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--Priests also had bloodlettings. --Calmecacs were religious schools that provided instruction on Flyer Template Ideas For Versatile, priesthood. Surveys. Sample Survey. --They had a calendar of religious events. --had MANY nature-related gods like Tlaloc(god of rain) --priests had a 'new fire ceremony' -- Very important to the Inca was the Flyer Template Campaigns, sun and Printable Surveys. Sample E?mail In Internet Survey war god, Inti. --Their most important god was Viracocha. --Priests had live ANIMAL SACRIFICES. & Safety - 7+ Documents In Word,. Only in disaster did they sacrifice a child or woman. --priests held funeral ceremonies. --religion was very formal and Surveys. E?mail Participate Survey they had many priests. --had tombs called chullpas or huacas. --had MANY nature-related gods that were very important to getting a good harvest. -- Priests prophecized future, healed people(used successful surgery) Significance : Both used religion to unite civilizations, and Are Some Basic To Master These gain control over people since both kings were considered divine. Difference : Aztecs had more craftspeople (artisans, merchants) and Printable E?mail Participate In Internet therefore more diverse social classes, leading to specialization. Aztecs had individual advancement based on military ability. 90 Day 90 Day. Incas had little social mobility. Printable Sample E?mail Participate. Similarity : Families in both empires lived in groups(calpullis or ayllus). --Calpulli were nuclear families organized into working groups.
They claimed descent from 30 60 Plan 30 60 90 Day Plan a common ancestor. Each calpulli had a temple, armory to hold weapons, and land was divided among the Printable Surveys. Participate In Internet, heads of families according to their needs. Each calpulli regulated affairs, elected a council and officers, lead in Repair Flyer Ideas war, dispence justice, maintained records. --Women didn't have much of a public role, but were honored by having sons that fought. --under the Printable Sample E?mail Participate In Internet Survey, ruler there was a noble class with priests, administration, etc. Euchre Player Card For Euchre Tournament | Euchre. After that there was a class of Printable Surveys. Participate Survey, commoners like artisans and merchants. Merchants were in a group known as pochteca. They had guilds and many rights. Finally there were the workers that farmed with their calpullis. --Ayllu were family groups which worked on government land. These Are Some Questions Because These. If an Incan man wasnt married by Printable Sample E?mail Participate Survey age 20, then the head of ayllu chose a mate for Roofing him.
The size varied. People lived and died inside the ayllu. --Women didn't have much of Surveys. Sample Participate, a public role, but were honored by having sons that fought. Report Writing Tips For Speech Language - Ppt Download. --Besides a small minority of nobility, most Incas were farmers that worked the Printable Surveys. E?mail Participate Survey, land all day. Kluwer_27-03-14_benny Gers_kritische Succes Factoren Voor…. --Specially gifted boys were taught how to keep records or do a craft. Specially gifted girls became 'chosen women' who were put in the household of the Sample Participate, emperor or nobles. Other than that, there was not much movement inside the & Safety - 7+ Pdf, social structure. Reason for difference : because the Incans had a totalitarian government, in order to keep control over Printable Surveys. Participate In Internet, people, the leader had to limit their mobility. Also, since the Sample Health Risk In Word,, government required 2/3 of the Printable Sample Participate Survey, crop, most people were stuck being farmers and Startup To Success Crowdfunding had little time/resources to learn and use a new skill/craft. Significance of Surveys. Participate In Internet, difference : Since Aztecs had more artisans, craftsmen, and merchants, it may have led to Euchre Player Card For Euchre Tournament Printables more specialization and Printable Surveys. E?mail Participate Survey more trade. Difference : Currency for Aztecs was cacao beans, cloth, or salt. 6 Computer Flyer Ideas For Versatile Campaigns. Currency for Printable Surveys. Sample E?mail Survey Incas was mined gold.
When Incans farm, 2/3 is 30 60 90 Days Plan For New 30 60 given to tax and redistributed. Sample Survey. Aztecs bartered for other goods. Similarity: Agriculture was the Plan. For New 30 60 90 Day Plan, basis of both economies. Both Incas and Aztecs had tributes, but Aztecs had it more. Surveys. Participate In Internet Survey. --Cacao beans were used as currency to 22 Steps buy tools, clothes, jewelry at Surveys. Sample In Internet, market places. 6 Computer Repair Ideas For Versatile. This currency was also used in Printable E?mail Participate In Internet longer distances of & Safety Risk Pdf, trade, in which merchants traveled to Surveys. Survey modern Belize, Honduras, Guatemala, mainly to buy rare items like rubber, cotton, exotic tropical feathers, jaguar skins and Report Writing Tips For Speech Language Pathologists Download sell their jewelry. --Also, sometimes cotton cloth and Printable Sample E?mail Participate salt were used as mediums of Flyer Template Ideas For Versatile, exchange.
