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Minority Group and Multiculturalism. This research was commissioned by the Transatlantic Council on Migration, an Resume Template Sample | Resume, initiative of the Migration Policy Institute (MPI), for its seventh plenary meeting, held November 2011 in Cosmetic Surgery, Berlin. The meeting’s theme was “National Identity, Immigration, and Social Cohesion: (Re)building Community in an Ever-Globalizing World” and this paper was one of the reports that informed the Council’s discussions. Resume Template » Volunteer Sample Cv? The Council, an MPI initiative undertaken in cooperation with its policy partner the Bertelsmann Stiftung, is Cosmetic Surgery Argumentative a unique deliberative body that examines. We will write a custom essay sample. on Minority Group and Template Sample | Resume Multiculturalism or any similar. topic specifically for you. vital policy issues and informs migration policymaking processes in North America and Europe. Debt Default? The Council’s work is generously supported by the following foundations and governments: Carnegie Corporation of New York, Open Society Foundations, Bertelsmann Stiftung, the Barrow Cadbury Trust (UK Policy Partner), the Luso-American Development Foundation, the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, and the governments of Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and Volunteer Resume Template Sample Sweden. For more on the Transatlantic Council on Migration, please visit: www. 8+ Simple Profit And Loss Statement Invoice? migrationpolicy. org/transatlantic. © 2012 Migration Policy Institute. All Rights Reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from the Migration Policy Institute. A full-text PDF of this document is available for free download from www. migrationpolicy. org. Permission for reproducing excerpts from this report should be directed to: Permissions Department, Migration Policy Institute, 1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036, or by contacting [emailprotected] Page 2 Minority Group and Multiculturalism Essay. 28 About the » Volunteer Sample | Resume Author…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32 MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE Executive Summary Ideas about the legal and political accommodation of ethnic diversity — commonly termed “multiculturalism” — emerged in the West as a vehicle for replacing older forms of ethnic and racial hierarchy with new relations of democratic citizenship.Despite substantial evidence that these policies are making progress toward that goal, a chorus of political leaders has declared them a failure and heralded the death of multiculturalism.

This popular master narrative is problematic because it mischaracterizes the nature of the Label - Design, | Free experiments in multiculturalism that have been undertaken, exaggerates the extent to which they have been abandoned, and misidentifies not only the genuine difficulties and limitations they have encountered but the Resume Template Sample Cv options for addressing these problems. Talk about the retreat from multiculturalism has obscured the fact that a form of multicultural integration remains a live option for Western democracies. This report challenges four powerful myths about Iheartmedia Suit Debt - San multiculturalism. ?? First, it disputes the caricature of Volunteer Resume | Resume Cv, multiculturalism as the uncritical celebration of diversity at Files Suit Notice the expense of addressing grave societal problems such as unemployment and social isolation. Instead it offers an account of multiculturalism as the pursuit of Volunteer Resume Template Resume Sample Cv, new relations of democratic citizenship, inspired and English Language Example Lesson 2013. constrained by human-rights ideals. Volunteer Template » Volunteer Resume | Resume? ?? Second, it contests the idea that multiculturalism has been in wholesale retreat, and offers instead evidence that multiculturalism policies (MCPs) have persisted, and 7+ Vintage Templates have even grown stronger, over the past ten years. ?? Third, it challenges the idea that multiculturalism has failed, and offers instead evidence that MCPs have had positive effects. Volunteer Resume? ?? Fourth, it disputes the idea that the spread of civic integration policies has displaced multiculturalism or rendered it obsolete. The report instead offers evidence that MCPs are fully consistent with certain forms of civic integration policies, and that indeed the combination of multiculturalism with an “enabling” form of civic integration is Profit Statement | Commerce Invoice both normatively desirable and empirically effective in at least some cases. To help address these issues, this paper draws upon the Multiculturalism Policy Index. This index 1) identifies eight concrete policy areas where liberal-democratic states — faced with a choice — decided to Resume Resume develop more multicultural forms of citizenship in relation to immigrant groups and 2) measures the extent to which countries have espoused some or all of these policies over time. While there have been some high-profile cases of retreat from MCPs, such as the Netherlands, the general pattern from 1980 to 2010 has been one of modest strengthening.

Ironically, some countries that have been vociferous about multiculturalism’s “failure” (e. g. Chapter Kloppenborg Video? , Germany) have not actually practiced an active multicultural strategy. Talk about the retreat from multiculturalism has obscured the fact that a form of multicultural integration remains a live option for Western democracies. » Volunteer Sample Cv? However, not all attempts to adopt new models of multicultural citizenship have taken root or succeeded in achieving their intended effects. There are several factors that can either facilitate or impede the successful implementation of multiculturalism: Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future 1 MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE ?? Desecuritization of ethnic relations. Multiculturalism works best if relations between the. state and minorities are seen as an issue of Profit Statement | Commerce Invoice, social policy, not as an issue of state security. If the state perceives immigrants to Template » Volunteer | Resume be a security threat (such as Arabs and Muslims after 9/11), support for multiculturalism will drop and the space for minorities to even voice multicultural claims will diminish. ?? Human rights. Support for multiculturalism rests on the assumption that there is a shared commitment to human rights across ethnic and religious lines.

If states perceive certain groups as unable or unwilling to respect human-rights norms, they are unlikely to accord them multicultural rights or resources. Much of the backlash against Scout Recommendation Example - Best Template, multiculturalism is fundamentally driven by anxieties about Muslims, in particular, and their perceived unwillingness to embrace liberal-democratic norms. ?? Border control. Multiculturalism is more controversial when citizens fear they lack control over their borders — for Resume Template Cv instance when countries are faced with large numbers (or unexpected surges) of unauthorized immigrants or asylum seekers — than when citizens feel the borders are secure. ?? Diversity of immigrant groups. Multiculturalism works best when it is genuinely. multicultural — that is, when immigrants come from many source countries rather than coming overwhelmingly from just one (which is more likely to lead to polarized relations with the majority). ?? Economic contributions. Support for multiculturalism depends on the perception that immigrants are holding up their end of the bargain and making a good-faith effort to contribute to society — particularly economically. When these facilitating conditions are present, multiculturalism can be seen as a low-risk option, and indeed seems to have worked well in such cases. Multiculturalism tends to lose support in high-risk situations where immigrants are seen as predominantly illegal, as potential carriers of illiberal practices or movements, or as net burdens on the welfare state. However, one could argue that rejecting immigrant multiculturalism under these circumstances is in fact the higher-risk move.

It is precisely when immigrants are perceived as illegitimate, illiberal, and burdensome that multiculturalism may be most needed. To Invalidate Default? I. Introduction Ideas about the legal and Template » Volunteer Resume Sample political accommodation of ethnic diversity have been in Files Suit To Invalidate Debt - San, a state of Resume | Resume, flux around the world for the past 40 years. One hears much about the “rise and Eagle Scout Recommendation Letter Example Template fall of multiculturalism. | Resume? ” Indeed, this has become a kind of master narrative, widely invoked by scholars, journalists, and policymakers alike to explain the evolution of contemporary debates about diversity. Although people disagree about what comes after multiculturalism, there is a surprising consensus that we are in a post-multicultural era. This report contends that this master narrative obscures as much as it reveals, and that we need an Label Templates - Design, Templates, alternative framework for thinking about the choices we face. Multiculturalism’s successes and Template Resume failures, as well as its level of public acceptance, have depended on the nature of the issues at stake and the countries involved, and we need to Statement Invoice understand these variations if we are to identify a more sustainable model for Volunteer Resume Template » Volunteer Sample accommodating diversity. Project Management Kloppenborg - Ppt? This paper will argue that the master narrative 1) mischaracterizes the nature of the Volunteer Resume Template Resume Sample Cv experiments in multiculturalism that have been undertaken, 2) exaggerates the extent to which they have been abandoned, and 3) misidentifies the 4 Contemporary Project - Ppt Video genuine difficulties and limitations they have encountered and the options for addressing these problems. 2 Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE Before we can decide whether to Resume Template Cv celebrate or lament the fall of multiculturalism, we need first to make sure we know what multiculturalism has meant both in theory and in practice, where it has succeeded or failed to meet its objectives, and under what conditions it is Language Plans 2013. likely to thrive in the future. The Rise and Fall of Multiculturalism The master narrative of the “rise and Volunteer Resume Template » Volunteer Resume fall of multiculturalism” helpfully captures important features of our current debates.

Yet in some respects it is Eagle Scout Recommendation Letter Example Template misleading, and may obscure the real challenges and opportunities we face. In its simplest form, the Resume Resume Sample | Resume Cv master narrative goes like this:1 Since the mid-1990s … we have seen a backlash and retreat from Recommendation Letter Example - Best Template, multiculturalism. Volunteer Template? From the 1970s to mid-1990s, there was a clear trend across Western democracies toward the increased recognition and accommodation of diversity through a range of multiculturalism policies (MCPs) and minority rights. These policies were endorsed both at the domestic level in some states and by international organizations, and involved a rejection of earlier ideas of unitary and homogeneous nationhood. Since the mid-1990s, however, we have seen a backlash and retreat from multiculturalism, and a reassertion of ideas of nation building, common values and identity, and unitary citizenship — even a call for the “return of assimilation. ” This retreat is partly driven by fears among the Cosmetic majority group that the accommodation of diversity has “gone too far” and is threatening their way of life. This fear often expresses itself in the rise of nativist and populist right-wing political movements, such as the Volunteer Resume » Volunteer Resume Sample Danish People’s Party, defending old ideas of “Denmark for the Danish. ” But the retreat also reflects a belief among the English Language Example 2013. center-left that multiculturalism has failed to help the intended beneficiaries — namely, minorities themselves — because it has failed to address the underlying sources of their social, economic, and political exclusion and may have unintentionally contributed to their social isolation. As a result, even the center-left political movements that initially championed multiculturalism, such as the social democratic parties in Europe, have backed 1 For influential academic statements of this “rise and fall” narrative, claiming that it applies across the Western democracies, see Rogers Brubaker, “The Return of Assimilation? ” Ethnic and Racial Studies 24, no.

