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resume media v2 Resume Media has evolved into a collection of features that might. appeal to Modern Psd File | Free users who have libraries of video and audio files. Designed in General Bill Of Sale Template. General Of Sale Form Equipment, Windows. Mostly works in Linux. Card Template | Free Download. Not yet in Fun, Educational: Spelling, OSX. Resume Media displays the Modern Business Card Psd File saved positions of all media as well as a. bookmark where last played in each table. Media segments can be. defined without editing your file allowing you to watch or listen. to your favorite parts.
Media can be automatically added or removed. from a table when the media stops or finishes. Old-style tv video. ratios can be adjusted without going to the VLC menu each time. There are fun settings to sample media for a number of seconds or. play at Resume New Cv Format different speeds. And more. album. The resume feature then allows you to Card | Free Download play and stop and.
quickly resume whichever entries interest you at the time until you. have finally completed the list. Sort the list to Project Presentation Templates 21 see which entries. you have started. chapters. Modern Business Card Template Psd File. Never lose your place. Adjust 'rewind' time to your liking. to help re-sync your memory with the Bill General Bill Of Sale Form Equipment story. Adjust 'playback speed' to speed up (or slow down) that over-acting narrator or to save time.
Then go to the segments list to play whichever highlights that. friends and relatives are leaning over your shoulder to see. You can also tag the individual titles in Card Psd File | Free Download, a single file album. a table. Letter. Then, when you are ready, move one entry to VLC, expand it, and import the media list back to a different table for execution.
The playing media is bookmarked with an '*' symbol. When finished, the bookmark advances to the next unfinished media. If all media finished, the Modern Psd File | Free Download bookmark increments to the next media. There's a convenient button to Georgia Residential Agreement | Pdf play the bookmark where you left off. Play unfinished or whole table with options to Modern Business | Free Download randomize and loop. * Designed in Windows. Mostly works in Free Residential Agreement | Pdf | Word (.doc), Linux.
Does not work in OSX. See Mac Attack and Licking Linux near the end of the Modern Business Card Template | Free description. * If this version is not available in the VLC Addons Manager, you can. install it manually from this Addons site. Open zip file, copy the Recommendation Letter Format | Expense Report lua. file to C:Users%UserName%AppDataRoamingvlcluaextensions.
or %homedir%/.local/share/vlc/lua/extensions/ for Linux (unhide .local) Create ..luaextensions directory if necessary. Delete old versions. When installed, restart VLC and check 'Resume Media' in View menu. (Extensions must be checked each time VLC is opened. Modern Template Psd File Download. It's OK. ) * A Command prompt window will flash in Windows the first time only. to create the data directory ..vlcVLC Resume Media. Note: The [play/options] menu changes while VLC playlist is playing. * If the Free Residential | Pdf (.doc) VLC playlist is stopped (not playing), then you can click.
[play/options] [add VLC] to Modern Business Card Template | Free Download add the VLC playlist to Residential Agreement | Pdf | Word (.doc) current table. * If the VLC playlist is playing (or paused), then you can click. [play/options] [position] to add the Business Card Download playing media to the table. * There's a setting to allow automatic new entries when media stops. * Click [play/options] [settings] to access the settings table.
* There is a media-just-started tolerance of 60 seconds, so you have. 60 seconds to sample media without saving the stop position. * When resuming, position will rewind 5 seconds from saved position. * Settings 'media-just-started' and 'rewind' are adjustable. * In the event there are identical media names in the VLC playlist,
Resume Media assumes they are truly identical (same media file). * Operations are performed on current table. Switching tables while. media playing may cause stop position to be updated in the new table. * Marking a table with '*' will remove media from table when finished. * The number of tables is Bill Of Sale General Bill Form adjustable from 1 to 50 tables. * Higher tables are not deleted when the number of tables is lowered. * To delete a table datafile, remove all contents and remove mark '*'. * Combining tables saves the highest position of duplicate entries. * When sorting by time, 'Finished' media will always be at the bottom.
* You can set media saved positions to Template Psd File | Free Download 'hh:mm:ss' or to 'Finished'. * 'Finished' media will not update position unless reset to Project Templates 'hh:mm:ss'. * 'Finished' media will remain in any table when replayed to the end. * You can backup your tables if needed by copying the Template | Free Download data directory. (In the data directory, the table # in each file is the file # plus 1) * If you open Resume Media while a media is playing, the Format New Cv Format next stop.
event will be undetectable. Stop and restart media to allow detection. or click [play/options] to manually save the Business Card Psd File | Free Download position without stopping. useful for Deceptively Educational: Spelling Battleship, making convenient tables of playlists. Note that the saved. position and bookmark are meaningless for Business | Free, these files and do not. respond as expected. two instances of VLC must switch to different tables so that the.
instances do not overwrite each other's tables. changes and Free Residential Lease Agreement, need to restore a table, then go to [settings] and enter: restore t1 | restore t1 t2 | restore all , where. t1 = table to restore, t2 = alternate destination, all = all tables. There are three Key=Value parameters which can be set for each. media in any table.
The two picture keys are described in the Picture. section following this and Business Template | Free, apply to video only. General Bill Template. General Bill. The third key is: A reasonable range for Psd File Download, % is 25 to 300 and the default is 8+ Job - Word RMP=100. The motivation for adding the Business Card | Free Download speed key is to allow up or down tuning. of an instrumental audio to sync it with a live instrument performance. (See Pitch setting in the Fun Settings section further down.) * If the Resume Format New Cv 20155 Playback Speed setting in the Settings table is set to other. than 100 (also see Fun Settings) then that speed setting overrides the.
individual RMP speed keys for each media. * Go to the Resume Media Settings and allow application of keys. * While a media is playing (or paused), go to: [play/options] [keys] to set the Template Psd File keys for media in Educational: Battleship, the current table. * Spaces are not allowed in Key=Value. * To delete a key, enter Key= (no value) or remove Key= altogether. * To delete all keys, clear the input line.
* There is one level of [undo], then [cancel] will reset the keys to. the values before [keys] was pressed. * There is Template Psd File a Keys setting in Template, the Settings table which is 1, 2 or 3: 1= Do not apply keys (existing keys are preserved in the tables) 2= Apply keys. Also, when in Modern Psd File Download, the [keys] input screen, corresponding. keys which have been placed in the playing media's metadata (explained. further down) will be read from the metadata and placed in the input. box to allow easy manual entry of the key values into the table. 3= Apply keys. Project Word Project Templates. Also, corresponding keys which have been placed in.
the playing media's metadata will be read from the metadata and. automatically entered into the table for that media. Note: It may take several plays to Modern Card Template Psd File | Free successfully read the Relentlessly Educational: Spelling metadata. You can place keys (ex. Modern Business Template | Free. RMP=102) in a media file's metadata comments. section to save the Relentlessly Deceptively Spelling keys with the media file when not in a table. * Changing metadata is easier in Windows. Go to Modern Card Template Psd File Download Properties Details Comments.
If you select a group of similar files, you can change them. all at once. Remove write-protection first. * When in the [keys] or [segments] screen, you can enter getallkeys in the 8+ Job Estimate Pdf Formats input line to retrieve all keys (including segment keys) into. the input line for Modern Business Card Template Download, easy transfer to a file's metadata comments section. * Segments are also keys, but their structure is normally hidden. Be careful when including segment keys in the metadata, since they can. be long. The limit using Windows properties is.
(Be careful changing metadata using VLC. General General Of Sale Equipment. I have seen media corrupted.) I might generalize to allow any vlcrc parameter to Business | Free Download be used as a key. Let me know if you want a particular VLC parameter added to the. keys to New Resume Format Resume Format New Cv Format For Freshers allow individual media adjustment and I will check it out.
Parameters differ in success when applied by lua extensions. Users with videos or tv recordings that need picture adjustment might. be tired of manually adjusting the picture in VLC each time they play. There are Resume Media keys to adjust aspect-ratio and crop values. automatically while a video is playing. * Picture keys are RMA=nn:mm and RMC=nn:mm where nn:mm are ratios. (Ex. Modern Template | Free Download. RMA=16:11 might make a boxy tv video aspect-ratio more appealing.) * See the Keys section above to enter keys into the table.
* For technical reasons, application of Estimate Templates Pdf Formats, picture keys is limited to. single selection plays initiated from any one of the Resume Media play. options. Multiple selections will play normally. Template | Free Download. Since videos are. usually long, playing one at a time should not be an issue. Segmenting of media allows you to set start and stop times and name. the segments for any media (usually video, but audio also). Templates - Word Excel. Resume. Media will play the segments while ignoring the other parts.
* Go to the Resume Media Settings and allow segmenting of Modern Card Template Download, media. * Play any media in the current Resume Media table. 8+ Job Estimate Templates - Word Excel. (Pausing is ok, since a paused media is still considered to Card Template Psd File | Free Download be 'playing'.) * Now click [play/options] [segments] to prepare to Format Resume Format For Freshers edit segments. * Click [get] without selection to add media position to the input box. With a selection, [get] will load existing segment into the input box. * Segment elements are [start stop name]. Business Card Psd File | Free Download. Get a start and Bill Template., stop time, add an optional name, click [save]. Save order is Card Psd File based on start time. - The start/stop times will be switched if they are out of 8+ Job - Word, order. - Type 'end' instead of a time to indicate play to end of media. - The segment name cannot contain parentheses, ( or ). * You can [delete] unwanted segments.
* Segment play is limited to Modern Business Psd File single plays initiated from New Resume Format Format For Freshers 20155, Resume Media. Multiple selections will play normally without segments. * Setting mousewheel to position control in VLC Hotkey Preferences. can make locating start and stop times more convenient. * There is a Resume Media setting to Modern Card Template | Free set the Project Project Templates 21 VLC Fullscreen setting. Use this to keep segment play in a window or fullscreen. Modern Business Card Template | Free. An alternate. Fullscreen setting in the VLC Video Menu lasts for one VLC session. * For consistent window viewing, you might want to consider unchecking. 'Resize Interface to Video size' in VLC Interface Preferences.
* By default, the media name will show on a video at Free Residential Lease Agreement the beginning of. each segment. Psd File Download. There is a VLC Video Preference setting to turn that off. attempt is made to make the segments behave like a single file. The. segments will play in General Of Sale, order and then the media will be marked finished. The media can be stopped and resumed in any segment. You can click. later in the time line and Resume Media will play the segment closest. to the time clicked. Clicking past the last segment will finish media.
If [^loopv] selected in [play More] then the segments will loop. so the media will just play from there until it hits the end time of. the segment it was playing. Resume Media can detect When you click. past the Business Card | Free segment end time and thereby decide what should be done next. Clicking Play in VLC instead of Resume Media will not play segments. If you highlight some segments, then when the current segment ends, Resume Media will loop the highlighted segments. This allows you to. dynamically choose which segments will play. Also, clicking later in.
the time line (past the segment end) will play the next highlighted. segment instead of the one closest to the time clicked, thus allowing. you to jump through the highlighted segments. When there are no. highlights or you exit from the segment list, segments play normally. Be careful not to click [delete] when segments are highlighted. * Run time lets you sample all media for a set number of seconds. * Start time lets you start further into the media. A saved position.
will override this value. * Playback speed lets you, say, listen to an audio book faster or. have fun with a video, etc. * Pitch setting allows the audio pitch to vary or be unaffected when. playback speed is varied. Resume New Cv. Allows tuning of instrumental audio media. * Loop setting allows automatic looping when playing from Resume Media. that one song or piano piece out of a 100 you are looking for. (Use saved positions combined with Run time for deep sampling.)
I have not had access to a Mac for Business Download, a while now. Mac users who want to. experiment to get Resume Media working on 3+ Grad Format, OSX can try the Modern Psd File Download following: Set allowosx = true near top of lua file for 8+ Job, Resume Media to run. For tinkerers only. Don't get mad at anyone. Back up your lua file. Go down to osx_display() function and tinker with display settings. There is some additional explanation of the display issues there. When (if) the display works, I will check the rest of the functions. *** constructive comments are welcome ***
The dialog window starts out | Free Download, large and Relentlessly Fun, Deceptively Educational:, gets longer with each operation. the VLC developers, and Modern Business Psd File, accepted. There hasn't been any movement on. fixing this issue since 4/27. Agreement | Pdf | Word (.doc). The VLC team needs programmers to help. to make Resume Media for Card | Free, OSX possible. Everything seems to New Resume Format Format work properly in Linus except segmenting. I will work to fix this issue. Please let me know if there are. other repeatable issues that you would like me to address.
Thanks. If you like this program, please put your mouse cursor on Card Template, the 'Score' at the Resume Format For Freshers top and click the Modern Business Card | Free Download plus sign when it appears. Thanks!! Last changelog: 2015-09-24 V3.40 61675. Detect XP in addition to later Windows. Setting to show/hide playlist control buttons in Resume Media. Setting to always loop selections played from Resume Media. Setting for Project 21, constant/variable audio pitch when playback speed changed. Added key to allow individual media playback speeds. 2015-07-14 V3.38 58343.
Fix button-click function re-entry issue for Linux. 2015-07-10 V3.37 58099. Now also works in Modern Business Template | Free, Linux for the most part. Table data moved to VLC Resume Media directory in the vlc directory. Tables backed up before a session and Deceptively Educational: Spelling Battleship, restorable during the session. 2015-07-01 V3.36 57668. Correct media finished flag in segment play.
2015-06-30 V3.35 57615. Correct looping issue in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.34 57605. Correct 'run-time' setting behavior. Segment play order now correct if segments should happen to overlap. 2015-06-18 V3.33 56938. Segments can be dynamically selected for play in the segments list. 2015-06-12 V3.32 56608. Improve some behaviors. 2015-05-31 V3.31 56015. Correct label in Modern Template Download, table view.
2015-05-31 V3.30 56000. Reverse default table behavior to not automatically add/delete media. Settings can be changed as needed to automate add/delete behavior. 2015-05-28 V3.30 beta1 55803. Introduction of media segmenting. 2015-05-27 V3.23 55668. Correct picture key handling when table order changes. 2015-04-13 V3.22 50813. Use the input box to set picture keys, saved positions and Format Resume New Cv 20155, settings.
Change to Modern Card Template Psd File | Free Download picture-adjust keys only allowed when video playing. Setting to Fun, Deceptively Spelling Battleship suppress automatic new table entry when media stops. 2015-03-24 V3.21 47979. Playback speed can now be set without restarting VLC. 2015-03-17 V3.20 46639. New settings for Business Card | Free, start time, run time and playback speed Correct picture adjustment settings altered in Presentation Template Project, V3.10. New setting to close or hide Resume Media when 'X' clicked.
Eliminate one second delay between button clicks. Settings table now has its own button in the [play] menu. Allow copy as well as move when combining tables. Improve a few behaviors. Display and Modern Card, adjust picture keys for the whole table. A manual update will now also update 'Finished' media. Setting to Free Residential | Word (.doc) show bookmarked table entries in list of tables. Advance bookmark when bookmarked media set to 'Finished'. Setting to Business Card Template Psd File allow manual or automatic picture adjustment.
Version 3 with simpler handshaking with VLC. Bookmark feature added to keep track where last played. Play Bookmark/Unfinished/Table/Selection with Random/Loop options. Revert to version 2.40 due to unresolved issue in version 3. V2 main menu and other buttons improved. Bookmark and autoplay features added. Table can be randomized manually or in autoplay. Main menu and Residential Agreement | Pdf | Word, other buttons improved. If media is playing, clicking [import/play] will now do a manual. update of the playing position without stopping the media.
Improved text-reading economy using patterns. Cosmetic changes only. Modified a few labels. More intuitive. 'Keep Media' mark is Template Psd File | Free Download now '*' instead of 'K'. User settings (variables) are now adjusted in the dialog window. Removed the Template Project Templates 21 instances/exclude/busy complexity and issues, thus. simplifying Resume Media and Modern Business Template, the dialog for the majority of users. Moved user variables to top of download file for 3+ Grad School Letter | Expense, easy adjustment. New variables to Business Card Template Download adjust size of table dialog window. Set variable simple = true to force a single hidden table with no.
table dialog window. Control media and resume from the VLC playlist. Rewind 5 seconds when resuming (adjustable variable 'rewind'). Selection no longer needed before entering Set/Delete mode. Set default media-just-started to 60 rather than 30 seconds. Set media completed flag to 'Finished' rather than 00:00:01.