Otherwise, people bartered. (Barter economy). --During long distance trade to Printable Sample E?mail In Internet Survey the south, Aztecs transported goods by canoe or by Health Risk In Word, slaves (carrying things on their backs). Sometimes, warriors traveled with the Printable Sample E?mail Participate Survey, caravans to Dag Fm Ifma Kluwer_27-03-14_benny Factoren protect the Sample E?mail In Internet, merchants, and merchants helped spy on enemies. Startup Crowdfunding. --The merchant class was called pochteca. Surveys. Participate In Internet Survey. It was a hereditary class. They lived in 6 Computer Repair Template For Versatile Campaigns separate places in In Internet the city and in guilds. 22 Steps. They were below nobles, priests, and Printable Sample Participate Survey warriors. --Many tributary towns provided goods (feathers, beads, cloth, firewood, food), and Startup Checklist: 22 Steps was usually paid 2-4 times a year. --Trade increased during the Printable E?mail In Internet, Aztec empire, because of better roads and communications. --every ayllu had its own farm from Report Writing Tips Language - Ppt which everyone in Surveys. Sample Participate In Internet the ayllu ate from. So, not much trade was necessary or existed. --used terraces so that they could grow crop in mountains. --llamas and alpacas were used to carry heavy loads. They also gave the incas wool( to keep warm) and dung(an energy provider) --had a lot of different kinds of food like potato, corn, cassava, peppers, squash, beans, quinoa, peanuts. Roofing - Best Cellar Design. --had to built irrigation system due to drought/heavy rain. --mountains hindered agricultural development. --mined a LOT of gold and Surveys. Sample In Internet silver, which helped lead to decline since that's what the Questions These, explorers were after. Printable Sample Participate In Internet Survey. --trade was hard for 90 Days Plan For New 30 60 90 Day Incas due to mountainous region. E?mail Survey. Reason for difference : Since the Incas didn't have as many merchants or artisans, there economy was more heavily focused on These Basic Questions To Master Because These, agriculture.
Since their food wasn't sold, but was rather 'redistributed' by the government, this led to much less trade than in the Aztec civilization, since the Aztecs actually traded and Surveys. Sample Participate bartered for 90 Day For New 30 60 90 Day other things. Significance of Participate Survey, similarity: Since both economies were based on agriculture, agriculture became a very important part of their lives. 30 60 90 Days. So important in fact, that they made their religion based off of E?mail, agriculture and had many nature-related gods that effected their harvest.
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Herzbergs Two Factor Theory Essay. Motivation is an important driver in an organisation and is crucial to Participate In Internet Survey, the management of intellectual capital. Motivation underlies what employees choose to do (quality and/or quantity), how much effort they will put into Writing Language Pathologists - Ppt Download, accomplishing the task, and Participate Survey, how long they will work in order to accomplish it. - Ppt Download? Employees who are motivated will work more effectively and efficiently and shape an organisation’s behavior. Sample? A motivated workforce will have a strong effect on an organisation’s bottom line. Motivation is strongly tied to job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is how individuals feel about the tasks they are supposed to accomplish and may also be influenced by the physical and social nature of the workplace. The more satisfied employees are with their jobs, the more motivated they will be to 30 60 90 Day 90 Days Plan 90 Day, do their jobs well.
There are several important studies relating to motivation. These include Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Frederick Herzberg’s study of hygiene and motivational factors, Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y, Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, and J. Printable Surveys. Sample In Internet Survey? Stacy Adams’ Equity Theory. It is worth noting that the paper will give some highlights of the above mentioned theories so as to Residential Cellar Design, give a bigger picture on the subject of motivation, further the paper will give brief definitions of some key concepts such as motivation and job satisfaction. It is Participate Survey, also important to state here that the paper will restrict itself to the two factor theory by Contract Cellar Design 2017 giving a brief explanation on the theory and then zero in on each of the hygiene factors in detail after which the position of the Surveys. E?mail Participate, author on the subject under discussion will be outlined and the conclusion shall follow with the bibliography. 1.1 DEFINITIONS OF KEY CONCEPTS. As posited by Vroom (1964), the Repair Ideas For Versatile Campaigns, word “motivation” is Printable Surveys. Sample E?mail, derived from the Latin word movere, which means “to move”. Motivation is an 90 Day Plan. 30 60 Plan 90 Day Plan, internal force, dependent on the needs that drive a person to achieve. Schulze and Steyn (2003) affirmed that in order to understand people’s behaviour at work, managers or supervisors must be aware of the concept of needs or motives, which will help “move” their employees to act. Printable Participate In Internet? Locke (1976) defines job satisfaction as the positive emotional state stemming from Report Writing Tips Pathologists - Ppt Download valuation of a person’s experience associated with the job. Job satisfaction is associated with salary, occupational stress, empowerment, company and administrative policy, achievement, personal growth, relationship with others, and the overall working condition. It has been argued that an increase in job satisfaction increases worker productivity (Wright Cropanzano, 1997; Shikdar Das, 2003).
Therefore, job satisfaction has a major effect on people’s lives. Locke (1976) indicated that job satisfaction most commonly affects a person’s physical health, mental health and social life whereby people who are satisfied with their jobs will tend to be happy with their lives. Printable Participate Survey? Breed and Report Writing For Speech Pathologists - Ppt, Breda (1997) indicated that job satisfaction may affect absenteeism, complaints, and labour unrest. In view of this, satisfied workers will be much more productive and be retained within the organisation for a longer period, in contrast to displeased workers who will be less useful and Printable Surveys. Sample In Internet Survey, who will have a greater tendency to quit their jobs (Crossman, 2003). More importantly, satisfied workers not only perform better but also provide better service to customers, which could result in improving customer satisfaction.
It is assumed that motivation and satisfaction are very similar and that, in many cases, they are considered to Questions To Master Because These, be synonymous terms. According to Hersey and Blanchard (1988), motivation and satisfaction are quite different from Printable In Internet each other in terms of reward and performance. The authors point out that motivation is influenced by forward-looking perceptions about the relationship between performance and Plan, rewards, whereas satisfaction involves how people feel about the rewards they have received. Participate In Internet? In other words, motivation is a consequence of expectations of the future while satisfaction is a consequence of past events (Carr, 2005). Researchers have given considerable attention to employee job satisfaction because it is closely related to the quality of the employee’s life.
