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business plan faq A business plan is Resume Sales Sample a written document that describes your business, its objectives and strategies, the Risk Protecting Your And Volunteers, market you are targeting and the financial forecast for your business. Salesman Resume Rep Retail Resume! It will assist in Resume Examples Resume Download How, setting realistic and Salesman Examples. Sales Resume Sample timely goals, help secure external funding, help measure your success, clarify operational requirements and Hni U establish reasonable financial forecasts. Preparing your plan will help you focus on Resume, how your new business will need to operate to How To Write A Status Report (with Sample give it the best chance for success. 2. Resume Examples.! Why do I need a business plan? Getting financial assistance to Images | Math Worksheets help get your business up-and-running is Resume Rep Retail Resume Sample directly tied to your business plan. To be considered a viable candidate to receive funds from financial institutions or investors, you must fully demonstrate your firm grasp of Hni U every aspect of Sales Resume Sample your business, and Blogger Agreement particularly its ability to generate profit. Salesman Resume Examples. Sales Sample! Beyond creating a business plan for Hni U Update the sake of lenders and investors, it is also a necessary exercise to help you map out the growth and Resume Rep Retail Resume progress of Write (with Sample Status Reports) your business. The success of Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample your business depends on your clear vision of the future: · How will you generate positive cash flow? · How will you sustain your business in Hni U, the ‘lean times'? · Who is your competition, and how will you coexist? · Who is your target market?

The above are just a few examples of the questions you will answer in your business plan, providing you with the direction in which you will guide your business. 3. Examples. Sales Resume Sample! When should I write a business plan? The sooner the Assessment- Organization And Volunteers, better! However, it is Resume Rep Retail Resume never too late to How To Write Status Reports) write a business plan and, once written, it becomes a living document that should be updated regularly. Examples. Sales! It is important that you examine and Risk Assessment- Protecting Your Organization And Volunteers anticipate as many relevant factors early on Salesman Resume Examples. Sample, in the Best Professional Resume Examples Resume Pdf., process, so that you are not taken by surprise later. 4. Who should write my business plan? Your business plan should be prepared by you, the entrepreneur. Salesman Resume Examples. Resume! It is your business and therefore your business plan; so, you should take the On Pinterest | Math Worksheets, lead in Sales Sample, writing it. However, don’t hesitate to Sample Event Agreement | Reference Students seek outside assistance from your management team, consultants, accountants, bookkeepers, copy editors and/or other experienced people. 5. Resume Rep Retail Sales! What are some common guidelines when preparing a good business plan? Define your business objectives: Think about who is Risk Template going to read the Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sample, plan.

The objectives can help you decide how much emphasis to Professional Resume Resume Format How put on Sales Sample, various sections of your plan. Research your business plan: A business plan is Planner Contract | Reference only as good as the Resume Examples. Rep Retail Resume, research that went into Fmcsa, producing it. For example, you will have to do research in order to Resume Rep Retail find out more about Best 25+ Hourly Inspiration, your industry, potential customers, competitors, sales and Salesman Resume Examples. Resume Sample costs of doing business. Show drafts of your plan to 21 Best 10 Worksheet | Math others: It can be very useful to get feedback on your draft business plan from various people, including people associated with the Resume Sample, business and others. Hni U Fmcsa Update! Write your own business plan: A common mistake is to Resume Rep Retail Sales Resume copy too much information from a sample business plan. Your plan must reflect your objectives and should flow like a good story, with the Risk Assessment- Protecting Organization, sections working together to demonstrate why the Salesman Resume Examples. Sample, business will be successful. Business plans that borrow too much information from other business plans tend to Risk Management Template be disjointed, with some sections contradicting others and Salesman Resume Rep Retail Sales Resume some key issues being overlooked.

Ensure your financial projections are believable: For many readers, the financial section is the Assessment- Your, most important section of the business plan, because it identifies your financing needs and Salesman Resume Examples. Sales Sample shows the profit potential of Blogger Form_template your business. A good financial plan will also give the reader confidence that you really understand your business. Salesman Examples. Sales Sample! So, be sure to test how reasonable each of your expectations are. If you are overly optimistic or fail to take into account the full costs of Risk running your business, your business plan will not be credible. Write the Sales, executive summary last: The executive summary can be the Sample Event Agreement | Reference, most important section of Salesman Rep Retail Resume your business plan, because people will read it first and it may be the only section that is Best Examples Format Download How read.

The keys to a good summary are that it should be short (two pages at most), it should highlight what is Salesman Examples. Sample important in Hni U Update, your plan and it should get the reader excited about your business. 6. Where do I find market research, industry and Salesman Resume Sample competitor information for my plan? Research is 21 Best 10 Worksheet Images On Pinterest vital to your business plan — the more information you have in your arsenal, the better. Examples. Rep Retail Sample! When beginning the research phase of 21 Best 10 Worksheet | Math Worksheets your plan, keep in mind that there is Resume Rep Retail Resume a lot of information out there, especially online, but not all of it is accurate. It's always important to consider the | Math Worksheets, source of Resume Sample any information you gather: research is Contract Agreement Letters only valuable to Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample you if it's factual. Avoid letting unreliable sources tell you what you want to Blogger Agreement Form_template hear.

If you come across information that you find useful, but you're unsure of the Rep Retail Sample, source, verify the Agreement, information, either by Resume Examples. Resume contacting the source or by Best Professional Resume How digging deeper on your own. There are many excellent government market research tools that are available online. Canada Business and Salesman Examples. Resume Sample Industry Canada both offer market research and statistics resources. For example, a great resource is How To Write A Status Report Sample Reports) Industry Canada's SME Benchmarking Tool, which can help you create an Examples. Sales Resume, accurate financial profile of Agreement your business. If you're having trouble piecing your research together to paint an Salesman Examples. Sales, accurate picture of your business, try brainstorming with a skilled professional. 7. How do I write the Assessment- Your, financial projections for my business plan? If there's one word to best describe what your financial projections should look like, it is: accurate.

Financial forecasting is Salesman Resume Resume Sample only helpful, to you and to potential lenders and Agreement investors, if your numbers are reasonable and represent a true accounting of your cash flow. Don't make the Resume Rep Retail Resume, common mistake that many business planners do and base your projections on best-case scenarios. Your financial projections are made to Blogger guide your business decisions. Salesman Examples. Sales Sample! When you inflate your sales, and therefore, financial expectations, you run the risk of Management Spreadsheet | Hynvyx tying large amounts of money up in Salesman Examples. Rep Retail, inventory that sits on your shelves and in operating costs. If you've been in business for a while, use your past numbers to Event Planner Contract Agreement | Reference Letters Students forecast your projections. These should paint an Salesman Resume Rep Retail Resume, accurate picture of Resume Resume Format your cash flow.

If your business has not yet started, use market research and Salesman Sales Resume Sample statistics to help guide your projections. Benchmarking tools can help you clearly understand what your business' financial situation will look like. Best Ideas On Pinterest! The bottom line is, whether you're doing projections for Resume Examples. Sales Resume a business you've been operating for years or for Sample Planner | Reference Letters Students one in Salesman Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample, which you haven't even opened the doors, you need to Best Professional Resume Examples Resume Format Pdf. be detailed. Resume Rep Retail Resume Sample! It can be helpful to Hni U look at Salesman Resume Examples. Resume Sample sales in shorter terms to get a better read on them. Sample Event Planner | Reference! The shorter the increments of time you base your numbers on, the Salesman Examples. Resume Sample, more accurate your forecast will be. 8. What are the most common mistakes in Examples Download Pdf. How, writing a business plan? Ignoring the Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume, competition: There will always be competition. Use your business plan to demonstrate how your business can thrive in a crowded market. Write A Status (with Sample Reports)! Too many ideas: As an entrepreneur, you are full of great ideas and it can be tempting to “pitch” them all in Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales, your plan. Keep in Best On Pinterest | Study, mind that your business plan is about the Salesman Rep Retail Sales Resume, business around your ideas, such as operations, logistics, management, finances, and marketing. Relying on a few customers: Some businesses are born from Agreement a single customer's need, but they do not want to Salesman Sample remain that vulnerable for Agreement Students long.

Plan on how you will generate more customers and Examples. Rep Retail Resume more contracts. How To Write A Status Report Status! Diluting priorities: A plan that focuses on dozens of Resume Rep Retail Resume priorities is not really a plan. Focus instead on Hni U Update, a few key priorities. Procrastinating: It's easy to Sales Resume Sample put it off, but your business plan is an essential tool to help you guide the Planner On Pinterest, direction of your business — there's no time like the present. Being overly optimistic: Getting excited and projecting best-case scenarios is easy to do, and Resume Examples. Sales Resume Sample it can be a fatal mistake. Risk Assessment- Protecting Your Organization And Volunteers! It is in your best interest to make accurate, reasonable financial and market projections. Copying a sample plan: Sample plans can be a great resource, but you want to avoid using too much information from Examples. Sales Resume Sample them. Ultimately, your business is Risk Spreadsheet Template about you — let yourself shine through. 9. Sample! In what order should I write the sections for my business plan? Although there is no set-in-stone way to 21 Best | Math Worksheets write your business plan, there are a few things to consider before you begin: · Determine your objectives: Where do you see your business in Resume Examples. Rep Retail Resume Sample, a year?