4 (2001): 531–48; and Sample | Resume Christian Joppke, “The Retreat of Profit | Commerce Invoice, Multiculturalism in the Liberal State: Theory and Policy,” British Journal of Sociology 55, no. 2 (2004): 237–57. There are also many accounts of the “decline,” “retreat,” or “crisis” of multiculturalism in particular countries. For the Netherlands, see Han Entzinger, “The Rise and Fall of Template » Volunteer, Multiculturalism in the Netherlands,” in Toward Assimilation and Citizenship: Immigrants in Liberal Nation-States, eds. Christian Joppke and Ewa Morawska (London: Palgrave, 2003) and Letter Example Ruud Koopmans, “Trade-Offs between Equality and Difference: The Crisis of Dutch Multiculturalism in Cross-National Perspective” (Brief, Danish Institute for International Studies, Copenhagen, December 2006).

For Britain, see Randall Hansen, “Diversity, Integration and the Turn from Multiculturalism in the United Kingdom,” in Volunteer » Volunteer Resume | Resume Cv, Belonging? Diversity, Recognition and Shared Citizenship in Canada, eds. Example Lesson Plans India? Keith G. Banting, Thomas J. Courchene, and F. Leslie Seidle (Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy, 2007); Les Back, Michael Keith, Azra Khan, Kalbir Shukra, and John Solomos, “New Labour’s White Heart: Politics, Multiculturalism and the Return of Assimilation,” Political Quarterly 73, No. 4 (2002): 445–54; Steven Vertovec, “Towards post-multiculturalism? Changing communities, conditions and | Resume Cv contexts of Files Suit To Invalidate Default, diversity,” International Social Science Journal 61 (2010): 83–95. For Australia, see Ien Ang and John Stratton, “Multiculturalism in Crisis: The New Politics of Race and » Volunteer Sample Cv National Identity in Australia,” in On Not Speaking Chinese: Living Between Asia and the West, ed. Cosmetic? I. Ang (London: Routledge, 2001). For Canada, see Lloyd Wong, Joseph Garcea, and Anna Kirova, An Analysis of the ‘Anti- and Post-Multiculturalism’ Discourses: The Fragmentation Position (Alberta: Prairie Centre for » Volunteer Resume Sample | Resume Excellence in Research on Immigration and Integration, 2005), http://pmc.

metropolis. net/Virtual%20Library/FinalReports/Post-multi%20FINAL%20REPORT%20for%20PCERII%20_2_. pdf. For a good overview of the backlash discourse in Recommendation Example - Best, various countries, see Steven Vertovec and Susan Wessendorf, eds. , The Multiculturalism Backlash: European Discourses, Policies and Practices (London: Routledge, 2010). Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future 3 MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE away from it and shifted to Volunteer Template » Volunteer Sample Cv a discourse that emphasizes “civic integration,” “social cohesion,” “common values,” and “shared citizenship. ”2 The social-democratic discourse of civic integration differs from the radical-right discourse in emphasizing the Surgery Argumentative Essay need to develop a more inclusive national identity and to fight racism and discrimination, but it nonetheless distances itself from the rhetoric and policies of Volunteer Resume Template Sample Cv, multiculturalism. The term postmulticulturalism has often been invoked to signal this new approach, which seeks to overcome the limits of 8+ Simple Profit And Loss Statement | Commerce Invoice, a naive or misguided multiculturalism while avoiding the oppressive reassertion of homogenizing nationalist ideologies.

3 II. What Is Multiculturalism? A. Misleading Model In much of the post-multiculturalist literature, multiculturalism is characterized as a feel-good celebration of ethnocultural diversity, encouraging citizens to acknowledge and embrace the panoply of customs, traditions, music, and cuisine that exist in a multiethnic society. Yasmin Alibhai-Brown calls this the “3S” model of multiculturalism in Volunteer Resume | Resume, Britain — saris, samosas, and Language Example Plans India 2013. steeldrums. 4. Multiculturalism takes these familiar cultural markers of ethnic groups — clothing, cuisine, and music — and treats them as authentic practices to be preserved by their members and safely consumed by others. Volunteer Resume Sample | Resume? Under the Chapter 4 Contemporary Project Management - Ppt banner of multiculturalism they are taught in school, performed in festivals, displayed in media and museums, and so on. This celebratory model of Volunteer Resume Template Resume Sample Cv, multiculturalism has been the focus of many critiques, including the following: ?? It ignores issues of economic and political inequality. Even if all Britons come to enjoy Jamaican steeldrum music or Indian samosas, this would do nothing to address the real problems facing Caribbean and South Asian communities in Britain — problems of unemployment, poor educational outcomes, residential segregation, poor English language skills, and political marginalization. These economic and political issues cannot be solved simply by celebrating cultural differences. ?? Even with respect to the (legitimate) goal of Iheartmedia To Invalidate Notice, promoting greater understanding of cultural. differences, the Resume | Resume focus on celebrating “authentic” cultural practices that are “unique” to each group is potentially dangerous.

First, not all customs that may be traditionally practiced within a particular group are worthy of being celebrated, or even of being legally tolerated, such as forced marriage. To avoid stirring up controversy, there’s a tendency to choose as the focus of multicultural celebrations safely inoffensive practices — such as cuisine or music — that can be enjoyably consumed by members of the larger society. But this runs the opposite risk 2. For an overview of the attitudes of European social democratic parties to these issues, see Rene Cuperus, Karl Duffek, and Johannes Kandel, eds. , The Challenge of Chapter Project Management Kloppenborg, Diversity: European Social Democracy Facing Migration, Integration and Multiculturalism (Innsbruck: Studien Verlag, 2003). For references to “post-multiculturalism” by progressive intellectuals, who distinguish it from the Volunteer Resume Template radical right’s “antimulticulturalism,” see, regarding the United Kingdom, Yasmin Alibhai-Brown, After Multiculturalism (London: Foreign Policy Centre, 2000), and “Beyond Multiculturalism,” Canadian Diversity/Diversite Canadienne 3, no. 2 (2004): 51–4; regarding Australia, James Jupp, From White Australia to Woomera: The Story of Australian Immigration, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007); and regarding the United States, Desmond King, The Liberty of Strangers: Making the Profit And Loss Statement American Nation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), and David A. Hollinger, Post-ethnic America: Beyond Multiculturalism, revised edition (New York: Basic Books, 2006). Alibhai-Brown, After Multiculturalism. 3 4 4 Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and Resume | Resume the Future MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE of the trivialization or Disneyfication of cultural differences,5 ignoring the 4 Contemporary Kloppenborg - Ppt real challenges that differences in » Volunteer Resume Sample | Resume, cultural and religious values can raise. ?? Third, the 3S model of multiculturalism can encourage a conception of groups as hermetically sealed and static, each reproducing its own distinct practices. Multiculturalism may be intended to Project Management Kloppenborg encourage people to share their customs, but the assumption that each group has its own distinctive customs ignores processes of Volunteer Resume Template » Volunteer Sample Cv, cultural adaptation, mixing, and melange, as well as emerging cultural commonalities, thereby potentially reinforcing perceptions of Product Templates - Design, Templates | Free, minorities as eternally “other. ” This in turn can lead to the strengthening of prejudice and Volunteer Resume » Volunteer Resume Sample | Resume stereotyping, and more generally to the polarization of ethnic relations. ?? Fourth, this model can end up reinforcing power inequalities and cultural restrictions within. minority groups.

In deciding which traditions are “authentic,” and how to interpret and display them, the state generally consults the traditional elites within the group — typically older males — while ignoring the way these traditional practices (and traditional elites) are often challenged by internal reformers, who have different views about how, say, a “good Muslim” should act. It can therefore imprison people in “cultural scripts” that they are not allowed to question or dispute. According to Iheartmedia Files Suit Debt post-multiculturalists, the growing recognition of these flaws underlies the » Volunteer Resume retreat from multiculturalism and signals the 7+ Vintage Templates Templates | Free search for new models of citizenship that emphasize 1) political participation and economic opportunities over the symbolic politics of Resume » Volunteer Resume Sample, cultural recognition, 2) human rights and individual freedom over respect for cultural traditions, 3) the building of inclusive national identities over Iheartmedia Files Suit Default - San the recognition of ancestral cultural identities, and 4) cultural change and cultural mixing over the reification of Resume Template » Volunteer Resume, static cultural differences. This narrative about the rise and fall of 3S multiculturalism will no doubt be familiar to many readers. In my view, however, it is inaccurate.

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These ideologies were widely accepted throughout the Western world and underpinned both domestic laws (e. g. , racially biased immigration and citizenship policies) and foreign policies (e. g. , in relation to overseas colonies). 5 6 Neil Bissoondath, Selling Illusions: The Cult of Multiculturalism in Canada. (Toronto: Penguin, 1994). Including relations of conqueror and conquered, colonizer and colonized, master and slave, settler and indigenous, racialized and unmarked, normalized and deviant, orthodox and heretic, civilized and primitive, and ally and enemy. Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future 5 MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE After World War II, however, the world recoiled against Hitler’s fanatical and murderous use of such ideologies, and the United Nations decisively repudiated them in favor of a new ideology of the Volunteer Template Sample equality of races and peoples. And this new assumption of Iheartmedia Files Suit To Invalidate Debt Notice, human equality generated a series of Volunteer Template Sample | Resume, political movements designed to contest the lingering presence or enduring effects of older hierarchies.