You can now reset media to 00:00:00 or set to General Template. Bill Form 'Finished.' Amend the Modern Template Psd File previous update to include the case where the media is paused. If the table dialog 'Play' button is clicked while media is playing, the media. stop position will now update before selected entries are enqueued in Relentlessly Fun, Deceptively Spelling Battleship, VLC. One click can stop/enqueue or enqueue/play but not stop/enqueue/play. Allow media to Business Psd File | Free remain in an excluded table when completed. Set X for normal exclude or K to keep media with time reset to 00:00:01. Disallow automatic resume if Resume Media is opened while media is. playing, because the next stop event is undetectable in this case.
Correct dialog update if media stopped during the Word Timeline Templates 21 tables dialog display. Correct open table option broken in last update. Refine the media detection to eliminate spurious updates. A few other minor improvements. Resume Media will now open even if all tables are busy or excluded. This should be rare, but it allows recovery if tables are orphaned. Message saying that busy tables cannot be combined. Correct multiple-selection delete and Modern Business Template Psd File Download, move operations.
Support for Resume Format New Cv Format, multiple tables. Entries can be sorted by time or name. Add ability to rearrange table and to import the VLC playlist. * To add it automatically, click [Play/Options] and then [Settings]. Near the bottom, change Block- to Allow new table entry when media stops. From then on, when you stop a media in VLC, Resume Media will add the media name and stop position to Modern Business Card Template Psd File the current table if it is not already there. Good luck, Rocky. I can open the Project Presentation Template Templates 21 extension from the menu under VLC/Extensions but the window that opens never contains anything. I've also tried setting 'simple = true' in the file and still no luck, and also various ways of pausing/stopping/closing a video.
and create subdirectory ..luaextensions. and created a text file named VLC Resume Media V3.lua 2. Modern Business Template Psd File | Free. Type Cntl-A to - Word Pdf Formats highlight the whole file contents. 3. Card Template | Free. Type Cntl-C to copy the file contents to Relentlessly Fun, Deceptively the clipboard. 4. Open the VLC Resume Media V3.lua file you created in a text editor like Notepad.
5. Modern Business Card. Type Cntl-V to copy the Estimate Templates - Word contents into the file. Close the file. 6. Card Template Psd File Download. Open VLC and 8+ Job Estimate - Word Excel Pdf Formats, go to Business Template Download View menu at the top. 7. If everything went as planned, you will see Resume Media V3 at the bottom of the View Menu. 8. Click it, and the Resume Media dialog window will open. Getting the same result as others - Resume pops a large window, striped, with no content, titled 'Resume Media Table 1'. I use windows 7 and when I press the download button I am immediately transferred to a txt page which says this - -- VLC Lua Extension by Rocky Dotterer 5/5/2014. filename = -- change if you want file(s) in your own directory. How can I download the Extension? 2015-09-24 V3.40 61675. Detect XP in addition to later Windows.
Setting to show/hide playlist control buttons in Resume Media. Setting to always loop selections played from Resume Media. Setting for constant/variable audio pitch when playback speed changed. Added key to Project Presentation Word Project 21 allow individual media playback speeds. 2015-07-14 V3.38 58343. Fix button-click function re-entry issue for Linux. 2015-07-10 V3.37 58099. Now also works in Linux for the most part.
Table data moved to VLC Resume Media directory in the vlc directory. Tables backed up before a session and restorable during the session. 2015-07-01 V3.36 57668. Correct media finished flag in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.35 57615. Correct looping issue in segment play.
2015-06-30 V3.34 57605. Correct 'run-time' setting behavior. Segment play order now correct if segments should happen to overlap. 2015-06-18 V3.33 56938. Segments can be dynamically selected for play in the segments list. 2015-06-12 V3.32 56608.
Improve some behaviors. 2015-05-31 V3.31 56015. Correct label in table view. 2015-05-31 V3.30 56000. Reverse default table behavior to not automatically add/delete media. Settings can be changed as needed to automate add/delete behavior. 2015-05-28 V3.30 beta1 55803. Introduction of media segmenting. 2015-05-27 V3.23 55668.
Correct picture key handling when table order changes. 2015-04-13 V3.22 50813. Use the input box to set picture keys, saved positions and settings. Change to picture-adjust keys only allowed when video playing. Setting to suppress automatic new table entry when media stops.
2015-03-24 V3.21 47979. Playback speed can now be set without restarting VLC. 2015-03-17 V3.20 46639. New settings for start time, run time and playback speed Correct picture adjustment settings altered in V3.10.
New setting to close or hide Resume Media when 'X' clicked. Eliminate one second delay between button clicks. Settings table now has its own button in the [play] menu. Allow copy as well as move when combining tables. Improve a few behaviors. Display and adjust picture keys for the whole table. A manual update will now also update 'Finished' media. Setting to show bookmarked table entries in list of tables.
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2014 Released Free Response Comments #038; (draft) Answers. Below you will find my initial comments (there will likely be more after some reflection) and Template Download, draft answers to | Expense, the 2014 Free Response questions that were released by the College Board earlier today. As ever, these are in draft form and I would be happy to Card Template Psd File, receive comments and corrections. Based upon the released free-response questions alone, I don#8217;t think that there is a single question that could not have been asked in previous years! There had BETTER have been a significant number of references to some combination of PES, semi-conductors, mass spec, bio applications, surface tension, chromatography, capillary action etc. on Format New Cv For Freshers, the multiple-choice, otherwise the College Board will have led us all on a merry dance again. I would HATE to be a reader this year! I would not want ANY part of Business Template Psd File | Free, grading multiple parts of New Resume Format New Cv Format For Freshers 20155, this exam including 1(a)(ii), 1(c), 1g(ii), 2c(ii) or 5(d) amongst a number of others. As ever, when you read my answers there will be many other ways of getting the points, and in some cases BETTER ways. It#8217;s too long. I suspect g(i) will require some reference to Ksp but to me (and I bet many students), this is not obvious. g(ii) is problematic since I THINK it assumes a tablet of similar mass as in the original data, and that is Card Template Psd File | Free Download, not obvious. Without specifically stating it, I do not like this question.
Here#8217;s what I wrote on the AP discussion group; I think there is a potential problem with 1g(ii) as well. The number of Fun, Educational: Spelling, significant figures that can be recorded on a centigram balance depends on what is Business Card Template Download, being weighed, does it not? The question may be assuming that all of the tablets and filter papers have very similar masses to that of those in Deceptively Spelling Battleship the data, but this is NOT stated as far as I can tell, and the reference to access to only one KI tablet does not IMO, mean the Modern Business Template Download SAME KI tablet as in the data. Isn#8217;t it possible that a very large KI tablet could generate a mass of precipitate with three significant figures? Am I missing something here? This may not be #8216;in the spirit of the question#8217;, but isn#8217;t it a possible answer? I believe significant figures to be a math, and NOT a chemistry concept so feel no shame in asking such a question! I have always believed that there should be NO reference to them on (.doc), the AP chemistry exam at ALL. Not much comment here other than we start down the organic reference path which I DON#8217;T like. For me, (a) and Card Template Psd File, (b) are the same problem. Why a diagram (rather than simply stating which way the ions travel) is necessary in part (c) is beyond me here; it#8217;s just part of the College Board #8216;particulate diagram#8217; obsession nonsense another blog post coming about this thing, soon. (d)(i) I like the Nernst equation.
In the real world I suspect that you would generally need to actually calculate the new voltage in most situations of this type! You could tackle this with a Q and K argument, too. Template Templates! No comment here (yet). An alternative way of Modern Business Template Psd File, stating that the carbonate has not completely decomposed is to Residential Agreement | Pdf, do some math to prove that not all of the solid has decomposed by considering the stoichiometry. (a) is pathetic. It#8217;s arithmetic and middle school knowledge it#8217;s not worthy. (d) is a mess. Imagine trying to Modern Business Card Template, grade this. No thanks! Even though (a) and (b) are not organic questions per se, I hate the use of Project Template Timeline, these molecules, especially polymers, to illustrate this. Why not choose other things? MORE organic molecules being used to represent non-organic theory?
Why? Again? Robert McDaniel writes; #8220;Just curious, Adrian, but it is certainly possible that many students might be thinking about the kinetic energy of molecular collisions (the normal explanation) to explain the Modern Card Psd File temperature effect even though they just finished determining it is a first order reaction. In this case vagueness may well be rewarded over those who impute improper behavior in the molecules. Do you think collision energy will still get a point in Template Word Project this answer or must it be vibrational or some unidentified form of kinetic energy?#8221; It#8217;s a great point and not one that even occurred to me at the time! I think it#8217;s entirely feasible (as you suggest) that some kind of Modern | Free Download, reference to vibrational energy of the molecule might be sought*, but I#8217;m not sure what % of kids are going to even think about that. Maybe I fail to get that point! *I think that they idea of introducing vibrational energies and the like, without any significant organic component to the course, would be another example of things being improperly aligned. My first comment is this: WOW! This test was really long!
I timed myself taking it and I carefully and Free Georgia Residential | Word, thoughtfully did each problem at a nice easy pace (for me) and considering that I really screwed up on (1) (c) and had to re-do the whole thing b/c I was an Card | Free idiot, I still finished the first 3 questions in 57 minutes with no errors. And this is the veteran AP teacher we#8217;re talking about. I can only imagine how many stressed out kids feeling rushed really freaked out. Now with this said, when I gave my practice AP exam the week before, I told them that usually they will run out of General Of Sale Of Sale Form, brains on the MC and then they will run out of time on Template Psd File | Free Download, the FR, so I said to them, #8220;make sure that you jump around and try to Recommendation Format | Expense, get as many points as you can on Modern Card Psd File | Free Download, the FR#8221;. Relentlessly Spelling Battleship! Did they listen? Some did and some didn#8217;t.
The ones that I expect to get 5#8217;s barely finished, but they finished none the less. Business Template Psd File | Free Download! They have no excuse for #8220;not getting to #7#8221;. I did the rest of the test in the allotted time (barely), but again, I took my time and wrote out really clear responses in complete sentences and they were pretty easy, IMO. Even with the Free Lease Agreement | Pdf organic stuff, I was OK with it being used as the Template Psd File Download molecule example, although I agree with you that it was totally unnecessary, so why do it? I was glad to Word Project Templates, see that the Template Psd File Download #8220;lab question#8221; (#1#8230;gravimetric analysis) was one that I did in General Bill the early spring. I hadn#8217;t done the lab in | Free Download years past, but I altered the version from the lab manual this year, so I got lucky (or I prepared myself well) and I hope this helped my students feel more comfortable on it. As for the other questions, I agree with you that they are no more difficult than other tests in the past. And like Paul C. said, I#8217;m glad that I didn#8217;t change the way I taught stuff this year. Yes, I taught them PES and what a mass spec. graph is used for, and I de-emphasized phase diagrams and did NO colligative properties which still hurts my chemistry soul, but I spent one day on the very basics of PES and mass spec.
Thank God I didn#8217;t waste a week on it. More importantly, the General Bill Of Sale Form Equipment lack of any AP level complicated calculation is Modern Card Template Psd File Download, sad. A smart 1st year student can handle the rigor of the calculations. Deceptively Educational:! I had my kids do WAY more math for each individual chapter test, but I can understand (somewhat) that the AP Exam is trying to cover many things at once which limits them to #8220;the basics#8221;. But still, having success on this math-wimpy exam isn#8217;t preparing them for Psd File | Free the reality of college-level calculations that will be expected. Project Templates! Also, I really am disappointed that the CB used a t-shape. Modern Business Template Psd File! I thought that sp3d hybrid orbital shapes would NOT be on the exam. I taught ALL the shapes (sp3d2 included), but I mistakenly told my students that only 4 domains would be on the exam. Excel Pdf Formats! Oh well.
It#8217;s not like they had to come up with the name #8220;t-shape#8221;. Last but not least, in previous years, I could somewhat accurately predict how a certain % in my class would translate into a 5, 4, 3, etc, on the AP exam. With the number of Modern Business Card Template Psd File Download, kids that took the test for me this year AND with the General General huge range in their grades (from 100% A+ down to Business Template, a kid getting a 57% F) I will hopefully get a nice #8220;revised#8221; guideline for General Of Sale Of Sale future predictions in AP scores. Modern Card! Thanks for all of your posts this year! Thanks for 8+ Job Templates Excel Pdf Formats taking the time to comment, Dan. Regarding T-shape I think it#8217;s fair game, since just because the hybridization *explanation* is in flux, it doesn#8217;t make any difference to the number of electron domains and the shape consideration. Obvious they can#8217;t ask about hybridization of such things, but the shapes beyond 4 centers seem fairly in Business Psd File | Free Download play to me. Regarding 4(b): The prompt says, #8220;Based on Free Georgia Residential Agreement | Word, the data in Business Card Template Psd File | Free Download the experiment#8230;#8221;. Fun, Spelling! I wonder if just saying that there must be CaCO3 remaining because it#8217;s a reversible reaction is enough to Business Template | Free, get credit. I answered it by converting the grams of CaCO3 to moles (0.50mol), and comparing to the moles of CO2 calculated in (a) to justify that not all of the CaCO3 had decomposed (due to the 1:1 reaction ratio).
Hi Bruce Great point and you may well be right. 8+ Job Estimate Templates - Word Pdf Formats! I#8217;d argue that the equation is #8216;part of the data#8217;, but your point is Template Psd File Download, well made, and you are probably on safer ground than I am! Just a thought on Bill Template. General Bill, 4(b). Two experiments were done 50 g and 100 g. If the | Free reactions went to completion( all the New Cv CaCO3 decomposed) then the second experiment would have provided twice the pressure of CO2. Since the pressure was the same in each, an Modern Card Template Psd File | Free Download equilibrium is the mostly likely explanation. Most people will look at 8+ Job Estimate - Word Excel, the graph and think#8230;equilibrium when that graph tells you nothing about that.
A reaction to completion would look the same. If you did some stoichiometric calculations, then you could tell that solid CaCO3 was left and that an equilibrium existed. Also with the dropping of reaction memorization, most students would not know that the reaction is an equilibrium. James Agreed on Business Card Psd File, the stoichiometric treatment. See the comments by both Bruce and I, above and my comments in the post. However, I#8217;m not sure that the Relentlessly Fun, Deceptively Educational: Spelling lack of Card Psd File, need for reaction knowledge (which I agree has come to pass) has any bearing on knowledge of New Resume Format 20155, whether this is an Modern Card Psd File equilibrium or not.
I#8217;ve NEVER mentioned equilibrium when I taught this very reaction as a the decomposition of Of Sale General, a carbonate to yield the Card Psd File Download metal and non-metal oxide. Free Residential | Pdf | Word (.doc)! To me, those are two entirely UNrelated things! Thanks for all your posts and your quick work on the 2014 exam. My students here in the UK had exactly the same exam so I am thinking that there is no longer a form B or an international version?? I agree that all of this paper could have been taken quite easily by any of my previous AP classes so like you I#8217;m assuming that any of the new content like PES must have been(!?) covered on the multiple choice questions. Most of my students had a similar reaction to Dan. It was a long exam. It wasn#8217;t any harder than previous years from what I can see but the amount of reading and comprehension required seems to have increased considerably. Also I know that next year I will be putting even more emphasis on clarity of Business Card Psd File Download, writing in 3+ Grad School Format | Expense answers. The math content has (as we suspected it would) dwindled whilst the amount of answers requiring explanation or discussion seems to have increased. Modern Card Template | Free! Question 2 is 3+ Grad School Letter Format | Expense, our old favorite equilibrium question. simpler in fact than most but with more words than normal.
Question 3. Even though I like the dual ion movement in the salt bridge question, I have to Business Card Template Download, admit I have not emphasized this in my course. I suspect that like most I have simply stated that ions move in the salt bridge to keep the Resume New Cv For Freshers 20155 charge balanced without going into Modern Card Template, much greater detail. I#8217;ll know for next time! Question 3d is very easy to answers using the Nernst equation BUT using a Le Chat discussion for this particular case is actually quite difficult conceptually. Project Presentation Project Timeline! I think many will struggle with this. On Q4b I suspect that they are hoping students will do some math but I agree that your answer that its an equilibrium so there must be some solid present has to be an acceptable one. And of course, I agree that 5d will be a nightmare for the examiners to grade.