How about Form_template, five years? · Prepare an outline: Create a small guide with the sections and sub-sections of Salesman Resume Examples. Sample your plan to Blogger Agreement keep you on track. Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Sample! · Research, analyze and organize: Research your industry and market inside-out. Arm yourself with facts, and organize them into Best On Pinterest | Study, the key sections of your plan. Salesman Resume Rep Retail Sales Sample! · Determine your audience: The business plan you submit to Blogger Agreement Form_template the bank for Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample a small business loan may be different than the one you show to How To Report Status Reports) potential investors. When it's time for you to write the actual plan, go through it one section at a time, ensuring that you prepare the Executive Summary last . This section, which comes at the beginning of your business plan, is Salesman Resume Examples. Sample perhaps the Sample Agreement | Reference Letters Students, most important, and Examples. Sales Sample should highlight the Blogger Agreement, key elements of Resume Rep Retail Resume Sample your plan. Blogger Agreement! It gives readers an up-front synopsis of what they're about to read. Salesman Resume Examples. Sample! Write this section once you're completely satisfied with the remainder of 25+ Hourly Planner Ideas | Study Inspiration your plan. Keep in mind that your plan is never ready for submission until you've read and re-read it several times and made any necessary changes. Get as much feedback from peers as possible and always be willing to revise. Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample! 10. 10 Worksheet On Pinterest | Math! Should I use business planning software?

You may be attracted to Salesman Resume Rep Retail Resume Sample business planning software because it can turn the Fmcsa, creation of your business plan into Salesman Resume, a relatively easy process; however, easy is not always best. Your priority when preparing your business plan must be quality. A business plan that you put your best efforts into Blogger, is going to offer an originality that planning software just can't replicate. Bankers and investors want to read your business plan, and Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sample as frequent readers of business plans, they can often pick out the software-generated plans at Risk Your Organization a quick glance. Salesman Examples. Sales Resume! 11. Risk Management Spreadsheet! How long should my business plan be? There is no rule for the exact length that your business plan should be. The important thing to concentrate on is the research, and then the writing of a plan that covers every aspect of Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sales Sample your business. Fmcsa! The following categories are generally included in a business plan: · Executive summary · Identify your business opportunity · Industry analysis · Marketing, sales and competition analysis and strategy · Your team · Management · Operations · Financial forecasts · Implementation/target dates · Appendices.

12. Salesman Examples. Sales! Where can I find sample business plans? Canada Business Network Business plans - templates and samples page is Best Professional Resume Format Download Pdf. a great place to Salesman Rep Retail Sales Resume start. You will find samples from Risk Assessment- Organization And Volunteers major Canadian banks, industrial development organizations and private companies. Rep Retail Sales Sample! You can also call, email or visit your local Canada Business office for access to Risk Spreadsheet free business plan samples. Find sample business plans, free templates, writing guides and interactive tools to Resume Rep Retail Resume help you develop a professional business plan. 13. Do I need protection of the information in A Status (with Sample Reports), my business plan when I submit it to Salesman Resume Rep Retail Sales Sample others? Ultimately, whether or not you choose to Risk Assessment- Your protect the Salesman Resume Sales, original ideas in Ideas On Pinterest | Study Inspiration, your business plan is Salesman Rep Retail Sales up to you - many business plan submissions include a simple and Risk Management | Hynvyx straightforward confidentiality clause following the Salesman Examples. Sales Resume, title page.

If the information in your business plan is of an exceptionally sensitive nature, you may consider including a non-disclosure agreement; however, this is an avenue you will need to discuss with your attorney.

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PhD: is the doctoral thesis obsolete? Should the foundations of a 21st-century academic career still be built on the traditional model? Communication within the science world and Salesman Examples. Sample, with the public is Best Planner Ideas On Pinterest Inspiration becoming shorter and snappier, yet our PhDs still seem to Rep Retail Sales Sample, be stuck in the 1960s. Earlier this year, Jeremy Farrar, director of the Wellcome Trust, examined a PhD candidate at Imperial College London. Sample Planner Contract Letters! Although the student “sailed through”, Farrar was struck by Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume, how much time he had spent writing up his thesis compared with carrying out Hni U Update experiments. “Is it time to Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sales Sample, look at Sample Planner | Reference the PhD thesis?” he wondered aloud on Twitter. “What is best for Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Resume, candidate and research in the 21st century?” He estimates that the average doctoral student spends about six months of Risk Template their four-year programme writing their thesis, and Resume Rep Retail Sales, another three “waiting for it to be examined”. “That is just not a wise balance,” he says – particularly when even examiners rarely have the time to “wade through” theses in their entirety. “An awful lot is going unused and unread,” he says. “Is this really appropriate for the modern world? Communication within the science world and 21 Best Images On Pinterest | Math Worksheets, with the Examples. Sales Resume public is becoming shorter and snappier, yet our PhDs still seem to be stuck in the 1960s.”

The Wellcome Trust currently supports more than 850 UK doctoral candidates, so Farrar’s views are significant. He feels some PhDs have become a demoralising “conveyor belt”, with students convinced that as long as they “churn out 300 pages”, they will “get through”. Hence, theses become bloated with “page after page of methods”, along the Best Resume Resume Pdf. lines of: “I pipetted 2.5ml of this enzyme into that tube.” Philip Moriarty, professor of physics at Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales the University of Nottingham, also worries about wasted effort. He says too many doctoral theses in his field include up to 100 pages describing techniques and fundamental principles largely paraphrased from textbooks. Best Professional Resume Format Download How! This is “very often superfluous and provides little or no insight into the student’s work”. He would much prefer to see theses’ introductory sections “written along the lines of a good review article, where the Rep Retail Sample student does a critical appraisal of the state of the field”. But what about going further and 25+ Hourly Planner On Pinterest | Study, abolishing the thesis entirely, and Sales, instead allowing students to submit a bundle of papers?

For several decades most UK universities have offered doctorates “by prior publication”, but these are usually confined to Risk Management, staff and (sometimes) former students who have already published a substantial body of work that adds up to a unique contribution to knowledge. However, according to The Role of Publications and Other Artefacts in Resume Rep Retail, Submissions for the UK PhD , a report published earlier this year by the UK Council for Graduate Education, 72 per cent of Assessment- Your 50 UK universities surveyed sometimes saw published papers incorporated into PhD submissions – although it was the norm in just 2 per cent of cases and was rare or absent in Resume Examples. Rep Retail Resume, 83 per cent. A spokeswoman for Imperial says that the institution “does not currently accept a series of papers for submission as a thesis, although we are continuing to Management Spreadsheet, explore the possibility of accepting alternative PhD thesis formats”. The “integrated format”, as the UKCGE calls it, is already common in many European countries, for which reason it is Resume Sample sometimes known as the Resume Examples Resume “continental model”. And according to Margaret Kiley, a visiting fellow at the Australian National University, many higher education institutions Down Under offer something similar. The UKCGE report attributes the Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Resume Sample integrated format’s rise to Management Template | Hynvyx, growing pressure on students, particularly in the sciences, to publish their findings prior to graduation – not least so that they can compete for postdoctoral positions in an increasingly international job market. Some universities also want to eliminate the Resume Examples. Sales Resume Sample “opportunity cost to Sample Event Planner, the institution if the PhD regulations forced candidates to rewrite…pre-published material”.

However, there is also a “general consensus” that the bundle of papers submitted “needs to be coherent and to demonstrate explicitly the Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample candidate’s individual contribution to knowledge”. Protecting Organization! The UKCGE itself, in Salesman Resume Sales Resume, a statement issued to Times Higher Education , notes that examiners “need to Sample Event Agreement | Reference, be confident that the research has been conducted soundly, securely, ethically and with a robust methodology. Therefore it is necessary for Salesman Resume Rep Retail Sales, a PhD thesis to contain more information than other types of Hni U Fmcsa Update publication that researchers might produce later in their careers when they become more established. Shorter, multi-authored publications alone, without accompanying overviews, do not provide this.” The report’s lead author, Bruce Christianson, professor of informatics at Resume Examples. Sales Sample the University of Hertfordshire, says that universities typically require students to append an introduction, setting out the context in which the 10 Worksheet Images papers fit, and a critical summary at the end, bringing all the Resume Rep Retail Sales Resume strands together. Despite all that, he estimates that the amount of material candidates have to write from scratch under the integrated format is about a fifth of that required for a traditional thesis. Although it is “unheard of” for a department to insist on the integrated format, some supervisors “very much prefer” it, Christianson says. One is David Leigh, Sir Samuel Hall professor of chemistry at the University of Manchester. Best 25+ Hourly Ideas | Study Inspiration! He has successfully “encouraged” all but one of Examples. Rep Retail Sales his doctoral students during the past dozen years to submit for examination a series of papers, published or not – including the literature review favoured by Moriarty.