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Each of Cosmetic Argumentative Essay, these movements, therefore, can be seen as contributing to a process of democratic “citizenization” — that is, turning the earlier catalog of hierarchical relations into relationships of liberaldemocratic citizenship. This entails transforming both the vertical relationships between minorities and the state and Resume Template » Volunteer Resume | Resume Cv the horizontal relationships among the members of different groups. In the past, it was often assumed that the only way to engage in Example Lesson 2013., this process of citizenization was to impose a single undifferentiated model of citizenship on all individuals. But the ideas and policies of multiculturalism that emerged from the 1960s start from the assumption that this complex history inevitably and appropriately generates group-differentiated ethnopolitical claims. Template » Volunteer Sample Cv? The key to citizenization is not to suppress these differential claims but to filter them through and Lesson India frame them within the language of human rights, civil liberties, and democratic accountability. And this is what multiculturalist movements have aimed to do. The precise character of the resulting multicultural reforms varies from group to group, as befits the distinctive history that each has faced. They all start from the antidiscrimination principle that underpinned the Volunteer Resume Sample | Resume second wave but go beyond it to 4 Contemporary Project Management Video challenge other forms of exclusion or stigmatization. In most Western countries, explicit state-sponsored discrimination against Template Resume Cv, ethnic, racial, or religious minorities had largely ceased by Chapter 4 Contemporary Management Kloppenborg - Ppt Video, the 1960s and 1970s, under the influence of the second wave of humanrights struggles. Yet ethnic and racial hierarchies persist in many societies, whether measured in terms of economic inequalities, political underrepresentation, social stigmatization, or cultural invisibility. Various forms of Volunteer Resume Template » Volunteer Resume Sample, multiculturalism have been developed to help overcome these lingering inequalities.

The focus in this report is on multiculturalism as it pertains to (permanently settled) immigrant groups,7 7 There was briefly in Argumentative Essay, some European countries a form of “multiculturalism” that was not aimed at Resume Template Resume | Resume Cv the inclusion of permanent immigrants, but rather at ensuring that temporary migrants would return to their country of origin. For example, mothertongue education in Germany was not initially introduced “as a minority right but in order to enable guest worker children to reintegrate in their countries of 8+ Simple Profit | Commerce, origin” (Karen Schonwalder, “Germany: Integration Policy and Volunteer Template | Resume Cv Pluralism in a Self-Conscious Country of Immigration,” in The Multiculturalism Backlash: European Discourses, Policies and Practices, eds. Steven Vertovec and Susanne Wessendorf [London: Routledge, 2010], 160). Needless to say, this sort of “returnist” multiculturalism — premised on English Language Example Lesson Plans the idea that migrants are foreigners who should return to their real home — has nothing to do with multiculturalism policies (MCPs) premised on the idea that immigrants belong in their host countries, and which aim to make immigrants 6 Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE but it is worth noting that struggles for Template » Volunteer | Resume multicultural citizenship have also emerged in relation to historic minorities and indigenous peoples. Surgery? 8 C. The Evolution of Resume Template Sample | Resume Cv, Multiculturalism Policies. The case of immigrant multiculturalism is just one aspect of a larger “ethnic revival” across the Western democracies,9 in which different types of minorities have struggled for new forms of multicultural citizenship that combine both antidiscrimination measures and Iheartmedia Files To Invalidate Debt Default Notice - San positive forms of Resume Template » Volunteer Resume Sample | Resume Cv, recognition and accommodation. Multicultural citizenship for English Example Lesson Plans 2013. immigrant groups clearly does not involve the Volunteer Resume » Volunteer | Resume same types of claims as for indigenous peoples or national minorities: immigrant groups do not typically seek land rights, territorial autonomy, or official language status. What then is the substance of multicultural citizenship in relation to immigrant groups? The Multiculturalism Policy Index is one attempt to measure the evolution of MCPs in a standardized format that enables comparative research. 10 The index takes the following eight policies as the most common or emblematic forms of immigrant MCPs:11 ?? Constitutional, legislative, or parliamentary affirmation of multiculturalism, at the central and/ or regional and municipal levels ??

The adoption of multiculturalism in school curricula ?? The inclusion of ethnic representation/sensitivity in the mandate of public media or media licensing ?? Exemptions from dress codes, either by statute or by 8+ Simple And Loss Invoice, court cases ?? Allowing of dual citizenship ?? The funding of ethnic group organizations to support cultural activities ?? The funding of bilingual education or mother-tongue instruction ?? Affirmative action for disadvantaged immigrant groups12 feel more at home where they are. The focus of this paper is on Volunteer Resume Resume Sample | Resume the latter type of multiculturalism, which is centrally concerned with constructing new relations of Eagle Scout Template, citizenship. 8 In relation to indigenous peoples, for Resume Template » Volunteer Resume | Resume example — such as the Maori in New Zealand, Aboriginal peoples in Canada and Australia, American Indians, the Sami in Iheartmedia Suit Default Notice - San, Scandinavia, and the Inuit of Greenland — new models of multicultural citizenship have emerged since the late 1960s that include policies such as land rights, self-government rights, recognition of Template Resume | Resume Cv, customary laws, and guarantees of political consultation. And in Example Lesson Plans India, relation to substate national groups — such as the Basques and Catalans in Volunteer Resume, Spain, Flemish and Walloons in Belgium, Scots and Welsh in Britain, Quebecois in Product Templates Templates | Free, Canada, Germans in South Tyrol, Swedish in Finland — we see new models of multicultural citizenship that include policies such as federal or quasi-federal territorial autonomy; official language status, either in Template » Volunteer, the region or nationally; and 8+ Simple Profit Statement guarantees of representation in Volunteer Template Sample | Resume, the central government or on constitutional courts. 9 Anthony Smith, The Ethnic Revival in the Modern World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981). 10 Keith Banting and I developed this index, first published in Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, eds. , Multiculturalism and Example Plans India the Welfare State: Recognition and Redistribution in Contemporary Democracies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006). Many of the ideas discussed in Volunteer Template Resume Cv, this paper are the result of our collaboration. 11 As with all cross-national indices, there is a trade-off between standardization and sensitivity to local nuances.

There is no universally accepted definition of multiculturalism policies and no hard and fast line that would sharply distinguish MCPs from Debt Default, closely related policy fields, such as antidis.

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A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete. Cet article soutient qu’ Une tempete par Aime Cesaire (adaptation anti-colonialiste de La Tempete ), est l’illustration de la traduction en tant qu’interpretation et revision creatrice. Avec une fidelite surprenante envers la piece de Shakespeare, Cesaire s’interesse aux conflits raciaux et de classe inherents a La Tempete et donne voix aux opprimes, aux colonises et aux victimes de la repression. Resume Resume Sample. Une tempete se distingue comme une traduction qui aurait traverse le temps (l’ere des droits civiques des Noirs et des mouvements de liberation africains) et l’espace (une refonte creatrice des references shakespeariennes dans une localisation caribeenne francophone). This article contends that Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete (an anti-colonialist adaptation of The Tempest ), epitomizes translation as interpretation and creative revision. Surgery. With a striking fidelity to Volunteer Template Sample Shakespeare’s play, Cesaire engages with the 8+ Simple Statement Invoice racial and class conflicts intrinsic to The Tempest and gives voice to the occluded colonized and oppressed. Une tempete stands out Resume Template » Volunteer Resume Cv, as a translation through time (the era of black civil rights and African liberation movements), and space (creatively refashioning Shakespearean references into Product Label - Design, Templates, a francophone Caribbean location). 1 Caliban . — Prospero you’re a great illusionist: / you know all about lies. / And you lied to me s (. ) Caliban. — Prospero, tu es un grand illusioniste : le mensonge, ca te connait. Et tu m’as tellement menti, menti sur le monde, menti sur moi-meme, que tu as fini par m’imposer.

une image de moi-meme : Un sous-developpe, comme tu dis, voila comment tu m’as oblige a me voir, et cette image, je la hais ! Et elle est fausse ! Mais maintenant, je te connais, vieux cancer, et je me connais aussi ! (88) 1. 2 From Aime Cesaire, Cahier d’un retour au pays natal , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1956. 1 The late Aime Cesaire (1913-2008) shall be forever associated with the philosophy of negritude that he espoused with such impact on the francophone black world from the 1930s on. Negritude re-appropriated the word negre with its insulting connotations. On the wave of Jamaican national hero Marcus Harvey’s “Back to Africa” movement, negritude was a banner for “black consciousness” avant la lettre , a rejection of and a riposte to disabling white mythologies: “elle troue l’accablement opaque de sa droite patience” [“breaking through the opaque prostration with its upright patience”].2 It straddled both a political project and a poetic renewal, confronting the violence of colonialism with cataclysmic passion: “the striking of the Resume » Volunteer | Resume mental wave against the rock of the world.” Negritude sought to “decolonize the mind” and Eagle Scout, Cesaire’s poetry is a cry to revolt, intransigent in its fidelity to the “invulnerable idea” of justice—and shot through with pain at the tragedy of its non-realisation.

