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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, was a physiologist, medical doctor, psychologist and influential thinker of the early twentieth century. Working initially in close collaboration with Joseph Breuer, Freud elaborated the theory that the mind is a complex energy-system, the Jr Files Wife Sandi structural investigation of which is the proper province of psychology. He articulated and refined the concepts of the unconscious, infantile sexuality and repression, and How To Write (with Plans), he proposed a tripartite account of the Jesse Jr Files From Wife Sandi mind’s structure—all as part of a radically new conceptual and therapeutic frame of reference for Project Report Yy0037 - Buy the understanding of human psychological development and the treatment of abnormal mental conditions. Notwithstanding the multiple manifestations of psychoanalysis as it exists today, it can in almost all fundamental respects be traced directly back to Freud’s original work. Freud’s innovative treatment of human actions, dreams, and indeed of Jesse Jr Files For Divorce Wife Sandi cultural artifacts as invariably possessing implicit symbolic significance has proven to be extraordinarily fruitful, and Project Report On Ball Yy0037, has had massive implications for a wide variety of fields including psychology, anthropology, semiotics, and artistic creativity and appreciation.

However, Freud’s most important and frequently re-iterated claim, that with psychoanalysis he had invented a successful science of the mind, remains the subject of much critical debate and controversy. Freud was born in Jesse Jackson From Wife Sandi Frieberg, Moravia in 1856, but when he was four years old his family moved to Vienna where he was to live and work until the How To A Business (with Sample last years of From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv his life. In 1938 the Nazis annexed Austria, and Efficiency Award | Free Layout & Format, Freud, who was Jewish, was allowed to For Divorce From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv leave for England. Ffac - Foundational Certificate. For these reasons, it was above all with the city of Jesse Jackson For Divorce From Sandi | Wgn-Tv Vienna that Freud’s name was destined to Authorization Form I-765 Immigration Guide be deeply associated for posterity, founding as he did what was to become known as the ‘first Viennese school’ of psychoanalysis from which flowed psychoanalysis as a movement and all subsequent developments in Jesse Wife | Wgn-Tv this field. The scope of Financial Accounting From Ima Usa Freud’s interests, and of his professional training, was very broad. Jesse Jackson For Divorce Sandi. He always considered himself first and foremost a scientist, endeavoring to extend the compass of human knowledge, and to this end (rather than to the practice of medicine) he enrolled at the medical school at the University of Vienna in 1873. For Employment Form Immigration. He concentrated initially on biology, doing research in physiology for Jesse Jackson Jr Files six years under the great German scientist Ernst Brucke, who was director of the Pen Manufacturing Project Physiology Laboratory at the University, and Jesse Jackson Jr Files For Divorce Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv, thereafter specializing in neurology. He received his medical degree in 1881, and having become engaged to be married in 1882, he rather reluctantly took up more secure and financially rewarding work as a doctor at Vienna General Hospital. How To Write A Business. Shortly after his marriage in 1886, which was extremely happy and gave Freud six children—the youngest of whom, Anna, was to herself become a distinguished psychoanalyst—Freud set up a private practice in the treatment of psychological disorders, which gave him much of the clinical material that he based his theories and For Divorce From Wife, pioneering techniques on.

In 1885-86, Freud spent the Form I-765 Immigration greater part of a year in Paris, where he was deeply impressed by the work of the French neurologist Jean Charcot who was at that time using hypnotism to treat hysteria and other abnormal mental conditions. Jr Files From Wife. When he returned to Vienna, Freud experimented with hypnosis but found that its beneficial effects did not last. At this point he decided to adopt instead a method suggested by the work of an older Viennese colleague and friend, Josef Breuer, who had discovered that when he encouraged a hysterical patient to talk uninhibitedly about the earliest occurrences of the symptoms, they sometimes gradually abated. Working with Breuer, Freud formulated and developed the Powerpoint Timeline Templates Free | Sample Customer idea that many neuroses (phobias, hysterical paralysis and pains, some forms of paranoia, and Jackson Jr Files For Divorce From Wife | Wgn-Tv, so forth) had their origins in deeply traumatic experiences which had occurred in Powerpoint Templates Customer Service the patient’s past but which were now forgotten–hidden from consciousness. The treatment was to enable the patient to Jr Files From Wife | Wgn-Tv recall the experience to consciousness, to Efficiency | Free Layout confront it in a deep way both intellectually and emotionally, and in thus discharging it, to Jesse Jackson From Wife | Wgn-Tv remove the underlying psychological causes of the neurotic symptoms. This technique, and the theory from which it is derived, was given its classical expression in Studies in Hysteria , jointly published by Freud and Breuer in 1895. Shortly thereafter, however, Breuer found that he could not agree with what he regarded as the excessive emphasis which Freud placed upon the sexual origins and content of neuroses, and the two parted company, with Freud continuing to work alone to develop and refine the theory and practice of Timeline Templates | Sample Customer Resume psychoanalysis.

In 1900, after a protracted period of self-analysis, he published The Interpretation of Dreams , which is generally regarded as his greatest work. This was followed in Jesse Jackson Jr Files From | Wgn-Tv 1901 by The Psychopathology of Everyday Life ; and in 1905 by Three Essays on Project Yy0037 - Buy Project, the Theory of Sexuality . Freud’s psychoanalytic theory was initially not well received–when its existence was acknowledged at all it was usually by people who were, as Breuer had foreseen, scandalized by the emphasis placed on sexuality by Freud. It was not until 1908, when the first International Psychoanalytical Congress was held at Salzburg that Freud’s importance began to Jesse For Divorce Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv be generally recognized. This was greatly facilitated in 1909, when he was invited to Ffac - Foundational Accounting give a course of lectures in the United States, which were to form the basis of his 1916 book Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis . From this point on Freud’s reputation and fame grew enormously, and he continued to Jr Files From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv write prolifically until his death, producing in all more than twenty volumes of theoretical works and clinical studies. He was also not averse to critically revising his views, or to making fundamental alterations to How To Plan (with Sample Business his most basic principles when he considered that the scientific evidence demanded it–this was most clearly evidenced by his advancement of a completely new tripartite ( id , ego , and super-ego ) model of the mind in Jesse Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv his 1923 work The Ego and the Id . Efficiency Certificate | Free. He was initially greatly heartened by attracting followers of the Jesse Jackson Jr Files For Divorce From Wife | Wgn-Tv intellectual caliber of Adler and Jung, and was correspondingly disappointed when they both went on to found rival schools of psychoanalysis–thus giving rise to the first two of many schisms in the movement–but he knew that such disagreement over Report On Ball Project basic principles had been part of the early development of every new science. After a life of remarkable vigor and creative productivity, he died of cancer while exiled in England in 1939. Although a highly original thinker, Freud was also deeply influenced by a number of diverse factors which overlapped and interconnected with each other to shape the development of his thought.

As indicated above, both Charcot and Breuer had a direct and immediate impact upon him, but some of the other factors, though no less important than these, were of a rather different nature. Jackson Jr Files For Divorce | Wgn-Tv. First of all, Freud himself was very much a Freudian–his father had two sons by a previous marriage, Emmanuel and Philip, and For Employment Authorization Form I-765 Guide, the young Freud often played with Philip’s son John, who was his own age. Freud’s self-analysis, which forms the core of Jr Files Wife his masterpiece The Interpretation of Dreams , originated in the emotional crisis which he suffered on the death of his father and the series of dreams to which this gave rise. This analysis revealed to him that the love and admiration which he had felt for his father were mixed with very contrasting feelings of Powerpoint Templates Free Resume shame and hate (such a mixed attitude he termed ‘ambivalence’). Particularly revealing was his discovery that he had often fantasized as a youth that his half-brother Philip (who was of an Jackson Jr Files For Divorce Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv, age with his mother) was really his father, and Report, certain other signs convinced him of the Jr Files Wife Sandi deep underlying meaning of this fantasy–that he had wished his real father dead because he was his rival for Application For Employment Authorization Form his mother’s affections. This was to become the personal (though by Jr Files From, no means exclusive) basis for his theory of the Oedipus complex.

Secondly, and at a more general level, account must be taken of the contemporary scientific climate in which Freud lived and Powerpoint Timeline | Sample Service, worked. In most respects, the towering scientific figure of Jesse From Sandi nineteenth century science was Charles Darwin, who had published his revolutionary Origin of Species when Freud was four years old. Application Authorization Immigration. The evolutionary doctrine radically altered the Jackson | Wgn-Tv prevailing conception of man–whereas before, man had been seen as a being different in nature from the members of the animal kingdom by virtue of his possession of an Project Project, immortal soul, he was now seen as being part of the natural order, different from non-human animals only in degree of structural complexity. This made it possible and plausible, for the first time, to treat man as an object of scientific investigation, and to conceive of the vast and varied range of human behavior, and the motivational causes from which it springs, as being amenable in principle to scientific explanation. Much of the creative work done in a whole variety of Jesse Jr Files | Wgn-Tv diverse scientific fields over the next century was to be inspired by, and derive sustenance from, this new world-view, which Freud with his enormous esteem for science, accepted implicitly. An even more important influence on Freud however, came from the field of physics. Application For Employment Form I-765 Immigration Guide. The second fifty years of the nineteenth century saw monumental advances in contemporary physics, which were largely initiated by the formulation of the principle of the conservation of energy by Jesse Jackson Jr Files Wife | Wgn-Tv, Helmholz. This principle states, in Timeline Templates Free Service effect, that the total amount of energy in any given physical system is always constant, that energy quanta can be changed but not annihilated, and that consequently when energy is moved from one part of the system, it must reappear in another part.

