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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Albert Camus was a French-Algerian journalist, playwright, novelist, philosophical essayist, and Nobel laureate. Though he was neither by advanced training nor profession a philosopher, he nevertheless made important, forceful contributions to Wedding Menu Planning Blog a wide range of issues in Letter Closing, moral philosophy in his novels, reviews, articles, essays, and speeches—from terrorism and political violence to suicide and the death penalty. Menu | Wedding! He is often described as an existentialist writer, though he himself disavowed the label. Metropolitan Community! He began his literary career as a political journalist and as an | Wedding Blog actor, director, and playwright in his native Algeria. Later, while living in occupied France during WWII, he became active in the Resistance and from 1944-47 served as editor-in-chief of the newspaper Combat . By mid-century, based on the strength of his three novels ( The Stranger, The Plague, and The Fall ) and two book-length philosophical essays ( The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel ), he had achieved an international reputation and readership. It was in these works that he introduced and developed the twin philosophical ideas—the concept of the Absurd and the notion of Revolt—that made him famous. These are the ideas that people immediately think of when they hear the name Albert Camus spoken today. The Absurd can be defined as a metaphysical tension or opposition that results from the presence of human consciousness—with its ever-pressing demand for order and meaning in life—in an essentially meaningless and indifferent universe.
Camus considered the Absurd to be a fundamental and even defining characteristic of the modern human condition. The notion of Revolt refers to both a path of resolved action and a state of Resume Professional Profile Frizzigame Resume mind. It can take extreme forms such as terrorism or a reckless and unrestrained egoism (both of which are rejected by Camus), but basically, and in simple terms, it consists of an attitude of heroic defiance or resistance to whatever oppresses human beings. Wedding Planning Blog! In awarding Camus its prize for literature in 1957, the Nobel Prize committee cited his persistent efforts to “illuminate the problem of the human conscience in our time.” He was honored by his own generation, and is still admired today, for being a writer of conscience and a champion of imaginative literature as a vehicle of philosophical insight and moral truth. He was at the height of his career—at work on an autobiographical novel, planning new projects for theatre, film, and television, and still seeking a solution to the lacerating political turmoil in his homeland—when he died tragically in an automobile accident in January 1960.
Albert Camus was born on November 7, 1913, in Mondovi, a small village near the Examples Frizzigame Example, seaport city of Bone (present-day Annaba) in the northeast region of French Algeria. He was the second child of Lucien Auguste Camus, a military veteran and wine-shipping clerk, and of Catherine Helene (Sintes) Camus, a house-keeper and part-time factory worker. (Note: Although Camus believed that his father was Alsatian and a first-generation emigre, research by biographer Herbert Lottman indicates that the Camus family was originally from Bordeaux and that the first Camus to leave France for Algeria was actually the author’s great-grandfather, who in Wedding Planning Blog, the early 19th century became part of the first wave of European colonial settlers in the new melting pot of North Africa.) Shortly after the outbreak of WWI, when Camus was less than a year old, his father was recalled to military service and, on For Cover Letters. Proper Letter Cover-Letter, October 11, 1914, died of shrapnel wounds suffered at Menu Planning Blog, the first battle of the Marne. As a child, about the Format Letters. Cover Format Cover-Letter, only thing Camus ever learned about Wedding Menu | Wedding Blog, his father was that he had once become violently ill after witnessing a public execution. This anecdote, which surfaces in fictional form in the author’s novel The Stranger and is also recounted in his philosophical essay “Reflections on the Guillotine,” strongly affected Camus and influenced his lifelong opposition to Resume Examples Professional Profile Resume Example the death penalty.
After his father’s death, Camus, his mother, and his older brother moved to Algiers where they lived with his maternal uncle and grandmother in her cramped second-floor apartment in the working-class district of Belcourt. Camus’s mother Catherine, who was illiterate, partially deaf, and afflicted with a speech pathology, worked in Menu Planning Blog, an ammunition factory and cleaned homes to Letters. Proper Letter Format Cover-Letter help support the family. Wedding | Wedding! In his posthumously published autobiographical novel The First Man , Camus recalls this period of his life with a mixture of pain and affection as he describes conditions of harsh poverty (the three-room apartment had no bathroom, no electricity, and no running water) relieved by hunting trips, family outings, childhood games, and scenic flashes of sun, seashore, mountain, and desert. Camus attended elementary school at the local Ecole Communale, and it was there that he encountered the first in a series of teacher-mentors who recognized and nurtured the young boy’s lively intelligence. These father figures introduced him to a new world of history and imagination and to literary landscapes far beyond the dusty streets of Why Can Procedures Belcourt and working-class poverty. Though stigmatized as a pupille de la nation (that is, a war veteran’s child dependent on public welfare) and hampered by recurrent health issues, Camus distinguished himself as a student and Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning, was eventually awarded a scholarship to Examples Profile Frizzigame Example attend high school at the Grand Lycee. | Wedding Planning Blog! Located near the famous Kasbah district, the school brought him into close proximity with the native Muslim community and thus gave him an early recognition of the idea of the “outsider” that would dominate his later writings. It was in secondary school that Camus became an avid reader (absorbing Gide, Proust, Verlaine, and Bergson, among others), learned Latin and English, and developed a lifelong interest in literature, art, theatre, and film.
He also enjoyed sports, especially soccer, of which he once wrote (recalling his early experience as a goal-keeper): “I learned . . . that a ball never arrives from the direction you expected it. That helped me in later life, especially in mainland France, where nobody plays straight.” It was also during this period that Camus suffered his first serious attack of tuberculosis, a disease that was to Cover Letter Account afflict him, on Wedding Menu, and off, throughout his career. By the time he finished his Baccalaureat degree in June 1932, Camus was already contributing articles to Sud , a literary monthly, and looking forward to a career in Cover Letter Account, journalism, the arts, or higher education. The next four years (1933-37) were an especially busy period in his life during which he attended college, worked at odd jobs, married his first wife (Simone Hie), divorced, briefly joined the Communist party, and effectively began his professional theatrical and Wedding Menu | Wedding, writing career. College - Articulation! Among his various employments during the time were stints of routine office work where one job consisted of a Bartleby-like recording and sifting of meteorological data and Wedding | Wedding, another involved paper shuffling in an auto license bureau. One can well imagine that it was as a result of this experience that his famous conception of Sisyphean struggle, heroic defiance in the face of the Absurd, first began to take shape within his imagination. In 1933, Camus enrolled at Metropolitan College - Articulation, the University of Algiers to pursue his diplome d’etudes superieures, specializing in philosophy and gaining certificates in | Wedding Planning, sociology and psychology along the way. In 1936, he became a co-founder, along with a group of young fellow intellectuals, of the Theatre du Travail, a professional acting company specializing in Why Can Procedures Fail?, drama with left-wing political themes. Menu | Wedding! Camus served the company as both an actor and director and also contributed scripts, including his first published play Revolt in Asturia , a drama based on an ill-fated workers’ revolt during the Standard Operating Procedures Manuals, Spanish Civil War.
That same year Camus also earned his degree and completed his dissertation, a study of the influence of Plotinus and neo-Platonism on the thought and writings of St. Augustine. Over the next three years Camus further established himself as an Menu | Wedding Planning Blog emerging author, journalist, and theatre professional. After his disillusionment with and eventual expulsion from the Communist Party, he reorganized his dramatic company and renamed it the Theatre de l’Equipe (literally the Assessing Higher Vickie, Theater of the Team). The name change signaled a new emphasis on Wedding | Wedding Blog, classic drama and avant-garde aesthetics and a shift away from Cover Letter labor politics and agitprop. In 1938 he joined the staff of a new daily newspaper, the Menu Planning, Alger Republicain , where his assignments as a reporter and reviewer covered everything from contemporary European literature to Assessing Order Thinking Skills Mohnacky April local political trials. | Wedding Blog! It was during this period that he also published his first two literary works— Betwixt and Between , a collection of five short semi-autobiographical and philosophical pieces (1937) and Nuptials , a series of lyrical celebrations interspersed with political and philosophical reflections on North Africa and the Mediterranean. The 1940s witnessed Camus’s gradual ascendance to the rank of world-class literary intellectual. Community College! He started the Wedding, decade as a locally acclaimed author and playwright, but he was a figure virtually unknown outside the city of Algiers; however, he ended the decade as an internationally recognized novelist, dramatist, journalist, philosophical essayist, and champion of freedom.
This period of his life began inauspiciously—war in Europe, the occupation of France, official censorship, and a widening crackdown on left-wing journals. Camus was still without stable employment or steady income when, after marrying his second wife, Francine Faure, in December of 1940, he departed Lyons, where he had been working as a journalist, and returned to Algeria. To help make ends meet, he taught part-time (French history and Closing, geography) at a private school in Oran. Wedding Menu! All the while he was putting finishing touches to his first novel The Stranger , which was finally published in 1942 to favorable critical response, including a lengthy and Resume Professional Profile Frizzigame Resume Example, penetrating review by Jean-Paul Sartre. The novel propelled him into immediate literary renown. Camus returned to France in 1942 and a year later began working for the clandestine newspaper Combat , the journalistic arm and voice of the French Resistance movement. Menu Planning Blog! During this period, while contending with recurrent bouts of tuberculosis, he also published The Myth of Sisyphus , his philosophical anatomy of suicide and Format For Cover Proper Cover Format, the absurd, and joined Gallimard Publishing as an editor, a position he held until his death. After the Liberation, Camus continued as editor of Menu Blog Combat, oversaw the Cover Closing Account, production and publication of two plays, The Misunderstanding and Caligula , and Menu | Wedding, assumed a leading role in Parisian intellectual society in the company of Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir among others.
In the Why Can Standard Procedures Manuals, late 40s his growing reputation as a writer and thinker was enlarged by the publication of The Plague , an Menu Planning allegorical novel and fictional parable of the Nazi Occupation and the duty of revolt, and by Format Proper Letter Cover-Letter, the lecture tours to Wedding Menu Blog the United States and South America. In 1951 he published The Rebel , a reflection on the nature of freedom and rebellion and a philosophical critique of revolutionary violence. This powerful and controversial work, with its explicit condemnation of Marxism-Leninism and its emphatic denunciation of Standard Operating Procedures unrestrained violence as a means of human liberation, led to Wedding Menu | Wedding an eventual falling out with Sartre and, along with his opposition to the Algerian National Liberation Front, to Simple Rental Form | Templatezet his being branded a reactionary in the view of Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning Blog many European Communists. Yet his position also established him as an outspoken champion of individual freedom and as an impassioned critic of tyranny and terrorism, whether practiced by the Left or by the Right. In 1956, Camus published the Rental | Templatezet, short, confessional novel The Fall , which unfortunately would be the last of his completed major works and which in the opinion of some critics is the most elegant, and Wedding | Wedding Planning, most under-rated of all his books. During this period he was still afflicted by tuberculosis and was perhaps even more sorely beset by the deteriorating political situation in his native Algeria—which had by now escalated from demonstrations and occasional terrorist and Procedures Manuals Fail?, guerilla attacks into open violence and insurrection. Camus still hoped to champion some kind of rapprochement that would allow the native Muslim population and the French pied noir minority to live together peaceably in a new de-colonized and largely integrated, if not fully independent, nation. Alas, by this point, as he painfully realized, the odds of such an outcome were becoming increasingly unlikely. In the fall of 1957, following publication of Exile and the Kingdom, a collection of short fiction, Camus was shocked by news that he had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning Blog literature.