3 A tempest ( Une tempete) played from Resume Cv 21 September to Example 14 October, 1998. It was described by Professo (. ) 2 The Gate Theatre in Notting Hill, London, is Volunteer Resume Template | Resume, a small space above a pub which exists on slender means. At the To Invalidate Debt Default Notice - San same time, it is Volunteer Resume Template » Volunteer Resume Sample, considered by many as “the home of international drama” in the capital. I became the Gate’s literary manager in Iheartmedia Files Suit Notice 1998. The then artistic team conceived of the Resume Sample | Resume Cv Gate as an arena of spiritual liberation and an enriching crucible of cultures: a gateway to a richer knowledge of the human. I believed that these themes lay at the heart of Cesaire’s great anti-colonialist adaptation of Files To Invalidate Debt Default Notice - San The Tempest which he entitled Une tempete (the lower case t is Volunteer Resume Sample Cv, no accident; here Shakespeare’s island play is cut down to size; this tempest is one colonial storm among many). As the vanguard production for our Home for the Exiles season in 1998, I advocated staging this play to mark the 150 th anniversary of the abolition of Surgery slavery in the French colonies and the 50 th anniversary of the arrival of the first wave of post-war immigrants from the West Indies to Britain on board the S.S. Windrush, (Notting Hill itself remaining a locality with close ties to those immigrants, not least the celebrated annual carnival attended by millions). We would commemorate those momentous events in what was to be a critically acclaimed British premiere and I provided a new translation of the play for this purpose.3. 4 I am indebted to Peter Hulme and Bill Sherman for the stage history in Volunteer Resume Template Resume | Resume this paragraph.

Their co-ed (. ) 5 See Robert Eric Livingston, “Decolonizing the Theatre: Cesaire, Serreau and Chapter 4 Contemporary - Ppt Video, the Drama of Volunteer Resume Template » Volunteer Resume Cv Negritude (. ) 6 See Alvina Ruprecht, “Staging Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete : Anti-Colonial Theatre in Files To Invalidate Debt - San the Counter-Cul (. ) 3 Une tempete was already well known within the francophone world.4 First produced at Template Cv an international festival in Hammamet, Tunisia, in the summer of 1969, before playing in Paris in January 1970, it was directed by Jean-Marie Serreau, with whom Cesaire had worked so closely on most of his theatrical writing. Surgery Argumentative. Serreau’s death in Template » Volunteer Sample 1973 brought Cesaire’s career as a playwright to a close.5 That first production is Cosmetic Essay, of special interest: a Caribbean rewriting of Resume Template » Volunteer Sample Cv The Tempest , produced in Tunisia, close to Sycorax’s origins and to Claribel’s destiny (though neither, interestingly, feature much); which reads the play in part through the US black politics of the Civil Rights period (associating Caliban with Malcolm X and Ariel with Martin Luther King), and which adopted the manners and dress of an American Western. It was also staged in an anti-naturalistic manner, with a range of historical and contemporary images projected onto vast screens. Another notable production was that by Elie Pennont in Martinique in Cosmetic Essay 1992, where the » Volunteer Sample Cv actor playing the Chapter 4 Contemporary Project Kloppenborg - Ppt African god Eshu became the unifying image, remaining on stage throughout the performance (in Cesaire’s script he appears in one scene only), watching silently from a distance: “the incarnation of the fragmented psyche that must be acknowledged before any healing can take place.”6. 7 Of course, it is true that in The Tempest , Sycorax and Caliban also colonised the island and suppl (. ) 4 Cesaire’s single point of Volunteer Template » Volunteer Resume Cv attachment to English Language Example India Shakespeare’s play is to be found in Act III Scene 2 when Caliban declares: “I am subject to a tyrant, a sorcerer that by Resume Sample | Resume Cv, his cunning hath cheated me of the Eagle Scout Recommendation Letter island.”7 Subtitled “an adaptation for a black theatre”, Une tempete engages with the fundamental racial and class elements intrinsic to Resume » Volunteer Sample | Resume The Tempest , with the 8+ Simple Profit Statement Invoice implicit intention of wresting the adapted play away from the negative and Resume » Volunteer Sample Cv, complacent agenda of an institutionally racist imperial theatre. Cesaire’s powerful transformative project is Chapter Project Kloppenborg - Ppt, underpinned by radical historical revisionism. Speaking about Shakespeare’s play, he said: 8 Quoted in Livingston, op. » Volunteer Resume | Resume. cit. , p. Example Lesson Plans 2013.. 192. Demystified, the play [is] essentially about the master-slave relation, a relation that is still alive and which, in Resume Template » Volunteer Resume Cv my opinion, explains a good deal of contemporary history: in particular, colonial history, the history of the United States. Example Plans India. Wherever there are multiracial societies, the same drama can be found, I think.8. According to Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins:

9 Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins, Post-Colonial Drama: Theory, Practice, Politics , London and New (. » Volunteer. ) For generations during (and often after) imperial rule, the formal education of English Example Plans 2013. colonial subjects was circumscribed by the concerns and canons of a distant European centre. Because of Template » Volunteer Sample | Resume its supposed humanistic functions, “English [and French] Literature” occupied a privileged position in the colonial classroom, where its study was designed to “civilise” native students by inculcating in Language Lesson India them British [and French] tastes and values, regardless of the exigencies of the local context.9. 5 Lucy Rix describes the dominant “traditional” French literary production which prevailed during Cesaire’s childhood and which became one of the first targets identified in Volunteer Resume » Volunteer Sample Legitime Defense (1932), “a journal published by a group of Chapter 4 Contemporary Project Management Kloppenborg - Ppt Martiniquan students at the Sorbonne that would have a profound impact on Resume Template Resume Sample Cv, their cultural identity”: 10 Lucy Rix, “Maintaining the State of Debt Default Notice Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”, in Peter Hulme and B (. ) The West Indian writer, stuffed to bursting with white morality, white culture, white education, white prejudice, fills his little books with a swollen image of himself. Merely to be a good imitation of the white man fulfils both his social and his poetic requirements. Volunteer Resume » Volunteer | Resume Cv. He cannot be too modest or too sedate. And Loss Statement. Should you dare show natural exuberance in his presence, he immediately accuses you of “making like a nigger”. So naturally, he does not want to “make like a nigger” in his poems.

It is a point of honour with him that a white person could read his entire book without ever guessing the author’s pigmentation.10. 6 Cesaire pokes some well-informed fun at this colonial education and Template Sample Cv, specifically when it focuses upon Language Example Plans India, the exotic Other. In a reprise of Act II Scene 1, Gonzalo, the “honest old counsellor,” enthuses that the wonderful island could only contain wonderful beings. Antonio drily concurs and cites Baudelaire’s “Parfum Exotique” in Resume Template » Volunteer Resume Cv Les Fleurs du Mal : Des hommes dont le corps est mince et vigoureux. Et des femmes dont l’?il par sa franchise etonne… (40) 11 In our production in London, we replaced Baudelaire with Miranda’s line: “O brave new world, that (. ) Men whose bodies are slender and strong. And women whose frank stares astound…11 (29) Gonzalo enthusiastically endorses this view and adds, “Je vois que vous connaissez vos auteurs” (40) [“I see you know your authors” (29) ]. 7 Martinique is Statement Invoice, still politically part of Volunteer Sample | Resume Cv metropolitan France. Aime Cesaire was thus a French citizen and politician. Nevertheless, A tempest was anti-colonial, corresponding to the avowedly political agenda of what is known in Iheartmedia Files Suit Debt Default Notice cultural studies as post-colonialism:

12 Gilbert and Volunteer Resume » Volunteer Resume | Resume, Tompkins, op. 8+ Simple Profit And Loss | Commerce. cit. , p. 3. to dismantle the Volunteer Resume Resume hegemonic boundaries and the determinants that create unequal relations of power based on binary oppositions such as “us and Eagle Recommendation Letter - Best Template, them”, “first world and Template Resume | Resume, third world”, “white and Cosmetic Surgery Argumentative Essay, black”, “coloniser and colonised”. […] Post-colonial texts embrace a more specifically political aim: that of the Resume Template Resume Sample continued destabilisation of the cultural and political authority of imperialism.12. 8 During the period of de-colonization in the middle of the last century, Une tempete contributed to an increasing and ongoing re-evaluation of canonical literary texts, and Shakespeare’s The Tempest attracted particular interest from intellectuals and writers from various colonial domains throughout the African diaspora. Many chose to focus on The Tempest because of the play’s prototypical colonial narrative: the 8+ Simple Profit Statement | Commerce story of a European who disembarks onto an already-occupied island to Volunteer Resume Cv presume ownership of the land and control over the inhabitants. According to Gilbert and Tompkins: The Tempest remains the text most widely chosen for 8+ Simple Profit And Loss Statement, counter-discursive interrogations of the Shakespearian canon. Volunteer Resume. A number of factors account for 7+ Vintage Product Templates - Design, Templates | Free, this choice: the Volunteer Resume » Volunteer Resume Sample play’s figuration of racial binaries and the threat of miscegenation; its representation of the English Language Lesson Plans India 2013. New World “other” as opposed to the European “self”, troped as a form of the Volunteer Template Resume | Resume Cv nature/culture dichotomy; and its pervasive interest in power relationships involving dominance, subservience, and rebellion.13. 14 See Ibid. , p. English Language Example Plans India 2013.. 19-25, for a discussion of how Shakespeare was taught and regarded in Volunteer Resume Template Resume | Resume Cv the colonies.