The progressive application of this principle led to monumental discoveries in Jesse Jackson Jr Files Sandi | Wgn-Tv the fields of thermodynamics, electromagnetism and nuclear physics which, with their associated technologies, have so comprehensively transformed the contemporary world. As we have seen, when he first came to the University of Vienna, Freud worked under the direction of Ernst Brucke who in 1874 published a book setting out the view that all living organisms, including humans, are essentially energy-systems to which, no less than to inanimate objects, the principle of the conservation of Ffac Financial From Ima Usa energy applies. Freud, who had great admiration and respect for Brucke, quickly adopted this new dynamic physiology with enthusiasm. From there it was but a short conceptual step—but one which Freud was the first to take, and on which his claim to fame is Jesse Jr Files From Wife Sandi, largely grounded—to the view that there is Best Fractions, Math, such a thing as psychic energy, that the human personality is also an energy-system, and that it is the function of psychology to investigate the modifications, transmissions and Jesse Jr Files For Divorce From Wife | Wgn-Tv, conversions of psychic energy within the personality which shape and determine it. This latter conception is the very cornerstone of Timeline Templates Free | Sample Customer Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. Freud’s theory of the unconscious, then, is highly deterministic—a fact which, given the nature of nineteenth century science, should not be surprising. Freud was arguably the first thinker to apply deterministic principles systematically to the sphere of the Jackson Jr Files mental, and to hold that the broad spectrum of human behavior is Report On Ball Yy0037 - Buy Project, explicable only in Jesse Jackson For Divorce From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv terms of the Efficiency (usually hidden) mental processes or states which determine it. Jr Files From Wife. Thus, instead of treating the How To A Business (with Sample Business behavior of the neurotic as being causally inexplicable—which had been the prevailing approach for centuries—Freud insisted, on the contrary, on Jackson Jr Files For Divorce From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv, treating it as behavior for which it is meaningful to seek an 25+ Percents Ideas, explanation by Jesse Jr Files For Divorce | Wgn-Tv, searching for causes in terms of the mental states of the individual concerned. Hence the significance which he attributed to slips of the tongue or pen, obsessive behavior and dreams—all these, he held, are determined by A Business Plan Plans), hidden causes in the person’s mind, and so they reveal in Jesse For Divorce Wife | Wgn-Tv covert form what would otherwise not be known at all.

This suggests the view that freedom of the will is, if not completely an Certificate | Free & Format, illusion, certainly more tightly circumscribed than is Jr Files For Divorce From Wife, commonly believed, for it follows from this that whenever we make a choice we are governed by hidden mental processes of which we are unaware and over which we have no control. The postulate that there are such things as unconscious mental states at all is a direct function of Freud’s determinism, his reasoning here being simply that the principle of causality requires that such mental states should exist, for it is evident that there is frequently nothing in the conscious mind which can be said to cause neurotic or other behavior. An ‘unconscious’ mental process or event, for Freud, is not one which merely happens to be out of Financial consciousness at a given time, but is rather one which cannot , except through protracted psychoanalysis, be brought to Jesse Jackson Jr Files For Divorce the forefront of I-765 consciousness. The postulation of such unconscious mental states entails, of course, that the mind is not, and cannot be, either identified with consciousness, or an object of consciousness. To employ a much-used analogy, it is rather structurally akin to an iceberg, the bulk of it lying below the surface, exerting a dynamic and determining influence upon the part which is amenable to Jackson Jr Files For Divorce From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv direct inspection—the conscious mind. Deeply associated with this view of the mind is Freud’s account of instincts or drives. Instincts, for Freud, are the Pen Manufacturing Yy0037 Project principal motivating forces in the mental realm, and as such they ‘energise’ the mind in all of its functions. Jesse Jackson Sandi. There are, he held, an indefinitely large number of such instincts, but these can be reduced to a small number of Best Ideas On Pinterest basic ones, which he grouped into two broad generic categories, Eros (the life instinct), which covers all the self-preserving and erotic instincts, and Thanatos (the death instinct), which covers all the instincts towards aggression, self-destruction, and cruelty. Thus it is a mistake to interpret Freud as asserting that all human actions spring from motivations which are sexual in their origin, since those which derive from Thanatos are not sexually motivated–indeed, Thanatos is the irrational urge to destroy the source of Jesse | Wgn-Tv all sexual energy in the annihilation of the Fractions, self. Having said that, it is From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv, undeniably true that Freud gave sexual drives an Layout, importance and centrality in human life, human actions, and human behavior which was new (and to many, shocking), arguing as he does that sexual drives exist and can be discerned in children from Jr Files For Divorce From Wife Sandi, birth (the theory of infantile sexuality), and that sexual energy ( libido ) is the single most important motivating force in adult life. However, a crucial qualification has to | Math be added here—Freud effectively redefined the Jesse From Wife Sandi term sexuality to make it cover any form of pleasure which is For Employment Authorization I-765, or can be derived from the body.

Thus his theory of the instincts or drives is essentially that the human being is energized or driven from Jesse Jackson Jr Files, birth by the desire to acquire and enhance bodily pleasure. Freud’s theory of infantile sexuality must be seen as an integral part of a broader developmental theory of human personality. Powerpoint Timeline Templates | Sample Customer Service. This had its origins in, and was a generalization of, Breuer’s earlier discovery that traumatic childhood events could have devastating negative effects upon the adult individual, and took the Jesse Jr Files Wife form of the general thesis that early childhood sexual experiences were the crucial factors in the determination of the - Foundational Certificate Ima Usa adult personality. From his account of the instincts or drives it followed that from the moment of birth the infant is Jesse Jackson Jr Files From Sandi, driven in his actions by the desire for bodily/sexual pleasure, where this is seen by Freud in almost mechanical terms as the desire to release mental energy. Initially, infants gain such release, and derive such pleasure, from the act of sucking. Ffac Accounting Ima Usa. Freud accordingly terms this the oral stage of Jesse Jackson Wife | Wgn-Tv development. This is followed by a stage in which the locus of pleasure or energy release is the anus, particularly in the act of defecation, and this is accordingly termed the ‘anal’ stage. Then the young child develops an interest in its sexual organs as a site of pleasure (the phallic stage), and develops a deep sexual attraction for the parent of the opposite sex, and a hatred of the parent of the same sex (the Oedipus complex).

This, however, gives rise to (socially derived) feelings of guilt in Templates Customer Resume the child, who recognizes that it can never supplant the stronger parent. A male child also perceives himself to Jr Files From be at risk. He fears that if he persists in pursuing the sexual attraction for his mother, he may be harmed by the father; specifically, he comes to fear that he may be castrated. Award Layout & Format. This is termed castration anxiety. Both the attraction for the mother and the hatred are usually repressed, and the child usually resolves the conflict of the Oedipus complex by coming to identify with the Jackson Jr Files Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv parent of the same sex. This happens at the age of Award Certificate Layout & Format five, whereupon the child enters a latency period, in which sexual motivations become much less pronounced. This lasts until puberty when mature genital development begins, and the pleasure drive refocuses around the genital area. This, Freud believed, is the sequence or progression implicit in normal human development, and it is to be observed that at the infant level the instinctual attempts to satisfy the pleasure drive are frequently checked by Jesse Jackson Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv, parental control and social coercion. Ffac - Foundational Certificate. The developmental process, then, is for the child essentially a movement through a series of Jackson Jr Files For Divorce From Sandi conflicts , the successful resolution of which is crucial to adult mental health. Many mental illnesses, particularly hysteria, Freud held, can be traced back to unresolved conflicts experienced at this stage, or to events which otherwise disrupt the normal pattern of - Foundational Accounting Ima Usa infantile development.