He absorbed the announcement with mixed feelings of gratitude, humility, and amazement. On the one hand, the award was obviously a tremendous honor. On the other, not only did he feel that his friend and esteemed fellow novelist Andre Malraux was more deserving, he was also aware that the Nobel itself was widely regarded as the kind of accolade usually given to artists at the end of a long career. Yet, as he indicated in Resume Examples Example, his acceptance speech at Stockholm, he considered his own career as still in mid-flight, with much yet to accomplish and even greater writing challenges ahead: Every person, and assuredly every artist, wants to be recognized. So do I. But I’ve been unable to comprehend your decision without comparing its resounding impact with my own actual status. A man almost young, rich only in his doubts, and with his work still in Wedding Menu Blog, progress…how could such a man not feel a kind of panic at hearing a decree that transports him all of a sudden…to the center of a glaring spotlight? And with what feelings could he accept this honor at a time when other writers in Europe, among them the very greatest, are condemned to Why Can Fail? silence, and even at a time when the country of his birth is going through unending misery? Of course Camus could not have known as he spoke these words that most of Menu | Wedding Planning Blog his writing career was in Template, fact behind him.
Over the next two years, he published articles and continued to write, produce, and direct plays, including his own adaptation of Dostoyevsky’s The Possessed . He also formulated new concepts for film and television, assumed a leadership role in Wedding Planning, a new experimental national theater, and continued to campaign for peace and a political solution in Algeria. Letter Closing! Unfortunately, none of these latter projects would be brought to fulfillment. On January 4, 1960, Camus died tragically in a car accident while he was a passenger in Menu Blog, a vehicle driven by his friend and publisher Michel Gallimard, who also suffered fatal injuries. Rental Agreement! The author was buried in the local cemetery at Lourmarin, a village in Provencal where he and his wife and daughters had lived for nearly a decade. Upon hearing of Camus’s death, Sartre wrote a moving eulogy in the France-Observateur , saluting his former friend and political adversary not only for his distinguished contributions to Wedding Menu Blog French literature but especially for the heroic moral courage and “stubborn humanism” which he brought to bear against the “massive and deformed events of the day.” According to Sartre’s perceptive appraisal, Camus was less a novelist and more a writer of philosophical tales and parables in Simple Template | Templatezet, the tradition of Voltaire. This assessment accords with Camus’s own judgment that his fictional works were not true novels (Fr. romans ), a form he associated with the Planning Blog, densely populated and richly detailed social panoramas of writers like Balzac, Tolstoy, and Standard Procedures Manuals Fail?, Proust, but rather contes (“tales”) and recits (“narratives”) combining philosophical and psychological insights. In this respect, it is also worth noting that at Wedding Menu | Wedding, no time in his career did Camus ever describe himself as a deep thinker or lay claim to the title of philosopher.
Instead, he nearly always referred to Higher Order Thinking Mohnacky himself simply, yet proudly, as un ecrivain —a writer. This is an important fact to keep in mind when assessing his place in intellectual history and in | Wedding Blog, twentieth-century philosophy, for Examples Professional Resume Example by no means does he qualify as a system-builder or theorist or even as a disciplined thinker. Planning Blog! He was instead (and here again Sartre’s assessment is astute) a sort of all-purpose critic and Format Letters. Letter Format Cover-Letter, modern-day philosophe : a debunker of mythologies, a critic of Menu | Wedding Planning Blog fraud and superstition, an enemy of terror, a voice of reason and compassion, and an outspoken defender of freedom—all in all a figure very much in the Enlightenment tradition of Voltaire and Diderot. For this reason, in assessing Camus’s career and work, it may be best simply to take him at his own word and characterize him first and foremost as a writer —advisedly attaching the epithet “philosophical” for sharper accuracy and definition. 3. Camus, Philosophical Literature, and the Novel of Ideas. To pin down exactly why and in what distinctive sense Camus may be termed a philosophical writer, we can begin by comparing him with other authors who have merited the designation.
Right away, we can eliminate any comparison with the Community, efforts of Lucretius and Dante, who undertook to unfold entire cosmologies and philosophical systems in Planning Blog, epic verse. Camus obviously attempted nothing of the sort. On the other hand, we can draw at least a limited comparison between Camus and writers like Pascal, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche—that is, with writers who were first of all philosophers or religious writers, but whose stylistic achievements and literary flair gained them a special place in the pantheon of world literature as well. Here we may note that Camus himself was very conscious of his debt to Kierkegaard and Nietzsche (especially in the style and structure of The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel ) and that he might very well have followed in their literary-philosophical footsteps if his tuberculosis had not side-tracked him into Why Can Operating, fiction and Menu | Wedding, journalism and Format Proper Letter Format, prevented him from pursuing an academic career. Perhaps Camus himself best defined his own particular status as a philosophical writer when he wrote (with authors like Melville, Stendhal, Dostoyevsky, and Kafka especially in mind): “The great novelists are philosophical novelists”; that is, writers who eschew systematic explanation and create their discourse using “images instead of arguments” ( The Myth of Sisyphus 74). By his own definition then Camus is a philosophical writer in the sense that he has (a) conceived his own distinctive and original world-view and (b) sought to convey that view mainly through images, fictional characters and Wedding, events, and via dramatic presentation rather than through critical analysis and direct discourse. Higher Thinking April! He is also both a novelist of ideas and a psychological novelist, and in this respect, he certainly compares most closely to Dostoyevsky and Sartre, two other writers who combine a unique and distinctly philosophical outlook, acute psychological insight, and a dramatic style of presentation. (Like Camus, Sartre was a productive playwright, and Menu Planning Blog, Dostoyevsky remains perhaps the Higher Order Skills Vickie April 19, most dramatic of all novelists, as Camus clearly understood, having adapted both The Brothers Karamazov and The Possessed for Menu | Wedding Blog the stage.) Camus’s reputation rests largely on the three novels published during his lifetime— The Stranger, The Plague, and The Fall —and on his two major philosophical essays— The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel . However, his body of Closing work also includes a collection of short fiction, Exile and the Kingdom ; an autobiographical novel, The First Man ; a number of Menu Blog dramatic works, most notably Caligula, The Misunderstanding , The State of Siege , and The Just Assassins ; several translations and adaptations, including new versions of works by Calderon, Lope de Vega, Dostoyevsky, and Faulkner; and a lengthy assortment of Community - Articulation essays, prose pieces, critical reviews, transcribed speeches and interviews, articles, and works of journalism. A brief summary and description of the Wedding Blog, most important of Camus’s writings is presented below as preparation for a larger discussion of his philosophy and world-view, including his main ideas and recurrent philosophical themes. The Stranger ( L’Etranger, 1942)—From its cold opening lines, “Mother died today.
Or maybe yesterday; I can’t be sure,” to its bleak concluding image of a public execution set to take place beneath the “benign indifference of the Why Can Standard Operating Fail?, universe,” Camus’s first and Wedding Blog, most famous novel takes the Community College, form of a terse, flat, first-person narrative by its main character Meursault, a very ordinary young man of unremarkable habits and | Wedding, unemotional affect who, inexplicably and in an almost absent-minded way, kills an Arab and Order Skills Vickie Mohnacky 19, then is arrested, tried, convicted, and sentenced to death. The neutral style of the novel—typical of what the | Wedding, critic Roland Barthes called “writing degree zero”—serves as a perfect vehicle for the descriptions and commentary of its anti-hero narrator, the ultimate “outsider” and a person who seems to observe everything, including his own life, with almost pathological detachment. The Plague ( La Peste, 1947)—Set in the coastal town of Oran, Camus’s second novel is the story of an outbreak of plague, traced from Cover Letter Account its subtle, insidious, unheeded beginnings and horrible, seemingly irresistible dominion to Wedding Planning Blog its eventual climax and decline, all told from the viewpoint of one of the survivors. Cover! Camus made no effort to Menu | Wedding conceal the Rental Agreement Form Template, fact that his novel was partly based on and could be interpreted as an allegory or parable of the rise of Nazism and the nightmare of the Occupation. However, the plague metaphor is both more complicated and more flexible than that, extending to signify the Absurd in general as well as any calamity or disaster that tests the Menu | Wedding Blog, mettle of human beings, their endurance, their solidarity, their sense of Metropolitan College - Articulation responsibility, their compassion, and their will. At the end of the Blog, novel, the Simple Rental Agreement Form, plague finally retreats, and the narrator reflects that a time of pestilence teaches “that there is more to admire in men than to | Wedding Blog despise,” but he also knows “that the plague bacillus never dies or disappears for good,” that “the day would come when, for the bane and the enlightening of men, it would rouse up its rats again” and send them forth yet once more to spread death and contagion into a happy and Simple Form Template, unsuspecting city. The Fall ( La Chute, 1956)—Camus’s third novel, and the last to be published during his lifetime, is in effect an extended dramatic monologue spoken by M. Wedding Menu! Jean-Baptiste Clamence, a dissipated, cynical, former Parisian attorney (who now calls himself a “judge-penitent”) to an unnamed auditor (thus indirectly to the reader). Set in a seedy bar in the red-light district of Amsterdam, the work is a small masterpiece of compression and style: a confessional (and semi-autobiographical) novel, an arresting character study and Resume Examples Professional Frizzigame Example, psychological portrait, and at the same time a wide-ranging philosophical discourse on Wedding Blog, guilt and innocence, expiation and punishment, good and evil. Camus began his literary career as a playwright and theatre director and Agreement Template, was planning new dramatic works for film, stage, and television at the time of his death. In addition to his four original plays, he also published several successful adaptations (including theatre pieces based on works by Faulkner, Dostoyevsky, and Calderon). He took particular pride in his work as a dramatist and man of the theatre.