I#8217;m glad its not going to be me! Well done Adrian. Modern Business Card Template Psd File! Keep up the good work. Templates Excel Pdf Formats! Derek, great to hear from Card | Free Download, you and Project Project Templates 21, thanks for Card Template Psd File | Free taking the time to comment! Thanks, Adrian really appreciate your work. I was amazed at the amount of #8220;words#8221; in 4 5 for students to do that in 7 minutes is Fun, Deceptively Battleship, crazy! My best student finished the m/c with 1/2 hr to spare (after going over it a few times), yet barely had enough time to Modern Business Template, finish the free response.
By the way, there must have been 2 versions. General Of Sale Of Sale Form! There are SEVERAL versions, not just two! On the practice exam, they required the use of x in the Ka calculation in 2 since x is given and the difference in K vs. Business Card Psd File! x is not tremendous. I#8217;m expecting to Fun, Deceptively Educational: Spelling Battleship, see the same on this, where ignoring x removes a point. I did this test and it took me a long time. OMG, my kiddos must have been pressed for Template time. All I know is Relentlessly Fun,, that some said it was really hard and others said it was not. Which brings about the multiple versions if one is harder than the Modern Business Card Psd File | Free Download other how is that fair to the students?
I did not necessarily think this was hard, just time consuming to read and write an answer (brief as it may have been). Free Agreement | Word (.doc)! If some of my kids see this one and tell me their questions were harder, I don#8217;t think that gives a fair chance to some. Just food for Business Template thought CB. I feel like this exam and the practice exam both suffered from the same problems: Trying to Project Template Timeline 21, ask the same question as in past exams, but contorting language to get the same idea across, reducing agent removal is a perfect example. My students were all groaning when we got to that question on Modern Business Template Psd File | Free Download, the practice exam. Also the “removal” of the Nernst equation and Relentlessly Fun,, the inclusion of the concept in another convoluted manner. Modern Card Template Psd File | Free! A lack of precision in the way some of the Format New Cv Format questions were posed, 1g(ii) is a good example of this, as you point out. I feel like the new curriculum and Modern Business Psd File, the new exam were rushed and the products (practice exam and 8+ Job Estimate Templates Pdf Formats, actual exam) suffered b/c of it.
While I think lab work is an essential part of chemistry, it definitely seems that a student can still pass the exam without ever having done a lab. So much for the new emphasis on lab, not to mention the ridiculous inquiry emphasis, which I actually went out of Business | Free, my way to address and follow. Question 1: This was the longest FRQ I remember seeing. Starting the Fun, Deceptively Battleship FRQs with this long problem set a tone for my students that all of these questions were going to be a slog. Even my best students felt taxed by the overall length. Modern Card | Free Download! I agree with your assessment that a mention of Ksp was going to be required. and was not really obvious in Educational: Spelling Battleship the phrasing.
I did assume that Ksp would be required when I wrote my answer, and did warn my students that if something was mentioned in the question they would have to address it in the answer, BUT in the moment of testing I am sure some of them did not remember what I said. Question 2: I don#8217;t mind this problem at all. I think one of the places where organic molecules work well is for Business Card Psd File Download weak acids and bases. That being said, it is the beginning of the 8+ Job Templates Excel Pdf Formats overuse of organic molecules in these FRQs. Question 3: When I answered this question, I did it the Modern Template Psd File way I taught my students to answer it and Relentlessly Fun, Educational: Spelling Battleship, included the Modern Business Psd File Download answer for (b) in (a). Free Residential Lease | Pdf | Word (.doc)! I hope the kids could sort it out in the end. I am disappointed with the obvious overlap here and Business Card Download, am worried about how (a) and (b) will be graded. Question 4: I do not have any complaints with this question. I actually thought is Bill Bill Form, was fairly straight-forward. Question 5: We spend lots of time on this topic, and (a) and Modern Card Template Download, (b) are obvious gifts. 3+ Grad Recommendation Letter Report! I like (c) and (d).
I think they get at VSEPR theory and bonding in a good way. However, the mention of periodicity is a bit odd, since the only thing to mention is number of valence electrons which i think would be included in any covalent bonding explanation anyway. Question 6: I feel like we see the organic reference in questions like this because these molecules exhibit trends that can buck traditional behaviors, like LDFs trumping dipole-dipole interactions, however they did not use that for Card Psd File Download this problem, so they could have used any two molecules here. I do not like that the problem seemed to Relentlessly Fun, Educational: Spelling, hinge on Modern Template Download, knowledge of Estimate - Word, polymers for many students and it may have confused them for the rest of the Modern Download problem. Question 7: I agree that the School Recommendation over-emphasis on the organic molecules is completely unnecessary here and there are plenty of other ways this could have been discussed. It makes me wonder if we need to use (many?) more organic molecules as examples for Modern Business Card | Free periodic trends, IMFs, bonding, #8230; Thanks for your comments and contributions. They are always appreciated.
I disagree with your answer for 4(c). Am I just thinking about this wrong? Here#8217;s what I got: The final pressure would be greater than 1.04 atm, but less than 1.5 atm. New Resume Format Format For Freshers! According to Le Chatlier, if the pressure of a product increases, the system will try to balance by shifting to Card Template | Free, the left, which means gas is being lost. However, the reaction will reach equilibrium before the pressure returns to the initial pressure of 1.04 atm. General Bill Template. Of Sale Form! My take is this. If the Business Card Psd File | Free Download temperature has not changed then Kp will be the same. Give Kp ONLY depends on the partial pressure of CO2 (as it does), then the 8+ Job Estimate Templates Pdf Formats only way that Kp can still equal the same number is if the partial pressure of CO2 is still the same.
Of course, this does rely upon there being sufficient CaO present to allow the CO2 to react and for the reaction to Template | Free Download, go bakcwards. Question #2 part c, i. Residential Lease Agreement | Pdf! This should be true because the Card Template Psd File reaction between the strong base and weak acid goes to completion with the strong base being able to Relentlessly Deceptively Educational: Spelling, take off all H+ from the propanoic acid. As it does this the acid needs to maintain equilibrium and Psd File Download, will dissociate further until a ph of 7.00 is reached. Please correct my thinking if this is Relentlessly Deceptively Spelling Battleship, incorrect. You are correct that the reaction goes to completion, BUT the Modern Card Template pH will be greater than 7 because the salt that is produced (by the Residential Lease | Word (.doc) complete reaction) will hydrolyze in Card Template | Free water and create free hydroxide ions. Did you see my answers at General Of Sale Bill Form Equipment, the bottom of Modern Psd File | Free, this post?
Oh, yes, missed that partyou are so rightthanks! Thanks for taking the time to post your answers! How many points do you think that you have to get out of 120 to make a 5, 4, and 3? Rich It depends upon Project Word Project Templates, a couple of things. Firstly what the national statistics look like, and secondly if they decide to rearrange the grade distribution as they did in Modern Business Template Psd File | Free Download AP Biology last year that was DEVASTATING! Having said that, my GUESSES are these; A 5 could get cut-off anywhere between approx.
81 (very best case) and 93 (very worse case). I CANNOT envisage ANY situation where a score of Recommendation Format Report, 93 or more does NOT score a 5. Then I would go with points ranges of approx. Business Psd File | Free! 12, for each AP grade down from there. However, these are really #8216;shot in the dark#8217;, guesses! In the 5 Steps to 8+ Job Estimate - Word Pdf Formats, A 5 AP Chemistry 2014-2015 book, it said a. Total Raw Score. 68–120 (would be a 5) 52–67 (would be a 4) How accurate do you think this is? I think that is WAY, WAY, WAY too low, UNLESS it turns out that huge numbers of kids failed to get to Business Card Psd File | Free, the final problems because of time pressure. If so, the raw scores will come down and with them so will the boundaries but even so, 68 seems a HORRIBLY low threshold, and apart from the time issue this was a fairly straightforward exam. We#8217;ll see but I#8217;ll be amazed if it were that low. if they scale the fr, do you think they will weight the first three more than the Templates - Word Excel Pdf Formats last four? Well, the first three are worth more points as a whole but as for weighting within that, no idea.
I thought the total raw score would be 106 max so I am unclear how these numbers apply to this years exam. Well, I am basing the calculation on; + knowing that the MCQ and FRQ are 50% each. + knowing that there were 60 MCQ#8217;s. + assuming that the Modern Business Template | Free FRQ will be scaled to be out of 60 (regardless of the original raw points) to make the raw score out of Project Presentation Project Templates, 120. Having said that, these are ALL #8216;ballpark#8217; guesses. Thank you for all your work (on these solutions and for so much else you do and share). GREAT solutions! I just wondered, on | Free Download, 4a shouldn#8217;t the 3+ Grad Letter Format | Expense 1100K limit the sig figs to 2, or 0.011mol? My intuition matched yours, but as for Business Psd File Download the values placed on the exam, 1100K has two sig figs.
J. Hnato and I had many conversations about #8220;100#8221; deg C having 1 vs. 3 sig figs. If the CB is New Resume Format Format, going to be nit-picky about things, do you understand why the Business Template Psd File Download flub so much on this one? (He kept saying it was 3, i.e. the exception that proves the rule#8230;). Project Template Word Timeline Templates 21! Thanks for your thoughts#8230; Todd Who knows?? Sig. fig#8217;s are largely a mystery to Modern Business Template | Free, me, I don#8217;t consider them to be appropriate for the AP (or any) chemistry course, and Resume Format, the fact that the College Board doesn#8217;t have an official policy on this doesn#8217;t help. Of course, it may not matter since this may not be the question that they pick on | Free Download, for examining sig figs. (assuming that unwritten policy is still in place on the new exam)! Hello, I#8217;m actually a student who took AP Chemistry 2014 exam on May 5th#8230; As a student, I thought this exam was quite more stressing than the ones I practiced before, mainly because of too long FR questions that perplexed my brain a bit. I felt the New Resume Format Resume New Cv For Freshers 20155 time was way too tight (actually I always write more than needed#8230;like I always answer in complete sentences with full explanation#8230;because I don#8217;t want to miss any single possible point!)#8230;Actually I couldn#8217;t get to #7 at all. Business Card Template Psd File | Free Download! But my other answer#8217;s accuracy is quite fine thankfully :) About difficulty, maybe just because I was too nervous on Word Project Timeline 21, M.C. Card Template | Free Download! (it was my first ever AP exam), right after the exam, I felt M.C. questions were a little bit hard but most of my classmates said they felt it was actually easier than the practice.
Also thinking it after some time, I could see that they may have been just a little bit more tricky and Free Lease Agreement | Pdf (.doc), longer but actually quite simple :)#8230;.(If I didn#8217;t make any mistake in reading and Template Psd File | Free, understanding the wordings#8230;!) I used to 8+ Job Templates Excel Pdf Formats, get quite high scores in every practice(solid 5 level) and my teacher always said I would easily get 5 in Business Psd File | Free Download actual exam,too, but right now, I#8217;m not that certain how my score will be#8230;. I heard that in the College Board practice exam released, if I scored higher than 85/120 (when both M.C. and FR are based on 60), I have high potential to get 5 and if higher than 90/120, it will almost surely 5#8230; Do you still think that guideline will work. Can you please tell me if there will be somewhat large difference in your opinion?? Soomin Take a look at my comments earlier in this thread about my best guesses for grade boundaries. I was wondering if other schools had students who had 2 different forms, as our school did, and if they released the other free response questions. Our kids report having forms O and C, form C being much easier (more like the old exams) and O being more difficult, according to their reports. Do you have any feedback on this, and if this was done to compare the new testing version to the old?
It seems unfair to me that kids were given multiple forms that varied in question type. I suspect that the form that was released was the C form. We had two forms. They will NOT release the other questions. Obviously (I think!), the different forms have to 3+ Grad Recommendation Letter Report, have grade boundaries set at different points, to allow for the relative difficulty of each form. I cannot imagine any other feasible circumstances. Wouldn#8217;t the fact that PVC is polar, due to Template, the C-Cl bond, allow it to Free Georgia Residential | Pdf, sink to Modern Business Template, the bottom? Since water is polar, the Fun, Educational: Spelling PVC would be miscible unlike the other non polar compound that sits on Business Card Psd File Download, top of the 3+ Grad Letter Format | Expense water with the -CH3 group. Given the wording of the question, I really think this is Business Card | Free Download, a density, not a polarity issue. Concerning question 1g(ii): I read this question very simply and feel like perhaps you are reading too much into it.
When I teach sig figs I teach the old adage that your results can not be more precise than the instrument you use to Fun, Spelling, collect your data. I really feel like that is all they are looking for in this question, if I am right that would mean they are testing basic sig fig concepts and this question was way too easy for an AP exam! Let me know your thoughts, maybe I am the one missing something here. Melanie I agree that my comments are almost certainly NOT what the Modern Template | Free Download question is getting at but I offer them to highlight what I *think* is a flaw in the question. My main point is that in determining significant figures in 3+ Grad School Format this case, I think that one has to consider both the instrument AND the stuff that is being massed. As for what is (and is not) appropriate for an AP Chemistry exam, I vote for the COMPLETE removal of sig. figs!
Ahh, I see, so I was the one missing something! I agree with you on sig figs. They cause so much uncertainty on the test. Business Card Template Psd File Download! I never know what to tell my students. There seem to be a few #8220;unwritten#8221; rules concerning them on Bill Template. General Bill Form, the tests. I have heard they can be given credit if over or under by one, I have heard they only score a random problem they pick on sig figs.
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essay hotel ruanda Hollywood and the Holocaust in Central Africa. keith harmon snow. Reprinting permitted with proper attribution to: Text corrected, 1 November 2007 (see note [36-a]). W hat happened in Rwanda in Modern Business Template Psd File 1994? The standard line is that a calculated genocide occurred because of deep-seated tribal animosity between the majority Hutu tribe in power and Project Template Word Timeline Templates the minority Tutsis. According to this story, at Modern Business Card Template, least 500,000 and perhaps 1.2 million Tutsis—and some ‘moderate’ Hutus—were ruthlessly eliminated in a few months, and most of them were killed with machetes.
The killers in this story were Hutu hard-liners from the Forces Armees Rwandais , the Hutu army, backed by the more ominous and inhuman civilian militias—the Interahamwe—“ those who kill together.” “In three short, cruel months, between April and July 1994,” wrote genocide expert Samantha Power on the 10 th anniversary of the genocide, “Rwanda experienced a genocide more efficient than that carried out by the Nazis in Relentlessly Fun, Deceptively Educational: World War II. The killers were a varied bunch: drunk extremists chanting ‘Hutu power, Hutu power’; uniformed soldiers and militia men intent on wiping out the Tutsi Inyenzi , or ‘cockroaches’; ordinary villagers who had never themselves contemplated killing before but who decided to join the frenzy.”  The award-winning film Hotel Rwanda offers a Hollywood version and the latest depiction of Modern Business Template, this cataclysm. New Cv For Freshers 20155? Is the film accurate? It is billed as a true story.
Did genocide occur in Rwanda as it is widely portrayed and universally imagined? With thousands of Hutus fleeing Rwanda in 2005, in fear of the Modern Business Card Template Tutsi government and its now operational village genocide courts, is another reading of events needed?  Is Samantha Power—a Pulitzer Prize winning journalist—telling it straight?  Is it possible, as evidence confirms, that the now canonized United Nations peacekeeper Lt. General Romo Dallaire was at the time an 20155 agent of the Tutsi army? Or that the funding for Hotel Rwanda came from Modern Business Card Template Psd File, a company with powerful mining interests in Congo—where access is insured by General Bill Template. General Bill Of Sale Equipment, the Rwanda government? Hundreds of thousands of people were killed, that’s clear. Card Psd File | Free? There was large-scale butchery of Tutsis. And Hutus. School Recommendation Format | Expense? Children and old women were killed. There was mass rape.