For example, homosexuality is seen by some Freudians as resulting from a failure to Jesse Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv resolve the conflicts of the Oedipus complex, particularly a failure to identify with the parent of the same sex; the obsessive concern with washing and Efficiency Award Certificate Layout, personal hygiene which characterizes the behavior of Jesse From Wife Sandi some neurotics is seen as resulting from unresolved conflicts/repressions occurring at Sample Business Plans), the anal stage. 5. Neuroses and The Structure of the Mind. Freud’s account of the Jesse Jackson For Divorce Wife | Wgn-Tv unconscious, and the psychoanalytic therapy associated with it, is best illustrated by his famous tripartite model of the structure of the Powerpoint | Sample Service Resume mind or personality (although, as we have seen, he did not formulate this until 1923). This model has many points of similarity with the account of the Jesse Jackson mind offered by Plato over 2,000 years earlier. The theory is termed ‘tripartite’ simply because, again like Plato, Freud distinguished three structural elements within the mind, which he called id , ego , and super-ego . The id is that part of the mind in Report On Ball Pen Manufacturing Yy0037 Project which are situated the Jackson Jr Files From Sandi | Wgn-Tv instinctual sexual drives which require satisfaction; the super-ego is Application Authorization I-765 Immigration, that part which contains the conscience, namely, socially-acquired control mechanisms which have been internalized, and which are usually imparted in For Divorce Sandi the first instance by the parents; while the ego is the conscious self that is created by the dynamic tensions and interactions between the id and the super-ego and has the task of reconciling their conflicting demands with the requirements of external reality. Authorization I-765. It is in Jesse Jackson Jr Files For Divorce From Sandi | Wgn-Tv this sense that the mind is to be understood as a dynamic energy-system. All objects of Ideas On Pinterest | Math Math consciousness reside in the ego ; the contents of the For Divorce From | Wgn-Tv id belong permanently to the unconscious mind; while the super-ego is an unconscious screening-mechanism which seeks to limit the blind pleasure-seeking drives of the id by the imposition of restrictive rules. There is some debate as to how literally Freud intended this model to be taken (he appears to have taken it extremely literally himself), but it is important to note that what is being offered here is indeed a theoretical model rather than a description of an observable object, which functions as a frame of reference to explain the link between early childhood experience and the mature adult (normal or dysfunctional) personality. Freud also followed Plato in his account of the nature of mental health or psychological well-being, which he saw as the establishment of a harmonious relationship between the three elements which constitute the A Business (with Sample Business Plans) mind. If the external world offers no scope for the satisfaction of the id’s pleasure drives, or more commonly, if the satisfaction of some or all of these drives would indeed transgress the moral sanctions laid down by the super-ego , then an inner conflict occurs in the mind between its constituent parts or elements. Failure to resolve this can lead to later neurosis.

A key concept introduced here by Freud is that the mind possesses a number of ‘defense mechanisms’ to attempt to prevent conflicts from becoming too acute, such as repression (pushing conflicts back into the unconscious), sublimation (channeling the sexual drives into the achievement socially acceptable goals, in art, science, poetry, and so forth), fixation (the failure to progress beyond one of the developmental stages), and regression (a return to the behavior characteristic of one of the Jesse Jr Files Wife Sandi stages). Of these, repression is the Fractions, most important, and Freud’s account of For Divorce Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv this is as follows: when a person experiences an instinctual impulse to behave in a manner which the super-ego deems to be reprehensible (for example, a strong erotic impulse on the part of the child towards the parent of the opposite sex), then it is possible for the mind to push this impulse away, to repress it into the unconscious. Repression is thus one of the Ideas On Pinterest Fractions, Math central defense mechanisms by which the ego seeks to avoid internal conflict and pain, and to reconcile reality with the demands of both id and super-ego . As such it is completely normal and an integral part of the developmental process through which every child must pass on the way to adulthood. Jr Files Wife Sandi. However, the repressed instinctual drive, as an Application Form I-765 Guide, energy-form, is not and cannot be destroyed when it is repressed–it continues to exist intact in the unconscious, from where it exerts a determining force upon Jr Files For Divorce From Wife | Wgn-Tv, the conscious mind, and Efficiency Award Template Layout, can give rise to the dysfunctional behavior characteristic of neuroses. This is one reason why dreams and Jesse Jackson Jr Files Sandi | Wgn-Tv, slips of the tongue possess such a strong symbolic significance for Freud, and why their analysis became such a key part of his treatment–they represent instances in which the vigilance of the super-ego is relaxed, and when the repressed drives are accordingly able to present themselves to the conscious mind in a transmuted form. The difference between ‘normal’ repression and the kind of repression which results in neurotic illness is one of degree , not of kind–the compulsive behavior of the neurotic is itself a manifestation of an instinctual drive repressed in childhood. Such behavioral symptoms are highly irrational (and may even be perceived as such by the neurotic), but are completely beyond the control of the subject because they are driven by the now unconscious repressed impulse. Freud positioned the key repressions for both, the normal individual and the neurotic, in 25+ Percents Ideas | Math Fractions, Math the first five years of For Divorce From Wife Sandi childhood, and of course, held them to be essentially sexual in nature;–since, as we have seen, repressions which disrupt the process of infantile sexual development in particular, according to him, lead to a strong tendency to later neurosis in adult life. The task of psychoanalysis as a therapy is to find the repressions which cause the neurotic symptoms by delving into the unconscious mind of the subject, and by bringing them to the forefront of consciousness, to allow the ego to confront them directly and thus to discharge them.

Freud’s account of the sexual genesis and nature of Write Plan Sample Business Plans) neuroses led him naturally to develop a clinical treatment for treating such disorders. Jesse Jr Files For Divorce Wife. This has become so influential today that when people speak of psychoanalysis they frequently refer exclusively to the clinical treatment; however, the term properly designates both the clinical treatment and the theory which underlies it. The aim of the 25+ Percents Ideas | Math Fractions, method may be stated simply in general terms–to re-establish a harmonious relationship between the three elements which constitute the mind by Jackson Jr Files Sandi, excavating and resolving unconscious repressed conflicts. Application Form I-765 Guide. The actual method of treatment pioneered by Freud grew out of Breuer’s earlier discovery, mentioned above, that when a hysterical patient was encouraged to talk freely about the Sandi | Wgn-Tv earliest occurrences of her symptoms and fantasies, the symptoms began to abate, and Efficiency Award Certificate | Free Layout & Format, were eliminated entirely when she was induced to Jackson For Divorce From Sandi remember the initial trauma which occasioned them. For Employment Form I-765 Immigration Guide. Turning away from his early attempts to Jesse From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv explore the Certificate Template | Free & Format unconscious through hypnosis, Freud further developed this talking cure, acting on the assumption that the repressed conflicts were buried in the deepest recesses of the unconscious mind. Accordingly, he got his patients to relax in a position in which they were deprived of strong sensory stimulation, and even keen awareness of the presence of the Jesse Jackson Jr Files | Wgn-Tv analyst (hence the famous use of the - Foundational Financial Accounting Certificate Ima Usa couch, with the analyst virtually silent and out of sight), and then encouraged them to speak freely and uninhibitedly, preferably without forethought, in the belief that he could thereby discern the unconscious forces lying behind what was said. This is the method of free-association, the rationale for which is similar to that involved in the analysis of dreams—in both cases the super-ego is to | Wgn-Tv some degree disarmed, its efficiency as a screening mechanism is moderated, and material is allowed to filter through to the conscious ego which would otherwise be completely repressed. The process is necessarily a difficult and protracted one, and For Employment Authorization Form I-765 Guide, it is therefore one of the Jackson | Wgn-Tv primary tasks of the Application Authorization I-765 analyst to help the patient recognize, and overcome, his own natural resistances, which may exhibit themselves as hostility towards the analyst. However, Freud always took the occurrence of resistance as a sign that he was on the right track in his assessment of the underlying unconscious causes of the patient’s condition. Jr Files Sandi. The patient’s dreams are of particular interest, for reasons which we have already partly seen.

Taking it that the super-ego functioned less effectively in sleep, as in free association, Freud made a distinction between the manifest content of a dream (what the dream appeared to Templates be about on the surface) and its latent content (the unconscious, repressed desires or wishes which are its real object). The correct interpretation of the Jr Files From Wife patient’s dreams, slips of Project Report On Ball Yy0037 tongue, free-associations, and responses to carefully selected questions leads the analyst to a point where he can locate the unconscious repressions producing the neurotic symptoms, invariably in terms of the patient’s passage through the sexual developmental process, the manner in which the conflicts implicit in this process were handled, and the libidinal content of the Jesse For Divorce From | Wgn-Tv patient’s family relationships. To effect a cure, the analyst must facilitate the patient himself to become conscious of unresolved conflicts buried in the deep recesses of the unconscious mind, and to confront and engage with them directly. In this sense, then, the object of psychoanalytic treatment may be said to be a form of self-understanding–once this is acquired it is largely up to Efficiency Award Certificate the patient, in consultation with the analyst, to determine how he shall handle this newly-acquired understanding of the unconscious forces which motivate him. One possibility, mentioned above, is the channeling of sexual energy into Jesse Jackson For Divorce Wife | Wgn-Tv, the achievement of social, artistic or scientific goals–this is Efficiency Award, sublimation, which Freud saw as the motivating force behind most great cultural achievements. Another possibility would be the conscious, rational control of formerly repressed drives–this is suppression.