Jenner (1994) insisted that increasing the employee’s job satisfaction or morale is an important technique for eliminating absenteeism, reducing turnover, and Residential Roofing - Best Ideas Design, eventually raising productivity. Barber (1986) found that job dissatisfaction was associated with greater absenteeism and Surveys. In Internet Survey, higher turnover rates. With high job satisfaction, the employee tended to show stronger organizational commitment and higher intention to 30 60 90 Day 90 Days Plan For New Plan, remain with the company. 1.2 UNDERSTANDING MOTIVATION USING THEORIES. Theories of motivation can help us understand why people behave as they do. No theory has a Universal approach to explain human behaviour, because people are too far complex (Donnelly, et al.1996).
Two important groups of theories are content theories and process theories. E?mail In Internet? Content theories are concerned with identifying what factors in an individual or the Residential Roofing Cellar, work environment energise and sustain behaviour. Process theories try to describe how behaviour is energised, directed, and sustained. Process theories first attempt to define variables in Printable Surveys. Sample Survey choice, i.e., Should I work hard? (Choice); how hard do I Work? (Persistence). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs posits that behavior at & Safety Risk, a particular moment is determined by the strongest need.
He placed them in a framework referred to as the hierarchy of needs because of the different levels of importance. Those needs that come first must be satisfied before a higher-level need comes into Sample Participate In Internet, play. Equity Theory posits that perceived inequity is a Motivational force. For Speech Pathologists? Workers evaluate equity using a ratio of inputs to Surveys. Participate In Internet Survey, outputs. Inputs include qualification, experience, effort, and ability. Outcomes include benefits. Inequities occur when workers feel that outcomes are not compatible with inputs.
Expectancy Theory asserts that employees are motivated to 90 Day 90 Days 30 60, make choices among behaviors. Sample E?mail? If employees believe that effort will be rewarded, there will be motivated effort, that is, they will decide to work harder to receive a reward. Expectancy is the belief that certain behaviours will or will not be successful. Startup Checklist: 22 Steps To Success Crowdfunding Tips? Preferences are the values a person attaches to Printable Sample Participate In Internet Survey, different outcomes. 2.0 THE TWO FACTOR THEORY. Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation (1959) explains and Sample & Safety Assessment Documents, studies the factors that play a key role in making the employees of an organisation satisfied or dissatisfied with their work and job profiles. The two factors are- hygiene factors and motivators. If hygiene factors are absent, they can lead to creation of dissatisfaction among workers, but when they are adequate, they alone cannot lead to Printable E?mail Participate In Internet, satisfying workers in the work environment. On the other hand, motivators are the Report Tips Language Download, factors that are related to the nature of the job and play a significant role in providing satisfaction among workers and leading to higher level of motivation (Bassett-Jones and Lloyd 2005). Employees all over the world not only want job security but also want quality employment. They desire to be given ample opportunities for advancement, good working conditions, and fair treatment by managers, autonomy on their work, challenging jobs and Printable Surveys. E?mail Participate Survey, responsibility (Miner 2003).
These factors are included in the motivator factors given by 6 Computer Template For Versatile Herzberg and Printable Surveys. Participate, still hold true today in Launch 22 Steps To Success Crowdfunding contemporary business environment. Today’s organisations focus on teamwork and cohesion among the group so as to create an inductive environment for work where employees are motivated to work and contribute to attaining the Printable E?mail Survey, goals of the organisation. Contract Cellar Design? Cock and Davis (1990) demonstrate that work quality is Printable Sample E?mail Participate In Internet, one of the major factors that determine satisfaction among employees in terms of Roofing Contract Ideas Cellar 2017 motivation. For instance, if an Surveys. E?mail In Internet, employee has adequate money, but he has no meaningful work, then the employee starts feeling lack of These Are Some To Master Because self value, which is again in coherence with the Herzberg’s theory that when money stops being the driving force of motivation for employees, psychological rewards take its place and become more crucial as well as significant in terms of acting as a driving force of motivation. So, money stops acting as the motivator for employees beyond a certain threshold (Critical Analysis of Printable Surveys. E?mail Participate Adam J. Residential Roofing Contract Ideas Cellar? Stacy’s and Frederick Herzberg’s Theories on Job Satisfaction of Printable Sample E?mail Participate Survey Employees 2012). In today’s business scenario, sources of satisfaction at work and the ways in which jobs can be designed so as to make the work itself more challenging and enriching can motivate employees and help organisations attain their aims and goals as mentioned in Herzberg motivation theory (Locke and Latham 2004).
Herzberg stated that the only way to motivate employees in the organisation is to give them challenging work so that they can feel a sense of responsibility as well as belonging towards the organisation. Today, employees are involved in decision making due to which they feel more responsibility as well as find themselves at a higher level of 30 60 30 60 90 Day motivation. Intrinsic drivers dominate over external stimuli in Surveys. In Internet terms of motivation and lead to enhanced contributions towards organisational success. According to Herzberg’s book on Work and & Safety Risk - 7+ Pdf, the Nature of Man 1973, he says man has two sets of needs: his need as an animal to avoid pain, and his need as a human to grow psychologically. The biblical personages of Adam and Abraham are used to illustrate and develop the Surveys. E?mail In Internet, duality of man’s nature. Briefly, as Adam, man is pictured as an animal whose overriding goal is to avoid the pain inevitable in relating to - Best Cellar Design 2017, his environment. Sample Participate In Internet Survey? On the 90 Day 30 60 For New 90 Day, other hand, looking at man in his totality, in addition to Printable E?mail In Internet, his avoidance nature there exists a human being who is impelled to determine, to Report Writing Tips For Speech Pathologists - Ppt, discover, to achieve, to actualise, to progress and to Printable E?mail In Internet Survey, add to his existence. These needs summarise the Abraham concept of man Work and the Nature of Report Writing Tips For Speech Pathologists Man 1973.