However, his plays never achieved the Wedding Menu, same popularity, critical success, or level of incandescence as his more famous novels and major essays. Caligula (1938, first produced 1945)—“Men die and are not happy.” Such is the complaint against the universe pronounced by the young emperor Caligula, who in Why Can Standard Fail?, Camus’s play is Menu Blog, less the Simple Agreement, murderous lunatic, slave to incest, narcissist, and megalomaniac of Roman history than a theatrical martyr-hero of the Absurd: a man who carries his philosophical quarrel with the meaninglessness of human existence to a kind of | Wedding Planning Blog fanatical but logical extreme. Camus described his hero as a man “obsessed with the impossible” willing to pervert all values, and if necessary destroy himself and all those around him in the pursuit of April 19 absolute liberty. Caligula was Camus’s first attempt at Wedding Menu, portraying a figure in absolute defiance of the Absurd, and through three revisions of the play over a period of several years he eventually achieved a remarkable composite by Standard Procedures Fail?, adding to Wedding | Wedding Planning Blog Caligula’s original portrait touches of Sade, of revolutionary nihilism, of the Nietzschean Superman, of his own version of Cover Letter Closing Sisyphus, and even of Mussolini and Hitler. The Misunderstanding ( Le Malentendu , 1944)—In this grim exploration of the | Wedding Planning Blog, Absurd, a son returns home while concealing his true identity from his mother and sister. The two women operate a boarding house where, in order to make ends meet, they quietly murder and rob their patrons. Through a tangle of misunderstanding and mistaken identity they wind up murdering their unrecognized visitor. Camus has explained the Examples Professional Resume Example, drama as an attempt to capture the atmosphere of malaise, corruption, demoralization, and anonymity that he experienced while living in France during the German occupation. Menu | Wedding Planning Blog! Despite the play’s dark themes and bleak style, he described its philosophy as ultimately optimistic: “It amounts to Cover Account saying that in an unjust or indifferent world man can save himself, and save others, by Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning, practicing the most basic sincerity and pronouncing the most appropriate word.”
State of Siege ( L’Etat de Siege, 1948) — This odd allegorical drama combines features of the medieval morality play with elements of Calderon and the Spanish baroque; it also has apocalyptic themes, bits of music hall comedy, and a collection of Cover avant-garde theatrics thrown in for good measure. The work marked a significant departure from Camus’s normal dramatic style. It also resulted in virtually universal disapproval and negative reviews from Paris theatre-goers and critics, many of Menu | Wedding Planning Blog whom came expecting a play based on Camus’s recent novel The Plague . The play is set in the Spanish seaport city of Cadiz, famous for its beaches, carnivals, and street musicians. By the end of the Standard Operating Procedures Manuals, first act, the normally laid-back and carefree citizens fall under the dominion of a gaudily beribboned and uniformed dictator named Plague (based on Generalissimo Franco) and his officious, clip-board wielding Secretary (who turns out to Menu | Wedding be a modern, bureaucratic incarnation of the Cover Account, medieval figure Death). One of the prominent concerns of the Wedding | Wedding, play is the Orwellian theme of the degradation of language via totalitarian politics and bureaucracy (symbolized onstage by calls for silence, scenes in Form Template, pantomime, and a gagged chorus). As one character observes, “we are steadily nearing that perfect moment when nothing anybody says will rouse the least echo in another’s mind.” The Just Assassins ( Les Justes , 1950)—First performed in Paris to largely favorable reviews, this play is based on real-life characters and Wedding Menu Planning Blog, an actual historical event: the 1905 assassination of the Russian Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich by Ivan Kalyayev and fellow members of the Combat Organization of the Socialist Revolutionary Party. Why Can Procedures! The play effectively dramatizes the issues that Camus would later explore in detail in The Rebel , especially the question of whether acts of terrorism and political violence can ever be morally justified (and if so, with what limitations and in Planning Blog, what specific circumstances).
The historical Kalyayev passed up his original opportunity to bomb the Grand Duke’s carriage because the Duke was accompanied by Rental Agreement Form | Templatezet, his wife and two young nephews. However, this was no act of Planning Blog conscience on Kalyayev’s part but a purely practical decision based on his calculation that the murder of children would prove a setback to the revolution. After the successful completion of his bombing mission and subsequent arrest, Kalyayev welcomed his execution on similarly practical and purely political grounds, believing that his death would further the cause of revolution and social justice. Camus’s Kalyayev, on the other hand, is a far more agonized and conscientious figure, neither so cold-blooded nor so calculating as his real-life counterpart. Upon seeing the two children in the carriage, he refuses to toss his bomb not because doing so would be politically inexpedient but because he is overcome emotionally, temporarily unnerved by the sad expression in Assessing Higher Skills Vickie 19, their eyes. Similarly, at the end of the Menu | Wedding, play he embraces his death not so much because it will aid the revolution, but almost as a form of karmic penance, as if it were indeed some kind of sacred duty or metaphysical requirement that must be performed in order for Assessing Order Thinking Skills Mohnacky April true justice to be achieved. c. Essays, Letters, Prose Collections, Articles, and Reviews. Betwixt and Between ( L’Envers et l’endroit, 1937)—This short collection of semi-autobiographical, semi-fictional, philosophical pieces might be dismissed as juvenilia and largely ignored if it were not for the fact that it represents Camus’s first attempt to formulate a coherent life-outlook and world-view.
The collection, which in a way serves as a germ or starting point for the author’s later philosophy, consists of five lyrical essays. In “Irony” (“ L’Ironie ”), a reflection on youth and Blog, age, Camus asserts, in the manner of a young disciple of Pascal, our essential solitariness in life and death. In “Between yes and no” (“ Entre Oui et Non ”) he suggests that to hope is as empty and as pointless as to despair, yet he goes beyond nihilism by Format Letter Format, positing a fundamental value to Wedding | Wedding existence-in-the-world. In “Death in the soul” (“ La Mort dans l’ame ”) he supplies a sort of existential travel review, contrasting his impressions of central and Higher Thinking Vickie Mohnacky 19, Eastern Europe (which he views as purgatorial and | Wedding Planning Blog, morgue-like) with the more spontaneous life of Italy and Mediterranean culture. The piece thus affirms the author’s lifelong preference for the color and vitality of the Mediterranean world, and especially North Africa, as opposed to what he perceives as the soulless cold-heartedness of modern Europe. In “Love of life” (“ Amour de vivre ”) he claims there can be no love of life without despair of life and Resume Examples Resume, thus largely re-asserts the essentially tragic, ancient Greek view that the very beauty of human existence is largely contingent upon Menu | Wedding Planning Blog its brevity and fragility. Simple Form Template! The concluding essay, “Betwixt and Menu Planning, between” (“ L’Envers et l’endroit ”), summarizes and re-emphasizes the Romantic themes of the collection as a whole: our fundamental “aloneness,” the importance of imagination and openness to experience, the imperative to “live as if….”
Nuptials ( Noces , 1938)—This collection of four rhapsodic narratives supplements and amplifies the Format Cover Cover-Letter, youthful philosophy expressed in Betwixt and Wedding | Wedding Planning, Between . Cover Letter! That joy is necessarily intertwined with despair, that the shortness of life confers a premium on intense experience, and that the world is both beautiful and violent—these are, once again, Camus’s principal themes. “Summer in Algiers,” which is probably the best (and best-known) of the Blog, essays in Simple Agreement | Templatezet, the collection, is Menu | Wedding Blog, a lyrical, at times almost ecstatic, celebration of sea, sun, and the North African landscape. Affirming a defiantly atheistic creed, Camus concludes with one of the core ideas of his philosophy: “If there is a sin against life, it consists not so much in despairing as in hoping for another life and in eluding the implacable grandeur of this one.” The Myth of Sisyphus ( Le Mythe de Sisyphe, 1943)—If there is a single non-fiction work that can be considered an essential or fundamental statement of Camus’s philosophy, it is this extended essay on the ethics of suicide (eventually translated and repackaged for American publication in Simple Rental Form Template, 1955). It is Wedding Menu Planning, here that Camus formally introduces and Letter Account, fully articulates his most famous idea, the concept of the Absurd, and his equally famous image of life as a Sisyphean struggle. From its provocative opening sentence—“There is but one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicide”—to its stirring, paradoxical conclusion—“The struggle itself toward the heights is enough to fill a man’s heart. One must imagine Sisyphus happy”—the book has something interesting and Menu Planning Blog, challenging on nearly every page and is shot through with brilliant aphorisms and Examples Example, insights. In the end, Camus rejects suicide: the Absurd must not be evaded either by religion (“philosophical suicide”) or by annihilation (“physical suicide”); the task of Wedding | Wedding living should not merely be accepted, it must be embraced. The Rebel ( L’Homme Revolte, 1951)—Camus considered this work a continuation of the critical and philosophical investigation of the Absurd that he began with The Myth of Sisyphus . Higher Order Thinking Mohnacky! Only this time his primary concern is not suicide but murder. He takes up the question of whether acts of Wedding Menu | Wedding Blog terrorism and political violence can be morally justified, which is Resume Professional Frizzigame Example, basically the same question he had addressed earlier in his play The Just Assassins . After arguing that an authentic life inevitably involves some form of conscientious moral revolt, Camus winds up concluding that only in rare and very narrowly defined instances is political violence justified.
Camus’s critique of revolutionary violence and terror in this work, and particularly his caustic assessment of Marxism-Leninism (which he accused of sacrificing innocent lives on the altar of Menu Planning Blog History), touched nerves throughout Europe and led in part to his celebrated feud with Sartre and other French leftists. Resistance, Rebellion, and Death (1957)—This posthumous collection is of interest to students of Camus mainly because it brings together an Letter Cover-Letter unusual assortment of his non-fiction writings on a wide range of Menu | Wedding Blog topics, from art and politics to the advantages of pessimism and the virtues (from a non-believer’s standpoint) of Higher Thinking Skills Mohnacky 19 Christianity. Menu | Wedding Planning! Of special interest are two pieces that helped secure Camus’s worldwide reputation as a voice of liberty: “Letters to a German Friend,” a set of four letters originally written during the Nazi Occupation, and “Reflections on the Guillotine,” a denunciation of the death penalty cited for special mention by Metropolitan, the Nobel committee and eventually revised and re-published as a companion essay to Wedding Planning go with fellow death-penalty opponent Arthur Koestler’s “Reflections on Hanging.” To re-emphasize a point made earlier, Camus considered himself first and foremost a writer ( un ecrivain ). Indeed, Camus’s dissertation advisor penciled onto his dissertation the assessment “More a writer than a philosopher.” And at various times in his career he also accepted the labels journalist, humanist, novelist, and even moralist. Resume Professional Profile Frizzigame Resume Example! However, he apparently never felt comfortable identifying himself as a philosopher—a term he seems to have associated with rigorous academic training, systematic thinking, logical consistency, and a coherent, carefully defined doctrine or body of Wedding | Wedding Planning ideas. This is not to suggest that Camus lacked ideas or to say that his thought cannot be considered a personal philosophy. It is simply to point out that he was not a systematic, or even a notably disciplined thinker and that, unlike Heidegger and Sartre, for example, he showed very little interest in metaphysics and Cover Letter, ontology, which seems to be one of the reasons he consistently denied that he was an existentialist. In short, he was not much given to speculative philosophy or any kind of abstract theorizing. His thought is instead nearly always related to | Wedding current events (e.g., the Spanish War, revolt in Algeria) and is consistently grounded in down-to-earth moral and political reality. Though he was baptized, raised, and educated as a Catholic and invariably respectful towards the Church, Camus seems to have been a natural-born pagan who showed almost no instinct whatsoever for belief in the supernatural.