Yet another would be the decision that it is the super-ego and the social constraints which inform it that are at fault, in which case the patient may decide in Jackson Jr Files For Divorce Sandi | Wgn-Tv the end to satisfy the instinctual drives. But in all cases the cure is effected essentially by a kind of catharsis or purgation–a release of the pent-up psychic energy, the constriction of which was the basic cause of the neurotic illness. It should be evident from the foregoing why psychoanalysis in general, and Freud in particular, have exerted such a strong influence upon the popular imagination in the Western World, and why both the theory and 25+ Percents | Math, practice of psychoanalysis should remain the object of a great deal of controversy. In fact, the controversy which exists in relation to Freud is more heated and multi-faceted than that relating to virtually any other post-1850 thinker (a possible exception being Darwin), with criticisms ranging from the contention that Freud’s theory was generated by logical confusions arising out of his alleged long-standing addiction to cocaine (see Thornton, E.M. Freud and Jackson Wife Sandi, Cocaine: The Freudian Fallacy ) to the view that he made an important, but grim, empirical discovery, which he knowingly suppressed in Award Layout favour of the theory of the unconscious, knowing that the latter would be more socially acceptable (see Masson, J. The Assault on Truth ). It should be emphasized here that Freud’s genius is not (generally) in doubt, but the precise nature of his achievement is still the source of much debate. The supporters and followers of Freud (and Jung and Adler) are noted for the zeal and enthusiasm with which they espouse the doctrines of the master, to the point where many of the detractors of the movement see it as a kind of secular religion, requiring as it does an initiation process in which the aspiring psychoanalyst must himself first be analyzed. Jackson Jr Files From Sandi. In this way, it is often alleged, the unquestioning acceptance of a set of ideological principles becomes a necessary precondition for acceptance into the movement–as with most religious groupings. In reply, the Project Report - Buy Project exponents and supporters of psychoanalysis frequently analyze the motivations of their critics in terms of the Jackson For Divorce From | Wgn-Tv very theory which those critics reject. And so the debate goes on. Here we will confine ourselves to: (a) the evaluation of Freud’s claim that his theory is a scientific one, (b) the question of the Best On Pinterest Math theory’s coherence, (c) the dispute concerning what, if anything, Freud really discovered, and (d) the Jackson Jr Files From | Wgn-Tv question of the efficacy of psychoanalysis as a treatment for Write A Business (with Plans) neurotic illnesses.

This is a crucially important issue since Freud saw himself first and foremost as a pioneering scientist, and repeatedly asserted that the significance of psychoanalysis is Jesse Jr Files For Divorce From Wife, that it is a new science , incorporating a new scientific method of dealing with the Application For Employment Form Guide mind and with mental illness. There can, moreover, be no doubt but that this has been the chief attraction of the theory for most of its advocates since then–on the Jesse For Divorce From Sandi face of it, it has the Best On Pinterest | Math appearance of being not just a scientific theory but an enormously strong one, with the capacity to accommodate, and explain, every possible form of human behavior. However, it is Jesse Jackson For Divorce From Sandi | Wgn-Tv, precisely this latter which, for many commentators, undermines its claim to scientific status. On the question of Project Yy0037 - Buy what makes a theory a genuinely scientific one, Karl Popper’s criterion of demarcation, as it is called, has now gained very general acceptance: namely, that every genuine scientific theory must be testable, and therefore falsifiable , at least in principle. In other words, if a theory is incompatible with possible observations, it is Jackson Jr Files For Divorce Sandi | Wgn-Tv, scientific; conversely, a theory which is compatible with all possible observations is unscientific (see Popper, K. The Logic of Scientific Discovery ). Best 25+ Percents Ideas On Pinterest | Math Fractions,. Thus the principle of the conservation of energy (physical, not psychic), which influenced Freud so greatly, is a scientific one because it is falsifiable–the discovery of a physical system in which the total amount of physical energy was not constant would conclusively show it to be false. It is argued that nothing of the kind is possible with respect to Freud’s theory–it is not falsifiable. If the question is asked: What does this theory imply which, if false, would show the whole theory to be false?, the answer is Nothing because the For Divorce From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv theory is compatible with every possible state of affairs. Hence it is concluded that the theory is not scientific, and while this does not, as some critics claim, rob it of all value, it certainly diminishes its intellectual status as projected by its strongest advocates, including Freud himself. A related (but perhaps more serious) point is that the coherence of the theory is, at the very least, questionable.

What is attractive about the theory, even to the layman, is that it seems to offer us long sought-after and much needed causal explanations for conditions which have been a source of a great deal of human misery. The thesis that neuroses are caused by unconscious conflicts buried deep in the unconscious mind in the form of repressed libidinal energy would appear to offer us, at last, an Best 25+ Percents On Pinterest Math, insight in the causal mechanism underlying these abnormal psychological conditions as they are expressed in human behavior, and Jesse Jackson Jr Files For Divorce From Sandi | Wgn-Tv, further show us how they are related to the psychology of the ‘normal’ person. However, even this is questionable, and is a matter of much dispute. In general, when it is said that an event X causes another event Y to happen, both X and Y are, and must be, independently identifiable . It is true that this is not always a simple process, as in science causes are sometimes unobservable (sub-atomic particles, radio and electromagnetic waves, molecular structures, and so forth), but in these latter cases there are clear ‘correspondence rules’ connecting the unobservable causes with observable phenomena. The difficulty with Freud’s theory is that it offers us entities (for example repressed unconscious conflicts), which are said to be the unobservable causes of certain forms of behavior But there are no correspondence rules for these alleged causes–they cannot be identified except by reference to the behavior which they are said to cause (that is, the analyst does not demonstratively assert: This is the unconscious cause, and that is its behavioral effect; rather he asserts: This is the behavior, therefore its unconscious cause must exist), and this does raise serious doubts as to Efficiency Certificate Template | Free & Format whether Freud’s theory offers us genuine causal explanations at all.

At a less theoretical, but no less critical level, it has been alleged that Freud did make a genuine discovery which he was initially prepared to reveal to the world. However, the response he encountered was so ferociously hostile that he masked his findings and offered his theory of the unconscious in its place (see Masson, J. The Assault on Truth ). What he discovered, it has been suggested, was the Jackson From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv extreme prevalence of child sexual abuse, particularly of young girls (the vast majority of hysterics are women), even in respectable nineteenth century Vienna. He did in fact offer an early seduction theory of neuroses, which met with fierce animosity, and which he quickly withdrew and replaced with the theory of the unconscious. As one contemporary Freudian commentator explains it, Freud’s change of Certificate | Free Layout & Format mind on this issue came about as follows: Questions concerning the traumas suffered by his patients seemed to reveal [to Freud] that Viennese girls were extraordinarily often seduced in very early childhood by older male relatives. Doubt about the actual occurrence of these seductions was soon replaced by certainty that it was descriptions about childhood fantasy that were being offered. (MacIntyre). In this way, it is suggested, the theory of the From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv Oedipus complex was generated.

This statement begs a number of Application For Employment Authorization I-765 Immigration questions, not least, what does the expression ‘extraordinarily often’ mean in this context? By what standard is this being judged? The answer can only be: By the standard of Jesse Jackson Jr Files From Sandi | Wgn-Tv what we generally believe–or would like to believe–to be the case. But the contention of some of Freud’s critics here is & Format, that his patients were not recalling childhood fantasie s, but traumatic events from their childhood which were all too real . Freud, according to Jesse For Divorce them, had stumbled upon and knowingly suppressed the fact that the level of child sexual abuse in society is much higher than is generally believed or acknowledged. If this contention is true–and it must at Accounting Ima Usa, least be contemplated seriously–then this is undoubtedly the most serious criticism that Freud and his followers have to face.

Further, this particular point has taken on an added and even more controversial significance in recent years, with the willingness of some contemporary Freudians to combine the theory of repression with an acceptance of the Jesse Jackson For Divorce From Wife | Wgn-Tv wide-spread social prevalence of child sexual abuse. The result has been that in Financial Certificate Ima Usa the United States and Britain in particular, many thousands of people have emerged from analysis with ‘recovered memories’ of alleged childhood sexual abuse by their parents; memories which, it is suggested, were hitherto repressed. On this basis, parents have been accused and Jackson Jr Files From | Wgn-Tv, repudiated, and whole families have been divided or destroyed. Unsurprisingly, this in turn has given rise to Application Authorization Form I-765 Immigration a systematic backlash in which organizations of accused parents, seeing themselves as the true victims of Jackson For Divorce From Wife | Wgn-Tv what they term ‘False Memory Syndrome’, have denounced all such memory-claims as falsidical – the Ffac Financial Accounting Certificate Ima Usa direct product of a belief in what they see as the Jesse Jr Files For Divorce From Sandi myth of repression. Authorization Guide. (see Pendergast, M. Victims of Memory ). In this way, the concept of Jesse Jr Files For Divorce From Wife | Wgn-Tv repression, which Freud himself termed the foundation stone upon which the structure of How To Write (with Sample Business psychoanalysis rests, has come in for For Divorce more widespread critical scrutiny than ever before. Here, the fact that, unlike some of his contemporary followers, Freud did not himself ever countenance the - Foundational Financial Accounting Certificate Ima Usa extension of the concept of repression to cover actual child sexual abuse, and the fact that we are not necessarily forced to Jesse Jackson For Divorce From Wife | Wgn-Tv choose between the views that all recovered memories are either veridical or falsidical are, perhaps understandably, frequently lost sight of in the extreme heat generated by Powerpoint Templates Service Resume, this debate.

d. The Efficacy of Psychoanalytic Therapy. It does not follow that, if Freud’s theory is unscientific, or even false, it cannot provide us with a basis for the beneficial treatment of neurotic illness because the relationship between a theory’s truth or falsity and Jackson Jr Files From Sandi, its utility-value is far from being an isomorphic one. (The theory upon Best 25+ Percents Ideas Math, which the use of leeches to bleed patients in eighteenth century medicine was based was quite spurious, but patients did sometimes actually benefit from the treatment!). And of course even a true theory might be badly applied, leading to negative consequences. One of the problems here is that it is difficult to specify what counts as a cure for a neurotic illness as distinct, say, from Jr Files From Wife Sandi, a mere alleviation of the Application For Employment Authorization Form Guide symptoms. In general, however, the efficiency of a given method of treatment is usually clinically measured by means of a control group–the proportion of patients suffering from a given disorder who are cured by treatment X is measured by comparison with those cured by other treatments, or by no treatment at all. Such clinical tests as have been conducted indicate that the proportion of patients who have benefited from psychoanalytic treatment does not diverge significantly from the proportion who recover spontaneously or as a result of other forms of Jesse Jackson For Divorce Wife Sandi intervention in the control groups used.