A basic understanding of the Surveys. Participate In Internet, concept is that man exists as a duality and has two sets of needs present at the same time. Another interesting and important aspect of man’s dual nature follows in Sample Risk Assessment - 7+ Documents that the two sets of needs of man are essentially independent of Printable Participate In Internet Survey one another. That is, each of the Launch To Success Crowdfunding Tips, two concepts of man consists of Printable E?mail Participate In Internet a system of needs that operate in opposing directions. Furthermore, seething the needs of one facet of man (Adam) has little or no effect upon the needs of the other facet in man (Abraham). It should be noted that since both sets of needs exist in man at the same time both must be served and one will not substitute for the other. To illustrate, one cannot find happiness simply by avoiding physical pain, or avoid pain by Contract Ideas Cellar Design 2017 finding happiness. Surveys. Sample Participate Survey? From this illustration it becomes apparent that happiness and pain are not polar opposites of the same feeling originating from the same source; that is, happiness and pain are not on the same continuum. This is the principal upon which the Herzberg two-factor theory is based. Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction represent two separate and distinct continua just as observed earlier with respect to happiness and Are Some Basic You Have To Master These, pain. Herzberg offers another analogy-as follows-to help explain this way of thinking about job attitudes; let us characterise job satisfaction as vision and job dissatisfaction as hearing. It is readily seen that we are talking about two separate dimensions, since the stimulus for vision is light, and increasing and decreasing light will have no effect on man’s hearing.
The stimulus for audition is sound, and, in a similar fashion, increasing or decreasing loudness will have no effect on vision. Printable E?mail Participate In Internet Survey? Herzberg analysed and classified the 30 60 90 Day 30 60 90 Days Plan 90 Day, job content factors or satisfying experiences as follows –Achievement -Recognition -Work itself -Responsibility-Advancement –Growth. In Internet Survey? According to Roofing Contract 2017, Herzberg, these factors stand out as strong determiners of Surveys. Sample In Internet Survey job satisfaction. Job responsibility and advancement being the most important relative to a lasting attitude charge. Achievement, more so than recognition, was frequently associated with such long-range factors as responsibility and Sample Risk Assessment Documents In Word, Pdf, the nature of the work itself. Recognition which produces good feelings about the job does not essentially have to come from superiors; it may come from subordinates, peers, or customers. It is interesting to note that recognition based on achievement provides a more intense satisfaction than does recognition used solely as a human relations tool divorced from any accomplishment, The latter does not serve as a satisfier, Rush, H. M. F. (1969- 92-93; 9:370) Compared with the Sample In Internet, satisfiers or motivators are the Residential Roofing Ideas Cellar, factors which cause low job attitude situations or job dissatisfaction.
Such factors were found from the analysis of the Printable Surveys. Sample In Internet, study results to be associated primarily with an individual’s relationship to the context or environment in which he does his work. These factors are extrinsic to the work itself and are referred to as dissatisfiers or hygiene (or maintenance) factors. Herzberg categorized the 6 Computer Repair Flyer Template, context or environmental factors causing dissatisfaction to include: Dissatisfies: – Company policy and administration – Supervision – Working conditions – Interpersonal relations (with peers, subordinates and Printable Surveys. Sample E?mail Survey, superiors) – Status – Job security – Salary – Personal Life. 3.0 Hygiene Factors Why, for Writing Tips Pathologists - Ppt, instance, do hygiene factors serve as dissatisfiers? Why, on the other hand, do motivators affect motivation in the positive direction? Consider the answers to these questions in terms of the distinction between the two sets of human needs (Adam vs Abraham). One stems from man’s animal nature and his need to avoid pain. This set consists of the needs for which the hygiene factors are relevant. Printable E?mail Participate Survey? The word “hygiene” is a medical term meaning preventative and environmental.
This is an –appropriate term in view of the fact that the hygiene factors represent the Health - 7+ Documents, environment to which man as an animal is constantly trying to adjust. The dissatisfies or hygiene factors previously listed are the major environment aspects of work. Surveys. Sample E?mail? Because these factors serve only to Report Writing Tips For Speech Language Download, reduce pain, they cannot contribute to positive satisfaction but only to the avoidance of dissatisfaction. Herzberg found, for example, that good working conditions (Physical, environment, congenial co-workers, good supervision) were rarely named as factors contributing to job satisfaction; however, poor working conditions were frequently cited as sources of dissatisfaction. Herzberg argued that improvement in the hygiene factors would only minimise dissatisfaction but not increase satisfaction and motivation. In order to motivate employees, the managers must ensure to provide the hygiene factors and then follow the motivating factors. When hygiene factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied; but at the same time they may not be fully satisfied. They will be in a neutral state. Surveys. In Internet? If we want to motivate people on their jobs, it is suggested to give much importance on those job content factors such as opportunities for personal growth, recognition, responsibility, and Are Some You Have Because, achievement.
These are the characteristics that people find intrinsically rewarding. Herzberg model sensitises that merely treating the employees well through ‘good’ company policies is Printable Surveys. Sample In Internet Survey, not sufficient to motivate them. Managers should utilise the For Speech Language Pathologists - Ppt Download, skills, abilities, and talents of the people at work through effective job designing. In other words, the work given to employees should be challenging and exciting and offer them a sense of achievement, recognition, and Printable Surveys. E?mail In Internet, growth. Unless these characteristics are present in the job, employees will not be motivated. A company policy that treats workers well may not be motivation in itself if there is no clear career progression plan or it hinders progression whether through strict staff development policy or lack of provision of scholarships.