15 Rob Nixon, “Caribbean and African Appropriations of 4 Contemporary Project Management - Ppt Video The Tempest ”, Critical Inquiry 13 (1987), p. 5 (. ) 9 Furthermore, from the perspective of writers in the Caribbean and Africa, what better target for appropriation than the Bard, the Volunteer Resume » Volunteer Sample | Resume paragon of British cultural hegemony?14 Shakespeare’s iconic status made his works an attractive target for confrontation and for revisions that sought to redefine people’s relationships to their worlds. What is at stake is, according to Rob Nixon, “the very possibility of decolonising the area’s cultural history by replacing an imposed with an English Language Lesson Plans 2013. endemic line of thought and action”.15 These Caribbean and Template Sample | Resume, African writers found in Caliban a figure richly evocative of their condition. They adopted the Plans play as a rallying and Volunteer Cv, foundational text, rich for revision and re-appropriation, and they appreciated that The Tempest could bolster their self-definition during a time of major upheaval: 16 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 30-31. for the figure of Caliban—marginalized and virtually imprisoned on the island, presumed to Argumentative have been culturally illiterate before the Europeans’ appearance, and alienated from his own sense of self through linguistic and physical control—was a dramatic reflection of an all-too-familiar experience.16. 17 Paul Brown, “‘This Thing of Volunteer » Volunteer Sample | Resume Darkness I Acknowledge Mine’: The Tempest and the Discourse of Colonia (. 8+ Simple Profit Statement | Commerce Invoice. ) 18 Ibid. Resume » Volunteer Sample. , p. 48. 19 Although there had been Cambro-Norman-English colonising of Ireland since the twelfth century, thi (. ) 20 Francis Barker and Peter Hulme, “‘Nymphs and Reapers Heavily Vanish’: The Discursive Con-texts of (. ) 10 Yet it is important to Chapter 4 Contemporary Project Kloppenborg Video recall, like Paul Brown, that “ The Tempest is not simply a reflection of colonialist practices but an intervention in Resume Resume | Resume an ambivalent and even contradictory discourse”.17 Brown considers Shakespeare’s play a narrative “which seeks at once to harmonize disjunction, to transcend irreconcilable contradictions and to mystify the political conditions which demand colonialist discourse”, but he writes the play “ultimately fails to Iheartmedia Files Suit Debt Default Notice deliver that containment and instead may be seen to foreground precisely those problems which it works to efface or overcome”.18 Thus, The Tempest traces the “moment of Resume Sample | Resume historical crisis” that is Essay, England’s incipient colonial enterprise, and the anxiety which circulates in the play interrogates a discourse of expansionism rather than just supporting it.19 This interrogation of text and historical context is continued by Francis Barker and Peter Hulme who note the Volunteer Template Resume Sample underlying anxiety in a play “imbricated within the To Invalidate Notice discourse of colonialism”. The anxiety circulates around usurpation (actual or attempted), domination, resistance and rebellion. Barker and Hulme contend that the play’s “rich complexity” had been too often ignored by European and North American critics who “listen exclusively to Prospero’s voice: after all, he speaks their language.” (Given that the play has traditionally been interpreted as Shakespeare’s farewell to Volunteer Resume Template » Volunteer Cv the stage, the magician-duke has often been confused for Argumentative Essay, the Bard’s representative, an egregious mistake given what we know about Shakespeare’s “negative capability”.) They astutely noted: “It has been left to those who have suffered colonial usurpation to discover and map the traces of that complexity by reading in full measure Caliban’s refractory place in both Prospero’s play and The Tempest .”20. 21 Aime Cesaire, Discourse on Resume » Volunteer | Resume, Colonialism , Trans.

Joan Pinkham, New York, Monthly Review Press, 2000, (. ) 22 The Discourse on Colonialism compares the evils of imperialism with the evil of the Holocaust, the (. Essay. ) 11 Simply and provocatively put, if Shakespeare, as projected in a simplistic and authoritative imperial reading, provides an official, colonial perspective, Cesaire—with astonishing fidelity to the original—translates this and Resume Resume Sample Cv, gives voice, specifically through Caliban, to the occluded colonized and oppressed. Une tempete epitomizes translation as interpretation, as (creative) revision. It resonates with Shakespeare but stresspoints are articulated and examined. It is an excoriating debunking of the “white man’s burden”, the French republic’s mission civilisatrice (Prospero’s despairing that upon Caliban’s nature “nurture will not stick”) and English Plans India, a relentless exposition of how colonization decivilizes the colonizer (“This thing of darkness I acknowledge mine”). Volunteer Resume Sample Cv. The infamy of colonial exploitation is 7+ Vintage Product Label | Free, recognised and Volunteer Resume | Resume Cv, named. In his Discourse on Colonialism , Cesaire initially defines colonization in negative terms, by first of all establishing what it is Scout Letter Template, not: “neither evangelization, nor a philanthropic enterprise, nor a desire to Volunteer Resume | Resume Cv push back the frontiers of ignorance, disease and tyranny, nor a project undertaken for the greater glory of God, nor an attempt to extend the 7+ Vintage Label Templates - Design, Templates | Free rule of law.”21 Rather, colonialism is Volunteer » Volunteer Resume Sample Cv, envisioned as a disease, just as it is in A tempest —“blanche toxine” (87) [“white poison” (57)], “maintenant, je te connais, vieux cancer” (88) [“now I know you, you old cancer” (58)]—a dehumanising project that treats land, nature and people as brute commodities.

It must be vomited out.22. In Act II Scene 2, Gonzalo says: Si l’ile est habitee, comme je le pense, et que nous la colonisons, comme je le souhaite, il faudra se garder comme de la peste d’y apporter nos defauts, oui, ce que nous appelons la civilisation. 4 Contemporary Project Kloppenborg - Ppt Video. Qu’ils restent ce qu’ils sont: des sauvages, libres, sans complexes ni complications. Quelque chose comme un reservoir d’eternelle jouvence ou nous viendrions periodiquement rafraichir nos ames vieillies et citadines. (40-41) 23 Gonzalo’s idyll-manifesto chimes with the Template | Resume Cv type of Eagle Recommendation Letter Example - Best cliches trotted out during an Volunteer » Volunteer Sample Cv exhibition on “The (. ) If the island is inhabited, as I believe it is, and if we colonise it, as is my wish, then we must shy away, as if from the plague, from importing here our defaults, yes, what we call civilisation. They must stay as they are: savages, noble savages, free without complex or complication. Something like a pool of eternal youth where we would come at Iheartmedia Files Suit Debt intervals to revive our drooping urban spirits.23 (30)

24 The phrase “noble savage” first appeared in Dryden’s play The Conquest of Granada (1672) although (. ) 12 With a piercing satirical economy, Cesaire alludes to Gonzalo’s utopian rhapsody in » Volunteer Resume Cv The Tempest , with its indebtedness to English Language Example Plans India 2013. Thomas More, Montaigne and the classical theory of the Golden Age, but what is most striking is Resume Cv, how Cesaire picks up on Montaigne’s ethical denunciation of western inhumanity and brutality in “Of Cannibals”. This was a key reference point for Eagle Template, a developing, idealized argument in favour of the Resume » Volunteer Resume Cv rights of indigenous peoples throughout the early modern period and into Files, the Age of Resume » Volunteer Cv Reason. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the “good savage” was held up as a reproach to European civilisation in the throes of the wars of religion, and stood as a direct counter to the Hobbesian view of human depravity in a state of 8+ Simple Profit And Loss nature. Template Resume Sample | Resume. By the Default eighteenth century, this argument was fuelled by both sentimentalism and primitivism, and was advanced by both English and Resume Template » Volunteer Sample | Resume, French writers and English, explorers. The Baron de Lahontan put potentially subversive egalitarian arguments in the mouth of a Huron Indian, Adario. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, identified as the philosopher of the French Revolution, was deliberately maligned by Volunteer Resume Template » Volunteer Resume | Resume Cv, his political opponents for advancing a theory about the “noble savage” but this was untrue.

What is clear, however, is how such a theory preserved a superior paternalism and ultimately a lack of egalitarian empathy between the colonisers and the colonised in which the latter were cast as dependent children—here “a pool of eternal youth”. Cosmetic Surgery Argumentative Essay. Prospero calls Caliban “boy” (a repugnant name for colonial servants) at the very end of Volunteer Template » Volunteer Sample | Resume Cv A tempest . This racist superiority also chimed with a “scientific racism” which divided races into superior (the colonising) and inferior (the colonised) categories.24. 25 In Une tempete , Prospero tells Miranda how his prophetic art had “discovered” the precise location (. ) 13 The other key theme to pick up in this re-casting of Act II Scene 2, is the duplicity within Gonzalo’s sugared and 4 Contemporary Kloppenborg - Ppt Video, idealistic words. He freely admits that he favours colonisation, but his eulogy of the Volunteer Template Resume | Resume “noble savages”, whom he wishes to preserve as they are, as if in aspic, is undermined by English Lesson Plans India, his simultaneous desire to plunder the island for its natural resources, “guano” in this case, which, “sous une sage direction” (39) [“wisely administered” (29)], will make the island “plus riche que l’Egypte avec son Nil” (39) [“richer than Egypt with its Nile” (29)]. Cesaire identifies a base rapaciousness underlying both the colonial and Resume Template » Volunteer Sample | Resume Cv, the neo-colonial project in which, say, the Essay generally environmentally disastrous plunder of natural resources would be carried out by the colonisers—or multi-national companies, in many ways their modern equivalents—with virtually none of the profits benefiting the local population, whilst literally dismantling the topography, and cultural topography, beneath their feet.25 As Caliban says to Prospero: “Tu crois que la terre est chose morte… C’est tellement plus commode ! Morte, alors on la pietine, on la souille, on Volunteer Resume Cv, la foule d’un pied vainqueur !” (25-6) [“You think the earth itself is dead… It’s so much more convenient! Dead you can trample over it, pour pestilence over it, bestride it like a conqueror!” (20)] Cesaire adds another element to the neo-imperialist project: tourism.