Even as a youth, he was more of a sun-worshipper and Standard Operating Procedures Manuals Fail?, nature lover than a boy notable for his piety or religious faith. On the other hand, there is Menu Planning, no denying that Christian literature and philosophy served as an Examples Professional Profile Example important influence on his early thought and intellectual development. As a young high school student, Camus studied the Bible, read and savored the Spanish mystics St. Theresa of Avila and St. John of the Cross, and was introduced to the thought of St. Augustine St. Augustine would later serve as the subject of Wedding Blog his baccalaureate dissertation and become—as a fellow North African writer, quasi-existentialist, and conscientious observer-critic of his own life—an important lifelong influence. In college Camus absorbed Kierkegaard, who, after Augustine, was probably the Assessing Higher Order Skills April 19, single greatest Christian influence on his thought. Menu | Wedding! He also studied Schopenhauer and Nietzsche—undoubtedly the two writers who did the Template, most to set him on | Wedding Planning, his own path of defiant pessimism and atheism.
Other notable influences include not only the Why Can Operating Fail?, major modern philosophers from the Menu | Wedding Planning Blog, academic curriculum—from Descartes and Spinoza to Bergson—but also, and just as importantly, philosophical writers like Stendhal, Melville, Dostoyevsky, and Metropolitan College - Articulation, Kafka. The two earliest expressions of Camus’s personal philosophy are his works Betwixt and Wedding Menu Planning Blog, Between (1937) and Nuptials (1938). Here he unfolds what is Rental Agreement Template, essentially a hedonistic, indeed almost primitivistic, celebration of nature and the life of the senses. In the Romantic poetic tradition of writers like Rilke and Wedding Planning, Wallace Stevens, he offers a forceful rejection of Cover all hereafters and an emphatic embrace of the here and now. There is no salvation, he argues, no transcendence; there is only the enjoyment of consciousness and natural being.
One life, this life, is Wedding | Wedding, enough. Sky and sea, mountain and desert, have their own beauty and magnificence and constitute a sufficient heaven. The critic John Cruikshank termed this stage in Camus’s thinking “naive atheism” and attributed it to Resume Examples Professional Frizzigame Resume Example his ecstatic and somewhat immature “Mediterraneanism.” Naive seems an apt characterization for Wedding Planning Blog a philosophy that is romantically bold and uncomplicated yet somewhat lacking in Simple Rental Form | Templatezet, sophistication and Wedding Planning Blog, logical clarity. On the other hand, if we keep in College - Articulation, mind Camus’s theatrical background and Menu | Wedding Planning, preference for dramatic presentation, there may actually be more depth and complexity to his thought here than meets the eye. That is to say, just as it would be simplistic and reductive to equate Camus’s philosophy of revolt with that of his character Caligula (who is at Cover Letter Closing Account, best a kind of Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning extreme or mad spokesperson for the author), so in the same way it is possible that the pensees and opinions presented in Nuptials and Betwixt and Between are not so much the views of Camus as they are poetically heightened observations of an artfully crafted narrator—an exuberant alter ego who is far more spontaneous and free-spirited than his more naturally reserved and sober-minded author. In any case, regardless of this assessment of the ideas expressed in Betwixt and Between and Nuptials , it is clear that these early writings represent an important, if comparatively raw and Proper Format, simple, beginning stage in Camus’s development as a thinker where his views differ markedly from his more mature philosophy in several noteworthy respects. In the Menu | Wedding, first place, the Camus of Nuptials is still a young man of twenty-five, aflame with youthful joie de vivre.
He favors a life of Form impulse and daring as it was honored and Wedding Menu Planning, practiced in both Romantic literature and in Metropolitan - Articulation, the streets of Belcourt. Recently married and Menu, divorced, raised in Closing, poverty and in close quarters, beset with health problems, this young man develops an understandable passion for clear air, open space, colorful dreams, panoramic vistas, and the breath-taking prospects and challenges of the larger world. Consequently, the Camus of the period 1937-38 is a decidedly different writer from the Camus who will ascend the dais at | Wedding Blog, Stockholm nearly twenty years later. The young Camus is Rental | Templatezet, more of Wedding Blog a sensualist and pleasure-seeker, more of Community College a dandy and aesthete, than the more hardened and austere figure who will endure the Occupation while serving in the French underground. He is a writer passionate in his conviction that life ought to be lived vividly and intensely—indeed rebelliously (to use the term that will take on increasing importance in his thought). He is also a writer attracted to causes, though he is not yet the author who will become world-famous for Wedding | Wedding Planning his moral seriousness and passionate commitment to justice and freedom.
All of which is understandable. After all, the Camus of the Standard, middle 1930s had not yet witnessed and absorbed the shattering spectacle and disillusioning effects of the Spanish Civil War, the rise of Fascism, Hitlerism, and Stalinism, the coming into being of total war and weapons of mass destruction, and the terrible reign of genocide and | Wedding, terror that would characterize the period 1938-1945. It was under the pressure and in Metropolitan Community College - Articulation, direct response to the events of Menu Blog this period that Camus’s mature philosophy—with its core set of humanistic themes and ideas—emerged and gradually took shape. Agreement Form! That mature philosophy is Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning Blog, no longer a “naive atheism” but a very reflective and Thinking 19, critical brand of unbelief. Wedding Menu Planning! It is proudly and inconsolably pessimistic, but not in a polemical or overbearing way. It is unbending, hardheaded, determinedly skeptical. It is | Templatezet, tolerant and respectful of world religious creeds, but at the same time wholly unsympathetic to them. In the Menu, end it is an affirmative philosophy that accepts and approves, and in its own way blesses, our dreadful mortality and our fundamental isolation in the world. Regardless of Order April whether he is producing drama, fiction, or non-fiction, Camus in his mature writings nearly always takes up and re-explores the same basic philosophical issues.
These recurrent topoi constitute the Wedding | Wedding Blog, key components of his thought. They include themes like the Absurd, alienation, suicide, and Cover Account, rebellion that almost automatically come to mind whenever his name is Menu | Wedding Blog, mentioned. Hence any summary of his place in modern philosophy would be incomplete without at least a brief discussion of these ideas and how they fit together to form a distinctive and original world-view. Even readers not closely acquainted with Camus’s works are aware of his reputation as the philosophical expositor, anatomist, and Why Can Operating Manuals, poet-apostle of the Absurd. Indeed, as even sitcom writers and stand-up comics apparently understand (odd fact: the comic-bleak final episode of Seinfeld has been compared to The Stranger , and Camus’s thought has been used to explain episodes of The Simpsons ), it is Menu | Wedding Blog, largely through the thought and writings of the French-Algerian author that the concept of absurdity has become a part not only Higher Order Thinking Skills Vickie, of world literature and twentieth-century philosophy but also of modern popular culture. What then is meant by the notion of the Absurd? Contrary to the view conveyed by popular culture, the Wedding Planning Blog, Absurd, (at least in Camus’s terms) does not simply refer to some vague perception that modern life is fraught with paradoxes, incongruities, and intellectual confusion. (Although that perception is certainly consistent with his formula.) Instead, as he emphasizes and tries to make clear, the Absurd expresses a fundamental disharmony, a tragic incompatibility, in our existence. In effect, he argues that the Absurd is the product of a collision or confrontation between our human desire for order, meaning, and purpose in life and the blank, indifferent “silence of the universe”: “The absurd is not in man nor in the world,” Camus explains, “but in Simple Rental, their presence together…it is the only bond uniting them.” So here we are: poor creatures desperately seeking hope and meaning in Wedding Planning Blog, a hopeless, meaningless world.
Sartre, in his essay-review of The Stranger provides an Metropolitan Community - Articulation additional gloss on the idea: “The absurd, to be sure, resides neither in man nor in the world, if you consider each separately. But since man’s dominant characteristic is ‘being in the world,’ the absurd is, in Wedding Blog, the end, an inseparable part of the human condition.” The Absurd, then, presents itself in the form of an existential opposition. It arises from the human demand for clarity and transcendence on the one hand and a cosmos that offers nothing of the kind on the other. Such is our fate: we inhabit a world that is indifferent to Order Thinking our sufferings and deaf to our protests. In Camus’s view there are three possible philosophical responses to this predicament. Two of Wedding Menu | Wedding these he condemns as evasions, and the other he puts forward as a proper solution. The first choice is blunt and Why Can Operating Procedures Fail?, simple: physical suicide. If we decide that a life without some essential purpose or meaning is not worth living, we can simply choose to kill ourselves. Wedding Menu | Wedding Blog! Camus rejects this choice as cowardly. In his terms it is a repudiation or renunciation of life, not a true revolt.
The second choice is the religious solution of positing a transcendent world of solace and meaning beyond the Absurd. Standard Operating Procedures! Camus calls this solution “philosophical suicide” and rejects it as transparently evasive and fraudulent. To adopt a supernatural solution to the problem of the Menu Blog, Absurd (for example, through some type of mysticism or leap of faith) is to annihilate reason, which in Metropolitan College, Camus’s view is as fatal and Planning, self-destructive as physical suicide. In effect, instead of removing himself from the absurd confrontation of College - Articulation self and world like the physical suicide, the religious believer simply removes the offending world and replaces it, via a kind of metaphysical abracadabra, with a more agreeable alternative. The third choice—in Camus’s view the only authentic and valid solution—is simply to Wedding Menu Planning accept absurdity, or better yet to embrace it, and to Operating Manuals continue living.
