spreadsheet access, then it's not broadcasted, its exclusively available. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2012-07-09 07:45. I would like to Sample Star Assessment Template - 7+, know your thoughts on lessening the time limit on Relationships: Church Flyer, copyright, as how it used to be; for a limited time of Star Template Documents exclusivity where the creator made a profit then it went to the public domain.