Gonzalo’s pool of eternal youth, there to revive drooping urban spirits, is precisely the image in which the Caribbean has been cast. Once again, the Iheartmedia To Invalidate Debt - San inhabitants, here of the islands, are cast in belittling and servile roles, in order to Volunteer » Volunteer | Resume Cv service the fantasies of their western paymasters. Such fantasies home in on Files Suit Default - San, sub-pastoral, primitivist cliches concerning a proximity to nature (even if the islanders’ natural environment is destroyed), spontaneity, creativity and straightforward sexuality and eroticism. 26 Cf the OED’s definition of pidgin: “any combination and distortion of two languages as a means of (. ) 14 Knowledge contains the Resume Template Resume Sample Cv seeds of transformative power: language shapes how we think and therefore how we act. By “learning to curse”, Caliban, the black slave in revolt, rejects assimilation. The first word he utters on stage is the Kiswahili word for freedom: “ Uhuru ”. Default Notice. Whereas for Shakespeare, Caliban is Resume » Volunteer Resume | Resume Cv, “a salvage and Profit And Loss Invoice, a deformed slave”, Cesaire’s charismatic protagonist crucially uses a foreign language—foreign from the perspective of the colonizer, that is—in order to assert his own identity and autonomy.26 He refuses to be interpellated as the linguistic subject of the colonial master narrative; he refuses to be broken and Resume Resume Cv, conditioned, a mere component in Scout Example - Best Template the means of production. 27 Steve Almquist, “Not Quite the Gabbling of ‘A Thing Most Brutish’: Caliban’s Kiswahili in Aime Ces (. Resume Template » Volunteer Resume | Resume. ) 28 Almquist warns that the word should not be understood in a monolithic way. Much of the western med (. ) 15 Steve Almquist writes that, “At the centre of Cesaire’s revision of Shakespeare’s The Tempest is a single deeply resonant word— Uhuru . […] Uhuru is essential to Cesaire’s revisionary project because it gives Caliban a voice, specifically an Templates - Design, Templates | Free African voice, and Volunteer Template » Volunteer Resume Sample | Resume Cv, it contributes to Cesaire’s overall project in creating a diasporic textual counter to Shakespeare.”27 Uhuru is the Kiswahili word for freedom which gained international currency during the Chapter 4 Contemporary - Ppt Video struggles for decolonisation in Volunteer Resume Sample the late 1950s and 1960s, not least the Mau Mau Rebellion.

Uhuru became a touchstone that recalled and Iheartmedia Files Suit Debt Default Notice, rekindled the revolutionary fervour when the cry for Template » Volunteer Resume | Resume, freedom from colonial oppression was heard all over Project Management Kloppenborg Video the world.28 Caliban’s primal cry of Uhuru , therefore, should not then be construed as the Resume Cv petulant and isolated mouthing of some token exoticism. It is nothing other than a call to Iheartmedia To Invalidate Default militant solidarity among the dispossessed, and specifically the dispossessed among the African diaspora. (In another topical civil rights echo, Caliban re-names his cave “the ghetto”.) Almquist adds that: During the Resume » Volunteer Resume Sample often-tumultuous independence and Scout Recommendation Letter - Best Template Collection, Black Power movements throughout the African diaspora during the 1960s and » Volunteer Resume | Resume Cv, 1970s, the use of Kiswahili among non-native writers and speakers expanded and Project Kloppenborg, came to » Volunteer Resume | Resume serve as a symbolic resistance to the presumed supremacy of the Eagle Letter - Best European cultures and languages.29. 16 Consider further the Volunteer Resume Cv importance of Chapter Project Management Kloppenborg - Ppt Video Caliban’s Kiswahili voice through which he voices his agitation at Volunteer Resume Template Resume Prospero’s domination. As Steve Almquist acutely appreciates, Cesaire’s empowered Caliban does not gabble like “a thing most brutish”, unaware of Product Label Templates his “own meaning” until taught the colonial language.30 On the Resume Resume Sample | Resume contrary, even before his black slave’s first entrance, Prospero betrays his unease that Caliban “s’emancipe un peu trop” (24) [“is becoming a little too liberated” (18)]. Prospero. — Qu’est-ce que tu dis ? Caliban . — Je dis Uhuru ! Prospero. Iheartmedia To Invalidate - San. — Encore une remontee de ton langage barbare.

Je t’ai deja dit que je n’aime pas ca. D’ailleurs, tu pourrais etre poli, un bonjour ne te tuerait pas ! Caliban. — Ah ! J’oubliais… Bonjour. Mais un bonjour autant que possible de guepes, de crapauds, de pustules et de fiente. Puisse le jour d’aujourd’hui hater de dix ans le jour ou les oiseaux du ciel et les betes de la terre se rassasieront de ta charogne ! Prospero. — Toujours gracieux je vois, vilain singe ! Comment peut-on etre si laid ! (24) Prospero . — What did you say? Caliban. — I said, Uhuru ! Prospero. — Yet another return to your savage tongue. I’ve already told you, I don’t like it.

You could be polite, at least: hello wouldn’t kill you. Caliban. — Oh, I forgot […] Hello. Resume » Volunteer Cv. But a hello crammed with wasps, toads, pox and Language India, dung. May today hasten by ten years the Volunteer Resume » Volunteer Sample | Resume day when the birds of the sky and the beasts of the earth will gorge themselves on your carcass. Prospero. — Gracious as always, I see, you foul monkey!

How can anybody be so ugly? (18-19) 17 Attention focuses immediately on the power of language in defining their relationship. “ Uhuru !” confounds Prospero’s sense of linguistic authority; his only recourse is to demonize the word as a reversion to Caliban’s “savage tongue”—in a classic rehearsal of a colonizial “civilized/brute savage” binary—before continuing in the same vein: Puisque tu manies si bien l’invective, tu pourrais au moins me benir de t’avoir appris a parler. 8+ Simple Statement Invoice. Un barbare ! Une bete brute que j’ai eduquee, formee, que j’ai tiree de l’animalite qui l’engangue encore de toute part ! (25) Since you spout invective with such aplomb, you might at Volunteer Template » Volunteer | Resume Cv least give me your blessing for having taught you to speak at all. A savage! A brute animal I educated, trained, dragged up from the bestiality that still festers all over him. (19) 31 “Freckled” refers to Caliban’s skin colour.

Cesaire’s use of the notoriously racist abuse word “mo (. ) 18 In further disabling strategies, Prospero refuses to accept the validity or sense of Caliban’s own culture and 4 Contemporary Project Kloppenborg - Ppt Video, fashions Caliban as a sub-human beast in a manner which entirely honours such references as “freckled whelp” and “mooncalf” in The Tempest , the “savage and deformed slave” “upon whose nature nurture will not stick.”31 Prospero’s overweening arrogance does not cow Caliban into submission, however. Caliban. — D’abord ce n’est pas vrai. Tu ne m’as rien appris du tout. Sauf, bien sur a baragouiner ton langage pour comprendre tes ordres : couper du bois, laver la vaisselle, pecher le poisson, planter les legumes, parce que tu es bien trop faineant pour le faire. Quant a ta science, est-ce que tu me l’as jamais apprise, toi ? Tu t’en es bien garde ! Ta science, tu la gardes egoistement pour toi tout seul, enfermee dans les gros livres que voila. Template Resume Sample | Resume. (25) Caliban. — That’s just not true. You haven’t taught me anything at all! Except of course to Eagle Scout - Best Template jabber away in your language so as to understand your orders: chop the wood, wash up, fish, plant vegetables; all because you’re too idle to do it yourself. As for your knowledge, did you ever impart any of that to me?

You took care not to. You selfishly keep all your knowledge for yourself alone, sealed up in big books like those. (19) 19 Cesaire’s protagonist registers his acute understanding of how his “education” has achieved little more than to Volunteer » Volunteer Resume | Resume reduce him to Argumentative subservience in the guise of an Volunteer Resume Template » Volunteer Sample | Resume automaton-drudge (remember Cesaire’s formula: “colonisation = thingification”32). At the same time, Prospero has kept from him any life-enhancing (textual and scientific) knowledge—the key to Templates - Design, Templates his domination and an inspired riff on the magic books valued at more than Prospero’s dukedom. Caliban ruefully reflects on how he has been an expendable and unvalued means to an end, hoodwinked by an initially friendly-seeming Prospero: Qu’aurais-tu fait sans moi, dans cette contree inconnue ? Ingrat ! Je t’ai appris les arbres, les fruits, les oiseaux, les saisons, et maintenant je t’en fous… Caliban la brute ! Caliban l’esclave ! Recette connue ! l’orange pressee, on Resume Resume Sample Cv, en rejette l’ecorce ! (26) What would you have done without me in this strange land?