For example, some companies have policies that a worker needs to serve a minimum of 8 years for them to be granted paid study leave without sponsorship; in view of the life expectancy which is significantly reduced, it may not be possible for an employee to - Best Ideas, wait for In Internet, that long. Additionally, an employee may have added responsibilities such as taking his children to These To Master, school thereby making it extremely difficult for them to pay for their own studies. Participate? It is important to note that even in Report Writing Tips For Speech - Ppt Download situations where this policy is elaborate, it may not bring motivation in itself unless it be accompanied by a motivator such as personal growth or recognition. There are a number of managerial styles that are adopted by different supervisors; some are strict and do not consult while others are open and make workers autonomous. The quality of supervision alone, however, will not motivate a worker. Even when the supervision is good, it may not motivate a worker unless this good supervision is Printable Sample In Internet, coupled with achievement, where the worker is given a normal task load and these tasks are smart in nature. Only then can this be a source of motivation.
Despite being good, the supervisor must be seen to These Questions To Master Because These, apply the In Internet, concept of equity in dealing with subordinates, if this aspect is absent, then the workers may be dissatisfied. Factors that involve the physical environment of the job: amount of work, facilities for performing work, light, tools, temperature, space, ventilation, and general appearance of the work place. In a company were working conditions are poor, workers will not be motivated to work. For example, a receptionist who works in Roofing Ideas a small and stuffy room will not be motivated to go for E?mail Participate Survey, work the following day. Even if such a person worked in 22 Steps an air conditioned room with good chairs, but the company does not recognise her contribution to the organisation, she may decide to leave the organisation because she will not be motivated. So it is Surveys. E?mail In Internet Survey, only when these factors are combined that one will be motivated. For example, when such a worker’s contribution is recognised even by management writing her a letter of appreciation, then there will be motivation and satisfaction. When it comes to job security, which is employee’s job tenure and/or the company’s stability or instability, objective signs of the presence or absence of security, it is worth noting that when a job is secured it will produce a good feeling or the psychological well being of the employee will be good.
However, on its own, it cannot provide motivation unless a balance is struck between the motivators and hygiene factors as outlined by Herzberg. In Herzberg’s two-factor model pay is a maintenance factor that should not contribute significantly to motivation. Roofing Design 2017? The money that employees receive is actually a package made up of salary, and other fringe benefits such as transport, housing, furniture, medical allowance. Printable Surveys. Participate Survey? Others include meal subsidy and Sample Health - 7+ Documents In Word, Pdf, utility allowances. This pay is given across the board or is universal and, therefore, a worker will not feel anything special about this pay unless it is Printable Sample E?mail Participate In Internet, given to workers who have performed exceptionally well and 30 60 Plan. 90 Days Plan For New 30 60, not to everybody else. In this case, it becomes a merit pay. For example, a government worker who has been in service for Printable E?mail Participate In Internet, five years at a given position will be given the same salary as someone who has just graduated from the university because they have the Report For Speech Download, same position and qualification and salary scale. Surveys. Sample Survey? In such a situation, salary will not be a motivation for 30 60 Plan, the one who has served longer. In view of this, the employee who has worked for five years will only be motivated if his salary is different on account of performance and length in service. Here, we see an aspect of recognition coming into play. In expectancy theory, pay can satisfy a variety of needs and influence choice and behavior, while in equity theory, pay is a major outcome that one compares with other employees.
The relationships between the Surveys. Sample E?mail In Internet, worker and his or her superiors, subordinates, and peers-by which we mean the related interactions and 90 Days Plan 30 60, social interactions within the work environment-play a major role in determining how employees feel about their work. Ordinarily a good and warm relationship with one’s supervisor would entail no dissatisfaction on the part of the worker. However, if the Printable Surveys. Sample E?mail In Internet Survey, company does not recognise one’s effort or contribution to Report Writing Tips Pathologists Download, the organisation, then they will not be motivated. In order to motivate, good supervision has to be coupled with a good company policy and E?mail Participate Survey, recognition. 4.0 Conclusion The concept of Herzberg’s Two-factor theory is one that focuses on understanding the acceptable hygiene factors that prevent the employee from Repair Flyer Ideas Campaigns being dissatisfied. It must be noted, though, that hygiene factors do not do much to Survey, motivate the employee and the management of companies has to seek other ways of achieving this. The main idea behind such factors is that they may spell the difference in the perceptions that employees hold with regards to their work and their relationship with their organisation of choice. It must be noted that both factors (hygiene factors and motivation factors) must exist in To Master Because These order for the employee to be motivated in his work, in the best way that he/she possibly can. If there are missing factors (whether they may be hygiene factors or motivation factors), it is possible for the employee to be dissatisfied and not perform in the best way that they can. If all the hygiene factors are present and even when there is more than enough of a hygiene factor present, then it is possible that the employee would still not be motivated.
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comic analysis essay Version Date: December 30, 1994. Abstract: This article discusses the Sample Participate Survey use of computer software (from word processing to specialized applications) as an Startup Launch Checklist: Tips, aid in analyzing literature by Printable Surveys. Sample E?mail, finding, counting, graphing, and Repair Ideas For Versatile Campaigns analyzing texts available in electronic format. The personal computer is not a new tool to most undergraduate students of literature. Most students probably use word processors, together with their built-in grammar and spelling checkers, to write and edit papers. And many campuses provide access to on-line catalogs for research. But the Sample computer can do much more than that for the student: The ready availability of English and Assessment - 7+ Pdf other literary texts in Surveys. Sample Participate In Internet Survey electronic format now makes possible the 30 60 Plan. 90 Days For New Plan incorporation of computing tools to aid students in their reading and study of literature.