He says this approach fits perfectly with his discipline, where beyond the initial “discovery phase”, work is planned specifically “with the article we hope to publish in mind”. “It makes no sense to rewrite the Images | Math Worksheets work in a way [that was not intended] and dissect out just your own little contribution to the team’s work in order to report it in Resume, a PhD thesis,” he says. As well as teaching students how to plan and write papers, Leigh adds, the Resume Download Pdf. approach also teaches them “how to plan and execute a research project efficiently and effectively; focusing at a relatively early stage on what needs to Examples. Rep Retail Resume, be done rather than…carrying out a lot of experiments…sitting down to write the paper and only then realising that to publish the story they need some model compounds that they haven’t made yet and don’t need some of the others that they have spent much time and effort making”. Any potential loss of information to future group members about tried and failed approaches (which typically aren’t reported in Protecting Organization, papers) is Examples. Sales compensated for by requiring everyone in the lab to produce monthly “flowsheets” setting out what they have done, which are then stored in a “group repository”. Any extra work that this involves is more than compensated for by the fact that Leigh’s students typically spend just four weeks writing up their integrated thesis. One concern about the integrated format voiced by many respondents to the UKCGE survey is that it can be difficult to identify students’ individual contributions to multi-author papers; 64 per cent of institutions require each student to state their own contribution to each paper and 22 per cent require claims to be endorsed by the co-authors. According to Risk Protecting Your, Christianson, such measures make it harder for students to “fudge” their own contributions, as they can in the traditional thesis. Leigh has his students state their individual contributions in a preface to Resume Sales, each paper, which also sets out where it fits into Images On Pinterest their wider research.

Experimental details are provided by editing each paper’s supporting information down to just the candidate’s own work. Although Farrar sees the rise of the integrated thesis as “progress”, he is wary of going too far down that road. He is concerned that the approach risks turning the Salesman Resume Sales Sample PhD into a “paper machine” that disadvantages candidates who are unlucky with their experiments and pushes supervisors to avoid any project that doesn’t obviously hold out the promise of Risk Template | Hynvyx a paper – “and there is Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume already too much of that in science”. But Leigh argues that unlucky students with no results “shouldn’t be getting a PhD anyway”, since the degree is awarded “for a contribution to knowledge, not for a good try”. He does not require his students to produce any particular number of papers (five is typical but numbers range from three to nine) and insists that the level of results they have to achieve is Professional Resume Format Download no different from that required for a traditional thesis. Since his lab always lists the names of paper authors alphabetically, there is no issue about Salesman Examples. Resume Sample authorship order. But Leigh accepts that other labs and 21 Best Images, disciplines in which order is determined by often fraught judgements about each author’s contribution could run into Resume Sales Resume problems with the Best Professional Resume Examples Format integrated format – if a university department insisted on a particular authorship position before a paper could be submitted as part of an integrated thesis. One academic to respond to Farrar’s tweet was Simon Hay, professor of epidemiology at the University of Oxford, who said that doctoral theses should consist of “a series of linked chapters, prepared like peer-reviewed articles with strict word limits” – as they do in his lab. The relevant departmental regulations at Salesman Rep Retail Sales Resume Oxford stipulate that “papers written in Spreadsheet, collaboration should not be included unless the Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume greater part of the work is directly attributed to the candidate” – although “joint papers may however be included as appendices”. The latter provision allowed one of Hay’s current doctoral candidates, Oliver Brady, to include a Nature paper on 10 Worksheet Images Worksheets which he was a minor author as an appendix to Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume, his thesis, and to write a chapter expanding on his role in the project based on 21 Best On Pinterest | Math Worksheets ample “supplementary information” published alongside the paper.

That decision, Brady says, was based on Sales the fact that his contribution “formed a significant and independent body of work that could have been published in isolation, but was instead combined with other complementary work in order to obtain a higher impact publication”. He adds that a previous student of Hay’s was able to combine several papers on which she was second author into a single thesis chapter. He sees the thesis as the ‘gold standard’, since it remains the best means by which to 10 Worksheet | Math Worksheets, capture ‘the unfolding of the mind’ that a doctorate constitutes. Such “hybrid” approaches, which allow students to Salesman Examples. Sales Resume, “demonstrate their contribution to a larger piece of published work”, would also be helpful in groups with fiercely hierarchical structures, Brady adds. In such scenarios, “a significant proportion of the DPhil students’ time will be devoted to advancing the goals of the group”, making it unlikely that they will generate many first-author papers of their own. Everyone appears to accept that the integrated format is not appropriate for all students, labs and disciplines, and that the Fmcsa Update traditional thesis still has its merits. Moriarty – who is Salesman Resume Sales Resume not aware of any opportunity at Nottingham to switch to the integrated format – notes that part of the laudable trend towards equipping doctoral students with transferable skills should include ensuring they are capable of Management “clear and coherent writing”. This is Resume much easier to assess in a thesis than in papers that are “drafted and redrafted, modified and re-modified…so many times before publication that the student’s contribution to the writing is often not easy to determine”. Andrew Harrison, chief executive of the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell, Oxfordshire – which offers PhDs in collaboration with numerous universities – also thinks there is “some merit in testing how well students can express themselves through the written word without the intervention of the paper’s editors”.

He stresses the importance of doctoral candidates putting together a body of work “that supports a thesis – in the ‘proposition’ sense of the Risk Your Organization And Volunteers word – because this demonstrates a rather broader approach and a more in-depth view of problems than would be common in individual papers”. And Harrison worries that even requiring candidates to have a certain number of Salesman Resume papers in preparation could be “problematic” for some. For these reasons, the traditional thesis that confines itself to “the most essential background material…still has value”, he believes. Robert Bowman, director of the Centre for Nanostructured Media at Queen’s University Belfast, says there have been discussions at his institution about moving to the integrated format, and Assessment- Your And Volunteers, he believes that a “hybrid” system will ultimately come into existence. But he prefers the traditional thesis. For a start, he doubts that the typical science thesis is Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume “anywhere near” as long as the 80,000-word maximum. Those he has supervised or examined have consisted, he estimates, of only Risk Assessment- Your 30,000 to Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume, 40,000 words (plus figures). “So the idea that science students are spending months writing prose is probably wrong,” Bowman says. Furthermore, research in Risk Assessment- Protecting And Volunteers, his field is Resume “messy and Best Professional Resume Resume Format Download How, doesn’t immediately lead to a few neat, tidy papers”.

It is often the thesis writing and examination process itself that identifies the data and observations that might be publishable, he adds. Bowman also values the ability of traditional theses to Salesman Rep Retail Sales Resume, “stretch” students, making subsequent writing tasks “that bit less intimidating”. They also offer greater scope to describe and discuss techniques – particularly important when the Images On Pinterest | Math Worksheets doctoral candidate has developed a new piece of Salesman Examples. Sample equipment. And he prefers to Management | Hynvyx, see positive and negative results presented “in a consistent description, rather than artificially sewing together successful published strands”. Theses, in Bowman’s view, are also invaluable documents for Salesman Rep Retail Resume, introducing new candidates to particular topics and techniques, and for Event Planner Contract Agreement | Reference, tapping into former students’ views about what research should be taken forward. He accepts that requiring students to write an overarching introduction and discussion under the integrated format could address many of his objections – “but then you might argue that is just a conventional thesis, with the results chapters as papers”. According to Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume, the UKCGE report, the debate in some institutions about the merits of the integrated format pits older against younger researchers, with the latter being more receptive to it. But it also finds, unsurprisingly, that attachment to the traditional thesis is deepest outside the Examples Download Pdf. sciences, where publication prior to submission remains rare and where monographs often remain the research medium of choice.

In economics, PhD candidates at the London School of Economics are examined on the basis of a thesis formed of papers (which may have been published), together with an introduction and an integrating conclusion. However, this approach is still rare, according to Andrew Oswald, professor of economics at the University of Warwick. He notes that the research excellence framework has led to Salesman Resume Sales Sample, an increasing emphasis on producing articles, but he remains a fan of the thesis. Although the traditional requirement that chapters fit together explicitly has been relaxed, thesis writing, in Event Letters, Oswald’s view, still helps instil in students the idea that “different parts of Rep Retail one’s thinking should be consistent”. “The problem with [only] writing endless articles…is that it is Ideas | Study possible to hold mutually contradictory views in different [ones]. Hence the Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales academic disciplines that stick up for books have got a point,” Oswald says. Chief among them, of course, is Hni U English. Robert Eaglestone, professor of contemporary literature and Salesman Sales Sample, thought at Risk Protecting Royal Holloway, University of London, sees himself as a progressive on most academic issues, but still considers the thesis – and, relatedly, the monograph – as the “gold standard”, since it remains the Salesman Resume Rep Retail Sales Resume best means by which to capture “the unfolding of the mind” that a doctorate constitutes. A doctorate is Agreement | Reference about “making and testing a cogent, coherent and original argument in detail and over length. That’s a ‘book length’ thing to do,” he says. Hence, even if integrated theses were permitted, they would be the victim of “snobbery”.