Since the Menu | Wedding Planning Blog, Absurd in his view is an unavoidable, indeed defining, characteristic of the Metropolitan Community College, human condition, the only proper response to it is full, unflinching, courageous acceptance. Life, he says, can “be lived all the better if it has no meaning.” The example par excellence of this option of spiritual courage and metaphysical revolt is the Wedding Menu Planning Blog, mythical Sisyphus of Camus’s philosophical essay. Doomed to eternal labor at his rock, fully conscious of the essential hopelessness of his plight, Sisyphus nevertheless pushes on. In doing so he becomes for Cover Camus a superb icon of the spirit of revolt and of the human condition. To rise each day to fight a battle you know you cannot win, and to do this with wit, grace, compassion for others, and even a sense of mission, is to Menu Planning Blog face the Absurd in Metropolitan - Articulation, a spirit of true heroism. Over the course of his career, Camus examines the Absurd from multiple perspectives and Menu, through the eyes of many different characters—from the mad Caligula, who is obsessed with the problem, to the strangely aloof and yet simultaneously self-absorbed Meursault, who seems indifferent to it even as he exemplifies and is finally victimized by it. In The Myth of Sisyphus, Camus traces it in specific characters of legend and literature (Don Juan, Ivan Karamazov) and Cover Cover-Letter, also in certain character types (the Actor, the Menu Planning, Conqueror), all of who may be understood as in some way a version or manifestation of Sisyphus, the archetypal absurd hero. [Note: A rather different, yet possibly related, notion of the Absurd is proposed and Format Cover Letter, analyzed in the work of | Wedding Blog Kierkegaard, especially in Fear and Trembling and Repetition . For Kierkegaard, however, the Absurd describes not an essential and Metropolitan Community College - Articulation, universal human condition, but the special condition and nature of religious faith—a paradoxical state in Wedding | Wedding, which matters of will and perception that are objectively impossible can nevertheless be ultimately true. Account! Though it is hard to Wedding | Wedding Planning Blog say whether Camus had Kierkegaard particularly in mind when he developed his own concept of the absurd, there can be little doubt that Kierkegaard’s knight of faith is in certain ways an important predecessor of Camus’s Sisyphus: both figures are involved in impossible and endlessly agonizing tasks, which they nevertheless confidently and Assessing Higher Thinking Vickie Mohnacky, even cheerfully pursue.
In the knight’s quixotic defiance and solipsism, Camus found a model for his own ideal of heroic affirmation and | Wedding Planning, philosophical revolt.] The companion theme to the Absurd in Camus’s oeuvre (and the only other philosophical topic to which he devoted an entire book) is the idea of Higher Skills Mohnacky April 19 Revolt. Menu Planning Blog! What is College, revolt? Simply defined, it is the Sisyphean spirit of defiance in the face of the Absurd. Wedding! More technically and less metaphorically, it is Agreement Form, a spirit of opposition against Wedding Planning any perceived unfairness, oppression, or indignity in the human condition.
Rebellion in Cover Account, Camus’s sense begins with a recognition of boundaries, of limits that define one’s essential selfhood and core sense of Menu | Wedding being and thus must not be infringed—as when a slave stands up to his master and says in effect “thus far, and no further, shall I be commanded.” This defining of the self as at some point inviolable appears to be an act of pure egoism and individualism, but it is Examples Frizzigame Resume, not. In fact Camus argues at considerable length to show that an act of conscientious revolt is ultimately far more than just an individual gesture or an act of solitary protest. The rebel, he writes, holds that there is a “common good more important than his own destiny” and that there are “rights more important than himself.” He acts “in the Wedding | Wedding Planning Blog, name of certain values which are still indeterminate but which he feels are common to himself and to all men” ( The Rebel 15-16). Camus then goes on to assert that an “analysis of rebellion leads at Rental, least to the suspicion that, contrary to the postulates of contemporary thought, a human nature does exist, as the Menu | Wedding Blog, Greeks believed.” After all, “Why rebel,” he asks, “if there is nothing permanent in the self worth preserving?” The slave who stands up and asserts himself actually does so for Format For Cover Letter “the sake of everyone in the world.” He declares in effect that “all men—even the man who insults and oppresses him—have a natural community.” Here we may note that the Wedding Menu | Wedding Blog, idea that there may indeed be an essential human nature is actually more than a “suspicion” as far as Camus himself was concerned. Indeed for Letter him it was more like a fundamental article of his humanist faith. In any case it represents one of the core principles of his ethics and is one of the tenets that sets his philosophy apart from existentialism. True revolt, then, is performed not just for the self but also in solidarity with and out of compassion for others. And for this reason, Camus is led to Menu Planning conclude that revolt too has its limits.
If it begins with and necessarily involves a recognition of human community and Agreement | Templatezet, a common human dignity, it cannot, without betraying its own true character, treat others as if they were lacking in that dignity or not a part of that community. In the end it is remarkable, and indeed surprising, how closely Camus’s philosophy of revolt, despite the author’s fervent atheism and individualism, echoes Kantian ethics with its prohibition against treating human beings as means and its ideal of the human community as a kingdom of ends. A recurrent theme in Camus’s literary works, which also shows up in his moral and political writings, is the character or perspective of the “stranger” or outsider. Meursault, the laconic narrator of The Stranger , is the Menu | Wedding Blog, most obvious example. He seems to observe everything, even his own behavior, from an outside perspective. Like an anthropologist, he records his observations with clinical detachment at the same time that he is warily observed by the community around him. Camus came by this perspective naturally. Metropolitan College! As a European in Africa, an African in Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning Blog, Europe, an infidel among Muslims, a lapsed Catholic, a Communist Party drop-out, an underground resister (who at times had to Rental Template use code names and false identities), a “child of the state” raised by a widowed mother (who was illiterate and virtually deaf and dumb), Camus lived most of his life in various groups and communities without really being integrated within them. This outside view, the perspective of the Blog, exile, became his characteristic stance as a writer. It explains both the Community College, cool, objective (“zero-degree”) precision of much of his work and also the high value he assigned to longed-for ideals of friendship, community, solidarity, and brotherhood.
Throughout his writing career, Camus showed a deep interest in questions of Menu | Wedding Planning guilt and innocence. Once again Meursault in The Stranger provides a striking example. Is he legally innocent of the murder he is charged with? Or is he technically guilty? On the one hand, there seems to Community - Articulation have been no conscious intention behind his action.
Indeed the killing takes place almost as if by accident, with Meursault in a kind of Blog absent-minded daze, distracted by the sun. From this point of view, his crime seems surreal and his trial and subsequent conviction a travesty. On the other hand, it is hard for the reader not to share the Letter Closing, view of other characters in the novel, especially Meursault’s accusers, witnesses, and jury, in whose eyes he seems to be a seriously defective human being—at best, a kind of hollow man and at worst, a monster of self-centeredness and insularity. Menu | Wedding! That the character has evoked such a wide range of responses from critics and readers—from sympathy to horror—is a tribute to the psychological complexity and subtlety of Camus’s portrait. Camus’s brilliantly crafted final novel, The Fall , continues his keen interest in the theme of guilt, this time via a narrator who is virtually obsessed with it. The significantly named Jean-Baptiste Clamence (a voice in the wilderness calling for Community College clemency and forgiveness) is tortured by guilt in the wake of a seemingly casual incident. While strolling home one drizzly November evening, he shows little concern and almost no emotional reaction at all to the suicidal plunge of a young woman into the Seine. But afterwards the incident begins to gnaw at him, and eventually he comes to view his inaction as typical of | Wedding Planning a long pattern of personal vanity and as a colossal failure of Standard Operating Procedures Manuals human sympathy on his part. Wracked by remorse and self-loathing, he gradually descends into Blog, a figurative hell.
Formerly an attorney, he is now a self-described “judge-penitent” (a combination sinner, tempter, prosecutor, and father-confessor) who shows up each night at Examples Professional Profile Frizzigame Resume Example, his local haunt, a sailor’s bar near Amsterdam’s red light district, where, somewhat in the manner of Coleridge’s Ancient Mariner, he recounts his story to whoever will hear it. In the final sections of the novel, amid distinctly Christian imagery and symbolism, he declares his crucial insight that, despite our pretensions to righteousness, we are all guilty . Hence no human being has the right to pass final moral judgment on another. In a final twist, Clamence asserts that his acid self-portrait is also a mirror for his contemporaries. Hence his confession is also an accusation—not only of his nameless companion (who serves as the Menu Planning, mute auditor for Simple Form Template | Templatezet his monologue) but ultimately of the hypocrite lecteur as well. The theme of guilt and innocence in Camus’s writings relates closely to another recurrent tension in his thought: the opposition of Christian and pagan ideas and influences.
At heart a nature-worshipper, and by instinct a skeptic and Planning Blog, non-believer, Camus nevertheless retained a lifelong interest and respect for Christian philosophy and Simple Rental Agreement Template, literature. In particular, he seems to have recognized St. Augustine and Kierkegaard as intellectual kinsmen and writers with whom he shared a common passion for controversy, literary flourish, self-scrutiny, and self-dramatization. Christian images, symbols, and allusions abound in all his work (probably more so than in the writing of any other avowed atheist in modern literature), and Christian themes—judgment, forgiveness, despair, sacrifice, passion, and so forth—permeate the novels. | Wedding! (Meursault and Clamence, it is worth noting, are presented not just as sinners, devils, and outcasts, but in several instances explicitly, and not entirely ironically, as Christ figures.) Meanwhile alongside and against this leitmotif of Christian images and themes, Camus sets the main components of his essentially pagan worldview. Like Nietzsche, he maintains a special admiration for Greek heroic values and Thinking, pessimism and for classical virtues like courage and honor. What might be termed Romantic values also merit particular esteem within his philosophy: passion, absorption in pure being, an appreciation for Wedding | Wedding Blog and indeed a willingness to revel in Cover Closing Account, raw sensory experience, the glory of the moment, the | Wedding Planning Blog, beauty of the Why Can Manuals Fail?, world.
As a result of this duality of Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning Blog influence, Camus’s basic philosophical problem becomes how to reconcile his Augustinian sense of original sin (universal guilt) and rampant moral evil with his personal ideal of pagan primitivism (universal innocence) and with his conviction that the natural world and Metropolitan, our life in it have intrinsic beauty and value. Can an absurd world have intrinsic value? Is authentic pessimism compatible with the view that there is an essential dignity to human life? Such questions raise the possibility that there may be deep logical inconsistencies within Camus’s philosophy, and some critics (notably Sartre) have suggested that these inconsistencies cannot be surmounted except through some sort of Kierkegaardian leap of faith on Camus’s part—in this case a leap leading to | Wedding Planning a belief not in God but in man. Such a leap is certainly implied in an oft-quoted remark from Camus’s “Letter to Examples Profile Frizzigame Resume a German Friend,” where he wrote: “I continue to believe that this world has no supernatural meaning…But I know that something in Menu Planning Blog, the world has meaning—man.” One can find similar affirmations and protestations on behalf of humanity throughout Camus’s writings. They are almost a hallmark of Rental Agreement his philosophical style. Oracular and high-flown, they clearly have more rhetorical force than logical potency. On the other hand, if we are trying to locate Camus’s place in European philosophical tradition, they provide a strong clue as to where he properly belongs. Surprisingly, the sentiment here, a commonplace of the | Wedding Blog, Enlightenment and of traditional liberalism, is much closer in spirit to the exuberant secular humanism of the Italian Renaissance than to Format Letter Format the agnostic skepticism of contemporary post-modernism. vi. Individual vs.
History and Mass Culture. A primary theme of early twentieth-century European literature and critical thought is the rise of modern mass civilization and its suffocating effects of alienation and dehumanization. This became a pervasive theme by the time Camus was establishing his literary reputation. Anxiety over Menu Planning Blog the fate of Western culture, already intense, escalated to apocalyptic levels with the sudden emergence of fascism, totalitarianism, and Cover Letter Format Cover-Letter, new technologies of coercion and death. Here then was a subject ready-made for a writer of Camus’s political and humanistic views. Wedding Planning Blog! He responded to the occasion with typical force and eloquence. In one way or another, the themes of alienation and dehumanization as by-products of an Cover increasingly technical and automated world enter into nearly all of Camus’s works.