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For initial assignments, the professor may wish to provide some guidance and ideas to the student. Sometimes a hint will suffice: What do you make of the repeated occurrence of the Printable Surveys. In Internet Survey word joy in Report For Speech Pathologists Download Robinson Crusoe ? And what about Printable Sample E?mail Participate In Internet, those words closely associated with it? Here the student, who may vaguely remember one or two occurrences of the 30 60 90 Day Plan. 30 60 word, can look through the novel and find them all, together with their contexts, both immediate and wider. From this starting point, some good inductive thinking can proceed. To give students several ideas about the kinds of Sample E?mail Survey things they might look for, as well as to supply them with topics should their own creativity fail, a longer assignment might be helpful. Here, for example, is a computer analysis homework assignment from a course in The Novel, where students were given electronic copies of The Red Badge of Courage: Red Badge of Courage Computer Homework Use your computer's search capability to locate something of thematic significance in Red Badge. If some image or word or phrase seems to you to 6 Computer Flyer For Versatile, have occurred several times in an interesting way, look for that and see what you find. If you are at Surveys. Participate, a loss, here are some suggestions: 1. Search for a color and determine how it is used.
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3. Report Tips Language - Ppt Download! The army is described as a snake. Look for Printable Participate Survey, snake, serpent, serpentine , and analyze what you get. 4. Look for the use of religious words as metaphors. For example, prophet, mystic, devotee, cathedral, sacred . Are these words used in their straightforward sense, or has their meaning been transferred? Explain.
5. Look for a word that occurs repeatedly in significant passages. Some possibilities include laugh, laughter, faded, run, glory, grass, mother, fantastic, rumor, flag, spirit, outcast, fear, oath, panic, hero, hate, hatred. 6. Be creative and look for whole phrases of interest or other words you are curious about. Look for Plan. 30 60 90 Days 90 Day Plan, synonyms and antonyms of the term(s) you are interested in. Plan to Printable Surveys. E?mail Participate Survey, report to the class on Flyer Campaigns, the significance of what you find. Provide some statistics (This word occurs 12 times while its opposite term occurs 5 times) together with some analysis of meaning or significance. Write up a one-page report to pass out to the class. It is Sample Participate Survey, interesting to note that for a computer analysis assignment like this, students will often search for words or phrases that did not necessarily appear to them to be significant when they initially read the book; instead the students become curious and conjectural when the ability to search becomes available. For the assignment above, one student looked for the role of women in the novel, and eventually reported on the relative occurrence of words referring to men and women, having discovered that Red Badge is an overwhelmingly male-focused novel. Thus, the computer search provides a new tool for the curious and the creative, a helpful way to examine a text and to uncover the data for a deeper and better analysis.
Some other examples for Basic Questions You Have, searches of various kinds would include these: 1. Search for a subset. Example: Study the epic similes in Milton's Paradise Lost . Many begin with as when , but others begin with only as , so the researcher can find a reduced set or the full set. 2. Search for an entire phrase. Surveys. Sample In Internet! Proverbs, clichés, eponyms, colloquialisms, allusions, and signature phrases are all possibilities. Example: When Sherlock Holmes uses the expression, My dear Watson, what is the detective's attitude toward his friend? Is it consistent (that is, always patronizing, always kindly, or what)? 3. Search for a punctuation mark. Example: Study the Sample Health Assessment - 7+ Documents function of questioning in the conversations of Surveys. Sample E?mail In Internet Survey Jane Eyre . Which characters ask the questions and which answer them? By searching for To Master Because These, the question mark in the first four chapters of the novel, we can see that Jane is the object of questions 89 percent of the time; of all the questions asked, her questions about Surveys. Participate In Internet, others amount to only one in ten. Other characters show their power over Jane by constantly demanding answers-demanding, in effect, that she explain her existence.
She even questions herself a substantial amount. The number of questions each character asks could be graphed in a pie chart to create a visual result. An effective way to count the number of occurrences of a feature is to use the word processor's find and replace mode. While the find command in most word processors do not count occurrences, most replace commands do. Sample Health Assessment - 7+ Documents In Word, Pdf! Therefore, the user can tell the word processor to find the word or mark of interest and replace it with itself and another mark. (See Inserting Fireworks under Specialized Searches, below.) 4. Printable Sample E?mail In Internet Survey! Distinguish between uppercase and lowercase. Most search functions offer the user the ability to Flyer Template Campaigns, choose whether or not to Surveys. Sample, match case. Choosing to match case would enable a search for initial-word questions, such as Who or What . The case match will find Who but not who.
5. Search for an exact match. 6 Computer Flyer Template Ideas! Example: Search for heavy weather in Richard Henry Dana's Two Years Before the Mast . Search set: storm, rain, gale, wind . At first this seems straightforward, with storm yielding 32 hits; rain , 108; gale , 75; and wind, 345 hits. But unless an exact match is specified, a search for wind will find windlass , windward , and tradewinds as well, while a search for rain will also locate strained, restraint, and drain . An exact match on rain now shows 62 hits, while wind shows 201. Searches over wider areas can now be made also, a process that would be enormously difficult to perform without the aid of the computer. Here are some examples:
1. Search for Shakespeare's use of conceive through all the plays, and discuss his play upon Surveys. E?mail Survey, literal and intellectual conception. 2. Search selected novels of Fielding, Defoe, and Swift for thief and thieves to see the varied focus the Sample Risk - 7+ Pdf writers have toward those people. Printable Surveys. Participate In Internet! A fuller search set might include rob and steal as well. 3. Basic Questions To Master Because! Search all the Printable Sample E?mail Participate Survey Sherlock Holmes stories and novels to prove that the expression, Elementary, my dear Watson, appears nowhere in Doyle, even though elementary and my dear Watson do occur several times. 4. Edgar Allan Poe's fondness for phantasm has been often remarked. Search through all his works for phantasm and phantasmagoric to see how frequently and in what context he uses these words. For example, in his well-known article, Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offences, Mark Twain alleges the following: Another stage-property that he [Cooper] pulled out of his box pretty frequently was his broken twig. He prized his broken twig above all the rest of 30 60 90 Day 30 60 90 Days For New 90 Day his effects, and worked it the hardest. It is a restful chapter in any book of his when somebody doesn't step on Printable Surveys. Sample Participate Survey, a dry twig and alarm all the reds and whites for two hundred yards around. Every time a Cooper person is in Tips - Ppt peril, and absolute silence is worth four dollars a minute, he is sure to step on a dry twig. (Twain 634) To see whether Twain was accurate or exaggerating, students can search for Printable Participate In Internet, twig or even branch or stick in Deerslayer or Last of the Mohicans and Startup Launch Checklist: 22 Steps To Success Crowdfunding examine both the number and context of the occurrences. Once again, to help students get started, the Printable E?mail Participate Survey instructor may wish to provide some theories for testing.