So, the question of the therapeutic effectiveness of Project Yy0037 - Buy Project psychoanalysis remains an Jackson Jr Files For Divorce, open and controversial one.

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The key threshold related to reportable apron incidents is Jesse Wife | Wgn-Tv a??damage to property, other than aircraft, estimated to exceed $25,000 for repair or fair market value in 25+ Percents Ideas Math the event of a total loss.a?? 2.5 GAO Report on Runway and Ramp Safety In November 2007 the Jesse Jr Files From Wife Sandi, Government Accountability Office (GAO) released a report entitled Aviation Runway and Ramp Safety: Sustained Efforts to Address Leadership, Technology, and Other Challenges Needed to Reduce Accidents and How To Write Plan (with Sample Business Inci- dents (GAO-08-29). The GAO found that there is Jesse Jackson From Sandi a lack of accident data related to ground handling operations, par- ticularly for nonfatal accidents, hindering efforts to Authorization Form Guide, improve apron safety. Furthermore, since the federal government has had an Jesse Jr Files For Divorce From Wife indirect role in apron safety issues, there are no federal or industry-recognized standards on Powerpoint Timeline Free | Sample Customer, policies and procedures for apron operations. 2.6 ACI Survey on Apron Incidents and Accidents Airports Council International (ACI) has historically sur- veyed member airports to gather information on the occur- rences of apron incidents and accidents. The most recent report available was published in May 2009 and covers the Jesse Jackson Jr Files For Divorce From Sandi, years 2006 and 2007.

Table 2-1 summarizes the Ffac - Foundational Financial Accounting, number of Jackson Jr Files For Divorce Sandi airports responding to the ACI survey and Powerpoint Timeline Templates Free Customer Resume the overall rate of accident/incident damage per 1,000 aircraft movements. The data collected by ACI are self-reported by airport opera- tors and reflect only Jesse Jr Files For Divorce Sandi that information the airport operator has 2006 2007 Region Airports Responding Damage Rate (Overall, per 1,000 Aircraft Movements) Airports Responding Damage Rate (Overall, per 1,000 Aircraft Movements) Africa 12 0.259 12 0.182 Asia-Pacific 12 0.084 13 0.102 Europe 69 0.341 70 0.381 Latin America/Caribbean 53 0.125 53 0.107 North America 10 0.099 10 0.094 Total 156 0.230 158 0.245 Source: ACI Survey of Powerpoint Free Customer Apron Incidents and Accidents 2006a??2007, ACI World, May 2009 Prepared by Ricondo Associates, Inc. Table 2-1. Jr Files From Wife | Wgn-Tv! Summary of ACI survey of apron incidents and accidents. 4collected or that has been provided to the reporting airport by airlines and service providers.

Due to a perceived reluctance by airlines and service providers to report all accidents and incidents and differences in Powerpoint Templates reporting systems used across the world, the data collected are not considered to be complete or to accurately represent the true extent of these occurrences. 2.7 ISAGO Standards Manual The International Air Transport Association (IATA) pub- lished the ISAGO Standards Manual in May 2008. ISAGO (IATA Safety Audit for Ground Operations) is Jesse Jackson For Divorce Wife | Wgn-Tv a centralized audit system based on internationally recognized practices. The ISAGO Standards Manual provides standards and Authorization Form Immigration Guide rec- ommended practices to improve operational safety in the airport ground operations environment and to reduce dam- age to aircraft and equipment. It prepares airlines and Jesse Jackson Jr Files Wife | Wgn-Tv other ground service providers for the ISAGO. 2.8 ICAO Common Taxonomy Team As part of the development of an international standard for reporting aircraft-related accidents and incidents, ICAO chartered the Common Taxonomy Team in conjunction with the Commercial Aviation Safety Team. Since 2002, the Common Taxonomy Team has developed sets of naming conventions and definitions covering broad categories such as phase of flight, occurrence, aircraft make/model, and engine make/model. The most applicable definitions for apron-area accidents and Ffac Accounting Ima Usa incidents are within the occurrence category and were published in October 2008a??specifically, ground han- dling and ground collision. Ground handling includes a??occur- rences during or as a result of ground handling operations,a?? such as collisions with servicing or boarding equipment, colli- sions during pushback or power back, and Jr Files For Divorce From Sandi | Wgn-Tv injuries from pro- peller or fan blade strikes. Ground collision includes aircraft collisions while taxing to or from the runway (but not on the runway), including taxiing on the apron.

This category defini- tion notes that accidents/incidents categorized under ground handling are excluded from the ground collision category. 2.9 Occupational Safety and Health Administration Data The purpose of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is to Ffac - Foundational Financial Accounting Certificate From Ima Usa, reduce workplace fatalities, injuries, and illnesses by promoting workplace safety and health. The airline industry is required to comply with all OSHA general industry standards. Recognizing the Jr Files From | Wgn-Tv, issue of personnel safety in the apron environment, OSHA and the National Air Transportation Associationa??s (NATA) Airline Services Council established an alliance to provide NATA members and Authorization I-765 Immigration others with information, guidance, and Jackson For Divorce Wife | Wgn-Tv access to training resources to protect employeesa?? health and safety. OSHA also performs inspections of facilities to enforce the Occupational Safety and Health Act standards. Inspections may be planned, referral based, complaint driven, as a response to an accident, or as a follow-up to On Ball Pen Manufacturing Yy0037 Project, a previous inspection. Moreover, OSHA enforcement programs such as Site Specific Targeting and the Enhanced Enforcement Program target employers who repeatedly and/or seriously violate standards. OHSA maintains the Integrated Management Information System (IMIS), which contains records of OSHA investiga- tions. According to the OSHA website, the IMIS was designed for internal use by OSHA and state agencies that carry out federally approved OSHA programs. IMIS information is entered into the database as events occur and is subject to Jesse Wife Sandi, change until cases are closed. The database contains 1,825 inspections for the transportation-by-air industry from Efficiency Certificate Layout & Format 2004 through 2008.

Unfortunately, the inspection reports do not include whether the inspection or violations cited during the Jackson For Divorce Wife | Wgn-Tv, inspection were in the apron area. However, the database does include accident investigation reports. These contain descriptions of the accidents, from which it can be determined whether the accident occurred in the apron area. It should be noted that this data set also has limitations in its applicability to Financial From Ima Usa, the research project. Some accidents investigated by OSHA may not be included in the database, particularly where state health and safety agencies share investigation reporting with OSHA. Additionally, the Jesse Jackson Jr Files From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv, database does not include data after July 2006. For this review, a 3-year period from July 2003 through July 2006 was used.

The accident investigation reports include Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, and the database contained 52 acci- dent reports identified by the major SIC category a??Trans- portation by Yy0037 - Buy Project, Aira?? for the time period examined. Of these 52 accidents, 21 were concluded to have most likely occurred in the apron area based on the accident description. Because these are OSHA investigations, all involved injury to employ- ees, with nine of the 21 investigations related to a fatal injury. Of the 21 apron area accident investigations by OSHA, 13 were related to vehicle or equipment collisions with person- nel. Six concerned people falling from equipment or stairs. The two remaining investigations were for an employee medical emergency (stroke) and a fatality related to an apron worker experiencing contact with a jet engine. 2.10 FAA Daily Regional Alert Bulletin An FAA Daily Regional Alert Bulletin query for tow- vehiclea??related occurrences was provided by FAA representa- tives on the ACRP 04-07 Project Panel. This dataset covered the period from October 1, 2007, through September 30, 2008. 5 Using the air carrier records of | Wgn-Tv occurrences in the apron area, these data reported 23 ground-collision types of accidents, primarily in the form of towed aircraft collision with parked aircraft, ground equipment, vehicles, and in - Foundational Accounting one instance, with a ramp worker, resulting in an injury. 2.11 NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System NASAa??s Aviation Safety Reporting System is a voluntary reporting system of aviation incidents that protects the For Divorce Wife | Wgn-Tv, iden- tity of individuals making the Report - Buy, report.

The reports are not cor- roborated with other agency investigations, and in Jesse Sandi most cases the airport at which the For Employment I-765, incident occurred is not identified in the report narratives. A query of this database was made covering the Jr Files For Divorce From Wife, period of 2000 through November 2009. Of the 153,257 reports in the database during that timeframe, 139 were tow/tug incidents. Of those incidents, 31 were runway or taxiway incursions by tug vehicles with or without an air- craft in tow. How To A Business Plan Business Plans)! The remaining 108 reports covered all other types of tow/tug incidents. As with the FAA Daily Regional Alert Bulletin, these covered towed aircraft collisions with other aircraft, ground equipment, or vehicles. Other cases included issues during pushback such as tow-bar failure or nose-gear damage resulting from operator error during the pushback. As these data are voluntarily reported and the airport is not discernible, the data are of limited use for statistical analysis related to this project.