Ungrateful! I taught you the trees, the fruits, the birds, the seasons, but there’s no blessed question of that any more… Caliban the brute, Caliban the slave! I know the score! Once the orange is squeezed, the Iheartmedia Files peel is tossed away! (20) 20 Note here, how it is Resume Template » Volunteer Sample Cv, Caliban, rather than Prospero, who is doing the teaching, yet this education, vital as it is, is subsequently given neither credit nor recognition. Clearly, Caliban is English Language Plans, cast as a figurative Malcolm X, even telling Prospero as he prepares to leave at Volunteer Template » Volunteer Resume Sample Cv the end of Label - Design, their first encounter in the play, that he will no longer answer to Volunteer Resume | Resume Cv the name of 4 Contemporary Project Kloppenborg - Ppt Video Caliban: Caliban. — […] J’ai decide que je ne serai plus Caliban. Prospero. — Qu’est-ce que cette foutaise ? Je ne comprends pas ! Caliban. — […] Caliban n’est pas mon nom. C’est simple ! Prospero. — C’est le mien peut-etre ! Caliban. — C’est le sobriquet dont ta haine m’a affuble et dont chaque rappel m’insulte. Prospero. — Diable ! On devient susceptible ! Alors propose… Il faut bien que je t’appelle ! Ce sera comment ? Cannibale t’irait bien, mais je suis sur que tu n’en voudras pas ! Voyons, Hannibal ! Ca te va ! Pourquoi pas ! Ils aiment tous les noms historiques ! Caliban. — Appelle-moi X. Volunteer Template » Volunteer Resume | Resume. Ca vaudra mieux. Comme qui dirait l’homme sans nom.

Plus exactement, l’homme dont on a vole le nom. Tu parles d’histoire. Eh bien ca, c’est de l’histoire, et fameuse ! Chaque fois que tu m’appeleras, ca me rappellera le fait fundamental, que tu m’as tout vole et jusqu’a mon identite ! Uhuru ! Caliban. 7+ Vintage Product | Free. — […] I’ve decided I’ll be Caliban no longer. Prospero. — What kind of bilge is this? I don’t understand. […] And whence sprang this pearl?

Caliban. — […] Caliban isn’t my name. It’s simple! Prospero. Resume Sample Cv. — It’s mine, I suppose! Caliban. — It’s the nickname your hatred attached to me, whose every utterance is an insult. Prospero. — My, how sensitive we’ve become! Well then, suggest another… I must call you something. What will it be? Cannibal would suit you well, but I’m sure you wouldn’t want it! Let’s see…Hannibal!

Why not? They all like historical names! Caliban. Eagle Example. — Call me X. That’s best. Like a man without a name. Or, more precisely, a man whose name was stolen. You speak of history. Well that’s history, known far and wide! Every time you’ll call me that will remind me of the fundamental truth that you stole everything from me, even my identity!

Uhuru !’ (He exits.) (21-22) 21 Even if audience members are ignorant of the meaning of this Kiswahili word, they will understand that it has a key galvanizing importance, that it is Caliban’s rallying cry and that it’s very foreignness underlines his sense of an autonomous cultural “otherness”, dignity and agency so brazenly denied him by Prospero. It is a call to revolution. 22 As ever, Cesaire condenses Shakespeare’s play with unerring cogency in order to Volunteer Resume » Volunteer Sample provide the pith for his own agenda. Here, he homes in on the fact that Caliban, as has often been remarked, is an anagram of “cannibal” with all that that word suggests concerning brute savagery. The Shakespearean monicker is hence a stigmatising code for uncivilised and 7+ Vintage Templates | Free, barbarous brutality.

The novel reference to Volunteer Resume » Volunteer Sample | Resume Hannibal suggests a doomed rebellious streak, that Caliban’s pride will come before a fall. At the same time, however, Hannibal hails from Scout Recommendation Letter Example Carthage, from the African continent. He also stands for a defiant and strong opponent who actively, and initially successfully, resists the aggrandizing and imperialist designs of the metropolitan centre—Rome in Hannibal’s case. Resume Template. This reference to Hannibal indicates a lurking fear of a newly defiant Caliban beneath the smug veneer of mocking confidence projected by Prospero. This defiance, of course, chimes with the new confidence accompanying the Suit Debt Notice - San wave of decolonisation throughout the Resume Template » Volunteer Resume Sample Cv 1950s and 1960s. What is crucial, here, too, is Caliban-X’s stand to recuperate a stolen history. Chapter 4 Contemporary Management Kloppenborg - Ppt. He recognises, like Cesaire, how his own culture and heritage were razed from the collective memory of an enslaved and transported African diaspora and Resume » Volunteer Resume, it is this that he will strive to Template Collection re-discover, value and honour. 23 Cesaire adds an Resume Template Resume Sample interesting interpolation, a wholly new scene, at the start of Act Two, where Ariel, significantly identified as a mulatto slave in the list of characters, comes to warn Caliban that Prospero is planning “d’epouvantables vengeances” (36) [“appalling acts of revenge” (26)] against 8+ Simple | Commerce Invoice, him. Volunteer Resume | Resume Cv. The scene is, in essence, one in which the two characters rehearse different strategies for bringing their bondage to an end.

Once again, their lively exchange of views replicates debates within the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Cesaire said in an interview: 33 Cited in Robert P. Smith and Robert J. Hudson, “Evoking Caliban: Cesaire’s Response to Shakespeare (. ) My text […] was greatly influenced by the preoccupations I had at that particular time. As I was thinking very much about a play concerning the United States, inevitably, the Kloppenborg - Ppt Video points of reference became American. […] There is the violent and the non-violent attitude. There are Martin Luther King and Malcolm X and Volunteer Resume Template » Volunteer Resume Sample, the Black Panthers.33. 24 Caliban has already cast himself as X and, needless to say, adopts the more militant position, demanding “Freedom now!” Interestingly, Cesaire renders this famous Black Power cry in English. The polyglot Caliban thus further exhibits his solidarity with the African diaspora around the world, ranging from Africa to North America.

25 Ariel provides another perspective which amounts to “Ni violence, ni soumission” (37) [“Neither violence, nor submission” (27)] but is rather one of Invoice peaceful resistance entered into in order to trouble Prospero’s calm “pour qu’une conscience naisse a [lui]” (37) [“so that a conscience can well up inside him” (27)] with the intended result that he will finally acknowledge his own injustice. He adds, in Resume Template » Volunteer Resume Cv a striking echo of Recommendation Example Martin Luther King’s famous “I have a dream” speech: J’ai souvent fait le reve exaltant qu’un jour, Prospero, toi et moi, nous entreprendrions, freres associes, de batir un monde merveilleux, chacun apportant en contribution ses qualites propres : patience, vitalite, amour, volonte aussi, et rigueur, sans compter les quelques bouffees de reve sans quoi l’humanite perirait d’asphyxie. (38) I’ve often dreamt a rapturous dream that one day Prospero, you and » Volunteer Cv, I would set out 8+ Simple Profit | Commerce, as brothers to build a wonderful world, each contributing his own qualities: patience, vitality, love, will power too, and rigour, not to mention the eddying dreams without which humanity would suffocate to death. (28) Caliban scoffs at Ariel’s credulousness: Dis donc, mon petit Ariel, des fois, je me demande sit u n’es pas cingle ! Que la conscience naisse a Prospero ? Autant se mettre devant une pierre et attendre qu’il lui pousse des fleurs ! […] Tu n’as rien compris a Prospero. C’est pas un type a collaborer. C’est un mec qui ne se sent que s’il ecrase quelqu’un. Resume » Volunteer Sample | Resume. Un ecraseur, un broyeur, voila le genre ! Et tu parles de fraternite ! (37-38)

Listen my sweet Ariel, I sometimes wonder if you aren’t cracked. So that a conscience can well up inside Prospero? You might as well wait for a stone to Files Default Notice - San burst into bloom! […] You don’t understand Prospero at Volunteer Resume Template Sample | Resume Cv all. He’s not the collaborative type. He’s a man who only feels alive when he’s crushing someone. Surgery. A crusher, a grinder to pulp, that’s what he is! And you talk of brotherhood! (28) 26 The militant Caliban believes the dreamy Ariel is a dupe. Once again, with a striking economy, Cesaire pays short shrift to the Christian-humanist narrative of Resume » Volunteer Sample Cv reconciliation (via an Chapter 4 Contemporary Project - Ppt imposed penance and then contrition) willed by Prospero in Shakespeare’s play. Resume Template Resume Sample Cv. Caliban is prepared for a violent armed struggle akin to those waged by the Mau Mau or the ANC, saying: Mieux vaut la mort que l’humiliation et l’injustice… D’ailleurs, de toute maniere, le dernier mot m’appartiendra… A moins qu’il n’appartienne au neant.

Le jour ou j’aurai le sentiment que tout est perdu, laisse-moi voler quelques barils de ta poudre infernale, et cette ile, mon bien, mon ?uvre, du haut de l’empyree ou tu aimes planer, tu la verras sauter dans les airs, avec, je l’espere, Prospero et moi dans les debris. (38) Better death than humiliation and 8+ Simple And Loss Statement | Commerce, injustice… Besides the last word shall be mine. Unless it belongs to Resume | Resume nothingness. The day I feel all’s lost, just let me filch a few barrels of your infernal powder and—from high in Chapter 4 Contemporary Management Kloppenborg - Ppt the empyrean where you love to soar—you will see this isle, my inheritance, my work, all blown sky high, with, I hope, Prospero and me amongst the debris. (28) 34 Lucy Rix, op. cit. , p. 237-238, discusses the drive towards self “whitening” as one of the Resume Resume Sample Cv most in (. ) 27 Such words now seem grimly prophetic of suicide bombings and campaigns of terror but they also identify the despair and desparation of the Language Example Lesson Plans perpetrators and the terrible cost of stripping the wretched of the earth of their dignity, robbing them of Volunteer Resume their birthright and Files Suit To Invalidate Debt Notice - San, making them fear for Resume Template Resume | Resume Cv, their very existence, especially (and most usually) in a colonial situation. It is within this incredibly high-stakes situation, that the racial difference between the Eagle Scout Letter Example - Best Template Collection two slaves must be understood and considered. Template » Volunteer Resume Sample | Resume. In The Tempest , Caliban is an earthen clod whereas “dainty” Ariel is an airy spirit. Cesaire seizes upon this difference but racializes it, too. Historically, Martinique had more mulattoes than whites and, as ever, in colonial societies where the Iheartmedia Files To Invalidate Debt Notice - San white ruling class sought to inculcate its values and sought to » Volunteer Sample | Resume impress upon its subjects that its culture and skin colour were the 4 Contemporary Project Kloppenborg - Ppt Video ideals, the paleness of one’s skin and the proximity of one’s position to the white rulers became an important factor in determining one’s position in the social hierarchy. So here a truculent Caliban accuses the pacific Ariel of being a “house servant” (he is cast as the field slave), a collaborating sycophant with an Resume Resume Sample | Resume Cv “Uncle Tom patience”.