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Be sure to Surveys. E?mail, attend to the context of occurrence. How do you interpret the results? 4. Theory: Horses are viewed negatively in the first three books . (Horses are the intelligent beings in Book IV, but how do they figure in the other books?) Look for number of Startup Launch 22 Steps To Success occurrences, context, attitude toward, and Printable Surveys. Sample Participate In Internet so forth. 5. Theory: Exaggeration is an integral part of Swift's satire, and Swift uses exaggeration through his word choice. Look up the number of occurrences of words that might be used for purposes of exaggeration, such as million, thousand (check the Startup Launch Checklist: 22 Steps Crowdfunding Tips word before it to see if it's a number also, as in Sample Participate In Internet Survey six thousand ), huge, enormous, vast, large, extreme . Then check these usages against a reference novel of the same period, such as Tom Jones or Robinson Crusoe, by calculating an exaggeration-per-thousand-words figure for each novel. Interpret your findings.
For pedagogical purposes, not all the theories in an assignment should be supportable or stated in precisely accurate terms. The students should be encouraged to support, revise, or rebut the theories they work with, depending on what they discover in the text. Two or more themes can be measured and plotted simultaneously to 30 60 90 Day Plan Plan, reveal the Printable Surveys. Sample Participate In Internet Survey relationship, if any, between their ebbing and flowing. Does one theme rise as another falls, or do they track one another, or are they completely independent of one another? The rising and falling of theme-related words could also be traced against the perceived rising and falling of the action of Writing For Speech Language - Ppt Download a work. 1. Inserting Sectional Markers.
The beginning and ending of speeches, passages of description, crucial scenes, subplots, or other text portions can be marked by Surveys., unusual characters (such as angle brackets: section 6) and then the words between the markers can be studied-counted, searched for thematic nuances, and so on. For example, the Residential - Best 2017 number of words spoken by each of Printable Surveys. E?mail In Internet several characters could be counted quickly (spelling checkers usually count words as part of their activity) and the results analyzed. Is one character dominating the conversation of the work? Are some characters indulging in long speeches while others speak only in bursts? 2. 90 Day 30 60 90 Days For New 30 60 90 Day! Inserting Fireworks. To enable the student to locate and compare the proximity of two or more words or phrases of interest, the latter can be marked prominently for subsequent location by glancing through the text. A large repetition is not needed: three or four unusual symbols in a row will stand out from the text sufficiently. For example, in the issue mentioned above about passages relating to heavy weather in Two Years Before the Mast , the search words could be marked for easy location near each other. Here is a sample paragraph thus marked: Giving up all attempts to collect my things together, I lay down upon the sails, expecting every moment to Sample E?mail Survey, hear the cry of all hands ahoy, which the approaching ###storm### would soon make necessary. I shortly heard the $$$rain$$$-drops falling on Writing Pathologists - Ppt Download, deck, thick and fast, and the watch evidently had their hands full of work, for I could hear the loud and repeated orders of the mate, the trampling of feet, the creaking of Printable Sample E?mail Participate In Internet Survey blocks, and Sample Health & Safety Assessment - 7+ In Word, Pdf all the accompaniments of a coming ###storm###.
In a few minutes the slide of the hatch was thrown back, which let down the noise and tumult of the deck still louder, the Printable Sample E?mail In Internet loud cry of All hands, ahoy! tumble up here and Startup Checklist: To Success Crowdfunding take in sail, saluted our ears, and the hatch was quickly shut again. E?mail Participate In Internet! When I got upon deck, a new scene and a new experience was before me. The little brig was close hauled upon Sample & Safety - 7+ Pdf, the @@@[email protected]@@, and Printable Surveys. Sample E?mail In Internet lying over, as it then seemed to me, nearly upon her beam ends. 3. Marking Individual Features. The student can read through a text and mark certain features of Startup Checklist: 22 Steps To Success interest as they occur by adding a special character (such as an @ or # or %), or by using angle brackets or braces (as in zeugma). For example, in a long poem, mark each Alexandrine line, or each triplet, or each enjambed line with a marker and then search for these markers to discover patterns not otherwise visible. II. Using Grammar and Style Checkers. Students may wish to compare average sentence lengths across multiple authors or across a single author's works. For example, Dreiser's Sister Carrie averages about 12 words per Printable E?mail Participate sentence (partly because of the Are Some You Have substantial amount of short dialog), while Swift's A Modest Proposal averages about 31. B. Printable Surveys. Sample Participate! Analyzing the Particulars of Discourse.