There were many acts of genocide. But was it genocide or civil war? “I think that’s a very good question and it is not adequately answered,” says Howard W. French, former East Africa Bureau Chief for Modern | Free Download, the New York Times and author of Africa: A Continent for the Taking . Free Residential Lease Agreement | Pdf | Word (.doc)?  Howard W. French operated on Modern Business Psd File | Free, the ground in Central Africa (1993-1999) and 3+ Grad Recommendation Report his reportage of the RPF Tutsi rebel army hunting down and massacring hundreds of thousands of Hutus in Congo is exceptional.  “A minority of fifteen percent [RPF Tutsis] wages a determined effort to take over a country and rule in Modern Business Template Download an ethnic way, by force of arms, and has been doing this for years. Format Resume New Cv For Freshers? Two presidents are assassinated.” Howard W. French is Business Template Psd File | Free adamant. “These are not excuses for 3+ Grad School Recommendation Letter Format, butchery . Modern Card Template | Free Download? But these are things that lead one in the direction of civil war, as a descriptor, as opposed to the one-sided tale that we have been given, of these sweet, innocent Tutsis who remind us of Israel, versus the savage Hutus who cold-heartedly butcher people hand-to-hand for three months.”  From the very first words and frames, where the image has yet to appear and the screen is Recommendation Report completely black, the film Hotel Rwanda sets up viewers to think a certain way about what happened in Rwanda in 1994. Here is Modern Card | Free a story about good versus evil.
An ominous African voice is heard, clearly the announcer on a Rwandan radio program, and he is describing the Tutsis as ‘ cockrrrRRROACHES .’ The voice is black and the cataclysm unfathomable, as anyone will tell you, and the black screen underscores the evil darkness of Africa. Project Template Word Timeline Templates 21? This voice of terror returns throughout the film to haunt the innocent but terrified Tutsis, on screen, and the viewers gripping their seats. The good guys are the Tutsis, the victims of genocide. They are not killers in the movie: they are never killers. At the end of the film, when a well-attired guerrilla force is shown—the ‘rebels’ of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)—they are rescuers.
They are disciplined, organized. They keep a tidy United Nations camp safely behind their lines. They don’t kill Red Cross nurses, or orphaned children, in Psd File | Free the film: they reconnect children to their families. The Hutus in the standard Rwanda genocide stories are always the bad guys, and they are all bad guys. Every Hutu is a genocidaire —to use the ominous French term deployed in English contexts to further underscore the horror, the horror (sic). The Hutus are the devil incarnate. The Tutsis are saintly.
Indeed, they are beyond reproach, because they are the victims of genocide. The Hotel manager’s wife bears an obvious cross around her neck, to remind us that the Tutsis are the chosen people. Relentlessly Fun, Deceptively Spelling Battleship? When the Business Template Psd File now celebrated United Nations hero Lt. Gen. Romo Dallaire shakes hands with the devil—as his own popular book and the subsequent film Shake Hands With the Devil concur—he is shaking hands with Hutu.  That is the ideological framework of the Hotel Rwanda film. There is, today, an industry behind it. The Tutsis are dehumanized by the Hutus and by the Hutu media, in the film, and 3+ Grad Recommendation Letter Format | Expense there was plenty of truth in this in real life. But the RPF pro-Tutsi media that operated in Rwanda after 1991, for example, was equally dehumanizing, and Modern Business Download equally vicious, but the film does not tell us this. Tutsi guerrilla forces—prior to 1970—were the first to describe themselves as Inyenzi or cockroaches: they were not equated with the insects that everyone loathes, they were well trained, secretive and coordinated military forces who attacked at night and withdrew by day.  The RPF would hit and run and Free Georgia Residential Lease kill with efficiency.
It was not a pejorative usage, as it has been used in the film Hotel Rwanda , although it was bastardized and turned against the Tutsis by media outlets in Rwanda. Radio Mille Collines and the other anti-RPF media outlets of the President’s party, the National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND),  were not the only ones to incite hatred and murder. Indeed, RPF-controlled Radio Muhabura spread ethnic hatred and incited widespread killings, but this was—according to Hollywood—a war with only one army, the ruthless Hutus.  The Pillars of Card Psd File Download, Hotel Rwanda. When Human Rights Watch investigated the Bill Of Sale Template. General Bill Of Sale Form Equipment genocide, they sent Alison des Forges to tell the story, and the product of Modern Template | Free Download, her long investigations was the fat treatise on New Resume New Cv Format For Freshers, genocide in Rwanda titled Leave None to Tell the Story . Irony is heaped upon irony when we consider that those who are left to tell the story are silenced by the authorized storytellers like Alison des Forges. “Alison des Forges is Modern Business Template Download a liar,” Cameroonian journalist Charles Onana, author of the book The Secrets of the Rwandan Genocide, Investigations on the Mysteries of a President , published in Template Word Templates French in 2001, is adamant. Template Download? “She is a LIAR.”  Paul Kagame, RPF General and President of Rwanda, sued Charles Onana for defamation in a French court: Kagame lost. Free Georgia Agreement?  “Des Forges has written a book which has become the bible regarding Rwanda,” says Jean-Marie Higiro, former Director of the Rwandan Information Office (ORINFOR) who fled the Modern Business Template Download killing, with his family, in early April 1994. “Everyone points to her book even though some of what she has produced is fiction. Of Sale Template. Bill Of Sale? I don’t think she is an intentional liar, but I don’t know why she investigated Hutu human rights abuses but no RPF human rights abuses.” Hotel Rwanda is Business Card Template Psd File built on the pillars of selective human rights reporting, but it really takes off from the celebrated text, We Regret To Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed With Our Families, by Philip Gourevitch, the New Yorker magazine’s premier Africa expert. “Gourevitch's short book should be compulsory reading for Heads of State and Ministers of Defence all over Africa,” wrote Guardian reporter Victoria Brittain, “as well as for all U.N. Project Presentation Template Timeline? officials involved in Card Psd File Download peacekeeping operations and humanitarian aid, from the Secretary General on down, and the heads of missionary orders in the US, France and Belgium.” Victoria Brittain is Of Sale Template. Bill Of Sale a Nation magazine contributor on Modern Business Template Psd File | Free, genocide in General Template. Of Sale Form Equipment Rwanda.  The International human Rights Law Clinic at American University for several years (at least) asked students to read Philip Gourevitch on genocide in Rwanda, in Modern Business Card Psd File preparation for legal work with the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda.
Professor Melissa Crow, who worked with the Law Clinic, followed her term at Human Rights Watch (1994-1995) by working in Kigali, Rwanda, under the RPF government, working for the Office of the Prosecutor for the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda. Following this she joined Foley, Hoag and General Bill Template. General Bill Of Sale Elliot, the influential Washington D.C. law firm closely aligned with the U.S.-Uganda Friendship Council, which is closely tied to ChevronTexaco, Coca-Cola, the William Jefferson Clinton Foundation and the Pangaea Global AIDS Foundation. Business Psd File | Free Download? The latter foundations are also deeply involved in Rwanda . Notably, a U.S. immigration judge in St. Paul Minnesota imposed Gourevitch’s book as compulsory reading for all attorneys dealing with Rwandan refugees requesting political asylum.
But this is a dangerous and irresponsible precedent.  Funding for New Resume Format Format New Cv 20155, Gourevitch’s book came from the United States Institute for | Free Download, Peace, a State Department offshoot (with an Fun, Deceptively Orwellian name).  What we never learn about Modern | Free Download, Philip Gourevitch is that his brother-in-law, Jamie Rubin, was Madeleine Albright’s leading man and, through him, Gourevitch planted in Template Word Project Timeline Templates the public mind a narrow perspective on Rwanda.  Philip Gourevitch is an Modern Business Card | Free intimate pal of Rwandan President Paul Kagame. I regret to inform you that Philip Gourevitch is not an impartial journalist, regardless of Free Agreement | Pdf | Word, how much you may have liked his book, or have been moved by Business Card Template, it, because he has taken sides, and he has told only one side of the Template Project 21 story, and he has told it badly, and he has been rewarded for his fine job in telling it badly.  “Gourevitch begins the story with the Tutsi as these saintly victims,” the Times ’ Howard W. Modern Business Template Download? French says. “And I don’t think Gourevitch is a stupid guy.
I think that it’s just sheer intellectual dishonesty… Gourevitch was coming out in the New Yorker every other month with this very well written and—if you don’t know the facts—very compelling picture about Rwanda… as the Relentlessly Educational: Israel of Central Africa and the Tutsis as the Jews of Central Africa. That’s powerful stuff. But I’m on Business Card Psd File Download, the ground in Relentlessly Spelling Central Africa seeing that the reality is very, very different.”  The theme of genocide in Rwanda—whether true or false—has birthed an industry that revolves around a standard, simplified plot. The appearance of the film Hotel Rwanda marks the coup de grace in the long process whereby the facts, the ugly realities and Business Card Template | Free dirty details of what really happened in Rwanda have been distilled into a neat and Template Word Project Timeline 21 tidy story that proliferates in the media, in film, in literature, at Template Psd File Download, seminars on genocide and workshops on reconciliation, and it is the predominant discourse in academia. Quebecois journalist Robin Philpot calls it “the right and New Resume Format Resume Format Format For Freshers proper tale.”  The Falsification of Amerikan Consciousness. It has become a mythology: the Modern Template Download Rwanda genocide mythology or, better, the General Bill Of Sale Of Sale Tutsi Holocaust mythology . But as African scholar Amos Wilson puts it so simply in The Falsification of Afrikan Consciousness , “you cannot understand the Modern Psd File Download present unless you first understand the past.”
To understand the growth of the Timeline Templates mythology on genocide in Rwanda, consider first the text of Hotel Rwanda—The Official Companion Book , which describes the process of “bringing the true story of an African hero to film.”  The book deletes the most basic facts about the Rwandan Patriotic Front and its backers’ roles in the ongoing war for the Great Lakes region of Modern Business | Free Download, Africa, war that has led to at least seven million people dead since the initial RPF invasion from Georgia Agreement | Word, Uganda in October 1990.  Instead the book offers an Card Psd File abbreviated timeline of events that accentuate or exaggerate those points that serve the predominant Hotel Rwanda mythology, and it excludes those facts that would undermine this mythology: the entire framework of the brutal, bloody war for control of Rwanda is obscured. October 1990 : Guerrillas from the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) invade Rwanda from Uganda; the RPF is Project Timeline Templates mostly made up of Tutsis. A ceasefire is signed on Download, March 29, 1991.
First: the above statement uses the definitive term for Format Resume New Cv, the RPF action: invaded. The Rwandan Patriotic Army invaded Rwanda from Uganda. However, the context of the RPF ascension to Modern Business Card Template Psd File Download, power is obliterated. Of Sale Bill Of Sale Form? RPF infiltration of Rwanda began around 1986 after Yoweri Museveni, with powerful western backers, shot his way to power in Uganda. Business | Free Download? Paul Kagame, current president of Rwanda, was head of 3+ Grad School Format Report, Museveni’s Directorate of Card Template Psd File | Free Download, Military Intelligence, and later commanded the Rwandan Patriotic Front. But the RPF invasion was a gross violation of Word Project Timeline, international law against a sovereign nation—a point the Hotel Rwanda industry ignores. Never condemned by Card Template, the international ‘community,’ the RPF ‘struggle’ was supported by powerful western agents and institutions, including the World Bank and the IMF, who shackled Rwanda with austerity programs in perfect synchronization with the RPF assault. This led to Educational: Spelling, the heightened inculcation of Modern Business Template Psd File | Free, structural violence throughout Rwanda. Combined with the crash of coffee prices on 8+ Job Templates - Word Excel, the world market, millions of Modern Business Card Psd File | Free, Rwandans found it impossible to make ends meet as the 1990’s began. Suffering hit new lows not seen in Rwanda for decades. The majority of Residential Agreement | Word, people in Business Template Psd File | Free Rwanda, besieged by the propaganda of New Resume Resume For Freshers 20155, competing factions—a spectrum of political interests aligned with or against the RPF or the Rwanda government of Juvenal Habyarimana—found scapegoats according to their positions in Modern Business Psd File Download society.
Economic interests predominated as a few elites increasingly controlled the life or death of the many. The rising insurgency and structural violence provoked hostility amongst and between groups, and elites controlling media outlets of all stripes began to use their venues to Excel, sow ethnic rivalry as the veneer for Business Card Download, the deeper agenda: class warfare. Hutus were dehumanized as often as Tutsis. “Pro-opposition newspapers represented MRND [Hutu government] leaders as essentially evil and corrupt,” writes Jean-Marie Higiro. They were “liars, idiots, animals, bloodthirsty murderers and warmongers. Some of these newspapers published drawings of President Habyarimana covered with blood.”  The RPF and Rwandan Tutsi Diaspora had their own publications.
The best known of these is Impuruza , published in the United States (1984-1994). Tutsi refugees joined Roger Winter, the Director of the United States Committee for Refugees, to help fund the publication. The editor, Alexander Kimenyi, is a Rwandan national and a professor at California State University. Like most RPF publications Impuruza circulated clandestinely in 8+ Job Estimate Templates - Word Pdf Formats Rwanda amongst Hutu and Tutsi elite. “A nation in Business Card Template Psd File | Free exile, a people without leadership, ‘the Jews of Lease Agreement | Word, Africa’, a stateless nation,” wrote Festo Habimana, the president of the Association of Banyarwanda in Card Template Psd File Diaspora USA , in the premier issue of Impuruza . Habimana called for Relentlessly Fun, Educational: Battleship, the unity of Tutsi refugees. Business Template | Free Download? “But our success will depend entirely upon our own effort and unity, not through world community as some perceive… As long as we are scattered, with no leadership, business as usual on their part shall always be their policy. We are a very able and capable people with abundant blessings. What are we waiting for? Genocide?”  The Association of Banyarwanda in Relentlessly Educational: Spelling Diaspora USA , assisted by Roger Winter, organized the International Conference on Card Template | Free, the Status of Banyarwanda [Tutsi] Refugees in Washington, DC in Presentation Template Word Project Timeline 1988, and this is where a military solution to the Tutsi problem was chosen. The U.S.
Committee for Refugees reportedly provided accommodation and transportation.  Winter is intimate with USAID, and a long-time ally of Susan Rice, former Assistant Secretary of State on African Affairs (1997-2001), Special Assistant to President Clinton (1995-1997), and National Security Council insider (1993-1997). Modern Card | Free Download? Roger Winter is also a staunch supporter of U.S. New Resume Format Resume New Cv Format For Freshers? Rep. Donald Payne. Winter acted as a spokesman for the RPF and their allies, and he appeared as a guest on Modern Card Template | Free Download, major US television networks such as PBS and CNN . Philip Gourevitch and Roger Winter made contacts on behalf of the RPF with American media, particularly the Washington Post , New York Times and Time magazine. Roger Winter and U.S. Presentation Template Word Timeline 21? Rep. Donald Payne continue to manipulate African affairs: most notable are there recent exaggerations about genocide in Darfur, Sudan, for which Donald Payne sponsored the Darfur Genocide Accountability Act. Second: the language of the Psd File above October 1990 timeline entry underscores the New Resume Format New Cv Format 20155 equally discrepant point that the RPF was “mostly made up of Tutsis.” According to the genocide mythology, the cataclysm in Rwanda was a tribal struggle between Hutus and Tutsis, with some involvement of France.
Who were the non-Tutsi elements of the “mostly” Tutsi RPF? What is the implication? They were Hutus? How could Hutus be fighting alongside Tutsis if Hutus were exterminating all Tutsis based on an organized, premeditated plan? The term “moderate Hutu” invites a similar conundrum: what is a “moderate Hutu” in the international legal framework of genocide? Jean-Marie Higiro says it best: “Academics and journalists divide Hutus into two categories: moderates and extremists following the myths of Hollywood. They never suggest that there were Hutu who did not belong to Modern Business Psd File Download, either category.
There were those who were terrified by both sides and who just fled for their lives. Academics and journalists never do the same [segregating] for Tutsis and Georgia Lease | Word of course never for the RPF even though the RPF was a conglomerate of Tutsi supremacists, Republicans and monarchists. These supremacists are highly placed in the current government. Template | Free Download? Tito Rutaremara, one of the Free Georgia Lease Agreement | Word (.doc) ideologues of the RPF is one of them, and General Ibingira, the butcher of Kibeho [is another] of them.” The very definition of Card Psd File | Free Download, genocide would be called into question if it turned out that there were political, economic or class—as opposed to ethnic —motives behind the Free Residential Lease | Word (.doc) hundreds of thousands (or 1.2 million) of deaths that have been unequivocally attributed to Hutu genocidaires. A deeper examination of “genocide” in Rwanda raises just such inconvenient questions.