Even his concept of the Absurd becomes multiplied by a social and | Wedding Planning, economic world in which meaningless routines and Metropolitan, mind-numbing repetitions predominate. The drudgery of Sisyphus is Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning, mirrored and amplified in the assembly line, the business office, the government bureau, and Operating, especially in the penal colony and concentration camp. In line with this theme, the Wedding Menu, ever-ambiguous Meursault in Why Can Procedures Manuals, The Stranger can be understood as both a depressing manifestation of the newly emerging mass personality (that is, as a figure devoid of basic human feelings and passions) and, conversely, as a lone hold-out, a last remaining specimen of the old Romanticism—and hence a figure who is viewed as both dangerous and alien by the robotic majority. Similarly, The Plague can be interpreted, on at least one level, as an allegory in which humanity must be preserved from the fatal pestilence of mass culture, which converts formerly free, autonomous, independent-minded human beings into a soulless new species. At various times in the novel, Camus’s narrator describes the plague as if it were a dull but highly capable public official or bureaucrat: It was, above all, a shrewd, unflagging adversary; a skilled organizer, doing his work thoroughly and well. (180) “But it seemed the plague had settled in for good at its most virulent, and it took its daily toll of deaths with the punctual zeal of a good civil servant.” (235)
This identification of the plague with oppressive civil bureaucracy and the routinization of charisma looks forward to the author’s play The State of Siege , where plague is used once again as a symbol for totalitarianism—only this time it is personified in an almost cartoonish way as a kind of | Wedding Planning Blog overbearing government functionary or office manager from hell. Clad in a gaudy military uniform bedecked with ribbons and decorations, the Standard Manuals Fail?, character Plague (a satirical portrait of Generalissimo Francisco Franco—or El Caudillo as he liked to Menu style himself) is closely attended by his personal Secretary and Higher Order Thinking Skills Vickie Mohnacky, loyal assistant Death, depicted as a prim, officious female bureaucrat who also favors military garb and who carries an ever-present clipboard and notebook. So Plague is | Wedding Planning Blog, a fascist dictator, and Death a solicitous commissar. Together these figures represent a system of pervasive control and micro-management that threatens the future of Examples Professional Example mass society. In his reflections on this theme of post-industrial dehumanization, Camus differs from most other European writers (and especially from those on Menu Blog, the Left) in viewing mass reform and revolutionary movements, including Marxism, as representing at least as great a threat to individual freedom as late-stage capitalism. Throughout his career he continued to cherish and Metropolitan Community College, defend old-fashioned virtues like personal courage and honor that other Left-wing intellectuals tended to view as reactionary or bourgeois.
Suicide is the central subject of The Myth of Sisyphus and serves as a background theme in Caligula and The Fall . Planning! In Caligula the mad title character, in a fit of horror and revulsion at the meaninglessness of life, would rather die—and bring the Why Can, world down with him—than accept a cosmos that is indifferent to human fate or that will not submit to his individual will. In The Fall , a stranger’s act of Wedding Blog suicide serves as the starting point for a bitter ritual of self-scrutiny and remorse on the part of the Why Can Operating Manuals Fail?, narrator. Like Wittgenstein (who had a family history of suicide and suffered from bouts of Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning Blog depression), Camus considered suicide the fundamental issue for moral philosophy. However, unlike other philosophers who have written on the subject (from Cicero and Seneca to Montaigne and Letter Closing, Schopenhauer), Camus seems uninterested in assessing the traditional motives and justifications for suicide (for instance, to avoid a long, painful, and debilitating illness or as a response to personal tragedy or scandal). Indeed, he seems interested in the problem only to the extent that it represents one possible response to the Absurd. His verdict on the matter is unqualified and clear: The only Menu Planning, courageous and Agreement Template, morally valid response to Menu Planning the Absurd is to continue living—“Suicide is not an option.” From the time he first heard the story of Resume Examples his father’s literal nausea and revulsion after witnessing a public execution, Camus began a vocal and lifelong opposition to | Wedding Blog the death penalty. Executions by guillotine were a common public spectacle in Assessing Higher Order Vickie Mohnacky April 19, Algeria during his lifetime, but he refused to attend them and recoiled bitterly at their very mention. Condemnation of capital punishment is both explicit and implicit in his writings.
For example, in The Stranger Meursault’s long confinement during his trial and Menu | Wedding Planning Blog, his eventual execution are presented as part of an elaborate, ceremonial ritual involving both public and religious authorities. The grim rationality of Order Vickie Mohnacky this process of legalized murder contrasts markedly with the sudden, irrational, almost accidental nature of his actual crime. Similarly, in The Myth of Sisyphus , the would-be suicide is contrasted with his fatal opposite, the Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning Blog, man condemned to Format Format Cover-Letter death, and we are continually reminded that a sentence of | Wedding death is our common fate in Assessing Thinking Skills, an absurd universe. Camus’s opposition to the death penalty is not specifically philosophical. Wedding | Wedding Planning Blog! That is, it is Order Vickie Mohnacky, not based on a particular moral theory or principle (such as Cesare Beccaria’s utilitarian objection that capital punishment is wrong because it has not been proven to | Wedding Blog have a deterrent effect greater than life imprisonment). Camus’s opposition, in contrast, is humanitarian, conscientious, almost visceral. Like Victor Hugo, his great predecessor on this issue, he views the death penalty as an egregious barbarism—an act of blood riot and Why Can Standard Procedures Fail?, vengeance covered over with a thin veneer of law and civility to make it acceptable to modern sensibilities. That it is also an act of vengeance aimed primarily at the poor and oppressed, and that it is given religious sanction, makes it even more hideous and indefensible in his view.
Camus’s essay “Reflections on the Guillotine” supplies a detailed examination of the Wedding Menu Planning Blog, issue. An eloquent personal statement with compelling psychological and Higher Order Thinking Skills Mohnacky April, philosophical insights, it includes the author’s direct rebuttal to traditional retributionist arguments in Wedding Menu | Wedding Blog, favor of capital punishment (such as Kant’s claim that death is the legally appropriate, indeed morally required, penalty for murder). To all who argue that murder must be punished in kind, Camus replies: Capital punishment is the Metropolitan, most premeditated of murders, to which no criminal’s deed, however calculated, can be compared. For there to be an equivalency, the death penalty would have to punish a criminal who had warned his victim of the date on which he would inflict a horrible death on him and Menu Blog, who, from that moment onward, had confined him at his mercy for months. Such a monster is not to Resume Examples Professional be encountered in private life. Camus concludes his essay by arguing that, at the very least, France should abolish the Wedding Planning, savage spectacle of the Cover Letter, guillotine and replace it with a more humane procedure (such as lethal injection).
But he still retains a scant hope that capital punishment will be completely abolished at Menu Planning, some point in the time to come: “In the unified Europe of the future the solemn abolition of the death penalty ought to be the first article of the European Code we all hope for.” Camus himself did not live to Format Letter Cover-Letter see the day, but he would no doubt be gratified to know that abolition of capital punishment is now an essential prerequisite for membership in | Wedding Planning, the European Union. Camus is often classified as an existentialist writer, and it is Cover Closing Account, easy to see why. Affinities with Kierkegaard and Sartre are patent. Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning! He shares with these philosophers (and with the other major writers in the existentialist tradition, from Augustine and Pascal to Dostoyevsky and Nietzsche) an habitual and intense interest in the active human psyche, in the life of conscience or spirit as it is actually experienced and lived. Like these writers, he aims at nothing less than a thorough, candid exegesis of the human condition, and like them he exhibits not just a philosophical attraction but also a personal commitment to Letter Closing such values as individualism, free choice, inner strength, authenticity, personal responsibility, and self-determination.
However, one troublesome fact remains: throughout his career Camus repeatedly denied that he was an existentialist. Was this an accurate and honest self-assessment? On the one hand, some critics have questioned this “denial” (using the Menu | Wedding Planning Blog, term almost in its modern clinical sense), attributing it to the celebrated Sartre-Camus political “feud” or to a certain stubbornness or even contrariness on Camus’s part. In their view, Camus qualifies as, at Cover Closing Account, minimum, a closet existentialist, and in certain respects (e.g., in his unconditional and passionate concern for the individual) as an even truer specimen of the Wedding | Wedding Planning, type than Sartre. On the other hand, besides his personal rejection of the label, there appear to be solid reasons for challenging the claim that Camus is an existentialist. Cover Closing! For one thing, it is noteworthy that he never showed much interest in (indeed he largely avoided) metaphysical and ontological questions (the philosophical raison d’etre of Heidegger and Sartre). Of course there is no rule that says an existentialist must be a metaphysician. However, Camus’s seeming aversion to technical philosophical discussion does suggest one way in Menu, which he distanced himself from contemporary existentialist thought.
Another point of divergence is that Camus seems to have regarded existentialism as a complete and Why Can Procedures Manuals Fail?, systematic world-view, that is, a fully articulated doctrine. In his view, to be a true existentialist one had to Menu Blog commit to the entire doctrine (and not merely to bits and pieces of it), and this was apparently something he was unwilling to do. A further point of separation, and possibly a decisive one, is that Camus actively challenged and set himself apart from the existentialist motto that being precedes essence. Agreement Form! Ultimately, against Sartre in particular and existentialists in general, he clings to his instinctive belief in a common human nature. Menu! In his view human existence necessarily includes an essential core element of dignity and value, and in this respect he seems surprisingly closer to the humanist tradition from Aristotle to Letters. Letter Kant than to the modern tradition of Wedding Menu Planning Blog skepticism and relativism from Nietzsche to Derrida (the latter his fellow-countryman and, at least in his commitment to human rights and opposition to the death penalty, his spiritual successor and descendant). Obviously, Camus’s writings remain the primary reason for his continuing importance and the chief source of his cultural legacy, but his fame is also due to his exemplary life. He truly lived his philosophy; thus it is in his personal political stands and public statements as well as in his books that his views are clearly articulated. In short, he bequeathed not just his words but also his actions.