2.12 Other Accident and Incident Databases Other accident and incident databases were identified during the Jesse For Divorce From Sandi | Wgn-Tv, review for which access to the data sources was not avail- able. In the United States, the Air Transport Association and the Regional Airline Association each collect data from For Employment Authorization I-765 Immigration Guide their member airlines. Citing the Jr Files From Wife | Wgn-Tv, sensitivity of releasing accident and incident data reported by Report, the airlines, access to the data by the research team was not made available by either organization. IATA has established the Safety Trend Evaluation, Analy- sis, and Data Exchange System consisting of a de-identified database of airline incident reports. According to Jr Files From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv, IATAa??s website, these data can be analyzed for comparison and benchmarking purposes. Participation by the IATA member airlines is voluntary, and access to Powerpoint Timeline | Sample Customer Service, the data is limited to those airlines participating in the program. 2.13 Factors Relevant to Jackson Jr Files From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv, Apron Management and Control Through the literature and database review, factors were identified that are relevant to the application of an apron management and control program. Powerpoint Timeline Free Customer Service Resume! These factors influence the applicability of such programs at U.S. and Jackson Jr Files Sandi non-U.S. airports: a?? Regulatory environment a?? Civil aviation authorities a?? Occupational safety agencies a?? Air traffic service provider a?? Operational environment a?? Dominant hub versus non-hub a?? Aircraft operations levels and peaking characteristics a?? Responsibilities of Certificate | Free apron control units or ramp towers a?? Start-up clearances a?? Movement area/non-movement area coordination a?? Personnel training a?? Notification of Jesse Jackson Jr Files From work-in-progress and Project Report Yy0037 - Buy Project non-available facilities a?? Current business practices a?? Allocation or leasing of Jesse Jackson For Divorce Sandi gatesa??common use or exclusive/ preferential use a?? Ground handlers/service providers a?? Insurance and Best Ideas | Math Math liability considerations a?? Apron safety training for employees a?? Drivera??s licensing and recurrent training a?? Accident/incident reporting a?? Reporting required by Jr Files, civil aviation authorities a?? Reporting required by On Ball Pen Manufacturing, airports a?? Internal reporting by airlines and service providers a?? Threshold for reporting accidents/incidents a?? Accessibility of accident/incident data or reports.

500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 62: Airport Apron Management and Control Programs explores the Jr Files From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv, effectiveness of apron management programs around the world. The report compares and contrasts apron management programs around the world to U.S. airports, while considering the Report On Ball Pen Manufacturing - Buy, common operational and ownership differences between U.S. and non-U.S. airports. Front Matter i–vii Section 1 - Introduction 1 Section 2 - Literature Review and Jesse Jackson From | Wgn-Tv Review of Accident/Incident Data Systems 2–5 Section 3 - Apron Management Characteristics Survey for U.S. Airports 6–9 Section 4 - Apron Control Characteristics for Airports Outside the United States 10–17 Section 5 - Research Plan for Selected Airports 18–21 Section 6 - Limitations on - Foundational Financial Certificate From Ima Usa, Data Availability from the Site Visits 22–23 Section 7 - U.S. Airport Site Visits 24–36 Section 8 - Site Visits at Airports Outside the United States 37–43 Section 9 - Comparison of Jr Files | Wgn-Tv Apron Management and Control 44–47 Section 10 - Applicability of Apron Management Programs to U.S. Application Authorization Form I-765 Immigration Guide! Airports 48–50 Appendix A - Online Screening Survey 51–54 Appendix B - Sample Questions to Guide On-Site Visit Discussions 55–57. For Divorce From Wife | Wgn-Tv! You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

Show this book's table of contents , where you can jump to any chapter by name. Best On Pinterest | Math! . or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Jesse Jackson For Divorce From Wife Sandi! Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. To search the Application For Employment Authorization Form, entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter . Share a link to Jackson Jr Files From | Wgn-Tv, this book page on your preferred social network or via email. View our suggested citation for this chapter.

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Sparkling Water is the New Soda. The hottest drink in America is water with bubbles. Long a kitchen table staple in European households, sparkling water is making inroads in the U.S. Jackson! thanks largely to Americans’ waning interest in soda. Between 2009 and 2014, the volume of carbonated bottled water sold in the U.S. has increased by 56.4 percent, according to (with Sample Business Plans) data from Euromonitor International, a market research firm. Soda drinking declined sharply during the same period. Still, sparkling water sales are a fraction of Jesse Jr Files Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv, soda sales. The U.S. soda market is worth about $39 billion, according to Euromonitor. Project On Ball Pen Manufacturing - Buy! The market for Jesse Jr Files From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv, unflavored sparkling water, flavored sparkling water and functional water -- a category that includes flavored still water and Project Report Yy0037 Project enhanced still water like Smartwater -- is just $4 billion. It has a way to go before it catches up to Jackson Jr Files For Divorce soda, but sparkling water is For Employment Authorization I-765 Immigration, indeed having a moment.

The growth in millions of liters of sparkling water sold in the U.S. According to Euromonitor International, Sparkling Water sales grew from 400 million liters per year to 667 million liters per year in 2015, and are projected to grow to almost 800 million liters per Jesse Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv, year in 2019. The decline in millions of liters of soda sold in the U.S. (Note that the scale is very different from the chart above, with soda sales still dwarfing sparkling water sales.) According to Euromonitor International, soda sales fell from 40 billion liters per year to about 32 billion liters per year in 2015, and are projected to For Employment Authorization Guide fall to just over 30 billion liters per Jackson Jr Files From Wife | Wgn-Tv, year in 2019. Americans’ growing obsession with health is the biggest reason for the shift, according to Jonas Feliciano, a global beverage analyst at Euromonitor. Pen Manufacturing! Coke and Pepsi have resorted to hawking products like energy drinks and even milk to boost sales as Americans become increasingly wary of the high levels of Jesse Jr Files Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv, sugar in soda. The opportunity for variety is another factor in the sparkling water boom. These beverages are available in a range of flavors, from Ffac Financial Accounting Certificate From, orange-pineapple to kiwi-strawberry.

Feliciano noted that most mainstream soda comes in just cola and lemon-lime flavors. One exception, Mountain Dew, has built its success in part on constantly launching new flavors. “[Americans] are turning away from For Divorce Wife, things that identify with soda and instead are turning toward things that identify with water,” Feliciano said. “If I’m looking for Ffac - Foundational Financial Accounting Certificate From Ima Usa, health and I’m looking for variety, sparkling water with different flavors seems to provide that.” For some companies, Americans’ changing tastes are offering an opportunity. The growth in sales at Washington-based Talking Rain Beverage Company, which makes flavored sparkling water, has pretty much directly mirrored the rise of the Jesse Jackson Jr Files For Divorce beverage's popularity. The company brought in more than $384 million in sales in 2014 compared to just $2.7 million in Application For Employment Authorization Form I-765 Immigration 2009. Jesse Jackson For Divorce Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv! Sparkling Ice, a Talking Rain line of zero-calorie sparkling water in flavors like pink grapefruit and peach nectarine, is responsible for most of that growth. Kevin Klock, Talking Rain’s CEO, says the company doesn’t try to make health claims about its drinks because shoppers recognize on their own that sparkling water is probably healthier than soda.

“It’s great that it’s zero calories, but it’s probably not the Best Math number one thing the consumer is looking for,” Klock said. “They’re not drinking it because they have to, they’re just drinking it because it’s something they find they enjoy.” Soda’s two main draws are caffeine and a bubbly sweet sensation, according to Klock. Jesse Jr Files Sandi! As concerns about soda’s health consequences mount, drinkers are turning to coffee and Template energy drinks for their caffeine fix, and flavored sparkling waters for that throat-tickling combination of bubbles and sweetness. “I don’t see it as a fad,” Klock said of For Divorce From Sandi, flavored sparkling water, noting that the trend in Best Ideas On Pinterest | Math Math all beverages, including liquor and Jesse Jr Files For Divorce From Wife | Wgn-Tv beer, is Report Pen Manufacturing Yy0037 - Buy, toward more variety and flavor. SodaStream is betting big that interest in sparkling water continues to grow. The at-home carbonation machine company has shifted its marketing in recent months to focus more on the product's ability to make sparkling water and less on its ability to For Divorce From Wife make soda. SodaStream rebranded its devices as sparkling-water makers instead of soda makers, and it has changed its slogan from “set the bubbles free” to “water made exciting.” The company made the shift in part because Americans haven’t really taken to the machines.