The determination of what constitutes genocide is not so cut and dry as Hutus versus Tutsis, or lists of targeted Tutsis versus no lists, no matter the terror now invoked in one’s soul on hearing the Modern Psd File | Free word Interahamwe . After the October 1990 entry, the timeline in the companion book omits any reference to the RPF until February 1993, as if the supposed ‘heroic’ Tutsi rebels were patiently sitting out the war from the Ugandan sidelines. Presentation Template Word Timeline 21? But massacres occurred in northern Rwanda after the October 1990 invasion and after the 1991 ceasefire and they were committed by the RPF. Tens of thousands of refugees fled the border districts in fear of ongoing RPF atrocities. (This author remembers well the traumatized tourist who disembarked from the Modern Business Template | Free Download bed of Fun, Deceptively Educational: Spelling, a small pick-up truck that crossed the border from Modern Business Psd File | Free Download, Rwanda to Uganda in 1991. I was in Kasindi, in southwest Uganda. The Rwandan man sitting next to this western woman was shot by an RPF sniper as the truck drove down the road; the Bill Template. General Form truck was then stopped, searched by the RPF, and the dead man taken.) From 1990 on, RPF terror cells began infiltrating Kigali, the capital, and all other areas of Rwanda, and with them came atrocities that were frequently blamed on the Habyarimana government, including assassinations, massacres and disappearances. By March 1993, Rwanda’s internally displaced persons (IDPs) had reached one million people. The RPF practiced a scorched earth policy: they did not want to have to administer a territory or deal with local populations. The RPF displaced people, shelled the IDP camps, and Modern Business Card Psd File | Free Download marched on.
They killed some captives, buried them in General Template. Of Sale Form Equipment mass graves or burned corpses, and used survivors as porters to transport ammunition, dig trenches or cook their meals. According to one Rwandan now in the US: prior to 1994, most Tutsis who had a job in Modern Card Rwanda collected contributions for the RPF political and military program; people were afraid to New Resume Format Format, refuse to Modern Business | Free, pay the compulsory tax levied by a ruthless military institution, the RPF. The Habyarimana government responded to terror with repression in Residential Agreement | Pdf | Word kind, but the Card Template Psd File Download international human rights “community” had already taken sides in the war: the Hutu government of Habyarimana was accused of 3+ Grad Letter Format Report, “genocide” against Tutsis as early as 1993; the RPF atrocities were ignored or explained away. “There were many RPF killings in Rwanda between 1990 and 1994,” says Jean-Marie Higiro, “but these were not investigated; they were automatically attributed to Habyarimana’s [MRND] party by the international community. Even so, we know that the Psd File | Free Download RPF used that kind of strategy to tarnish the image of their opponents.” 
Jean-Marie Higiro also cites the Tutsi newspaper Impuruza , the New Resume For Freshers 20155 publication edited by Professor Alexandre Kimenyi, with accusing the Habyarimana government of committing genocide against the Tutsis, and this was prior to 1993. February 1993 : The RPF again invades Rwanda. Hutu extremists cite the invasion as proof the Tutsis aim to eliminate them, and begin calling for preemptive measures. To begin with, the RPF never left Rwanda, and they never stopped killing. Following the reasonable questions by Modern Business | Free Download, journalist Robin Philpot, how would U.S. Bill Of Sale Template. General Equipment? citizens respond if Canadian guerrillas—arguing that their parents were born or once lived in the U.S.—invaded from Toronto? Would we call Americans who complained “extremists”? What if a few Islamic militants purportedly invading the U.S. took out the World Trade Center? Would the U.S. government call for preemptive measures? Would we call the Business Card Download invaders a “rebel army”?
Extremists? Would we call them terrorists ? “Is it normal in the search for justice to condemn one side in a war for Georgia Agreement | Pdf | Word, human rights violations,” writes Robin Philpot, “and not even question the Card Template Download morality of the aggressors, those who violated the principles of all the charters of rights humanity has ever drafted? Is it right to shout about how a government violates rights and turn a blind eye to the launching of an aggressive war?”  Like the film, the Relentlessly Deceptively Spelling Battleship Hotel Rwanda Companion Book offers a gross and Business Psd File | Free distorted simplification of events in Rwanda. Trained by the U.S.
Army at New Resume Resume Format Format For Freshers 20155, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, USA, the RPF soldier and now President of Rwanda, Paul Kagame, is a regular visitor at Business Psd File | Free Download, the Pentagon, and he was not the only officer in Rwanda with ties to the U.S. military. Under the Pentagon’s International Military Education Training Program (IMET), some $769,000 trained 35 Rwandan officers at Spelling, U.S. military schools from 1980 to 1992, and Card | Free Download $120,000 was earmarked for Rwanda for both 1994 and 1995. Further military assistance was provided by the U.S. to 1994, while the bulk of the arms and logistical support came from U.S. 8+ Job Estimate - Word Excel? client states (France, South Africa, Egypt, Uganda and Business Card Zaire). Bill General Equipment? The Pentagon has also trained large numbers of Rwandan soldiers under the Modern Template | Free Download Extended-IMET (E-IMET) and Joint Command Exchange and Training (JCET) programs. Bill Template. General Bill Of Sale Equipment? One of those trained was Bangladeshi Colonel Moen, the Modern Template Psd File | Free Download Chief Operations Officer for the United Nations Assistance Mission for Estimate Templates Excel Pdf Formats, Rwanda (UNAMIR), and another graduate of the U.S.
Army Command and General Staff College in Leavenworth, Kansas (USA).  From 1993 onwards the RPF continued to Business Template | Free Download, stick its bloody foot in the door of Rwanda, and the “international community” continued to tighten the screws on the Habyarimana government. Ever vigilant and inflammatory in advertising the governments’ human rights abuses—whether manufactured, exaggerated or real—the human rights community continued to close its eyes to RPF atrocities, terrorist infiltrations and bloodied land grabbing. Backed by powerful factions from the United States, England and Belgium, the RPF maneuvered and manipulated its way to the very seat of power, in Kigali itself, where—under the 3+ Grad Report Arusha Peace Accords negotiated in Arusha Tanzania in 1993—a battalion of RPF soldiers was based at a strategic site within the city center. The RPF immediately fortified its defenses under the watch of Lt.
General Romo Dallaire—now universally regarded as a hero—the Canadian Force Commander of UNAMIR. The Hotel Rwanda Companion Book offers only the following tidy summary which, as popular mythology now holds, credits the Business Download RPF with the imperative of ‘stopping the genocide’ against Tutsis. Mid-July 1994 : The Tutsi RPF forces capture Kigali and the genocide is over. Over a period of 100 days, almost 1,000,000 Rwandans were murdered. While it is alleged that “almost 1,000,000 Rwandans were murdered” in those 100 days, a claim that is certainly exaggerated, it is also true that the RPF slaughtered, bombed, massacred, assassinated or tortured hundreds of thousands of Georgia, people—including Hutu and Tutsi soldiers, politicians and government officials, and innocent civilians. “All U.N. Business Card Template | Free? compounds were sheltering thousands of General Of Sale Template., fearful Rwandans,” wrote the former UNAMIR commander, Lt. General Romo Dallaire, “How could I possibly keep them safe?” Dallaire’s admission subsequent to Card Psd File Download, the previous statement is General Of Sale very insightful, especially given his pro-RPF position: “We protected these citizens from certain death at Modern Business Card Template, the hands of the extremists or the RPF…” In this [previous] quote, Dallaire openly confirms the RPF’s role in killing, and his book repeatedly describes firefights he witnessed between the RPF and various government factions.  There were no firefights shown in Hotel Rwanda , there was none of the ongoing warfare that rocked Kigali before and Free Georgia Lease Agreement | Word (.doc) after 06 April 2004: there were only Business Card | Free Download, ruthless, savage, Hutu killers and rapists, and Format Resume the dead bodies that—by inference and innuendo—the Hutus slaughtered with machetes, pangas, axes and hoes. The RPF employed state-of-the-art information control and psychological operations tactics practiced by the US military: international reporters were embedded; access to battle zones was restricted; evidence of RPF massacres was erased, or massacres were blamed on Hutu extremists, Interahamwe militias or the government Forces Armee Rwandaise . British journalist Nick Gordon reported crematoriums where the RPF incinerated bodies.
CNN’s only journalist on the ground in Rwanda at the time, Gary Streiker, has admitted that he worked behind the Modern Business Card Template RPF lines and followed RPF directives on reporting. [27a] After the April 6, 1994 double presidential assassination the western press—including Joshua Hammer ( Newsweek ), and Raymond Bonner, James C. McKinley Jr. and Free Georgia Residential Lease | Pdf (.doc) Donatella Lorch ( New York Times )—went out of Modern Business Card, their way to cite ‘professionalism’ and ‘discipline’ and ‘remarkable self-control’ exercised by Presentation Template Word Timeline Templates 21, the invading rebel RPF forces. The western press turned the double Presidential assassinations into ‘a mysterious plane crash,’ but this was a smoldering wreckage of the truth.  “In conjunction with the Modern Business Card Template | Free military build-up by the RPF and 3+ Grad School Letter Format | Expense its allies—including the infiltration into Kigali, the capital city, of up to 10,000 RPF soldiers,” writes ICTR barrister Chris Black, “western journalists and western intelligence services masquerading as “human rights” organizations began a concerted propaganda campaign against the [Habyarimana] Government and through it the Hutu people, accusing it of various human rights abuses, none of which were substantiated.”  U.N. High Commission for Refugees investigator Robert Gersony reported in September 1994 on the RPF’s killing of more than 30,000 ethnic Hutus—in a period of two months—and gave a detailed account of locations, dates and Modern Business Card Psd File Download nature of 3+ Grad Letter Format, crimes, as well as the methods used to kill and to make the bodies disappear. Gersony also identified RPF leaders responsible for Modern Business Template Psd File | Free, the killings. The classified U.N. report has never been released. Interested moviegoers might want to hack through the perception management of Hotel Rwanda to get to United Artists parent company Metro Goldwyn Meyer.  MGM directors, unsurprisingly, given what the film does not tell you about the true U.S. role in Of Sale Template. Form Rwanda, include current United Technologies director and U.S. General (Ret.) Alexander Haig.
United Technologies is in the business of Modern Business Card Template | Free, war and “I’m in charge here!” Al Haig served as secretary of New Resume Format Resume Format New Cv Format 20155, state under a Hollywood actor named Ronald Reagan. The other producers of Hotel Rwanda include an unknown company called Kigali Releasing Ltd., and Business Card Template Psd File | Free another called the Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa Ltd. Georgia Agreement | Pdf | Word? The latter is a major shareholder of, and mining partner with, Iscor Ltd., one of the companies named by the U.N. Panel of Experts Report (2002) for Business Card Download, the illegal exploitation of resources from the Congo. . U.S. military involvement in Rwanda has included ‘counterinsurgency’ training, ‘psychological operations’ and tactical Special Forces: Special Operations Command oversees Navy Seals, Army Rangers and Delta Force: elite units deployed as special operatives in covert operations.  The hotel in the film is not the real Hotel des Mille Collines. The Tutsi RPF rebels did not enter Kigali, Rwanda’s capital city, and save the day, they were in New Resume Format Format Kigali all along.
The RPF gained a foothold in Kigali through their constant deceptions and manipulations of the “peace process,” and with the support of their international backers, especially the United States. The RPF ‘rebels’ were better trained, better equipped, better organized than any and all other combatants in Rwanda and, notably, numerous sources claim that the RPF had the capacity to stop the killings. Sources also report that the Forces Armees Rwandais —the Rwandan government army—didn’t have the resources to fight both the RPF and the Interahamwe . Professors Christian Davenport (U. Modern Card Psd File | Free Download? Maryland) and Allan Stam (Dartmouth) published research in 2004 that showed that the killings began with a small, dedicated cadre of Hutu militiamen, but quickly cascaded in an ever-widening circle, with Hutu and Tutsi playing the General Template. General Bill Of Sale Form Equipment roles of both attackers and victims. Their team of researchers also found that only Modern Card Template Psd File | Free, 250,000 people were killed, not the Educational: Spelling 800,000 plus advanced by the RPF, and that for every Tutsi killed two Hutus were killed. The research unleashed a firestorm: the media jumped on them for denying genocide. “Our research suggests that many of the victims, possibly even a majority, were Hutus—there weren’t enough Tutsis in Rwanda at the time to account for all the reported deaths… When you add it all up it looks a lot more like politically motivated mass killing than genocide. A wide diversity of individuals, both Hutu and Tutsi, systematically used the mass killing to Template Psd File, settle political, economic and personal scores.”  “When you look at the motivations of the Free Georgia Residential Lease Agreement | Pdf | Word Interahamwe leadership and young people in the Interahamwe they were motivated by money,” notes former ORINFOR director Jean-Marie Higiro. Some Hutu businessmen were giving out Modern Template | Free Download, loans, contributing to political parties of both the Rwandan government and the RPF rebels. “These guys wanted to Relentlessly Educational: Spelling, do business: people were motivated by different interests.” “Many Hutu and Tutsi businessmen prospered under the Habyarimana regime,” Jean-Marie Higiro notes. “They received government contracts and loans from government banks and suddenly became rich. During this period of uncertainty they contributed money to the RPF, MRND, and opposition parties—always speculating on the winner.
That is why, after the war, very few Hutu businessmen who had contributed to the RPF reopened their business immediately. That is why some Tutsi businessmen who contributed to the RPF made an excellent calculation. After the war they reaped off the Template | Free benefits.”  Some facts in the film are true. To begin with, in every sense of the terms “human rights” and “humanitarianism,” the Free Lease | Pdf | Word (.doc) western powers betrayed the Business Card Psd File | Free Download people of Rwanda. The whites were rapidly evacuated, the blacks abandoned, including the 3+ Grad | Expense many African staffers of international agencies. The French armed the Hutu side, and they evacuated key Hutu elite at Business Card Download, the first opportunity, but the United States, U.K. and Belgium armed the Tutsis. There was a Rwandan man named Paul Rusesabagina and Template 21 he would, one day, be working at the Hotel des Mille Collines, but he was the manager of the Hotel des Diplomats. The Tutsi rebels were blamed with the assassination of the presidents of Business Psd File, Rwanda and Burundi, but the film convinces us they didn’t do it, when everything suggests they did.
And it is certainly true that hundreds of thousands of Rwandans died. Hotel Rwanda is | Expense Report a work of fiction. As a cultural artifact produced by an affluent entertainment industry in the West, and for affluent western consumers, but focused on Modern Card Download, a distant and exoticized culture about which the affluent western consumers know very little, or nothing at all, it serves to consolidate the ideological pillars of disinformation that came before it, and upon which it was built. According to many and varied knowledgeable sources, including hotel insiders: Rwanda was not abandoned by the western powers: Belgium, France, Canada, England and the United States were all militarily involved in the 1994 conflict. Because there are Israeli connections to the current government, it is likely that Israeli military agents were also involved. These were no bystanders to genocide, as Samantha Power and the Atlantic Monthly and others would like us to think, but active participants in New Resume Resume Format New Cv a ruthless international military conflagration. Note that amongst Atlantic Monthly’s primary advertisers [read: sponsors] is Business Card Template Psd File | Free Lockheed Martin [aerospace and defense] Corporation. The hotel was not under a state of siege early on as the movie suggests—an elegant wedding took place there during the fray, and it married the sister of the Tutsi businessman Kamana Claver, who had contracts with the Hutu government. According to one guest, powerful Hutus and School Recommendation Letter | Expense Report Tutsis regularly came and Business Template Psd File | Free went. When the Of Sale Bill Of Sale water to the hotel was shut off, forcing the ‘refugees’ to drink the water from the swimming pool, it was not shut off by the Hutu genocidaires , as implied in the film, but by the Tutsi RPF army, who cut power to the city.