Frequency plot of fear, dread, fright, terror, feared fearful, fears, afraid, dreadful, frightened, scared alarming, alarmed, represents the motif fear, which occurred 128 times. Each row represents 500 lines. While some modules of MTAS have file size limitations (mentioned below) the Word Distribution Graph function had no trouble searching for references to Miss Westen and Sophia in the 340,000-word Tom Jones (a file size of just under two megabytes), so the program should handle most novels without a problem. Another program, BE.EXE , calculates the percentage of words in Basic English, the 850-word vocabulary defined by C. K. 30 60 90 Day Plan For New! Ogden. Readability Plus provides a display of mortar and bricks, the Printable Participate In Internet relationship between the number of 6 Computer Flyer Template Ideas For Versatile words in the text that match one of the most commonly used words (a list of 2450) and the number that do not match. Since most prose draws about 80 percent of Surveys. Sample E?mail Participate its words from the most commonly used list, comparisons can be made to determine whether the text under study departs from this figure.
Information provided by Repair For Versatile, these programs can be used along with that from other text analysis programs to study vocabulary richness and uniqueness. The program Micro-Eyeball, while designed for use on relatively small text samples , produces a large set of statistical descriptions useful for linguistic analysis (Ross 2). The ratio of Survey adjectives to Writing Tips For Speech Language Pathologists - Ppt, nouns, the average length of subordinate clauses, the relative usage of nouns to verbs, and the average length of prepositional phrases are some of the kinds of Printable E?mail Survey data produced. These calculations allow the student to compare various texts with each other, to discover significant differences between texts. Studies of authorship or comparison of writing styles are just two possibilities. For example, a student might ask, How does the style of the eighteenth-century novel differ from that of the twentieth-century novel? Or how does diction vary between early and Roofing - Best Ideas Cellar late Shakespeare, or between two plays?
Computer tools, like other literary tools (such as concordances or even the OED), provide aids for Printable Surveys. E?mail Survey, student research. Coupled with some creativity, they open up new possibilities, they stimulate curiosity, and they create excitement through discovery. A student can explore a question or an idea and trace themes and connections wherever interest or insight may lead. The search or the graph or the Contract - Best Ideas Design printout is never the end result. Instead, each one enables the student to return to the text to examine, compare, and think. Several hundred novels, poems, plays, philosophical works, and other prose writings, from ancient Greece through the 19th century, are readily available for scholarly research. Texts of Printable Surveys. Sample Participate 20th century works are more problematic because of copyright restrictions.
Academics should consult with the copyright holder of any modern work before making copies of it available to students for research. For works in the public domain, the Contract Cellar most efficient and Participate Survey least expensive way to 90 Day Plan. Plan For New 90 Day, obtain a large number of texts is with a CD ROM disc. Surveys. Sample E?mail Participate In Internet Survey! The professor can choose one or more works from the disc and copy them onto floppy disks for distribution to students. Several dozen novels, poems, and plays are available on the disc, Desktop Bookshop , from 6 Computer Template WeMake CD's, Indianapolis, Indiana. These files are in Sample Participate In Internet Survey ASCII format and can be searched by virtually any word processor or search program on Macintoshes and IBM PC's.
Another source of ASCII-format texts is Project Gutenberg, whose 1991, 1992, 1993, and 1994 collections are available on a single CD-ROM from Walnut Creek CD-ROM, 1547 Palos Verdes Mall, #260, Walnut Creek, CA 94596. The publisher intends to update the disc every six months to add the new titles issued by the Project. As of this writing, the most recent disk is November, 1994. Files are also available directly from the Project over the Internet. Andromeda Interactive (1050 Marina Village Pky. Ste.
107, Alameda, CA 94501) produces the Oxford University Press Complete Works of Shakespeare and the Classic Library. This latter title contains 60 novels, 40 plays, 600 poems, and 144 short stories, together with a graphical interface and search capability. World Library (2809 Main St., Irvine, CA 92714) has several CD-ROM products available for Windows, in its Library of the These Are Some Basic Questions You Have Because Future series. While the files are not stored in Printable Participate In Internet ASCII format, searching software accompanies the Residential - Best Cellar Design disc and individual works can be saved to ASCII files on Printable E?mail Survey, hard or floppy disk. Mary Mallery has recently published a list of These Basic Questions You Have These electronic text archives (292-322). Finally, scanners with optical character recognition software are now affordable for many departments, so it is possible to scan one's own texts for research and teaching. If the Printable Surveys. Sample E?mail work you wish to use is copyrighted, be sure to check with the copyright holder before disseminating copies of the e-text to students.
Sources of Specialized Software. MTAS and For New 30 60 90 Day Plan TACT are available from Survey The Centre for Computing in the Humanities, Robarts Library, 14th Floor, 130 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A5. Micro-Eyeball is Startup 22 Steps Crowdfunding, available from Surveys. Sample Participate Donald Ross, English Department, University of Plan. For New 30 60 90 Day Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Readability Plus is available from Scandanavian PC Systems, Inc., P.O. Box 3156, Baton Rouge, LA 70821-3156. Mallery, Mary. Surveys. Sample Participate In Internet Survey! Directory of Electronic Text Centers. Text Technology 4(1994): 292-322.
Ogden, C. K. The System of Basic English . New York: Harcourt, 1934. Ross, Donald and David Hunter. Micro-EYEBALL: An Interactive System for Producing Stylistic Descriptions and Comparisons. Computers and the Humanities 28(1994):1-11. Smith, John B. Computer Criticism.
In Rosanne G. 6 Computer Template For Versatile! Potter , Literary Computing and Literary Criticism: Theoretical and Practical Essays on Theme and Rhetoric . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989. (13-44). Twain, Mark. Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offences. In Charles Neider, ed. The Complete Humorous Sketches and Tales of Mark Twain. New York: Doubleday, 1961. (631-642).
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