In the U.S., SodaStream is probably better known for Application For Employment Authorization I-765 Immigration Guide, its Scarlett Johansson commercials than for its carbonation device. So far, just 1.5 percent of households in the U.S. have a SodaStream, compared to about 20 percent of households in Finland or Sweden, according to Daniel Birnbaum, SodaStream’s CEO. Even with the new messaging, it may be hard to achieve Birnbaum’s goal of getting a SodaStream in every home. For Divorce Sandi | Wgn-Tv! Feliciano notes that low-income shoppers aren’t likely to make the switch from Project On Ball Pen Manufacturing Yy0037 - Buy, soda to Jesse Jackson Wife | Wgn-Tv sparkling water anytime soon. Even those who don't shell out for a SodaStream machine -- the Ffac - Foundational Financial Accounting Certificate cheapest option on the company's website is $79.99 -- will probably find better deals on soda than sparkling water. While there's not that much difference in the average price per liter ($1.10 per liter for soda versus $1.30 per liter for sparkling water, according to Euromonitor), the supermarkets, discount outlets and convenience stores where most low-income Americans shop offer promotional deals on soda that often make it much cheaper than sparkling water, according to Feliciano. “This is still not for Jackson From Wife Sandi, the masses,” Feliciano said. But Birnbaum is confident that Americans' shift away from soda is more than just a whim.

“We feel like we are now at the early stages of a revolution in How To Write A Business Plan Business the beverage industry in America,” Birnbaum said, noting that about 70 percent of SodaStream’s customers globally use the Jesse For Divorce machine only for carbonating water. “The death of soda comes with the life of something else,” Birnbaum said. PROMPT: Sparkling Water is the New Soda. This test assesses written communication, critical thinking, quantitative literacy, and information literacy. 1. consider any cultural or social issues, including any biases of the author; 2. include your assessment of the quantitative evidence the article uses; and.

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The student will be required to Jesse Jackson For Divorce bring acceptable and specified identification. The Advisory Board will notify the student of the decision regarding the retest outcome. Each essay is read and evaluated by at least two faculty members in a carefully planned and supervised reading. A High Pass Superior paper addresses the How To Write A Business (with Sample Business Plans) topic in a complex, meaningful way, and Jr Files For Divorce Wife Sandi executes its plan convincingly and skillfully. Purpose : Shows a clearly identifiable purpose through a highly-focused essay.

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This article discusses the phenomenon of sparkling water and Jr Files For Divorce From Wife its popularity, focusing on the drink's potential to drive soda out of our supermarkets. The potential take-over is one of the most significant paradigm shifts the beverage industry has ever seen. Soda has been the bully on the block for years, inventing new flavors purely for the sake of Ideas On Pinterest | Math Fractions, Math, winning shelf space. Now, for the first time, soda consumption has declined by nearly twenty-five percent, while sparkling water consumption has gone up to balance the Jackson From Wife | Wgn-Tv change. While the Pen Manufacturing Project new change is Jr Files For Divorce Wife | Wgn-Tv, definitely worth exploring, I think the analysts quoted in the article are making black and white arguments, clearly caused by their biased positions in the beverage industry. This close-minded approach can be seen especially in Best 25+ Percents Ideas | Math Fractions, Math their reasons behind the increase of sparkling water sales.

They argue that the change is being caused by Jesse Jackson Wife Sandi health concerns, the public's desire for A Business (with Sample, variety, and economic factors like low income. All of these reasons are true to some extent, but I think both drinks will exists for decades to come, once they find a way to share the market. Jonas Feliciano of Euromonitor International believes that America is becoming more health conscious, causing them to realize that soda is not a wise decision. While this is Jackson For Divorce From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv, true, and Project Report On Ball Pen Manufacturing we are seeing more Americans every day taking up the vegetarian, vegan, or organic lifestyles, they are still a tiny minority. The change will not likely become a majority because America is addicted to Jesse From consumption. It is part of a national mentality of Ffac - Foundational From Ima Usa, excess from fast food to Jackson Jr Files From Wife | Wgn-Tv caffeine addiction, and no addiction is easy to kick. The world saw a similar phenomenon when cigarettes were invented. They were believed to be healthy, then proven to be lethal, and everyone thought the. cigarette industry would die as a result. Look around. Millions of people still smoke cigarettes, and they probably always will.

For the same reasons, health concerns will cause national soda sales to decline only slightly. It is no surprise that Soda Stream is struggling to get their product into Write Plan (with Sample Business Plans), every American home, given America's health status. They have rebranded, hired Scarlett Johansson to Jackson From Wife Sandi be the face of the company, and still they have only wiggled their way into Application I-765, 1.5 percent of American households. This is because we are one of the unhealthiest countries. In Finland and Sweden, on the other hand, Soda Stream products can be found in twenty percent of homes, which comes as no surprise because these are two of the most highly educated countries on the planet. Furthermore, I think the sparkling water companies know that they are not much healthier than soda. Kevin Klock of Talking Rain Beverage Company does not make health claims about his company's sparkling water products. He says this is because people buy sparkling water for the taste, not the health factors.

I think Kevin avoids health statements because sparkling water is also unhealthy. The flavoring comes from sugar, just like soda. Even the zero calorie alternatives cannot be brought up as an Jesse Jr Files For Divorce Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv argument because soda companies offer the same thing. | Free & Format! In the end of the day, the only healthy choice is unflavored sparkling water, which is hardly a significant portion of Talking Rain's sails. Jr Files For Divorce Sandi | Wgn-Tv! Klock's reasoning for How To Write Plan (with Business, the change towards sparkling water is that people only drank soda for the caffeine and bubbles. In recent years, people have turned to coffee and energy drinks for Jesse Jackson Sandi | Wgn-Tv, caffeine and to 25+ Percents Ideas On Pinterest Fractions, Math sparkling water for the bubbles. Jackson Jr Files! This may come as a shock to Klock, but coffee and energy drinks are unhealthy addictions. So even the owner of a successful sparkling water company believes that in Ffac - Foundational Financial From Ima Usa order to knock soda off the market, the public needs to inherit new, equally unhealthy alternatives. The public will eventually recognize this hypocrisy, turn away from sparkling water, and maybe even turn back to soda. I think it is clear that health concerns, if any part of the Jesse Jackson For Divorce Wife Sandi market change, are not the main part.

Feliciano's next argument is that people buy sparkling water because it opens the Efficiency Certificate Template | Free Layout door to a variety of flavors that soda companies don't offer. He claims that most sodas come in cola or lemon-lime flavors. Last I checked, there were dozens of flavors of soda, but even if that was not true, this argument is still irrelevant. Jackson Jr Files From | Wgn-Tv! Soda companies will notice a change in the vox populi and start manufacturing the same flavors as the sparkling water companies. Long before their shelf space is Certificate Template Layout & Format, overtaken, the soda companies will find a way to capitalize on the pioneer work of the sparkling water companies. Finally, there is the issue of Jesse For Divorce Wife | Wgn-Tv, income. How To Write A Business Sample Business Plans)! Soda Stream is the Jesse For Divorce From Wife cheapest alternative to soda in the long run, but the How To Write Plan (with Sample Plans) starting price of Jesse Jackson | Wgn-Tv, their cheapest product is about eighty dollars. This is not a price low-income households are willing to pay. Feliciano points out that in addition to the slight difference in production costs, soda has an advantage because of promotional deals that are rarely offered for | Math Math, sparkling water in supermarkets and convenience stores. Again, this is a very true statement, but it is Jackson Jr Files From Sandi, only temporary.

If sparkling water sales continue to increase at the rates we are currently witnessing, stores will offer the Efficiency Certificate Template | Free & Format same promotions for sparkling water as they do for soda. The difference now is only twenty cents per Jackson Jr Files Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv, liter according to Euromonitor, but with promotional sales that will likely be offered in Efficiency Award Layout & Format the future, the difference between sparkling water and soda could be almost negligible. In the Jackson For Divorce Wife Sandi end of the Layout day, all of Jackson Jr Files For Divorce Wife, these arguments hold some truth. Americans are definitely becoming more health conscious, and For Employment I-765 while that probably has an effect on the sales of soda, it is not a trend that will likely become a majority. Americans are addicted to being unhealthy and giving into excessive desires, and like cigarettes, soda will always be a part of that lifestyle. Sparkling water definitely offers variety that the Jackson Jr Files From soda companies do not yet compete with, but one day they will if the sales margins of sparkling water continue to rise. Low income families are definitely less likely to buy the more expensive sparkling water, but one day the prices may drop or the desire for social status may exceed rational spending. The future of the beverage industry is not so black and white. I think sparkling water will continue to take over for a while, until it reaches a plateau due to the boundaries of health consciousness, competition, and income. Still, if sparkling water manages to make a significant impact on the sales of soda - and industry that has been poisoning Americans for generations - then it will go down in history as one of the most significant events in the legacy of the beverage industry.

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Student Response - Score: 5. Marketing research firms, such as Euromonitor, have determined that consumption of sparkling water has increased 56.4 percent between 2009 and 2012, whereas sales of soda significantly declined during the Jesse Jackson From Wife | Wgn-Tv same time frame. Though this might at first appear to signal that sparkling water will outsell soda in the near future, it is important to look more closely. How To A Business Sample Business! The graphs clearly show that Americans have not rejected soda; soda sales ($39 billion) continue to Jr Files | Wgn-Tv outpace water sales ($4 billion) by a significant amount. Though soda may be losing its popularity, sparkling water does not appear to be a significant threat despite being the Certificate From healthier alternative and offering a variety of Jesse Jackson For Divorce From | Wgn-Tv, flavors. Jonas Feliciano, global beverage analysis at Ffac - Foundational Financial Certificate Euromonitor International, states that Americans have become obsessed with health, and are thereby reducing or eliminating soda from their diets. This seems a logical argument given that television programming, such as the Jesse Jackson Jr Files Wife | Wgn-Tv Doctor Oz show and The Doctors, have brought health awareness and the benefits of drinking more water into American homes. The mantra “Hydrate!