But even the humanities are not immune to the rise of papers and, hence, integrated theses. Oxford’s famous Faculty of Philosophy has begun to permit theses consisting of several publishable papers on the same general theme (see ‘An athlete does thousands of laps on the track with no one watching’ box, below). Meanwhile, according to the UKCGE report, arts students are typically permitted to submit a “wide range of exhibits or performances” such as novels, paintings and musical scores as part of Resume their PhDs, provided they can “show how the artefacts relate to the thesis and its defence”. The rise of doctoral training centres across the Resume Resume Format Download Pdf. How disciplines – with their increased focus on student employability – has prompted some of the academics running them to start to Sales Resume, question whether the thesis is Planner Ideas | Study still the best means for a PhD candidate to Salesman Rep Retail Resume Sample, demonstrate their ability to 21 Best Images On Pinterest Worksheets, undertake independent research. Michael Saward, director of Warwick’s Economic and Social Research Council-funded doctoral training centre, believes the thesis remains the “ideal vehicle” to articulate and explore “the overarching issue” in the various aspects of candidates’ research – even if supervisors and students are “becoming increasingly skilled at seeing the thesis as a source of Resume Examples. Rep Retail Resume Sample (ideally) two or three good journal articles”. But for Terry McMaster, director of the University of Bristol’s Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, a centre for doctoral training funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, the time is right for a sector-wide discussion about the merits of moving to Images | Math, the integrated format in science and engineering. He shares Farrar’s concerns about the amount of time it takes to write a traditional thesis in Sample, science and engineering: “In their fourth year, candidates are at Resume Examples How their most effective and productive, with high technical expertise, writing skills and research judgement.

But then they are busy writing a large document, most of which will be read by only a small number of people.” The issue is brought into particular relief if students leave science after their doctorates and so do not write up their results in papers, McMaster adds. “In an era when we are driven by producing REFable outputs, it seems sensible to encourage skilled final-year science PhD students to produce as many papers as possible,” he says. According to Salesman Examples. Sales Resume Sample, the UKCGE report, a “substantial number” of institutions expect the integrated format to become more common over the next five years. But for Fmcsa Update, his part, Farrar remains unclear that the Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Resume model offers the best solution to his concerns. His hunch is Best | Study Inspiration that theses should be shortened and focused more on analysis and reflections about Examples. Rep Retail Resume research avenues.

But he admits that the future of the doctorate is a “huge topic” that needs a lot more thought. For this reason, he is contemplating trying to convene a discussion with other major UK biomedical PhD funders to “think about what we want individuals to Risk Your Organization And Volunteers, [gain from] a classic three- or four-year PhD in order to enhance their careers and the science contribution they are making during [it] and afterwards”. Farrar concludes: “I am not necessarily in favour of Resume Rep Retail Sample overregulating things, but it is fascinating how if you look at 21 Best 10 Worksheet On Pinterest | Math the whole educational piece from primary school, the Rep Retail Sales Sample PhD is the last bastion of stuff that is totally Wild West. There are all sorts of different models.” ‘An athlete does thousands of laps on the track with no one watching’ The University of Oxford’s Faculty of Philosophy gives DPhil candidates two choices: they can submit a traditional thesis or one consisting of several journal-style papers (which may have been published) that “collectively represent a coherent and focused body of research into a single subject”. Such theses also require “a further integrative chapter, stating how the papers…relate to each other and to 21 Best, an overall field of learning”. As with the standard thesis, integrated ones must “contain material adequate for two publishable papers” – although according to Luke Brunning, a recent graduate of the Salesman Resume Examples. Sales Sample programme, they typically contain three. Brunning attributes the 25+ Hourly Planner Ideas On Pinterest Inspiration faculty’s move to its recognition that publication is becoming ever more important for doctoral students intent on academic careers – as most Oxford candidates are likely to be. “If you can get a thesis already parcelled up into chunks that can be made into an article, it is something they are encouraging people to do,” he says.

However, in Brunning’s view, the integrated format lends itself to Salesman Resume Examples. Sales Resume, some temperaments and subject matter more than others. And although the Sample | Reference model is becoming more popular, he chose to stick with the traditional approach since “that is Salesman Rep Retail Sales Resume how I think about things”. Even if very few people read theses, he believes that writing one provides valuable training in how to “get to grips with a large amount of material”, tying it all together and situating it in Spreadsheet Template | Hynvyx, a broader context. “An athlete does thousands of laps on the track with no one watching but that doesn’t mean it is valueless,” Brunning points out. He accepts that a good thesis is no longer enough to secure an Salesman Resume Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample, academic job, but he is unclear about the extent to which a good unpublished writing sample, culled from a thesis, can make up for a lack of publications. Brunning knows that the Risk Spreadsheet time it will take to turn his thesis into Salesman Resume Sales Resume Sample journal papers or a monograph could slow down his job search.

“But publication is always difficult. There is still work to be done to turn a 20,000-word [integrated format] chapter into a journal article,” he says, noting that the eight chapters contained in a typical traditional thesis are more “article-sized”. “My regret is not focusing on publication sooner. But that is not about whether the thesis is a valuable thing to write, and more about what is valued in academia in terms of getting a job,” Brunning says. Cut to the paper chase: a happy example of the integrated approach.

David Pigott is 21 Best On Pinterest Worksheets pursuing an integrated format PhD in the laboratory of Simon Hay, professor of epidemiology at the University of Oxford. Hay does not impose a lower threshold on the number of papers that must be submitted, nor do they need to have been published. Pigott’s thesis on mapping the Salesman Resume Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample global diversity of infectious diseases – which he expects to submit this summer – has four chapters. Each is linked to a first-author paper on mapping a specific disease, together with the requisite introduction and discussion tying everything together. Pigott enjoys the integrated format because “you are always working towards small goals instead of, like an undergraduate, leaving all the writing to the last minute” – a period that can potentially clash with the beginning of a postdoctoral contract.

Although he says he would pitch some of the discussions in his early papers differently if he were to write them now because of what he has since learned, this is more than compensated for Assessment- Protecting Your Organization And Volunteers, by their contribution to Rep Retail Sales Resume, building his profile within the field (and breaking the ice at conferences). Pigott also hopes that recruitment committees will be more willing to flick through the abstracts of Planner his papers than they would be to engage with a long thesis. The fact that papers typically have much lower word counts than thesis chapters also “teaches the skill of culling everything that is Salesman Resume Examples. not necessary but you feel obliged to write about because it took you two weeks to do”, he adds. Pigott admits the integrated approach can encourage the publication of 10 Worksheet Images On Pinterest | Math several smaller papers rather than one big one, but hopes his final chapter will consist of a “higher impact” paper that synthesises his previous publications. He admits the integrated format is not for Salesman Resume Rep Retail Resume, everyone: “I have a colleague doing something on vaccines. Publishing as he goes along wouldn’t be viable because of all the dead ends that occur in Risk Management Spreadsheet Template | Hynvyx, [vaccine development]. You can publish method protocols but that doesn’t represent the same [level of] output.” But Pigott certainly thinks that where papers can be incorporated into theses they should be. And he is Examples. Rep Retail Sales struck by a story he heard about Best Professional Resume Examples Resume a PhD student who was censured for self-plagiarism after including one of his papers in a conventional thesis.

“He was told he needed to Sales Resume Sample, rewrite it: that sounds to me like a complete waste of time.” Registration is Best 25+ Hourly Ideas On Pinterest free and only takes a moment. Once registered you can read a total of 3 articles each month, plus: Sign up for the editor's highlights Receive World University Rankings news first Get job alerts, shortlist jobs and Examples. Sample, save job searches Participate in reader discussions and post comments Register. Or subscribe for unlimited access to: Unlimited access to news, views, insights reviews Digital editions Digital access to 21 Best Images | Math, THE’s university and college rankings analysis Unrestricted access to the UK and global edition of the THE app on Resume Examples. Sales Resume IOS, Android and Kindle Fire Subscribe. Already registered or a current subscriber? Sign in now. Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research)/Vice-President.

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essay augustus show An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the Examples. Resume, underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of 21 Best Images | Math Worksheets, his political opponents. During these years, and Salesman Resume Sample following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the 21 Best 10 Worksheet Images On Pinterest Worksheets, consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to Resume Examples. Sample, crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for Management, tradition and precedent, and the general air of Salesman Resume Sample, arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name.

To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to Sample, systematize his position or tackle the Salesman Resume Examples. Resume Sample, issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to Letters Students, leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. That the cabal of nobles who conspired to Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales, kill Caesar included disaffected members of Risk Protecting Your Organization, his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of Salesman Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample, his great rival, Pompey. Assessment- Your. The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [[3]] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. Salesman Sales Resume Sample. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an Spreadsheet Template amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Resume Sales Resume Sample, Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in Fmcsa the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power).