Taken together, those words and actions embody a core set of liberal democratic values—including tolerance, justice, liberty, open-mindedness, respect for personhood, condemnation of violence, and Order Mohnacky, resistance to tyranny—that can be fully approved and acted upon by the modern intellectual engage . On a purely literary level, one of Camus’s most original contributions to Wedding modern discourse is his distinctive prose style. Terse and hard-boiled, yet at Professional Profile Example, the same time lyrical, and indeed capable of | Wedding Blog great, soaring flights of emotion and Assessing Higher Order 19, feeling, Camus’s style represents a deliberate attempt on his part to Menu wed the famous clarity, elegance, and dry precision of the French philosophical tradition with the Assessing Higher Order Thinking Vickie Mohnacky April 19, more sonorous and opulent manner of 19th century Romantic fiction. The result is something like a cross between Hemingway (a Camus favorite) and Melville (another favorite) or between Diderot and Hugo. For the most part when we read Camus we encounter the plain syntax, simple vocabulary, and biting aphorism typical of modern theatre or noir detective fiction. However, this base style frequently becomes a counterpoint or springboard for extended musings and lavish descriptions almost in the manner of Proust. Here we may note that this attempted reconciliation or union of Wedding | Wedding Planning Blog opposing styles is not just an aesthetic gesture on the author’s part: It is also a moral and political statement. Metropolitan Community College! It says, in effect, that the life of reason and the life of feeling need not be opposed; that intellect and passion can, and should, operate together. Perhaps the greatest inspiration and example that Camus provides for contemporary readers is the lesson that it is | Wedding Blog, still possible for Simple Agreement Template a serious thinker to face the Menu Planning, modern world (with a full understanding of its contradictions, injustices, brutal flaws, and absurdities) with hardly a grain of hope, yet utterly without cynicism. To read Camus is to find words like justice, freedom, humanity, and dignity used plainly and openly, without apology or embarrassment, and without the pained or derisive facial expressions or invisible quotation marks that almost automatically accompany those terms in public discourse today.
At Stockholm Camus concluded his Nobel acceptance speech with a stirring reminder and challenge to Format Letters. Proper Cover Cover-Letter modern writers: “The nobility of our craft,” he declared, “will always be rooted in Blog, two commitments, both difficult to maintain: the refusal to lie about what one knows and the resistance to oppression.” He left behind a body of work faithful to For Cover Cover Format his own credo that the arts of language must always be used in the service of truth and the service of Menu | Wedding Planning liberty.
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Tips for Wedding | Wedding Planning Blog Academic Writing and Other Formal Writing. It is a long list. People have a lot of problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to Account, me. Yet bad grammar, bad style, and poor organization will make it very difficult for you to convey your ideas clearly and professionally, and will limit your academic and professional success. I strongly recommend that you work to eliminate any of these problems that may apply to your own writing. -- Dr. | Wedding Planning Blog? James A. Bednar.
Rules for formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated. Formal writing is used in Operating academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and Wedding Blog assumptions. Unlike casual conversation or emails to Why Can Standard Manuals, friends, formal writing needs to be clear, unambiguous, literal, and Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning well structured. Formal writing is not just dictated conversation In general, it is Community - Articulation inappropriate simply to write as you would speak. In conversation, the listener can ask for clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from topic to topic freely, and so on. Menu | Wedding Planning? Formal writing must instead stand on its own, conveying the author's thesis clearly through words alone. As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to Cover Account, construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments relevant to a well-defined thesis.
The best formal writing will be difficult to write but very easy to read. Wedding Menu | Wedding Blog? The author's time and Letters. Letter Format effort spent on Blog, writing will be repaid with the Why Can Standard Operating Procedures, time and effort saved by the (many) readers. Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is clearly evident in the introduction and conclusion. Of course, the thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point. In a short essay, the main point should usually conclude the Wedding | Wedding Planning Blog, introductory paragraph. Why Can Operating Manuals? In a longer essay, the main point generally concludes the Wedding, introductory section. Community College? The reader should never be in any doubt about what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the reader again. When in doubt, use the recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and books all use the same structure: first make the topic clear, then expand upon Wedding Blog, it, and finally sum up, tying everything back to the topic.
At each level, you need to tell the reader what you will be trying to say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to cover all the relevant material, clearly relating it to Why Can, your stated point, and finally you need to tie the subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to establish the Planning Blog, point that you promised. Stay on topic Everything in Rental Agreement Template | Templatezet your document should be related clearly to your main thesis. You can write other papers later for anything else you might want to say. The reason your reader is | Wedding Planning reading this particular paper of Why Can Standard Operating Manuals Fail? yours is that he or she wants to know about your main topic, not simply about | Wedding everything you might want to say (unless for some narcissistic reason everything you might want to say is your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is no need to bring up items simply because they relate to your main topic, if you do not have anything to Assessing Skills April 19, say about them.
If you do bring something up, say something important about it! Staying on topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to acknowledge some weaknesses in your argument or discuss some merits of an Menu Blog opposing argument. It is quite appropriate to discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to the main topic of your paper. For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and Assessing Higher Thinking Skills Vickie 19 arguing that it was not written well overall, it is usually a good idea to point out the few things that were done well, e.g. so that the reader does not get the Wedding | Wedding Planning, impression that you just like to complain :-) . Often such opposing observations fit well just after the introduction, providing a background for the rest of your arguments that follow. Whenever you do include such material, i.e. things that go in the direction opposite to your main thesis, be careful to put it into only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to achieve that when necessary. Jumping back and forth will confuse the reader unnecessarily. In every case, try to For Cover Letters. Letter Format, make your point as clearly as possible, while at the same time not overstating it and Blog not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in your document should follow smoothly from the Higher Skills Vickie Mohnacky April, preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the preceding paragraph. Wedding Planning? The world is arguably an unstructured jumble of ideas, but anything that you expect the reader to read from start to finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path. Transition words and phrases are what make it possible for a reader to follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in Account your paper. Without good transitions, the Menu Planning, reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to Closing Account, be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether.
One clue that your writing needs better transitions is if you find that you can cut and paste paragraphs from one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of how the paragraph begins and ends. If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into Wedding | Wedding a coherent narrative that reads well from start to Simple Rental Agreement Form | Templatezet, finish. In practice, making smooth transitions is very difficult. Menu | Wedding Blog? Learning to do it takes a lot of Cover practice at first, and Menu Planning actually making the Resume Examples Frizzigame Resume, transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. One rule of thumb is Wedding Planning Blog that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . , As a result, . , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to add these words between most of your sentences, not just the Skills, paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much. In that case you need to reorganize your document to Wedding Menu Planning Blog, group related thoughts together, switching topics only Standard Procedures Fail?, when necessary. Once the organization is good, all you can do is read and reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it. Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in casual conversation, usually intending to Wedding Menu, convey meanings other than what the words literally indicate.
For instance, we often speak informally of going the extra mile, at the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc. Avoid such imprecise writing in formal prose -- whenever possible, the words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. If there were no miles involved, do not write of Why Can Operating Procedures Fail? extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about Wedding Menu Blog its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is Community College - Articulation obvious even to those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is a second language and those who might read your writing years from now or in Menu | Wedding Planning Blog another part of the world. Formal writing should be clear to Resume Examples Frizzigame, as many people as possible, and its meaning should not depend on the whims of your local dialect of English. It is Wedding Menu Planning Blog a permanent and public record of your ideas, and should mean precisely what you have written. Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to avoid that temptation. When two words will do, there is no need to Simple Rental | Templatezet, use twenty. Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over Wedding, it to see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the academic community, your ability to write concisely is far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to ensure that you write an Closing essay of the appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the same thing a dozen different ways just to Wedding, fill up space.
In the Rental Form, real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums. Be professional and diplomatic When writing about another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and the subject of your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Wedding | Wedding? Thus it is crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of time, pointless, etc. If some of the essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. Standard Operating Procedures Manuals Fail?? At the very least, you would have made an enemy for life, which is rarely a good idea. Menu | Wedding Planning Blog? In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the author or implying that he or she is an Resume Professional Resume imbecile. And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is just a diatribe and not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to pretend that you are the author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. It should be straightforward to figure out Wedding which parts would make you defensive or angry, and Higher Order Skills April 19 you can then reword those.
Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the Menu | Wedding, sentences in what you are reading right now!). E.g. do not say Recall that . For Cover Letters. Proper Cover Cover-Letter? . Of course, an | Wedding Planning Blog occasional imperative in Letter parentheses is not objectionable (e.g. (see Walker 1996 for more details).). A formal document needs to Menu | Wedding Blog, be structured at all levels, whether or not the Order Skills Vickie April 19, structure is Wedding Planning made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to Cover Letter Closing, convince the reader of your thesis in Menu Planning the body of the paper, and (3) restate the thesis in Cover Account the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. Note that an abstract is Blog no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an independent miniature version of the article, not part of the introduction. Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in Format For Cover Letters. Proper Format a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph. Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to the main topic of Wedding Menu Planning your document; if not, either the paragraph should be eliminated, or the main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in Rental Agreement Template | Templatezet the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an entire thought, not just a fragment or the beginning of a thought.
Note that most -ing words are not verbs. The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to Menu Planning, a sentence or a part of one. To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by Format a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and Wedding | Wedding a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon. However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in turn. Simple Rental Agreement Form Template | Templatezet? If you could replace the comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in case you have two sentences that need to be linked in some generic way, or make the Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning, linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and succinctly what the reader will get out of Assessing Order Thinking Skills Mohnacky April 19 that section.
In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Planning? Section standards vary in different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and Conclusion. If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about what is in that section. Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it. For instance, a section about adding a second eye to a simulation of Standard Operating Procedures Manuals single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is meaningless to someone scanning the Wedding Blog, document. Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to Assessing Thinking Vickie April 19, explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to the type of person likely to be reading the paper. Everything important goes in Wedding Menu Planning Blog your introduction and conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at least skim the introduction and conclusion, and Cover Letter Closing Account those who read it in depth will remember those two sections the best. So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it!
For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is Wedding Planning Blog not convincing. Examples Professional Profile? Instead state that the paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to be the case. Then you can elaborate on that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and Wedding Menu Blog 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in the order of the subsections. That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text.
If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and 1.1 should be merged. Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of what has been established in that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on Metropolitan Community College - Articulation, to the next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on Menu | Wedding Blog, what to put into Assessing Higher Vickie figure captions. Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to be readable independently of the main article. That way, readers can skim articles and Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to read the whole article. In such cases, you must ensure that all of the main points of the figure are also mentioned in the text of the article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to have very little in the caption, with the figures being understandable only Assessing Higher Thinking April 19, when reading the main text. Even in | Wedding Planning Blog such cases, I myself prefer to put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the figure is clear. You are welcome to For Cover Cover Format, have your own preferences, but you should be aware of what you are trying to achieve, i.e. Wedding Menu Planning Blog? whether you want the caption to be readable on its own. Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in themselves, but in conversation the meaning is usually clear from the context.
In written text, however, the intended meaning is Examples Profile Frizzigame Resume quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. many possible interpretations of it and this. It is a good idea to read over anything you write, searching for Menu Blog this sort of word. For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?. Agreement | Templatezet? For such a reference to make sense, the object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to Planning Blog, your reference. Often you will find that it or they refers to something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely.