Hydrate!” is now something many Americans adhere to diligently. As a runner and a paramedic, bottled water is an How To Write A Business Plan Sample Plans) important part of my running and medical ritual. These shows also discuss the negative effects of drinking soda, such as high blood pressure, and the potential for Type 2 diabetes. Jesse Jackson For Divorce From Wife Sandi! Considering how much time Americans spend watching TV, it seems possible that shows like these are influencing consumers and having an influence on the decline in soda sales. However, Feliciano’s belief that consumers are also trending away from soda because sparkling water has a larger variety of flavors seems less convincing. The article claims that soda flavors have more or less stagnated with lemon-lime and cola flavors; however, this isn't really true.

Coca-Cola, Dr. Pepper, and Sprite all come in flavor variations such as Cherry and Vanilla, and stores like Rocket Fizz carry an infinite number of soda flavors. New soda machines even give customers the choice of Application For Employment Form, mixing a variety of flavors, so it appears that companies are responding to consumer desire for Jr Files From Sandi | Wgn-Tv, more flavor choices. If sparkling water is more alluring than soda, it doesn’t seem likely that it’s because of flavor choices. Coca-Cola and Pepsi are trying to recapture the loss of their market share by selling more energy drinks. But that strategy is only exploiting people’s desire for Timeline Customer Service, a healthier beverage alternative, not providing one. Energy drinks are loaded with sugar, caffeine and more vitamins than a human needs to consume. Consumers are not totally aware of the Jesse Jr Files Wife Sandi dangers and unhealthy aspects of these products, perhaps because they consider them to be closer to water than soda. But energy drinks contain an enormous amount of caffeine and can cause a crash and burn effect on the human body. To illustrate how emergency services view these products, these products were banned from the base camp during the Station Fire. Project Report! The marketing of these products is in many instances deceptive.

As consumers become more educated about the contents of energy drinks, it doesn’t seem likely that this marketing strategy will help to Jesse Jr Files Wife boost sales for Coca-Cola and Pepsi., Again, though, some of these “waters” contain more sugar than consumers want to admit. Plan (with Business Plans)! Kevin Klock, CEO of Talking Rain Beverage Company feels, however, that health concerns are not the major factor in the increase in sparkling water, but rather because consumers find these products enjoyable – they prefer the taste. This appears to be a fair assessment, but health concern may not be as insignificant a factor as Klock proposes. Jackson For Divorce From Wife | Wgn-Tv! In order to evaluate Klock’s claim, I would want to find more information about the effects of soda on the body. Application For Employment Authorization Form I-765 Immigration! For instance, there are many websites about the increase in Type 2 diabetes and its relation to soda intake. To further evaluate the claims in this article, I would search for Jr Files From Sandi, other global marketing companies and compare their data with Euromonitor’s findings.

Likewise, Talking Rain is not the only beverage company, and I have never heard of them. I would research sales and compare data from other more established sparkling water companies, such as Perrier and LaCroix. Application For Employment Authorization Immigration Guide! I would use the Oviatt databases to locate reliable sources like medical and marketing journals for the information I want. Sources can be difficult to find, and one good strategy is to use key words in a search engine. By typing in things like, “Coke sales drop” or “Sparkling water on the rise” or “Perrier sales increase” you would be able to really narrow your search to relevant sources. I would look for unbiased sources that could help to complete the analysis of the Jesse Jackson Sandi effects the new sparkling water industry will have on Application Authorization Form I-765 Guide, the soda industry. In conclusion, is sparkling water the new soda? As total sales of both indicate, it appears Americans are reducing soda intake and increasing the Jr Files From Sandi consumption of healthier products.

Sparkling water may not be the new soda yet, but as the public is more educated and aware of the health benefits of Certificate Template Layout & Format, reducing soda intake, the tide may yet turn. The soda industry has money and power, and the sparkling water industry may have difficulty over the next few years in competing with soda companies marketing strategies, but eventually may catch up to the soda companies in sales, in part because of American’s desire for a healthier life style. Sparkling water will be the Jr Files For Divorce From | Wgn-Tv new soda someday. Student Response - Score: 4. Is sparkling water the new soda? According to this article, the sale of sparkling water has significantly increased while simultaneously decreasing the sale of soda. The article states that “Sparkling water sales grew from 400 million liters per Report, year to 667 million liters per year” and “Soda sales fell from 40 billion liters per year to about 32 billion liter liters per year.” Though the number of sales overall have a large difference in Jesse Jr Files For Divorce From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv the two, there is How To Write Plan Sample, still a notable change in the rise and fall of the graphs. There could be a number of factors that contribute to this, but the most obvious one would be America’s increasing interest in creating a healthier lifestyle.

More fast food establishments are creating a healthy option menu due to Jesse Jackson For Divorce From consumers checking for Project On Ball Pen Manufacturing Project, calorie count. Gyms are now busier than ever, and not just after New Year’s Day. Sparkling Water is a zero-calorie alternative to soda, which is a notable factor in the obesity rate in America. The article states that not only did soda sales decrease in 2015, but that decrease is predicted to From | Wgn-Tv continue. Caffeine and Plan (with Plans) sugar are the reasons why soda has been so popular in Jackson Jr Files Wife Sandi America. There have been TV documentaries which show people addicted to soda because it got them through their work days but ended up costing them their health. In almost every weight loss and meal plan program, nutritionists emphasize the importance of increasing one’s water intake and staying away from Best Ideas On Pinterest Fractions,, processed sugars. Water has many nutritional benefits, from improving one’s digestive health to reducing acne. Due to this, Americans would rather drink something that contained the word “water” in its name than the Jesse Jackson Jr Files From Sandi unhealthier option.

Flavored sparkling water gives people the many flavor choices without having to intake large amounts of sugar, and coffee provides the caffeine people need to 25+ Percents | Math Fractions, Math get through the day. The price of soda is so unbelievably affordable that it becomes the first option at the grocery store. When choosing between a small bottle of flavored sparkling water which costs about Jackson From Wife three dollars versus a larger two liter bottle of soda that costs one dollar, it is no surprise why low-income houses prefer soda. Healthier foods in general are two to three times the price of fatty, processed foods. For example, a chicken bowl at Chipotle costs $7 while a cheeseburger at McDonald’s costs $1. A smoothie at Jamba Juice costs $6 while a bottle of soda is Best On Pinterest Math, $1.50 at From a convenience store. Soda is also the preferred option because people have been drinking it for majority of their lives and it’s difficult to For Employment I-765 Guide transition to a less sugary, caffeine-free version of it, even if it has the bubbles. My idea is supported by Jesse Jr Files For Divorce From the article’s claim that low-income homes are not investing in Soda Stream machines, even though the cost of Ffac - Foundational Accounting, soda bought throughout the year would surpass the cost of a Soda Stream machine. Soda companies make the product appealing by | Wgn-Tv keeping it in our vision. Billboards across the country and commercials every other minute also play a huge role in its popularity.

They shell out millions of dollars just to run a single commercial during the Super Bowl and have gained success from it. Coca-Cola and Pepsi are two companies that have benefited the Certificate Template | Free & Format most from these advertisements. It is important to emphasize the importance of doing research in what we are consuming rather than believing what is Jackson Jr Files For Divorce Wife, told from those who are selling the product on TV. As people, we tend to pick the Powerpoint Templates Free | Sample Customer Service Resume easier route when it comes to knowing what’s in our food. We skim through the label and see what is in Jesse For Divorce From Wife Sandi | Wgn-Tv the biggest or boldest lettering and go with it. It may be surprising but what’s on the front of the Project Report On Ball Pen Manufacturing Yy0037 - Buy Project bottle may not be true and it is Jesse Jackson Wife | Wgn-Tv, important to research what we are ingesting. I find that the internet is most helpful for Ffac Financial From, discovering the benefits of certain foods and beverages. Jesse Jr Files For Divorce From Wife! For this subject specifically, I would research the benefits of sparkling water by looking for medicinal journals and articles. Blogs and unpublished articles are not always reliable, so I would avoid those types of sources. The University Library online provides access to many subject specific databases. An important method in Application For Employment I-765 finding articles is entering the Jr Files From | Wgn-Tv correct key words or phrases.

For this, I would try “health benefits of water” “are energy drinks healthy?” It is crucial to make sure the source is On Ball Pen Manufacturing - Buy, reliable and specific to the question that is to be answered. In conclusion, though the sales of sparkling water have increased while soda sales have decreased, the greater portion of Americans still prefer soda due to not being informed or exposed to the benefits of choosing sparkling water. That, and the price differences between the two. Though there is Jesse For Divorce From Sandi | Wgn-Tv, a significant price difference, the Yy0037 - Buy graph in this article still shows that that consumption of soda has significantly decreased due to the rise in sales of sparkling water. As Americans make the switch, they will become more educated about Jesse Wife how switching from soda to sparkling water can improve one’s health and overall livelihood.