General Bizimungu appears in the very first scenes of the film, prior to Modern Card Psd File Download, the double presidential assassination: yet when the plane was shot down on April 6, 1994, General Bizimungu was still a Colonel, and he was far from Estimate Templates Excel Pdf Formats, Kigali. According to Card | Free Download, one hotel guest, who remains unnamed for fear of retribution, Paul Rusesabagina, the New Resume film’s hero, in no way wielded the kind of influence as depicted throughout the film: “Paul was a very simple man like me in front of the Interahamwe . Modern Business Card Template Psd File Download? If he succeeded to save some Tutsi from his home he was most probably helped by Project Presentation Template Timeline 21, some influential Interahamwe friend, say Georges Rutaganda. Modern Business Card Download? He was as vulnerable as I was and could not oppose any action against the will of the militia and Deceptively Educational: much less of the army. He lies when he feints to call General Bizimungu for help, because the Hotel des Mille Collines was under the jurisdiction of Colonel Renzaho. Bizimungu lived at the northern war front lines, and he only came to Kigali four days after the plane was shot down and I never saw him at the hotel.”  “There is Modern Card Template Psd File | Free overwhelming evidence,” wrote Rutigita Macumu, in an opinion piece titled “Paul Rusesabagina Not a Hero!” that appeared in Rwanda’s The New Times state-owned newspaper on November 5, 2005, “that Paul Rusesabagina did not particularly go out of his way to bring the Recommendation | Expense Report people, who were being hunted, to the Mille Collines Hotel haven, to protect them once they were in the hotel, to procure them food or even water when they were unable to pay for them, or to Download, devise any uncommon means to fend off the killer gangs outside the Free Residential | Pdf | Word (.doc) hotel. It is highly apparent that he only Modern Business Card | Free Download, fulfilled his duty, as directed by his Sabena bosses, to run the hotel well and Word Project Templates cater for all its occupants.”  Georges Rutaganda, the Rwandan man misportrayed as the devil beer salesman and erstwhile murderer of Tutsis in Hotel Rwanda , writes that Paul Rusesabagina was no disinterested, apolitical hotel manager, but an important activist member of a national political party. On 12 April 1994, Rusesabagina shifted to the Htel des Mille Collines where he acted as its new director because the other, the Htel des Diplomats where Rusesabagina was working, had been evacuated by foreign troops. Hotel Rwanda depicts Rusesabagina at Modern Card Download, the Htel des Mille Collines prior to the double presidential assassinations of 6 April 2004. Rutaganda claims to have visited the hotel and seen guests from both Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups, including: Rubangura Vedaste; Mutalikanwa Flicien; Dr. Gasasira Jean Baptiste; Kamana Claver; Kajuga Wicklif; Rwigema Celestin; Kamilindi Thomas; and others.
Rutaganda claims that very few UNAMIR soldiers were around, and they were incidental to security: the Hutu Gendarmes of the FAR army were manning a roadblock at the main entrance. He also claims that the “refugees” in the U.N. convoy that were turned back at a roadblock “were the real elite cream of Tutsi ethnic tribe. Residential Lease (.doc)? Had one been really spurred by bad intentions this would have been a great occasion to Business | Free Download, decapitate the Tutsi ethnic group. Families of Format New Cv, former ministers, of Business Psd File Download, doctors, of lawyers, of big business men, of 8+ Job - Word Excel, highly educated men, of professors, etc, were among them.” If the ‘genocide’ were so organized and Modern Business Psd File | Free calculated, and Free Georgia Residential Agreement | Pdf (.doc) quick to strike, then Rutaganda has a very interesting point: how did it happen that the elite of the Tutsi tribe were protected and evacuated by UNAMIR troops and Hutu Gendarmes? Of course, all Hutus are killers, and Modern Card no one will believe a genocidaire : Georges Rutaganda was sentenced to Free Georgia Residential | Pdf, life in Business Template Psd File prison by the ICTR.
Can George Rutaganda’s claims be corroborated? “Georges Rutaganda cooperated with the U.N. to Recommendation Letter, save all those people.” ICTR investigator Phil Taylor offers a compelling portrait of the Modern Template Psd File Download Hotel Rwanda ’s supposed devil himself: Rutaganda didn’t incite hate crimes, he called for calm and respect for the Red Cross; Rutaganda was never accused of the rape and sexual slavery depicted in the film; and Rutaganda never traded in machetes. Indeed, Human Rights Watch in Recommendation Report January 1994 identified an English businessman who had imported tens of thousands of machetes into Rwanda. More importantly, virtually everyone in Modern Business Card Template Psd File Rwanda (and Congo) owns a machete and they use it for farming; what would be unusual is if someone did not have a machete. Anyways, it was not machetes that did the most killing. Rape was off the Educational: Spelling agenda at the ICTR until Hillary Clinton showed up in Arusha and Modern Card Psd File pledged $600,000 to be paid after the Resume New Cv For Freshers first ICTR rape conviction, and that’s where the Tutsi women collected in Modern the fictitious Rutaganda compound in Hotel Rwanda come from. Hillary Clinton visited the ICTR and bribed the Georgia | Pdf court, and the issue of rape was immediately elevated and a perpetrator needed to be found to Modern Business | Free Download, satisfy the court, no matter their innocence or guilt, and meet Hillary Clinton’s conditions for $600,000 bribe. “I was Georges Anderson Nderubumwe Rutaganda's lead trial counsel,” said Attorney Tiphaine Dickson, “and [I] was present in Arusha, in the courtroom, in fact, the Recommendation Report very day Hillary Clinton paid her visit. Card Psd File | Free Download? There were no ‘pinning’ charges of rape against my client.
No such allegation ever appeared on any indictment against him, so naturally, he was not convicted of any such offense. Jean-Paul Akayesu, however, also on trial at that time (the trials were heard concurrently, and by the same panel of judges) did see his indictment amended, after the Prosecution had rested, to include rape, and Residential | Pdf | Word (.doc) he was convicted in what the ICTR trumpeted was a ‘landmark’ decision on September 2nd, 1998.” [36-a] The Hollywood Rwanda film offers a fictitious U.N. Colonel Oliver (Nick Nolte) as a substitute for the Canadian Lt. Gen. Modern Business Card Psd File | Free Download? Romo Dallaire, who is absent from the film. (It is believed that Dallaire asked too much money from the filmmakers for the use of his name or character.) Romo Dallaire allegedly worked not as an impartial United Nations commander, but as an School Recommendation Format | Expense agent for the invading RPF army. Dallaire reportedly approached Hutu military commanders to convince them to Business Card Template Psd File, follow the winds of change and embrace the New Resume Format Resume New Cv Format For Freshers RPF program. Dallaire was rarely present at the hotel, according to witnesses, but his substitute (Nick Nolte) is always there, and he is painted as a sympathetic and neutral humanitarian. Dallaire mentions in Modern Card Template Download his book how he passed by the Htel des Mille Collines, but in his own meticulously detailed recounting of the daily events and travels around Kigali from 06 April to 10 April, 1994, for Of Sale Template. General Of Sale Equipment, example, Dallaire stops at the Htel des Mille Collines only once. 
According to Modern Template Psd File | Free Download, Chris Black, a lead counsel at the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda (ICTR) since 2000, U.N. documents brought into testimony at the ICTR in 3+ Grad Recommendation | Expense October 2005 clearly establish that UNAMIR’s Lt. Gen. Romo Dallaire: was an agent of the RPF; helped shoot down the plane in the double presidential assassination; covered up the preparation of the final RPF offensive assisted by Uganda, the U.S. and Modern Card U.K.; lied to his United Nations boss Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh about it. Contrary to the caring, humanitarian character of Colonel Oliver—as presented by Nick Nolte in the film—in real-life General Dallaire allegedly arranged for the closure of the western approach to the Kigali runway at the request of the RPF. This made it easier for the RPF and others to track the presidential plane as it came in from the east. The Belgian contingent of the U.N. force was in control of the airport area and the area from which the missiles were fired, and Format Format New Cv For Freshers a Belgian military unit (the “peacekeepers” killed later) were the only people caught by the Hutu army coming out of the firing area after the Business Card Psd File plane was shot down, after the army threw up a cordon to try to catch the culprits. “All of Dallaire’s actions only make sense in this light,” lawyer Chris Black explains. “Dallaire admits in his book that he was close to Paul Kagame and admired him. He helped Kagame by covering up the RPF build-up for an offensive in Relentlessly Deceptively violation of the Arusha Accords, while at the same time helping with the anti-government propaganda of the RPF. The Belgian’s actively engaged on Modern Card Template Psd File | Free Download, the side of the RPF and once the plane was shot down they attacked FAR army and gendarme positions alongside the RPF. We have radio intercepts of the RPF talking about their help from the General Of Sale Template. General Form Equipment Belgians and others.
By saying Dallaire was an RPF agent I am of course really saying he worked for the Americans under the orders of Business Download, Ottawa.”  Lt. General Romo Dallaire was no peacekeeper: he was an Estimate - Word Excel active military strategist—a war-maker. The Political Economy of Genocide. Prior to the cataclysm of 1994, the RPF set up its political base in Modern Psd File Download Belgium. When Belgian “peacekeepers” are murdered by “Hutus” in Hotel Rwanda —the blue helmets are scattered on the ground in front of our horrified U.N. hero, Colonel Oliver (Nick Nolte)—the false inference is New Resume Format Resume New Cv Format that the genocidaires’ calculated killing of the Belgians would provoke a UNAMIR withdrawal from Rwanda. This is a central pillar of the genocide theory: with the Belgian ‘peacekeepers’ out of the way, the Business Card Psd File | Free Download Hutu killing machine had free reign to shift into high gear. I n reality, the Belgians were immediately killed because they were the political accomplices of a ruthless bunch of terrorists, the Relentlessly Fun, Deceptively Spelling Battleship invading RPF army. Substantial evidence entered into public record in Modern Business Card Template Psd File | Free the ICTR’s so-called ‘Military I’ and New Resume Format Resume Format For Freshers 20155 ‘Military II’ trials (both began in 2005) contradicts the fundamental premise above—and the central theory of the ICTR prosecution—by showing that Hutu officers charged by the ICTR with complicity in the Belgians’ murder actually risked their lives trying to save the Belgian soldiers.
The U.N. Force Commission—set up immediately after the attack on the Belgians by U.N. Modern Business Card Template Download? Force Commander General Dallaire—concluded the same. Eyewitness testimony by a U.N. Military Observer also states that there were not ten Belgian soldiers killed, but thirteen. “This is a point of some interest in Belgium,” writes Chris Black, “where the government claims to have lost only ten men.”  So who were those three Belgian soldiers and what was their mission? Hotel Rwanda dares not introduce such questions: to General Bill Template. General Equipment, do so would be heresy. But the United States knows, and the RPF knows and the legal ‘experts’ at the ICTR all know that the genocide theory would crumble under the admission of the truth. According to ICTR lawyers, U.N. documents show that Lt. General Romo Dallaire was aware, at least from Modern Business Card Template Psd File Download, December 1993, and probably before, that the RPF, with the support of the Ugandan Army, was daily violating the Arusha Accords by sending into Rwanda men, materiel, and light and General General Of Sale heavy weapons.
That is Modern Business Psd File | Free Download how the U.S., Belgians and Canadians assisted the RPF/A in preparing for the final solution in Rwanda—total military victory over the Hutus.  “The RPF engaged in assassinations of 3+ Grad | Expense, officials, politicians and civilians, and attempted to cast the blame on Business Template | Free, the government,” writes Chris Black. “Dallaire assisted in this campaign by suppressing facts concerning these crimes and openly siding with the RPF propaganda statements.”  It was not UNAMIR soldiers who guarded the H otel but Gendarmes (paramilitary police) dispatched by the Hutu government. General Of Sale? This fact flies in the face of the Card Psd File “genocide” mythology. If the hotel was full of Tutsis targeted by genocide, why was it being protected by the very same architects of that supposed genocide? The Hotel was not filled only with Tutsis (refugees from Project Presentation Word Project Templates 21, genocide): it was full of powerful Tutsis and Modern Business Template Psd File | Free Hutus (with Tutsis in the majority) with political and economic connections to powerful factions both inside and outside of Presentation Word Timeline Templates, Rwanda. Questions about the composition of the ‘mostly Tutsi’ RPF invaders provoke questions about the ethnic composition of the Interahamwe militias and commercial relationships that transcended ethnicity. Such details are overlooked in the western reductionism on Rwanda—because they contradict the official and burgeoning Rwanda holocaust industry and Card the U.S.
State Department fictions. The following ethnic inconsistencies are very revealing: Robert Kajuga, was the Tutsi President of the notorious “genocidal” Rwandan Interahamwe ; Kamana Claver was a Tutsi businessman and frequent recipient of large government-awarded contracts from the “genocidal” Hutu government; Celestin Sebulikoko was a Tutsi businessman and strong supporter of the main Hutu political party (MRND); he is believed disappeared by the RPF; A Tutsi named Mpangaza, who worked for Deceptively Educational:, the Rwandan government firm TRANSINTRA, reportedly manned a powerful machine gun at an Interahamwe roadblock in downtown Kigali in 1994; he was a well-known Interahamwe ; he lives peacefully in Rwanda today; The son of Juvenal Gatorano, a Tutsi customs agent with the Template Habyarimana government’s Ministry of Finance, was always seen at Interahamwe rallies. These facts, if true, provide compelling evidence that it was not a coordinated genocide that occurred in Rwanda in 1994, but a civil war, and a western proxy war, with deep political, economic and military motivations behind the atrocities. Acts of New Resume Format 20155, genocide certainly occurred, as did crimes against humanity, but “acts” of genocide do not constitute genocide as defined by the international legal frameworks on genocide. An entire ethnic group could be wiped out, say the last 100 Penan nomads in Sarawak, for example, but if they are incidentally eliminated in the calculated and Modern Business Card Template | Free Download racist process of Resume Format Format, logging their forests—which is exactly what has happened to the Penan—it is not necessarily “genocide” according to the narrow international legal frameworks of the Genocide Convention. Equally troublesome, the U.S. Modern Business Template Psd File | Free? might have annihilated every last Japanese citizen in 1945, but few today would characterize the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and 3+ Grad Recommendation Report Nagasaki as genocidal in nature or intent. The calculated nature upheld as the Modern Business Card Psd File Download basis for Residential Lease Agreement | Word, genocide in Rwanda has always revolved around the supposed “lists” created by Hutu genocidaires : lists of Tutsis who were subsequently eliminated because, first and foremost, they were Tutsis; such “lists” were purportedly created by the Hutu genocide machine. “Any army would have lists of their political enemies,” notes ICTR investigator Phil Taylor. “This is not unusual.” The Rwandan government likely had its lists, the RPF had their own lists, and both went about assassinating their enemies. Phil Taylor notes that the prosecution at Modern Card Psd File, the ICTR has not produced any lists—of any kind—as evidence subsequently used for Rwanda genocide convictions.
In the aftermath of the World Trade towers attack the Presentation Word Project Templates 21 intelligence armies of the United States generated an extensive list of “enemies of the state”—a list they maintain today—most of Modern Card Psd File, whom were/are of Islamic ethnicity. Do the existence of these lists constitute genocidal intent? “There is Format Resume New Cv 20155 a stunning lack of Modern Template Psd File, documentary evidence of a government plan to Format Resume New Cv For Freshers 20155, commit genocide,” write lawyer Chris Black. “There are no orders, minutes of meetings, notes, cables, faxes, radio intercepts or any other type of documentation that such a plan ever existed. Modern Card Template Psd File? In fact, the documentary evidence establishes just the opposite.”  U.S.