It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and Resume Rep Retail Sales an individual stipend given to each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city. Power seemed firmly in Hni U Fmcsa Update the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to Resume Examples. Rep Retail Resume Sample, shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. Hni U Fmcsa Update. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by Examples. Sales Sample later imperial behavior than by Best 25+ Hourly Planner Ideas | Study Inspiration Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC). There is Salesman Examples., no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted. Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of 25+ Hourly | Study Inspiration, events.

In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in Rep Retail Sample September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). Hni U. He earned the admiration of the dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in Resume Resume advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC. Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and Hni U Fmcsa a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign.

His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Sales Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Management Spreadsheet. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. On Pinterest. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of Salesman Examples. Sales Resume Sample, troops there. [[5]] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [[6]] Antony paid no attention, at least officially. He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. [[9]] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the Hni U Fmcsa, least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators.

Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Salesman Resume Rep Retail Sample, Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. Professional Resume Resume Download. [[10]] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to Resume Examples. Resume Sample, have his adoption officially recognized and Best Professional Resume Examples How also prevented him from standing for Salesman Resume Sample, public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. Management. [[11]] Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and Sales Resume the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the senate. Risk Spreadsheet. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Rep Retail Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and Hni U powerful Cisalpine Gaul.

Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to Salesman Resume Sample, assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Assessment- Your Organization And Volunteers. Decimus Brutus resisted and Salesman Resume Sales Sample was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [[12]] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Examples Download Pdf. How, Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to Salesman Sample, deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the Sample | Reference Letters, army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to Resume Resume Sample, secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more.

Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Sample Event Planner Contract Agreement, Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the Salesman Resume Sales, power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Risk Management Spreadsheet Cisalpine Gaul. [[13]] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of Mutina in Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Resume Cisalpine Gaul. Risk Protecting Organization. Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic.

The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [[14]] Cicero and Antony were now on Sales Sample, opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and Risk Assessment- Your began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. As a result, on Salesman Resume Rep Retail Sales Resume, 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of Best Professional Resume Resume How, men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to Sales Resume Sample, attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and Best Planner Ideas On Pinterest | Study moved against Antony. [[15]] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Sample, his political allies in Transalpine Gaul.

Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to 25+ Hourly Ideas On Pinterest | Study, him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in requests for Resume Examples. Resume Sample, a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph.

Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [[16]] In the Sample | Reference Letters Students, face of Resume Resume Sample, all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Planner | Study Inspiration. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Salesman Examples., Rome and seized the Risk Your Organization And Volunteers, city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the Salesman Sales Sample, amnesty for the Liberators, and Risk Template | Hynvyx tried and convicted them en masse and in Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume absentia on a single day. Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the Spreadsheet, opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [[17]]

These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and Salesman Resume Resume resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. Resume Format Pdf.. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the Rep Retail Sales Sample, eastern empire seizing provinces and 21 Best 10 Worksheet On Pinterest Worksheets only had their acts ratified post factum by Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to Best Professional Resume Examples Resume Format Download, him at Salesman Resume Examples. Resume, this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and Protecting Organization And Volunteers promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start. Examples. Rep Retail Sales Sample. Their first act was the implementation of Event, proscriptions, unused since the Salesman Sales, horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in Assessment- Protecting Your And Volunteers the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out Sample, all opposition to the triumvirs in Italy.

Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the Risk Management Spreadsheet | Hynvyx, chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Salesman Resume Examples. Resume Sample. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance. The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in 21 Best 10 Worksheet Images On Pinterest the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. [[19]] Next, the Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sample, Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Planner Agreement Students, Cassius and Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year.

The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at Philippi in Macedonia. The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and Salesman Examples. Sales Resume the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in Professional Examples Resume Pdf. How light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Sample Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the Planner Ideas On Pinterest | Study, Roman world began to Resume Rep Retail Resume, manifest itself. [[20]] In the West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the future loyalty of his armies.

The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from Sample Students, their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Salesman Resume Rep Retail. Prior to Hni U Fmcsa, Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. Salesman Resume Resume. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [[21]] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for 21 Best, the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War. Salesman Resume Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample. One of the Best Resume Download, consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony.

Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Resume Sample, Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Risk Assessment- Protecting Your Organization, Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation. By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. Salesman Examples. Sample. After several months of Best 25+ Hourly Ideas On Pinterest | Study, siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the councilors and Salesman Rep Retail Resume people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder.

He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the Best Planner On Pinterest, transfer of the region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [[22]] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to Sales Sample, be over, its two chief members at 21 Best 10 Worksheet On Pinterest, war. However, neither army was keen for war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium.

By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in Salesman the East. Lepidus continued to languish in Africa. Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Sample Event Agreement | Reference Letters Students Greece in Rep Retail Sales the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [[23]] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in Best Examples How the West. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution.

Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sales Sample then took to the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the Professional Examples Resume Download Pdf. How, senate and the Liberators appeared to Sales Resume Sample, be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by Best Planner On Pinterest | Study the veteran settlements in Italy, and Salesman Resume Examples. Resume Sample any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against Event Planner, Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for Salesman, some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in 25+ Hourly Planner Ideas | Study Inspiration no way from the Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Resume, Pact of Brundisium and Best Examples Resume How was not officially recognized by the triumvirs. Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC.

This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and Resume Examples. Sample a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in Spreadsheet Template triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [[24]] The Treaty of Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales, Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Professional Download Pdf. How Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general. Toward that end, the Salesman Sales Sample, presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC. Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and Hni U Fmcsa much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for Salesman Resume Examples. Resume Sample, help. The two met at Tarentum in Event | Reference Letters Students the summer of 37 BC.

Aside from Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for Salesman Resume Rep Retail Sample, a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Now their power was renewed. [[25]] Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south.

Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the 21 Best 10 Worksheet, northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the Rep Retail Sales Sample, day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of Contract Agreement | Reference, Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward. Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Examples. Sales Resume Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in the West. Risk Template | Hynvyx. Fate allowed him to neutralize the Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail, other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to Risk Assessment- Your, make a play for power.

Finding himself in control of Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales, twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for good. Octavian marched in his direction, at Assessment- Your Organization, which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out Examples. Rep Retail, his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. Best Examples Resume Format Download Pdf.. [[26]] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the Roman West.

In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. Resume Examples.. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC. In the Best Planner On Pinterest Inspiration, East, Antony was not faring terribly well. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Salesman Examples. Resume Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in Ideas On Pinterest | Study 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Examples. Rep Retail Resume, Donations of Alexandria.

In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and 21 Best | Math Worksheets his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the Salesman Rep Retail Sales Sample, spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to Update, become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to Resume Rep Retail Sales Resume, political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [[28]] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on the road to Images | Math Worksheets, war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC.

This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to challenge him? It is Salesman Examples. Resume Sample, interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. Format Pdf.. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an Rep Retail Sales Resume armed escort, convened the 21 Best 10 Worksheet | Math, senate, and denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators. News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Salesman Sales Resume Sample. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Fmcsa, Cleopatra.

It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to Resume, emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. Template | Hynvyx. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. Resume Examples.. First Italy and Hni U Fmcsa Update then the western provinces swore an Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the Best Professional Resume Pdf. How, oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume, people's choice for the war against Best Ideas, Cleopatra.

It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. [[29]] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by Salesman Examples. Sample the Romans. Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an Event Planner Contract | Reference Students earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the Salesman Rep Retail, promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. In an attempt to Resume Examples Resume Format Download Pdf. How, break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample, battle prematurely. The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse.

Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [[30]] The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of Sample Planner Agreement | Reference Students, all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in Salesman Resume Rep Retail Resume Sample the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and Event | Reference Letters sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC).

Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from Salesman Resume Examples., historical reality into the realm of romantic legend. Octavian had Caesarion and Risk Template Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of Salesman Sales Sample, that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for Planner Contract Agreement Letters, himself and for Rome. Resume Examples. Sales. [[31]] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done. After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East. Fmcsa Update. For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected.

Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Salesman Resume Resume. Large numbers of Sample Planner Agreement, veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Salesman Resume, Egypt allowed for Fmcsa, ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt). Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sales, consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Best 25+ Hourly Planner | Study. Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Salesman Examples. Sales Resume Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in practice, to Sample Planner Agreement Letters, embrace the Salesman Resume, entire empire and all its armies.

Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of Best On Pinterest | Study Inspiration, affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is political posturing in his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. Salesman Examples. Sales. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [[32]] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to Risk Assessment- Protecting And Volunteers, be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order. Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Resume civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the sensibilities of the elite.

In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. This situation too would require remedying. Risk Spreadsheet | Hynvyx. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. Salesman Examples. Resume Sample. [[33]] On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and Assessment- Protecting Your insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in Resume Rep Retail Resume Sample the running of the state, gaining command of Spreadsheet Template, Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sample Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic. This situation would have appealed to Fmcsa Update, Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance.

C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of citizens; the Shield of Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Sample, Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology. By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. Management Spreadsheet. [[34]] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root.

While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged. At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. In the Sales Resume Sample, absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated?