Even if the item to Resume Examples Professional Profile Frizzigame Resume Example, which you refer is explicitly mentioned in your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the reader might not know to which of several items you might be referring. E.g. for the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the | Wedding, actual name of Resume Examples Profile Frizzigame Resume Example each; he would be ambiguous. Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the type of object or concept to which you are referring. For instance, this argument or this paper is less confusing than simply this. That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is a good example of the use of the word 'this'.
Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is Wedding | Wedding Planning confused with other actual words. Rental Agreement Form Template | Templatezet? As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in word-processed text. Menu? Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like: If you do not know the Cover Closing Account, difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning Blog? Yet because the spell checker takes care of all the other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is surely not much of a burden, and is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. But it is much safer simply to avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and Cover Account replace it with however, or vice versa, the result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation. I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges.
However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in some cases meaningless. A point is a single item The word point can only be used for Menu | Wedding Planning Blog a single, atomic item. Thus it is not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the first half of Community - Articulation a point, etc. Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in English.
Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is no separate plural form of research; researches is an English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case. Wedding Menu Planning? Capitalization is appropriate only for Examples Professional Frizzigame specific, named, individual items or people. For example, capitalize school subjects only when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Menu Blog? Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. a computer science department, the president vs. President Bush.
When in doubt, use lower case. Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for Letters. Proper Cover-Letter conversational use and for Wedding | Wedding Planning informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the parentheses in a mathematical expression. Simple Rental? They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is a mistake to use a hyphen where the Wedding Menu | Wedding, meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an Metropolitan College - Articulation adjective. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. For example, the phrase English language learners as written means language learners from England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. But the phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the English language, and using the hyphen helps make that grouping clear.
Note that there would never be a hyphen if the Menu Planning, same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: a learner of the English language ( NEVER a learner of the English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the noun phrase English language into Format Proper Cover Letter Format an adjective, and Planning Blog a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective). Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect). An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for Assessing Order Skills Vickie Mohnacky a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in Planning Blog ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an Why Can Operating Manuals early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner). Blog? You may want to Examples, search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in a row will be mistakes. In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the hyphen groups language and learning, while the en-dash -- connects language learning with associated. Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to read.
But in such cases it is often clearer just to | Wedding Planning, reword the Cover Closing Account, sentence to avoid the ambiguity, as in a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is quite obvious because the Menu, pair of Why Can Operating Procedures Manuals words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to avoid ambiguity. Menu Blog? For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the Form, literal interpretation, and so the hyphen can usually be omitted from | Wedding, chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the Format Letters. Letter, same phrase but e.g. after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the Wedding Menu | Wedding, hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is not a property of the Why Can Standard Operating Procedures Fail?, phrase, but of how you are using the phrase in the sentence. American vs. Planning Blog? British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in a British university, and I use American spellings by default (e.g. organization, not organisation). Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the spellings to Manuals Fail?, make e.g. all the papers in a certain edited volume use the same conventions. Thus please do not hesitate to use whichever one of the Wedding | Wedding Blog, (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the document. Formatting and grammar rules When in doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in Standard Operating Fail? psychology and computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards.
Unfortunately, you do have to pay for the APA guide, though it is now available in a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to Menu | Wedding Blog, how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for Metropolitan Community similar documents. If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. most versions of | Wedding Planning Blog Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Poor spacing makes the page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the writing is Format Letters. Proper Cover Letter Format Cover-Letter not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. For instance, using a fancy cover and | Wedding binding for a short paper or report is Why Can Operating Manuals Fail? distracting and Menu | Wedding Blog makes it difficult to Rental Form Template | Templatezet, photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for Wedding Menu | Wedding Blog long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is not an acceptable substitute for a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the results are presented in a written paper. Professional Profile Frizzigame Resume Example? Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in the paper.
Use last names Never refer to Planning, the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends. They are not, and Letters. Proper Cover Letter Format Cover-Letter even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to that circumstance. Menu Planning Blog? Except in unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to Thinking Skills 19, discuss specific people (e.g. the Menu Planning, original founders of a field of research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of a scientific text; the last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an author's last name is like the Assessing Order Thinking Skills Vickie, key in a database lookup -- if the name is misspelled (e.g. Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to locate works by Menu Blog that author in the library or online. Moreover, it is Profile Frizzigame Resume Example extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work.
So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against Wedding Blog, the original source, and Examples ensuring that you spell them the same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to Menu Planning, the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the Cover-Letter, authors or the authors' last names, not he or the author. If there is only one author and you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the author or the author's last name. Referring to | Wedding Planning, other texts Use double quotes around the title of an article when you refer to it in the text. Metropolitan College? Italics are reserved for | Wedding Planning books or other works of similar length. Higher Thinking Skills Vickie Mohnacky? Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is Wedding Menu | Wedding just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in Format For Cover Format Cover-Letter italics, and Wedding | Wedding is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an Format For Cover Proper Cover Cover-Letter author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning Blog what one author said about another author. If commenting on Metropolitan - Articulation, such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you. When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive.
Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to avoid the hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative. Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning Blog? Only when something genuinely cannot be made to fit into the main flow of the text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only when the precise wording of the Assessing Higher Skills Vickie 19, original sentences is important, e.g. if the work is so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in this field. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about grammar If you are going to criticize the Menu | Wedding, grammar or spelling of an author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to verify that you are correct. Reading a long rant from an American about Cover Letter Closing Account how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to mention explicitly reading the Wedding | Wedding Planning Blog, paper A lot of students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the authors . . Rental Template? Try to avoid this redundancy. Wedding Menu Planning? If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and vice versa. Manuals Fail?? Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to be reminded of this. Wedding | Wedding? Academic writing is always about papers and Resume Frizzigame authors, and thus those topics should only be discussed when they are relevant.
Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of research, whether it is Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning your own or someone else's, there is Letter a standard way of doing it properly. First you say what the Menu | Wedding, research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and then you say how your own work is going to overcome those limitations. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and Why Can Operating Manuals how you are going to do some of what has not been done. If you are doing a literature review rather than an original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning, do. Unless you want to make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the limitations, and you should always assume that the Professional Profile Frizzigame, person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Of course, sometimes there is Wedding Blog a good reason to make an enemy, e.g. to draw attention to yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to Cover Closing Account, choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only Wedding | Wedding Blog, that you are planning to study topic X. In the context of Metropolitan Community research, studying is a vague and Menu | Wedding Blog unbounded task, with no criterion for Closing Account success and no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to Wedding Blog, see if you got the right answer; research is not like that.
In research, you need to For Cover Cover Letter, spell out the specific questions you are going to Wedding Planning Blog, try to Resume Examples Resume Example, answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on -- it's up to you to define the question and the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the Menu | Wedding Blog, audience expected to see in the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to be relevant. Why Can Operating Procedures Manuals Fail?? The reader is more likely to assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to assume you knew about the Menu | Wedding Planning Blog, work but believed it not to Examples Profile Frizzigame, be relevant. Wedding | Wedding? Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for For Cover Proper Cover-Letter omitting topics that you do not believe to be relevant. In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to address the issue and Wedding | Wedding Planning Blog explicitly state why the For Cover Proper Cover-Letter, topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember. Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at Wedding Menu Planning, all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in order to fulfill their function of allowing people to locate the Vickie April 19, specific item of reference material you cite.
In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and page numbers, and every conference paper must have the title of the Wedding | Wedding Blog, conference proceedings, the page numbers, and some indication of Thinking Skills Vickie April 19 who published it. Without having every bit of this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the Blog, article, such as the cost of reprints. For Cover Cover Format Cover-Letter? As long as the correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in all cases each entry ends in a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in Menu Planning an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and Community College without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to Wedding Menu | Wedding, find the correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to follow. One common approach is to Operating, use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the first bracket, as in . known , ( not . known). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in parentheses does not exist , as far as the grammar of the sentence is concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence.
Thus the rule is simply to Wedding | Wedding, put the parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. Assessing Higher Skills Vickie April 19? or . as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and not . as seen in rats Carlin (1972).). It is usually best to have only a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the main text. Wedding Menu? Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and For Cover Letters. Cover Letter we Writing standards disagree about Wedding Blog whether to Proper Cover-Letter, use I and we (and their various forms) in academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. | Wedding Planning? Others argue that omitting I and we results in Account awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences. Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is being reported was an arbitrary and specific choice made by a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in Menu the work.
When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and thus there is no need to emphasize the Assessing Skills Vickie Mohnacky April 19, role of the | Wedding Blog, authors. Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the human element where appropriate; in other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for English text, and in the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead. You might wish to follow the accepted usage in College such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by less enlightened folks. :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is Menu Planning traditionally placed inside the quotation. However, I consider that rule an Community - Articulation egregious violation of the whole notion of quotation, i.e. an Menu obvious bug in the English language. For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is Agreement Template | Templatezet hard, I always put the comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in Wedding | Wedding Planning Blog fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period).
Accepted American usage is to Higher Order Skills Mohnacky, write life is hard, but the computer programmer in Wedding Menu | Wedding me just cannot be convinced to make such an Simple Rental Agreement Form obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen. Wedding Menu | Wedding Blog? The traditional formatting for an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is Why Can Standard Operating Procedures Manuals Fail? hard---then you die. Wedding Menu | Wedding Planning? However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and after the dash. Without the Community - Articulation, spaces the dash appears to be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Grammatically, the function of the dash is to Wedding | Wedding, separate and connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by putting spaces around the dash. Again, in Community College - Articulation my opinion the accepted usage is Menu Planning Blog a bug in Assessing Higher Thinking Mohnacky 19 the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at the place they were heading to. However, in Wedding | Wedding Blog practice it is often very difficult and awkward to reword sentences to Community College, avoid dangling prepositions.
Thus I consider this rule to be optional at best. Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the comma is Wedding Planning often omitted before an 'and' in a list. For instance, they will write of ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs. I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the Order 19, last two items in the list together. Lists are generally meant to be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and eggs as between ham and Wedding Planning Blog chips. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is Metropolitan Community - Articulation ambiguous. Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway. Oxford University Press, at Wedding Menu Planning, least, agrees with me; see the Wikipedia serial comma entry. Again, this insistence on using appropriate syntax is probably driven by the computer programmer in me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is Metropolitan - Articulation omitted. Commas after i.e. and e.g. Many grammar books state that a comma is Wedding Menu | Wedding always required after i.e. and Community College - Articulation e.g. Wedding Planning? used in a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly.
The inspiration for this rule is that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to the English translation of the Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. translating to Simple Agreement, that is, and e.g. translating to for example, which in Wedding Menu itself is an important distinction to Resume Professional Frizzigame Resume Example, know). However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them. Such pauses break up the flow of the sentence, and modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to Latin phrases and then English phrases. Thus in many cases I prefer to omit the comma after the abbreviation, and sometimes also the one before it. Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in the public domain. You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for Blog any other non-fraudulent purpose.
If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the original author.
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