Pentagon lawyers imported to the ICTR from the Judge Advocacy General (JAG) Corps have heavily skewed the ICTR in General Bill Of Sale favor of the U.S.-supported RPF. Also, the ICTR has not returned a single verdict against RPF Tutsi soldiers or Tutsi leadership; former ICTR prosecutor Carla Del Ponte was removed for Business Card Template Download, her attempts to General Bill Form Equipment, prosecute Tutsis. Download?  “The ICTR risks being a part of the problem rather than the solution,” wrote Filip Reyntjens, Belgian historian and expert witness on genocide in Rwanda, in Free Georgia Lease Agreement | Pdf | Word 2004. “I cannot any longer be involved in this process.”  The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), the sister of the Hague Tribunal, consolidates the popular mythology on genocide in Rwanda by playing its role as an international judicial body which, by Business Card | Free Download, default, must be beyond reproach or bias. While demonizing the Hutu leadership and justifying the RPF dictatorship now in control of Rwanda, writes Chris Black, it also serves as a means of presenting a completely false history of the events in Rwanda, and covering up the murder of the two Hutu heads of state and the massacres of hundreds of thousands of Free Georgia Lease Agreement | Pdf | Word, innocent people by the RPF and Psd File its allies.  In Hotel Rwanda , the genocidal Hutus blame the Tutsi RPF rebels for Lease Agreement | Word (.doc), shooting down the plane that killed the two presidents, and because the film demonizes every Hutu, the viewer is convinced that the Card Psd File | Free Hutu’s are lying, deflecting attention from their own nasty deeds. However, evidence suggests that an RPF terror cell in Kigali shot down the Presidential airplane. Project Presentation Template Word Timeline 21? Also on the plane was a Forces Armee Rwandais general, a pivotal target for Modern Business Card Psd File | Free, the RPF. Project Template Word Project Timeline 21? Former U.N. Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali offered journalist Robin Philpot the claim that the Central Intelligence Agency was almost certainly involved. “As early as 1997,” writes a Spanish legal team that in 2005 filed suit against Paul Kagame and his RPF cadre, “a team of investigators appointed by the ICTR—Michael Hourigan, Alphonse Breau and James Lyons—released reports, then held as classified, which revealed that the attack was masterminded by high-ranking RPF military and not by Hutu extremists as had been believed until then. These disclosures were corroborated in 2004 by the remarkable testimony of Modern Card Psd File, Abdul Ruzibiza, a member of the Project Template Word Project Timeline RPF commando unit which perpetrated the Modern Card Template Psd File Download attack on the presidential plane.”
I am an eye witness to what took place when the Fun, Educational: Spelling SA-16 was fired because I was present, writes Ruzibiza in Modern Business Template | Free Download his recently released book, Rwanda: L'histoire Secrete ( The Secret History of Rwanda ). Educational: Spelling? Ruzibiza alleges that after the missile attack on the plane, soldiers of the RPF who had been readied in Modern Template Psd File | Free Download advance were assembled to immediately launch attacks that culminated in 3+ Grad School Letter | Expense the fall of Business Card Template | Free Download, Kigali on July 4, 1994.  There is also the definitive statement by Paul Mugabe, a Former Intelligence Officer of the Relentlessly RPA, titled: Declaration on the Shooting Down of the Template Aircraft Carrying Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana and Word Timeline Burundi President Cyprien Ntaryamira on April 6, 1994 . Paul Mugabe alleges that two weeks before the crash of the Modern | Free Presidential aircraft, [then] Major General Kagame sent [then] Lt. 3+ Grad School Letter Report? Colonel James Kabarebe to bring the SA-7 surface-to-air missiles to the RPA detachment in Business Psd File | Free Kigali, and to give final instructions for attacking Rwandese Army forces (FAR) and shooting down the plane. Two RPF leaders, Colonels Kanyarengwe Alexis and New Resume Resume Format Lizinde Theoneste, who had earlier served in the Habyarimana Government, gave information and instructions as to where the missiles should be placed. Business Card Download? (Col. Lizinde Theoneste, who later defected, was subsequently assassinated in General 1998 by RPF operatives in Nairobi, Kenya, in Psd File order to ensure the secrecy of the missile operation.) Two weeks before the double presidential assassination, 12 artillery systems were brought from Uganda, and Bill General Bill Of Sale Equipment arrived at Modern Business Card, RPA headquarters. Other RPF defectors also credit the RPF with shooting down the plane carrying the Rwandan and Burundian leadership. Long-time RPF officer Lt.
Aloys Ruyenzi claims that the assassination plan was hatched at an RPF meeting on 31 March 1994: “The Chairman of the meeting was Major General Paul Kagame, and Deceptively Educational: Spelling the following officers were present: Colonel Kayumba Nyamwasa; Colonel Thoneste Lizinde; Lt. Colonel James Kabarebe; Major Jacob Tumwine; and Captain Charles Karamba. I heard Paul Kagame asking Colonel Lizinde to report about his investigations and I have seen Colonel Lizinde giving to Paul Kagame a map of the selected place for the plane shooting etc.”  Lt. Modern Business Card Template | Free? Aloys Ruyenzi also accuses General Paul Kagame and (now) General James Kabarebe of overseeing the massacres of Hutu and Tutsi civilians, both in the field and at crematoriums set up to dispose of the evidence. Ruyenzi is just one defector with a compelling story. He claims he has witnessed helicopter gunships shelling villages, and massacres, tortures and summary executions as policy. Many of the human rights atrocities committed by Project Template Timeline 21, the Kagame regime have been documented by Modern Card Template | Free Download, human rights organizations. “Gen. James Kabarebe was the commander of the reverse-genocide army,” says Howard W. General Of Sale Form? French, referring to the military campaign where hundreds of Business Template Psd File Download, thousands of Hutu refugees were hunted down and Excel slaughtered by the Tutsi RPA and their western allies in Congo.  Eighty percent of these Rwandan refugees were women and children; 50% were under 15 years old. 
This genocidal reign of Modern Card Template | Free, terror to hunt down and massacre non-combatant Hutu men, women and children was spearheaded by the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) and 8+ Job Pdf Formats Ugandan People’s Defense Forces (UPDF), who were running the show for Laurent Kabila’s Allied Front for Modern Card Psd File, the Democratic Liberation of Congo (AFDL)—and it was backed by government and private factions from the United States, the U.K., Canada and Belgium. One eyewitness to the skeletons piling up pinpoints mass graves that were later sanitized in advance of the United Nations mission to investigate the RPF/UPDF/AFDL massacres of hundreds of thousands of unarmed Hutu civilians.  The contra- genocide against Hutus continues today: at this writing the forces are aligned to exterminate the remaining 40,000 Hutus in Georgia | Word Congo: they are all written off as genocidaires who fled Rwanda in 1994, even though most surviving FDLR were too young to have participated in genocide.  Sabena officials were not surprised and horrified to be getting a call from some hotel manager in Rwanda, as depicted in the film: one week prior to the October 1990 invasion of Rwanda by the RPF, Sabena Airlines rerouted its airline crews (pilots, hostesses) away from the Hotel des Mille Collines and Business Template Psd File | Free off to Burundi for their overnights. Free Residential Lease | Pdf | Word (.doc)? This was no random decision: it was a calculated policy action meant to insure the safety of company employees in the face of Modern Card | Free Download, a coming war. Sabena was well informed. A Belgian firm born out of the post-Leopold aviation era in Congo, Sabena was later used to ship diamonds, and Free Georgia Residential Lease Agreement | Pdf | Word probably coltan (columbium-tantalite), out of Kigali by the RPF elites, whose base, again, was in Brussels. Business Card Psd File Download? It is believed that Sabena’s eventual “bankruptcy” was intended to cover their tracks and shield principals from any possible future legal actions stemming from their pillage in the Congo.
What about the elusive American diamond magnate Maurice Tempelsman and his connection to Bill and Hillary Clinton and the diamonds coming out of Template. Of Sale Equipment, Kigali? “I don’t think that’s ever been written about in the New York Times ,” said Howard W. Business Card Template Psd File | Free Download? French.  Howard W. French conferred that Maurice Tempelsman employed Lawrence Devlin, former CIA station chief from Mobutu’s Zaire, and that he maintains close ties with the CIA. Relentlessly Fun, Educational: Spelling Battleship? Tempelsman is also on the board of Modern Business, directors of the Harvard AIDS Institute and Project Word Timeline Templates the Africa-America Institute (Donald Payne is also deeply involved, as is Gayle Smith, formerly Bill Clinton’s National Security Council advisor on African Affairs). Maurice Tempelsman was Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis’s lover, he was reported to be Madeleine Albright’s lover, and he was one of the Modern Business Card | Free 99 people who accompanied Bill Clinton on his 1998 Africa victory tour. Tempelsman is one of the many untouchables behind the quagmire in Central Africa.  Why has the United States blocked all attempts to Fun, Deceptively Spelling, investigate the shooting down of the plane and Business Card Psd File | Free the double presidential assassination that sparked the cataclysm on April 6, 1994? Why hasn’t the Resume Format New Cv Format United Nations pursued an inquiry? It is a very mysterious scandal,” wrote author Robin Philpot. “Four reports have been made on Rwanda: the French Parliament Report, the Belgian Senate Report, Kofi Annan's U.N. report, and the Organization of African Unity report. All four say absolutely nothing about the shooting down of the Rwandan President's plane. That just goes to show the power of the Modern Card Download intelligence services that can force people to be quiet.”
Philpot continues: “The only partial exception is the seven year investigation conducted by 8+ Job Estimate Pdf Formats, the French anti-terrorist judge Jean-Louis Bruguire. That investigation has implicated current Rwandan President Paul Kagame and the Rwandan Patriotic Front for having planned, ordered and carried out the April 6 assassination.”  Says ICTR lawyer Chris Black: “President Mobutu’s chief of Modern Card Template Psd File | Free, intelligence, Honore Ngambo, in his book published in New Resume Resume Format France a few months ago [ Western Crimes in Modern | Free Central Africa , 2005] relates the meeting between Habyarimana and Mobutu two days before Habyaramana was murdered. The Hutu President told Mobutu that he had been warned by Free Georgia Residential Agreement, Herman Cohen—the U.S. African Affairs man—that unless he ceded all power to Modern Template | Free, the RPF his body would be dragged through the 8+ Job - Word Pdf Formats streets and his government tried before an Modern Card Psd File Download international tribunal. Free Agreement | Pdf? Habyarimana received the same threats from the Belgians, and the Canadian General Dallaire was involved. Habyarimana was informed by his agents in the RPF camp at Mulindi that his plane would be shot down. He didn’t know the exact date.”  The RPF opposed any military intervention in Rwanda after 6 April 1994.
The RPF knew the military situation of the Rwandan army (morale and Business Card | Free ammunition) and it did not want any military intervention to snatch its victory from it. The RPF’s official sponsors in Residential Agreement Washington, London and Card Psd File | Free Download Brussels told whoever would listen that any international force would be met with RPF military resistance. The RPF was the only force that had the capacity to Recommendation Letter Format Report, stop the killing, but they didn’t. ICTR lawyer Chris Black verifies that U.N. Modern? documents entered in the ICTR record establish that the Free Georgia | Pdf Gendarmerie did all it could with the resources it had to Modern Business Card Psd File | Free, restore calm, but could not, and that the FAR army could not both fight the RPF and Templates Pdf Formats restore calm among the civilians. This following statement comes from an unnamed survivor who was in Kigali in April, 1994, where he lost his entire family to the killings: some of his family were Hutus, some Tutsis, and he began by stating he does not support the ideologies that align themselves along ethnic fault lines. The interview took place in Bukavu, DRC, in August 2005: “Many Hutus lost family members on the border with Uganda after the Modern Business Card Template RPA invaded in Project Template Word Project Templates 1990. This is Modern Psd File | Free where Hutu hatred of Tutsis started. Bill Of Sale Template. General Bill Of Sale Form Equipment? The Tutsi continued to perpetrate crimes to weaken the government of Modern Psd File | Free, Habyarimana even while the government was being forced to negotiate with the RPF.
Each Tutsi family had sent one or two boys to the RPF army in Uganda. We knew these boys – they used to Relentlessly Fun, Deceptively Battleship, say, ‘O.K. goodbye. We are going to Uganda.’ “ “Hutus saw this. The Tutsis [RPF] were pushing the Modern Card Psd File | Free hatred higher and higher every day. Even Hutus knew that all Tutsis had to attend meetings at the end of the Relentlessly Fun, Spelling Battleship month to raise money for the RPF. I heard Habyarimana every day saying on Business Card Psd File, the radio, ‘Don’t kill Tutsis: if you do you will lose everything.’ Even as the Arusha Peace Accords were going on  the RPF were starting to Format Resume Format Format 20155, kill the intellectuals, the Hutu leaders, in Rwanda.” “They [RPF] were putting bombs in public places, in markets and gare routieres [roundabouts], and in night clubs—I almost died in Business Card Template Psd File one night club attack.
The Tutsis [RPF] knew what they were doing but the Hutus didn’t know what was happening. The RPF waited until the fruit was really ripe—when there was deep hatred of Tutsis by Hutus—and then they [RPA] killed President Habyarimana.” “They killed Habyarimana because they knew he was the only one who could stop the Hutus from Fun,, killing Tutsis. Modern Card Template Psd File | Free Download? That is why, every day, I say that: the genocide was not planned by Hutus, it was planned by Tutsis: it was planned by the RPF . Even after the Interahamwe killed my wife, even after all the horrible things that have happened to me, I believe the Tutsis created the genocide. And for me it was a war between brothers: the Hutus had an School Recommendation army and Psd File Download the Tutsis had an Resume Format For Freshers army and Modern Psd File there was fighting at every level.”  Notably, the source for the Hotel Rwanda Companion Book timeline chapter is the Central Intelligence Agency World Factbook 2004 (the previous chapter is filled with the standard deceptions, and it appears without attribution). 
It is not surprising then that the roles of the U.S. and other outside Western powers and multinational corporations are hidden. The most egregious omissions revolve around the Democratic Republic of Congo: the ongoing destruction and depopulation of Congo receives remarkably little press coverage in contrast to the Darfur region of neighboring Sudan, despite the obvious evidence that the scale and nature of atrocities against innocent civilians in Free Lease (.doc) Congo has been far worse, over a longer period of time, and with profound but unnecessary human suffering. After consolidating power in Rwanda in 1994, and following on massive crimes against humanity there, the RPF shelled and dismantled refugee camps in eastern Congo (then Zaire) in Business Card Psd File the summer of Free Georgia Residential | Pdf | Word, 1996, in Modern Business further massive and egregious violations of international law and the Geneva Convention. | Pdf? The new RPF government has never wavered in its efficacious crusade of calling attention to an ongoing genocide against the Tutsis —the Jews of Africa—who were “abandoned by the United States and Europe” to ostensibly suffer the fate of genocide, but this is an affront to the Jewish people and, in particular, to the Holocaust victims and Modern Card Psd File survivors of World War II. The pretext of ongoing ‘genocide’ against the Tutsis has been used by the RPF over and over to School Format Report, justify the most egregious and hostile violations of international law and human rights. Continuing to implement what is now clearly a well-coordinated and premeditated plan, and with complete logistical and tactical military support from the Modern Business Card Download Pentagon and its outsourced private military companies—including Halliburton, Ronco, and Military Professional Resources Incorporated—the RPF followed its Rwanda victory by invading the sovereign territory of Congo (Zaire), its huge western neighbor. 
Drawing on its previous military alliance, training and Relentlessly Educational: Spelling Battleship rear bases in Uganda, the Card Template Download RPF allied with Yoweri Museveni and Project Presentation Template Timeline Templates the Ugandan Peoples Defense Forces (UPDF) to march across the Congo, unseat Habyarimana’s close friend, Congo’s (Zaire’s) President Mobutu Sese Seko, and Business Card | Free Download conquer the vast, mineral rich Congo. “The international community has refused to bring effective pressure to bear on Rwanda to create conditions of security,” wrote Rwanda scholar David Newbury, in 1996.  Marginalized groups like the Rally for the Return of Refugees and Democracy in Rwanda have repeatedly echoed this obvious truth. “The continuous prevalence of impunity has encouraged the General Of Sale Template. Bill Of Sale Form leaders of the RPF/RPA to perpetrate crimes against humanity, war crimes and acts of genocide in Rwanda and DRC without fear of Card | Free Download, prosecution. Georgia Residential (.doc)? It has consolidated the Modern Business Card Download power and the wealth of criminal elements within the RPF-led dictatorial regime.”  And so it continues today. Paul Kagame and James Kabarebe and the Tutsi RPF-dominated government of Rwanda continue to destabilize the Great Lakes Region of Africa, with infiltration of 3+ Grad Format Report, terror cells throughout the neighboring Congo, just as they did in Rwanda (1985-1994). Modern Template Psd File Download? They are appeased or courted, the saintly victims of genocide, and they enjoy total impunity and all the General Bill Of Sale Template. General Equipment benefits of an elite club. Similarly, the Human Rights Watch press alert of Business | Free, July 1, 2005, for Project Template Word Project Timeline Templates 21, example, targeting the Congolese government, is a veiled defense of Rwandan-US interests in DRC: it is written by Alison Des Forges, from Business Card | Free, Kigali.  Both the Free Agreement | Pdf Hotel Rwanda film and companion book neatly encapsulate the entire mythology of Modern Business Card Template Psd File, genocide in Rwanda and the invented heroism of Relentlessly Fun, Deceptively, now president Paul Kagame and the Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF). The true and deeper facts that receive little attention, if any at all, are: the RPF’s illegal invasion of Download, Rwanda from Uganda in 1990; its record of war crimes committed from 1990-1994; the RPF double assassination of the Hutu presidents of Format New Cv 20155, Burundi and Rwanda on April 6, 1994; the RPF’s massive contre -genocide of hundreds of thousands of Hutu refugees in Congo (Zaire), of refugees returning to Modern Business Psd File | Free Download, Rwanda from Congo, and of Hutus in Rwanda itself; 5 the RPF’s repeated invasions and continuing looting and devastation of the Congo, with the involvement and sanction of RPF officials at the highest level, that continues today; and the collaborating roles of Western institutions, individuals and corporations, and the economic and political benefits that accrue to them, at the expense of Africa and her people. What has motivated Paul Rusesabagina?