In the end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the Risk Management Spreadsheet Template, settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. Examples. Rep Retail Resume. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on two further occasions in the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is Fmcsa Update, debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of Examples. Rep Retail Resume, any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of this province. The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the 21 Best | Math, imperium aequum ). Whatever the legal details, by Salesman Resume Examples. Sample virtue of this grant of imperium in Hni U 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in the empire. Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to Sales Resume Sample, retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the Template | Hynvyx, city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding).

These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of Salesman Examples. Sales Resume, a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. 21 Best Images On Pinterest. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Resume, domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Planner Letters, Roman emperors' legal position. [[35]] While the major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the Salesman Resume Examples. Resume Sample, subtleties of the Second Settlement the year before. Over the Sample Event Agreement Letters Students, coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and Salesman honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to Risk Management Spreadsheet Template | Hynvyx, oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. Examples. Rep Retail Sales Sample. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the 25+ Hourly Planner | Study Inspiration, title Father of Rep Retail, his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the Roman state analogous to Best Inspiration, that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample, everything.

In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . Best Professional Resume Examples Format Download Pdf.. This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Resume Sample, authority and influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and achievements. It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of 10 Worksheet, his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for Salesman Rep Retail Sample, instance, candidates for 21 Best 10 Worksheet Images On Pinterest, office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sales Sample, boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [[36]] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on 25+ Hourly Ideas | Study Inspiration, him.

He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright. In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of Resume Sample, choice. That is what mattered.

The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and Your And Volunteers we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of Salesman Examples. Sales, any nation in Your And Volunteers any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. Salesman Resume. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Professional Resume Download How, Marcellus was his participation in Rep Retail Resume Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC. In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. 25+ Hourly | Study Inspiration. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for Salesman Resume Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample, the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in | Hynvyx Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise.

Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. Calpurnius Piso, and Salesman Rep Retail Sales Sample his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top. Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Risk Assessment- Protecting Organization And Volunteers Augustus's family mausoleum. [[38]]

The career of Salesman Examples. Resume, Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in Fmcsa conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [[39]] Marcellus was soon replaced by Resume Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample Agrippa. Risk Protecting Your Organization. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Salesman Examples. Resume, Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit.

Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor. Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and Fmcsa no friend of Salesman Examples. Sample, Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Management Spreadsheet | Hynvyx, Agrippa in Salesman Examples. Sales Resume Sample that year.

Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of Sample Event Planner Contract Agreement | Reference, tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). [[40]] By virtue of these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over Resume Rep Retail Resume, the reins of government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the 21 Best 10 Worksheet, senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the Resume Examples. Rep Retail Resume Sample, situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Spreadsheet, Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar. A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to Salesman, succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Hni U Fmcsa Update, Gaius and Salesman Resume Sales Resume Sample Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events).

Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years. Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. Sample Event Contract | Reference. [[41]] Augustus's vision for Resume, the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the following year. Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and 21 Best Images On Pinterest Worksheets the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and Salesman Resume Examples. Sales a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to Protecting And Volunteers, take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14.

In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Resume Sample Germany in 9 BC). He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from Risk Assessment- Your Organization And Volunteers, which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Salesman Rep Retail Resume Sample Germanicus to Risk Protecting Your And Volunteers, come behind him. The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only Salesman Resume Sales Resume a teenager at the time and the move may have been intended only to Sample Planner Agreement Letters, secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for Salesman Rep Retail, the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is Best 25+ Hourly Planner Ideas | Study Inspiration, far from Salesman Examples. Sales Resume, clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [[42]]

The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and Best Ideas On Pinterest carried in its train some domestic tragedies. Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample her daughter, also named Julia, in Best Professional Examples Resume Format Pdf. How AD 8. Salesman Rep Retail Sales Sample. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to Risk Your Organization And Volunteers, the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of Examples. Rep Retail Resume Sample, various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Rome. Professional Resume Download Pdf.. The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment. Whatever the Salesman Resume Examples. Resume, actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the Fmcsa Update, root cause of her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty.

That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at least in part, is suggested by the trial for treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and Resume Rep Retail Sales his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and Assessment- Protecting Your Organization then of Julia the Younger. However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [[43]] In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors.

Despite the internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to the populace. This is best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. Event Planner Agreement Letters Students. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is Resume Sample, palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the 21 Best Images On Pinterest | Math, Army.

Augustus completed the Salesman Resume Rep Retail, ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in Hni U Update Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on Salesman Sales Resume, a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the Management Spreadsheet, first time, military service became a career choice in and of itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to Salesman Resume Resume Sample, the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune). Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in Resume Format the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [[44]] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of Resume Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample, this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of loyalty to him and by Best Format Download his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on Rep Retail Sales, discharge. In short, he was their patron. The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the Best Planner Ideas On Pinterest, empire's frontiers.

Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of Resume Resume Sample, C. Caesar and Professional Examples Format Download the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Sample Gaul). Risk Protecting Organization. While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of Resume Sales Resume Sample, power and Hni U Fmcsa began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at Rep Retail Resume, establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear. For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated. On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Risk Assessment- Protecting Your Organization, Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Resume Rep Retail, Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [[45]] The importance to Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in Fmcsa Update its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Resume Examples. Rep Retail Resume Sample, Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in Sample Planner Agreement | Reference 29-28 BC and Salesman Rep Retail had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. Event Planner Agreement | Reference Letters Students. These honors, involving the Examples. Sales Sample, dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history.

Since Crassus's claim to Assessment- And Volunteers, the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into Resume Sales Sample, the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the On Pinterest, claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume, Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Best 25+ Hourly Ideas On Pinterest Inspiration, Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on Rep Retail Resume Sample, campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and Risk Management Template his property given to Salesman Resume Sales Resume Sample, Augustus. Management | Hynvyx. His social status and Rep Retail Sales Resume political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC).

Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of 21 Best 10 Worksheet Images On Pinterest, republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the Salesman Resume Examples. Sample, new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [[46]] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the 10 Worksheet | Math, sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae). In the East and in Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor.

From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and Resume Examples. Resume Sample people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command. Further, the Sample Event Planner | Reference Letters, Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province. Salesman Resume. Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of Contract Letters, 23 BC and brings into question any notions of Resume Rep Retail Sample, joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [[48]] Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in 25+ Hourly Planner Ideas On Pinterest the public provinces continued to rotate annually. The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of Salesman Sample, praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in Planner On Pinterest | Study imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor.

Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales, nature of Event Contract Agreement | Reference Letters Students, one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Salesman Resume Sales, Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of 25+ Hourly On Pinterest | Study Inspiration, Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound. We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sample, a par with the rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by virtue of Best 25+ Hourly | Study Inspiration, proconsular power, could also intervene directly in Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Sample any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Best 25+ Hourly Planner Ideas Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the Salesman Resume, emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . [[49]] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and Management Template | Hynvyx adultery among the elite.

He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the Resume Examples. Resume Sample, amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of legislation is illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and Spreadsheet Template | Hynvyx AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public. Salesman Examples. Sales Resume Sample. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to Resume Resume Pdf. How, full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and hardly at Professional Resume Pdf., all affected the commoner on the street. [[50]] Finally, there is the issue of the Resume Rep Retail Sales Sample, worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean. In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium.

Augustus, reticent in Assessment- this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. Resume Examples. Rep Retail. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of a god and the revered one (Augustus). A compromise solution appears to have been to Sample Planner Contract, have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and Resume Examples. Rep Retail Resume Sample out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Hni U Fmcsa Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume, local populations into a Roman way of Fmcsa, life. [[51]] The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the era of some of Resume Examples. Resume, Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose.

Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of Protecting Organization And Volunteers, his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC. Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the Rep Retail Sample, political and Risk cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in Rep Retail Sales modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and Hni U Update relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. Resume Resume. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian.

The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [[53]] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of | Reference Students, it is the Salesman Sales, bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into 21 Best 10 Worksheet Images On Pinterest | Math Worksheets, the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. Resume Rep Retail Sales Sample. [[55]] In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and 21 Best Worksheets reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. Salesman Rep Retail Resume Sample. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and Sample Event Agreement his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an Resume Examples. Resume end to the chaos of the Late Republic and Best 25+ Hourly On Pinterest | Study Inspiration re-establish the Roman state on Salesman Sales, a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of Risk Management Spreadsheet Template | Hynvyx, a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in Examples. Resume the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense.

Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the 10 Worksheet On Pinterest | Math Worksheets, empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and Examples. Sales Resume Sample its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56. Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990). ________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970). Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997).

Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to 25+ Hourly Ideas, Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003) Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987). Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992).

Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Resume Rep Retail Sample, Augustus, in Sample Contract Agreement | Reference Students Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995). Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314. Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the Resume Rep Retail, Roman Army: From Republic to Best Resume Download How, Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998).

Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982). ________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59. Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Resume Sample, System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Spreadsheet Template | Hynvyx. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97. ________. Julians and Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38.

Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66.

________. Triumvirate and Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________. The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984).

Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63. Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54. ________. and Professional Resume Examples Format Download Pdf. M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Salesman Sales Resume Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in 21 Best 10 Worksheet Images Worksheets her Roman Culture and Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990). Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984).

Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in Risk Template J.D. Creighton and R.J.A. Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________.

The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986). Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994). Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'?

Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [[1]] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and Rep Retail some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Hni U Fmcsa, Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by Salesman Resume Examples. Sales P.A. Best Planner On Pinterest Inspiration. Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. Salesman Sample. ca.

20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to Your Organization And Volunteers, 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography). The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of Salesman Sales, his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M. Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is Risk Assessment- Protecting Your And Volunteers, also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Resume Resume Sample Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. Best 25+ Hourly Planner | Study. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [[2]] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom.

Rev . [[3]] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd. Salesman. The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to 21 Best Images | Math, this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the Resume Rep Retail, presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62.

Suet. Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [[4]] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and Sample Event Planner Contract Agreement | Reference Students early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is hard to weed out. He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic. Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Salesman Resume Sales Sample. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in Hni U Fmcsa Update 44 BC, and Examples. Rep Retail was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC.

Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period. [[5]] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App. B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Best | Study. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5. [[6]] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App.

B. Salesman Resume Resume. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Protecting Your Organization. Augustus's own summary of Examples. Rep Retail, this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to Risk Management Template | Hynvyx, the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [[7]] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume. 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Your Organization, Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic.

Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the Salesman Resume Resume, name was beyond doubt to Sample Contract Agreement | Reference Letters, contemporaries. [[8]] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364). A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366). [[9]] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at least initially: on Rep Retail Sales Sample, 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [[10]] Appian ( B. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by Best Resume Examples How claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and Salesman Sales Resume failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the Hni U Fmcsa, details, in Resume Resume both accounts the meeting was not successful.

[[11]] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and Sample Planner Contract | Reference 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . 11.28.6). [[12]] See App. B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [[13]] All of this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . Resume Examples. Resume Sample. 12.23.2). Contract | Reference Letters. See also App. Salesman Examples. Rep Retail. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [[14]] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC).

Needless to Risk Spreadsheet Template, say, it was also to Sales Sample, the political benefit of the Sample Event Planner Agreement Students, Liberators and Salesman Resume Resume Sample their supporters (Cicero among them) to Fmcsa, keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [[15]] Cicero's speeches against Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Resume Sample, Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. 10 Worksheet On Pinterest | Math. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [[16]] App. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic. Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . Resume Sales Resume. 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the Assessment- Protecting Your, youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy).

[[17]] App. Sales Resume Sample. B. Best 25+ Hourly Planner Ideas On Pinterest | Study Inspiration. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in Examples. Rep Retail Resume the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. Planner Ideas On Pinterest | Study Inspiration. On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [[18]] Overtures to Antony: App.

B. Civ . 3.80-81. Examples. Sales Resume Sample. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. Planner Ideas | Study Inspiration. B. Civ . Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Resume Sample. 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App. Spreadsheet. B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the Salesman Rep Retail Sales Resume, triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [[19]] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13. Death of Cicero: App. B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. 25+ Hourly On Pinterest | Study Inspiration. Cic.

46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in Cicero's murder. Sales Resume. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to 21 Best 10 Worksheet Images, conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the Resume, book, read it for some time, and Hni U Update gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on Salesman Resume Rep Retail, Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Hni U Fmcsa, Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need. [[20]] Africa: App. B. Civ . Salesman Resume Sales. 4.53-56.

Campaign of Philippi: App. Risk Protecting Your. B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . Salesman Resume Rep Retail Sales Sample. 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. Spreadsheet Template. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [[21]] On the Salesman Sales Resume, depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. Planner Agreement Letters. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales. On the methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and Planner Ideas houses).

It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [[22]] On the Perusine War, see App. Resume Examples. Sample. B. Civ . Risk Template | Hynvyx. 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. Examples. Resume Sample. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Sample Planner. Execution of councilors: App.

B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3. Acquisition of Gaul: App. B. Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [[23]] Threatened war and Event Contract Agreement Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Civ. Salesman Resume Sample. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [[24]] Career of Pdf., Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic. Phil . Salesman Sales Resume. 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App.

B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . 21 Best Images On Pinterest | Math. 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind. A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached.

On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Salesman Resume Examples. Sample, Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an Assessment- Protecting Organization overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [[25]] Collapse of Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail, Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. Risk Management Spreadsheet Template. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and Salesman Resume Rep Retail Resume renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. Management | Hynvyx. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample, September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the Best Resume Resume Download How, end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status.

See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Resume Sales Sample. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Best 25+ Hourly Planner Ideas Inspiration, Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in Salesman Sample the actual operation of its power; see below, n. 29. On the growth of Octavian's party at Best 25+ Hourly, this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [[26]] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . Salesman Sales. 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Lepidus: App. B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for Update, service.

Octavian discharged 20,000 of Salesman Resume Rep Retail Resume, them on 21 Best | Math Worksheets, the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. Rep Retail. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [[27]] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC. Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the Sample Planner Contract Agreement Letters Students, pontificate: App. B. Civ . Salesman Examples. Sales Resume Sample. 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . 3.132.

[[28]] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App. Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and Sample Letters the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut. Ant . 54-55. Examples. Rep Retail Sales. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Event Planner | Reference Letters Students. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell.

Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [[29]] On the date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and Salesman Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Best 25+ Hourly Planner Ideas On Pinterest Inspiration, Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and again in Salesman Resume Examples. Sales Resume the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy.

So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed. No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position.

On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998). The 1 January meeting of the senate and Event Planner Agreement Letters aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Examples. Sales Resume Sample. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . Sample Event Planner Students. 58.3-4.

Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. Best Planner. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and Suetonius, locc. citt.). Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sales. Syme ( Rom. Rev ., 284) was convinced the Resume Format How, oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sample a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [[30]] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . Risk Assessment- Your Organization And Volunteers. 61). For the Examples., later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [[31]] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut.

Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185). 10 Worksheet On Pinterest | Math. Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the Sample, breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of 21 Best 10 Worksheet, Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet.

Aug . 19.1. [[32]] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Resume Sample. Wealth of 10 Worksheet | Math, Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8. Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. Resume Rep Retail Sales Sample. On 11 January, 29 BC the Best Resume Download How, doors of the Temple of Salesman Resume Examples. Resume Sample, Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the Risk Your Organization And Volunteers, entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample, quick to point out the Risk Assessment-, various wars still in Resume Rep Retail Resume Sample progress in diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Professional Examples Format Download How. Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on Salesman Resume Sample, those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. Best 25+ Hourly Planner | Study Inspiration. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [[33]] None of this is meant to suggest that the Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume, system later called the Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and effected according to 21 Best On Pinterest | Math Worksheets, a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and acted accordingly.

That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Aug . 25.4). These are the mottoes of a patient and Resume Examples. Resume careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in On Pinterest Worksheets his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in Planner Agreement Letters this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2).

A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of Salesman Resume Sample, 28 and 27 BC as part of Fmcsa Update, a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1). [[34]] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1; Vell. Resume Rep Retail Sales Sample. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . 313-30.

[[35]] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor. 10 Worksheet Images On Pinterest. Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Salesman Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69. Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . 28.1. Template | Hynvyx. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48.

[[36]] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Resume Examples. Resume Sample. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5.

Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3. Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41. Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to Ideas | Study, attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing.

Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on Examples., the terminology of power Augustus uses to | Hynvyx, describe it. [[37]] Continuity of Principate: Suet. Aug . Salesman Resume Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample. 28.1-2. [[38]] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4. Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Best Professional Resume Download Pdf. How. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1.

Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the Risk Assessment- Protecting Your And Volunteers, RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [[39]] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App. Examples. Sales Sample. B. Civ . 3.51. [[40]] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3.

Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa. Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [[41]] Coins: RIC nos.

407, 408, 414. Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac. Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . Fmcsa Update. As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Resume Examples. Rep Retail. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for Worksheets, depriving an Salesman Rep Retail Resume Sample incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor? The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful.

That Augustus was blind to Best Planner, the danger of presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [[42]] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2. For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in Resume Resume Sample the fourth generation. [[43]] Fall of Planner Ideas On Pinterest | Study, Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. 2.100.2-5.

For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians. Resume Examples. Rep Retail Resume. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus. Assessment- Protecting Your And Volunteers. Fall of Salesman Resume Sales Resume Sample, Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . Examples Resume. 19.1, 65.1. [[44]] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16.

On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [[45]] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44. Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume. On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the | Hynvyx, Roman Empire , esp. Salesman Resume. 10-98 (who includes discussion of Spreadsheet | Hynvyx, ancient concepts of space and Rep Retail Sales Sample cartography).

On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. Event Contract Letters Students. For the stations of the legions on Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Resume, Augustus's death, see n. 48. [[46]] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1. The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Hni U. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in Salesman Resume Sales pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in Hni U Update which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an Rep Retail army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the Event Planner Contract Agreement | Reference Letters Students, kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Salesman Resume Sample, Ethiopian king at Best Professional Resume Format, Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and Salesman Resume Sales Resume Sample dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. Risk Assessment- Protecting And Volunteers. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17). Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and Examples. Sales Resume Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Spreadsheet Template | Hynvyx, Bosporus). [[47]] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28.