It is interesting to note that Rusesabagina has been widely lauded and financially rewarded for his story, the rights to Relentlessly Educational: Spelling Battleship, his story, and for Modern Card Template | Free, his alignment with U.S. government and military officials in New Resume Format Format New Cv For Freshers 20155 service to Modern Business | Free Download, various political and military agendas. In 2000 he was awarded the Immortal Chaplain’s prize, and received the Format Format 20155 award with a handshake from U.S. Business Card Download? Republican Senator Bob Dole.  “As for 3+ Grad School Letter Format | Expense, Paul Rusesabagina,” wrote Rutigita Macumu, in Rwanda’s The New Times newspaper, “he will go down in the annals of history as a man who sold the soul of the Rwandan Genocide to amass medals, including, among others, the Amnesty International's Enduring Spirit, the Immortal Chaplain Foundation's Prize for Humanity, the Tigar Center's Human Rights Award, the Psd File | Free National Civil Rights Museum's Freedom Award, and now the prestigious Presidential Model of Freedom Award from the sitting American president, George W. Bush.”  In 2004, Paul Rusesabagina traveled with a Pentagon escort and his namesake actor Don Cheadle to Darfur, Sudan, to draw attention to the popularized, officially accredited ‘genocide’ occurring there. Templates - Word Excel?  This author had a chance to interview Paul Rusesabagina in 2007. The interview, and this story, both stand uniquely alone, developed as they were in Card Template Psd File | Free a certain chronological order. (See: THE GRINDING MACHINE: TERROR AND GENOCIDE IN RWANDA , interview with Paul Rusesabagina, April 15, 2007 http://www.allthingspass.com/journalism.php?catid=47). Rwandan Defense Forces were dispatched to Darfur where, along with the African Union and some U.S. Project Template Word Timeline Templates 21? military, they serve as U.S. proxy warriors: these are troops responsible for some of the most egregious acts of genocide and crimes against humanity committed in Rwanda and Congo.  Hotel Rwanda is merely the latest production in a protracted campaign of psychological warfare. It is Modern Card Psd File a dangerous work of agitation propaganda because it wets the New Resume Format Resume Format New Cv For Freshers 20155 wide and naive eyes and touches the open and caring hearts of Western viewers. It is deceptive and when viewers depart the cinema with popcorn and chocolate stuck between their teeth they leave thinking they know something about what happened in Rwanda.
We as viewers enjoy the idea that we are being educated, when instead we are being indoctrinated, and the insidious effects of the indoctrination are unappreciated. Hotel Rwanda exemplifies the careless, simplistic reductionism that is universally manifest in the West’s representations of Africa. Phil Taylor, former investigator for the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda (ICTR) says it aptly. “For anyone who followed closely the 1994 crisis in Rwanda the highly touted film Hotel Rwanda is merely propaganda statements interrupted by bouts of acting.”  The racism and segregation that played out in the Rwanda cataclysm of 1994, where there were very different conditions and outcomes between whites and blacks, continues to be played out today. The telling and re-telling of the Rwanda ‘genocide’ story by its very nature revolves around a system of Modern Business Template Psd File | Free Download, institutionalized segregation. Powerful whites in powerful ‘gatekeeper’ positions in the West hold a virtual monopoly over the information. Alongside of them are the select voices of non-whites who validate the predominant discourse.
These ‘experts’ include Alison des Forges; Romo Dallaire; Philip Gourevitch; Victoria Brittain; Samantha Power; Mahmood Mamdani; and Format Resume Format New Cv Format For Freshers many, many others. “They believe Alison des Forges because she is white and they don’t believe me because I am black and I don’t speak English so well,” says Jean-Marie Higiro. Modern Card Template Psd File? “She is the expert, even though she was an observer and I was a participant.” We can’t intimately know the hardships of Paul Rusesabagina, or the trauma of 8+ Job Estimate - Word, Romo Dallaire, or the sorrows of Jean-Marie Higiro, or the suffering of the other survivors of the cataclysm in Rwanda, and Modern Business Card Template Download we must search our own souls on their behalf: the struggle of good versus evil reigns within us all. Indeed, there is a certain arrogance behind this writing, because neither was I a participant in Rwanda. But any hesitation I have in 8+ Job Templates - Word Excel challenging the ‘right and proper tale’ is overwhelmed by the obscenity of the Modern Business Card Template Psd File | Free Download obvious injustice and the machinations of empire behind it. If truth is the first casualty in war, then those of us who are lucky observers must endlessly work to resurrect it. In Central Africa, today, truth mingles with the souls of the Project Presentation Word Timeline dead, forsaken amidst the unheard cries of some seven million—mostly innocent people—whose life on Modern Psd File | Free, this earth ground to a gruesome, meaningless conclusion. keith harmon snow. First published: 04 July 2005; Text Modified: 05 November 2005;
Final Version: 04 December 2005; Updated Final: 10 January 2006. Corrected: 18 July 2007. Corrected: 1 November 2007.  Samantha Power, “Remember the Blood Frenzy of Rwanda,” Los Angeles Times , April 4, 2004.  Village genocide courts, or Gacaca tribunals, began operating in Rwanda in 8+ Job Estimate - Word Pdf Formats March 2005.
See: Edras Ndikumana, “Rwanda’s Hutus Flee Genocide Courts,” 19 April 2005; and “Rwandan President asks Fleeing Residents to Return,” Reuters , June 3, 2005.  Samantha Power, A Problem from Hell: America in the Age of Genocide , HarperCollins, 2002.  Private interview: Howard W. French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005.  Howard W. French, “In Zaire Forest Hutu Refugees Near the Modern Business Template Download End of the Road,” New York Times , March 13, 1997; see also Howard W. French, Africa: A Continent for the Taking: The Tragedy and Hope of Africa .  Private interview: Howard W. French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005.  Lt. Project Presentation Word? General Romo A. Modern Business Card Template Psd File | Free Download? Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Relentlessly Deceptively Rwanda , Arrow Books, 2003.  Rene ¢ Lemarchand noted in his authoritative text Rwanda and Burundi (Pall Mall Press, 1970) that “the term Inyenzi is currently used within and outside Rwanda to refer to small-scale Tutsi-led guerilla units trained and organized outside Rwanda and varying in size from about six to ten men.”  Mouvement Republicain National pour la Dmocratie et le Dveloppement or National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND).
 The Iceberg of the Conflict in Africa of the Great Lakes Region: Lawsuit Against Those Responsible for the Concealed Crimes Against Humanity, International Forum for Truth and Justice in the Great Lakes Region of Business Card Psd File | Free, Africa , www.veritasrwanaforum.org.  Private communication: Charles Onana, Paris, France, February 2004.  The Book published in General Bill Of Sale Template. Of Sale Equipment November 2001 entitled, Les Secrets Du Gnocide Rwandais, Enqute Sur les Mystres D’un Prsident [ The Secrets of the Rwandan Genocide, Investigations on the Mysteries of a President ], was the subject of President Kagame’s initial law suit that was heard in the 17th chamber of the French High court against Cameroonian Journalist Charles Onana.  On James Rubin: see Wayne Madsen, Genocide and Covert Operations in Africa, 1993-1999 , Mellen Press, 1999.  See: Pierre-Damien Mvuyekure, Philip Gourevitch's Platonic and Modern | Free Download Conradian Eyes on Free Georgia Residential Agreement | Word, the Genocide in Rwanda,” in Ishmael Reed’s Konch .  Private interview: Howard W. | Free Download? French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005.
 Robin Philpot, Rwanda: Colonialism Dies Hard , the English translation of a ne s’est pas pass comme a Kigali (That’s Not How It Happened in Kigali), published in Resume New Cv Format For Freshers 20155 English on-line by the Taylor Report, http://www.taylor-report.com/Rwanda_1994/ .  Terry George, Ed., Hotel Rwanda – The Official Companion Book , Newmarket Press, 2005.  The Iceberg of the Conflict in Africa of the Card Psd File Great Lakes Region: Lawsuit Against Those Responsible for the Concealed Crimes Against Humanity, International Forum for Truth and Justice in the Great Lakes Region of Africa , www.veritasrwanaforum.org.  A paper scheduled for publication, Spring 2006, by Jean-Marie Vianney Higiro.  Some of them are: Alliance edited by Alliance National Unity (RANU), an organization that later changed its name into Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF); Congo Nil , edited in Belgium by Francois Rutanga; Impuruza, edited by Alexander Kimenyi in 8+ Job the United States; Inkotanyi, edited by the RPF; Intego, edited by Jose Kagabo in France; Munyarwanda , edited by the Association of Concerned Banyarwanda in Canada; Avant Garde ; Le Patriote ; Huguka ; and Umulinzi .  The term Banyarwanda refers to ethnic Tutsis, and has been most often used to describe Tutsi refugees in Congo (Zaire).  Mouvement Republicain National pour la Dmocratie et le Dveloppement or National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND).  Robin Philpot, Rwanda: Colonialism Dies Hard , the English translation of a ne s’est pas pass comme a Kigali (That’s Not How It Happened in Kigali), published in English on-line by the Taylor Report, http://www.taylor-report.com/Rwanda_1994/ .  See US Department of Defense, Foreign Military Sales, Foreign Military Construction Sales, and Modern Psd File Download Military Assistance Facts , (US Doc D1.2, F76, 996) 1997; see also: Lt. Gen. Residential Lease (.doc)? Romo A. Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Modern Template Psd File | Free, Humanity in Rwanda , Arrow Books, 2003: p. 273.  Lt. Gen.
Romo A. Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda , Arrow Books, 2003: pp. 263-265. [27a] Private telephone interview, Gary Streiker. See King Kong: The Curious Activities of the International Monkey Business in Central Africa , keith harmon snow and Georgianne Nienaber.  See, e.g.: “Donatella Lorch: Rwanda Rebels: Army of Exiles Fights for a Home, New York Times , 09 June 1994:10; and Rwanda Rebels' Victory Attributed To Discipline, New York Times , 19 July 1994: 6; Raymond Bonner: How Minority Tutsi Won the War, New York Times , 06 September 1994:6; and Rwandan Refugees Flood Zaire as Rebel Forces Gain, New York Times , 15 July 1994:1; Joshua Hammer, Rwanda: Situation Is Desperate, Newsweek , 20 June 1994:44-46; Darkness Visible, The New Republic , 09 May 1994:9; and Why Not Rwanda, The New Republic , 16 May 1994:7; Editorial, Double Tragedy in Africa, New York Times , 10 April1994.
 Chris Black, “View From Rwanda: The Dallaire Genocide Fax: A Fabrication,” 01 December 2005, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com .  “Perception management” is the contemporary term for the formerly used term “propaganda,” and it too is an industry.  Africa Research Bulletin , August 1997.  Private communication, Jean-Marie Vianney Higiro, August 2005.  Personal communication, name withheld for Fun, Educational: Spelling, security reasons, July 2005.  Rutigita Macumu, “Paul Rusesabagina: Not a Hero!” The New Times (Kigali), 15 November 2005,  Frank Smythe, Arming Rwanda , Human Rights Watch, January 1994. [36-a] In the earlier versions of this publication, Hotel Rwanda, I incorrectly claimed (published) “that’s when they decided to pin rape on Georges Rutaganda.”  Lt. General Romo Dallaire, Shake Hands With The Devil , Arrow Books, 2003: pp.
268.  Private communication: Chris Black, Barrister, International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda, October 2005.  Chris Black, “Persecution Not Prosecution,” October 2004, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com .  Chris Black, “View From Rwanda: The Dallaire Genocide Fax: A Fabrication,” 01 December 2005, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com .  Chris Black, “View From Rwanda: The Dallaire Genocide Fax: A Fabrication,” 01 December 2005, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com .  Chris Black, “View From Rwanda: The Dallaire Genocide Fax: A Fabrication,” 01 December 2005, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com .  See Ralph G. Kershaw, “Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: International Justice According to Modern Card Template | Free, Washington,” Covert Action Quarterly , No. 74, Fall 2002.  See: Rory Carroll, “Genocide Tribunals ‘Ignoring Tutsi Crimes,’” Guardian, January 13, 2005.  Chris Black, “Persecution Not Prosecution,” October 2004, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com .  The Iceberg of the Conflict in Africa of the Great Lakes Region: Lawsuit Against those responsible for the Concealed Crimes Against Humanity, The International Forum for Truth and 3+ Grad School | Expense Report Justice in the Great Lakes Region of Africa , www.veritasrwanaforum.org.  “Kagame Ordered Shooting Down of Habyarimana's Plane – Ruzibiza,” Hirondelle News Agency (Lausanne), 14 November 2005.  Second Lt Aloys Ruyenzi, Major General Paul Kagame Behind the Shooting Down of Late President Habyarimana’s Plane: An Eye Witness Testimony , Norway, July 5, 2004.  Private interview: Howard W. French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005.
 David Newbury, “Convergent Catastrophes in Central Africa,” November 1996, www.udayton.edu/  Private interview: name withheld to Modern Card Template Psd File | Free, protect the Presentation Template Timeline Templates 21 witness, Democratic Republic of Congo, August 2005.  Front for the Democratic Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) forces in eastern Congo number 40,000. See also: keith harmon snow, “OPERATION IRON FIST: U.N. Launches Largest Ground Troop Operation in DR Congo Peacekeeping; In South Kivu Hills Rwandan Rebels Cornered,” July 17, 2005, http://www.allthingspass.com .  Private interview: Howard W. Modern Download? French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005.  See: Wayne Madsen, Genocide and Covert Operations in Africa, 1993-1999 , Mellon Press, 1999.  Robin Philpot, “Second Thoughts on the Hotel Rwanda: Boutros-Ghali: a CIA Role in the 1994 Assassination of Rwanda's President Habyarimana?,” Counterpunch , 26/27 Feb. Free Georgia Residential Lease | Pdf | Word? 2005, http://www.counterpunch.org/philpot02262005.html .  Private communication: Chris Black, Barrister, International Criminal Tribunal on Modern Business Psd File, Rwanda (ICTR), October 2005; Herman Cohen is a former US Secretary of State for African affairs who served under the Recommendation Letter Report elder George Bush.  Private interview, name withheld, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo, 11 July 2005.  On Ronco Company shipping weapons into Rwanda: see testimony by Kathi Austin, Hearing of the House International Relations Committee , July 16, 1997.
 David Newbury, “Convergent Catastrophes in Central Africa,” November 1996, www.udayton.edu/  RDR Calls for Template | Free, the Prosecution of Crimes Against Humanity and Other Violations of the International Law Committed by the Rwandan [RPF/RDF] Army, Rally for 3+ Grad School Letter Report, the Return of Refugees and Democracy in Modern Template Psd File Rwanda, Press Release, 9/2001, September 2001.  Alison Des Forges, “D.R. Residential Agreement | Word? Congo: Civilians Killed as Army Factions Clash,” Human Rights Watch, Press Release, July 1, 2005.  Rutigita Macumu, “Paul Rusesabagina: Not a Hero!” The New Times , (Rwanda State Newspaper) November 15, 2005; see http://www.allafrica.com , November 16, 2005.  See: Phil Taylor, “Carving Sudan: Hollywood's Helping Hand,” The Taylor Report , www.taylor-report.com ,17 February 2005.
 “Rwanda Defense Forces” was the name eventually adopted to rename the formerly named army (Rwanda Patriotic Army) of the Rwanda Patriotic Front.