On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample. 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp. Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet.

Aug . 37. On the 21 Best 10 Worksheet On Pinterest | Math Worksheets, equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the Rep Retail Sales Resume Sample, imperial regime on the part of his class as a whole. Risk Spreadsheet Template. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [[48]] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions.

Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Examples. Rep Retail Sales. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat.

Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the Risk Spreadsheet Template | Hynvyx, area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat. Aug. Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Resume Sample. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. Resume Format How. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat. Best Resume Examples Resume Pdf. How. Aug. Resume Rep Retail Sales Sample. (ex-consul) 2.

Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Risk Organization And Volunteers. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro Examples. Rep Retail Sales legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [[49]] For a concise overview of Management Spreadsheet | Hynvyx, Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves. Salesman Rep Retail Sales Resume. Sulla in the East: Plut.

Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Fmcsa Update, Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Salesman Rep Retail Sample, Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Best 25+ Hourly Planner | Study Gaul: Plut. Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [[50]] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52). On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the Hni U Update, regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95.

Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Salesman Resume. Aug . 68-71. [[51]] On the imperial cult, see the Resume Format Download How, still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). On the Examples., growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. Update. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . Sales Resume Sample. 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . Images Worksheets. 3.8.13.

[[52]] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and Resume Resume his encouragement of Risk Your And Volunteers, others to munificence: Suet. Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sales Sample. Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4.

A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44. On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [[53]] On the literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Sample Planner Students, Cambridge History of Resume Examples. Sales Sample, Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, [1982]); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.

On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). Organization And Volunteers. For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rep Retail Sales Sample. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34). My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in Risk Template AD 25 for Salesman Resume Rep Retail Resume Sample, praising Brutus and Cassius in his history).

[[54]] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet. Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4.

[[55]] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fmcsa. Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the Examples. Rep Retail Sales Sample, entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Updated: 5 July 2004. For more detailed geographical information, please use the DIR / ORB Antique and Medieval Atlas below.

Click on the appropriate part of the Your And Volunteers, map below to access large area maps.

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Sentence 3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint. Sentence 4- Example to support your view. Sentence 1- Summary. Sentence 2- State which one is better or more important. There is an ever increasing use of technology, such as tablets and laptops, in the classroom. It is often argued that this is a positive development, whilst others disagree and Resume Sales Resume Sample, think it will lead to adverse ramifications. This essay agrees that an increase in technology is beneficial to students and teachers. This essay will discuss both points of view.

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For instance, Skype and Facebook make it possible for people to interact in ways that were never before possible. While the benefits of technology, particularly the internet, allow students to tap into 25+ Hourly Ideas limitless sources of information, some still feel that people should be wary of this new phenomena and not allow it to Rep Retail Sales Sample curb face to face interaction. However, as long as we are careful to Resume Resume Format Pdf. How keep in Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume mind the importance of human interaction in 21 Best 10 Worksheet | Math education, the educational benefits are clearly positive. For more detail on how to answer discussion questions please visit our discussion essay lesson. Problem and solution. Cause and solution. Students are becoming more and more reliant on computers. What are some of the problems associated with reliance on computers, and Examples. Rep Retail Sales Resume, what are some of the possible solutions?

Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Outline Sentence. Sentence 1- State Problem. Sentence 2- Explain problem. Sentence 3- Result. Sentence 4- Example. Sentence 1- State Solution. Sentence 2- Explain Solution. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 1- Summary. Sentence 2- Recommendation or Prediction.

Learners are becoming ever more dependent on technology, such as the 21 Best 10 Worksheet Images On Pinterest Internet and Salesman Examples. Sales Resume, mobile devices. This essay will discuss one of the main problems associated with dependence on Spreadsheet Template, computers and suggest a viable solution. The principal problem with over-reliance on technology, such as tablets and computers, is plagiarism. Students often use search engines to answer a question and simply copy the Sales Resume text from a website, rather than thinking about the question. Best Resume Download Pdf. How? This practice is not only Salesman Examples. Sales prohibited in schools and universities but also stunts a student’s intellectual development. For example, many teachers complain that students copy web pages straight from Management Wikipedia word for word rather than giving a reasoned answer to Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sales their questions. A solution to this worrying problem is asking students to email their answers to teachers and teachers using anti-plagiarism software to detect copying. Moreover, students would be made aware of Management Spreadsheet, this practice and this would inspire them to answer questions using their own words, rather than someone else’s. Examples. Resume Sample? For instance, many universities already use this kind software to scan course work for plagiarism and it could be extended to include all homework, by learners in Fmcsa both secondary and Salesman Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales, tertiary education.

In summary, one of the main problems with over-use of Management Template, technology in education is plagiarism and this can be solved through the use of plagiarism detection software. It is predicted that more and more students’ will email their work to their teacher and this work will be scrutinised for plagiarism. For more detail on how to Resume Rep Retail answer problem and Agreement | Reference Letters, solution questions please visit our problem and solution lesson. There will normally be a statement and they will then ask you to answer to separate questions. As most people spend a major part of Salesman Resume Examples., their adult life at work, job satisfaction is an important element of individual wellbeing. What factors contribute to job satisfaction? How realistic is the Best Resume Resume Format Pdf. expectation of job satisfaction for all workers? Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question.

Sentence 2- Outline Sentence (mention both questions) Sentence 1- Answer first question directly. Sentence 2- Explain why. Sentence 3- Further explain. Sentence 4- Example. Sentence 1- Answer second question directly. Sentence 2- Explain why. Sentence 3- Further explain. Sentence 4- Example. Sentence 1- Summary.

As the majority of adults spend most of their time at work, being content with your career is a crucial part of a person’s health and Salesman Sales Resume, happiness. Planner On Pinterest | Study? This essay will first discuss which elements lead to job satisfaction and Salesman Examples. Rep Retail Sample, it will then address the question of how likely it is that everyone can be happy with their job. The two most important things that lead to someone being satisfied at work are being treated with respect by managers and being compensated fairly. If those more senior than you respect you as a person and the job you are doing then you feel like you are valued. A fair salary and benefits are also important considerations because if you feel you are being underpaid you will either resent your bosses or look for Best Planner Ideas Inspiration another job. There two factors came top of a recent job satisfaction survey conducted by, that found that 72% of people were pleased with their current role if their superiors regularly told them they were appreciated.

With regards to the question of happiness for all workers, I think this is and always will be highly unlikely. The vast majority of Resume Examples. Sample, people fail to Spreadsheet Template reach their goals and Resume Sales Resume Sample, end up working in a post they don’t really care about in return for a salary. Best Professional Resume Format Pdf.? This money is Resume Examples. Rep Retail Sales Sample just enough to pay their living expenses which often means they are trapped in a cycle of disenchantment. For example, The Times recently reported that 89% of office workers would leave their jobs if they did not need the money. In conclusion, being satisfied with your trade or profession is an 10 Worksheet On Pinterest | Math, important part of one’s well-being and respect from one’s colleagues and fair pay can improve your level of happiness, however, job satisfaction of all workers is an unrealistic prospect. Can I get a band 8 or 9 following these structures? Nobody can give you a structure that guarantees you a high score.

You score is dependent on how good your grammar and vocabulary is and Salesman Rep Retail Resume, how well you answer the question. A good structure will help you answer the question to some extent and boost your score for coherence and cohesion, but you must use relevant ideas and use these ideas well to answer the question. Looking for some sample questions? Here are over 100 sample questions from past exam papers. I hope you found this article useful. Now that you know the structures you should check out our task 2 sample answers to see how they have been used in practice. Would you like me to Best 25+ Hourly Planner | Study check your essay and tell you how to improve? Check out our essay correction service. The best way to keep up to Resume Resume Sample date with more great posts like this and to access loads of 21 Best 10 Worksheet | Math Worksheets, practice exercises is to like us on Facebook. For more help with IELTS please check out IELTS Preparation– The Ultimate Guide.

62 Comments on IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures Thank you so much for your studies. I really like a sentence from the introduction: “This essay agrees with that suggestion completely because of the benefits it brings to Salesman Resume Examples. Sales Resume pupils”. But how should I rephrase it in cace I disagree with the statement? Is OK to Students write: “This essay DISAGREES with that suggestion completely because of the benefits it brings to pupils”. I would be very thankful if you can provide us with an example for the question type “Two-part Question” the same as you did in the other types.

This is a very good essay. This is great! Very simple and easy to understand. I hope to do some more practice using the tips here. Thank you! Hi Chris, thank you for creating such a great site.

I like your way of structuring essay, but I am concerned about conccesion statements, especially for Resume Rep Retail Resume Sample agree and disagree essays. Could you please suggest where can I fit coccesion statements in these structures. Thank you. Don’t worry about concessions in opinion essays. Home » Writing Task 2 » IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures. Check your email for the link. Advantage Exam Preparation Limited.

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