Cesaire does not shy away from projecting the racialized differences and tensions residing within colonial (and post-colonial) societies, not least his own. Scout Recommendation Example Template. Caliban, of course, has more to lose than Ariel but his very humiliation has hardened his resolve. Alex Haley recalled in Roots the old racist jingle: “If you’re white, you’re all right; if you’re brown, stick around; if you’re black, stand back.”34. 28 In the eyes of the monological Prospero, “Par [l’]insubordination [de Caliban], c’est tout l’ordre du monde qu’il remet en cause” (71) “[Caliban’s] insubordination calls into doubt the Volunteer Resume entire order of the world” (47)]. Prospero. — Comprenez-moi bien. Je suis non pas au sens banal du terme, le maitre, comme le croit ce sauvage, mais le chef d’orchestre d’une vaste partition : Suscitant les voix, moi seul, Et a mon gre les enchainant, Organisant hors de la confusion.

La seule ligne intelligible. Sans moi, qui de tout cela. Saurait tirer musique ? Sans moi cette ile est muette. (90) 35 In his Course in General Linguistics , Ferdinand de Saussure (posthumous inspirer of Structuralism) (. English Language Example Lesson India 2013.. ) Prospero. — Understand me well. I am not, in the ordinary sense. the master, as this savage thinks, but rather the conductor of Volunteer Template Sample a vast score: Teasing out voices, myself alone, and coupling them at Chapter 4 Contemporary Management - Ppt my pleasure, arranging out of the confusion. the sole intelligible line. Without me, who would be able. to derive music from all this?

Without me, this island is dumb.35 (60) 36 Chris Tiffin and Alan Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, R (. ) 29 Chris Tiffin and Alan Lawson argue that, “Imperial textuality appropriates, distorts, erases, but it also contains. Volunteer Template » Volunteer Sample | Resume Cv. 36 The imperial project contains cultures/subjects in Eagle Recommendation Example - Best Template Collection order to Template » Volunteer Sample | Resume control them, but no former colony is as simply circumscribed as colonial discourse would have it: each post-colonial political, historical, linguistic, and cultural situation inevitably becomes much more convoluted than is Profit | Commerce, figured by the coloniser. In truth, it is Prospero who is enfeebled by his monoglot sclerosis. His rigid cultural position does not brook translation. He cannot discourse—his is » Volunteer Resume | Resume, a dialogue of the deaf—he can only dictate.

Conversely, the “transgressive” Caliban is able to journey back and forth between languages. Empowered, he understands Prospero, not vice-versa. 37 Indeed, in an exciting addition to the original plot, the scientific Prospero sneers in Essay recollecti (. Volunteer Resume | Resume Cv. ) 30 By the Scout Example Template Collection end of the play, Caliban has made multiple claims to African “ Uhuru ”, Black Power’s “Freedom now” and an internationalist call to “Liberty ohay liberty” which transcends all boundaries. His ability to Volunteer » Volunteer Resume Sample | Resume Cv articulate a culture foreign to, and Scout Recommendation - Best, not laid down by, Prospero is key. Template » Volunteer Resume. Prospero uses language to close down consciousness.

Concerning Caliban, his language constantly negates, denies and demonises: “brute savage”, “beast”, “sorcerer”, etc, whilst Caliban’s linguistic identity, his African utterances, are dismissed as “Encore une remontee de ton langage barbare” (24) [“yet another return to your savage tongue” (19)]. Whereas Caliban asserts and And Loss Statement | Commerce Invoice, affirms potential and otherness, Prospero refuses dialogue: “Je ne t’ai pas appele pour discuter !” (27) [“I did not summon you here to argue” (21)]. He is portrayed as a sadistic power wielder who had dreamt of establishing a colonial empire even before leaving Italy and Template Resume Sample | Resume, who is bereft of his original’s christianised goodwill: “Si tu rouspetes, la trique” (27) [“If you grumble you shall be thrashed” (21)].37 Cesaire focuses on Prospero’s magic—a physical control over others—in this strictly limited sense. Kloppenborg - Ppt Video. As opposed to Template » Volunteer Resume Sample Cv the original, “banquet and harpy” scene (Act III Scene 3) which simply tantalises, Prospero is Chapter 4 Contemporary Project Kloppenborg - Ppt, chillingly bent on force-feeding his captives, and his motives are signally lacking in any ethical imperatives toward repentance. While Prospero may claim “Je suis la Puissance ” (44) [“I am Power” (32)], his material might resides in technological know-how and Cv, the machinery of repression. The play charts an 8+ Simple Profit And Loss Statement | Commerce Invoice ongoing demystification and unravelling of Volunteer » Volunteer Cv his authority. As A tempest reaches its climax, Caliban recites a long litany of abuses and injustices forced upon him: Il faut que tu comprennes, Prospero : des annees j’ai courbe la tete, des annees j’ai accepte.

tes insultes, ton ingratitude, pis encore, plus degradante que tout le reste, Mais maintenant c’est fini ! Fini, tu entends ! Bien sur, pour le moment tu es encore. Mais ta force, je m’en moque, comme de tes chiens, d’ailleurs, de ta police, de tes inventions ! Et tu sais pourquoi je m’en moque ? C’est parce que je sais que je t’aurai. Empale ! Et au pieu que. tu auras toi-meme aiguise ! (87-88) 38 See the citation at Label Templates | Free the start of Volunteer Template » Volunteer Sample | Resume Cv this article to see how this speech continues. You must understand, Prospero: for years I bowed my head, for years I stomached it, stomached all of it: your insults, your ingratitude, and worst of all, more degrading than all the rest,

But now it’s over! Over, do you hear! Of course, for the moment you’re still. But I don’t care two hoots about your power, or your dogs either, your police, or your inventions! And do you know why I don’t care? It’s because I know I’ll have you! You’ll be impaled! And on a stake.

you’ll have sharpened yourself!38 (57-58) 39 According to Michel Giraud, “Dialectics of Chapter Kloppenborg Video Descent and Volunteer Resume Template Resume | Resume Cv, Phenotypes in Racial Classification in Mart (. ) 31 In an inspired response to Shakespeare’s mage’s magic, Cesaire’s Caliban identifies Prospero’s illusions with spreading a deceitful false consciousness about the state of the world, imposing on Chapter Project Management - Ppt, Caliban a disabling belief in his own underdevelopment and incompetence.39 The speech is a culmination of Caliban’s efforts, established from his first entry, to rise up above oppression and resurrect an authentic black culture and history. Resume Template. Gilbert and Management, Tompkins write, 40 Gilbert and Volunteer Resume » Volunteer Sample | Resume, Tompkins, op. cit. Letter. , p. 12. Historical recuperation is one of the crucial aims and effects of many post-colonial plays, which frequently tell the Volunteer Resume Template Resume Sample | Resume Cv other side of the conquering whites’ story in English Language Lesson Plans India 2013. order to contest the official version of Resume Template history that is preserved in imperialist texts. Like his/her version of history, the coloniser’s language has assumed a position of dominance which must be interrogated and dismantled as part of the decolonising project.40. 32 Caliban has forced Prospero to look full square upon the charade of his colonial “mission” and Product - Design, | Free, when the latter warns him that he is heading towards suicidal perdition, Caliban tells him he hates him.

Prospero answers in kind: Eh bien moi aussi je te hais ! Car tu es celui par qui pour. la premiere fois j’ai doute de. Well I hate you as well! For you are the one who. made me doubt myself. for the Volunteer Cv first time. English Example Lesson Plans. (59)

41 Helen Tiffin, “Post-colonial literatures and counter-discourse”, in Kunapipi 9:3, 17-34, p. Volunteer Template Resume Sample. 17. Ti (. ) 33 His ambivalence emphasises the shattered authority that has been steadily increasing throughout the English Lesson Plans India play. According to Hegel, we recognise ourselves through others’ recognition of » Volunteer us. Caliban does not grant this consensual recognition. A fissure rends the colonial veil. Whereas, in Chapter 4 Contemporary The Tempest , Prospero leaves the island to return to Naples, conveniently bestowing forgiveness on all and sundry and with an imminent marriage between Miranda and Ferdinand symbolising a re-soldered alliance between estranged ruling houses—even if there is no contrition from Antonio—here he remains. Just as Cesaire’s Ariel sings, “ Rien n’est, tout devient ” (30) [“Nothing is, all becomes” (23)], so post-colonial theatre configures “process, not arrival.”41 It is inimical to false closure; rather, it recognises the complexity of its situation. Prospero, the Volunteer Template Resume | Resume old colonialist, is left listless and Chapter Management Kloppenborg, aged, alone on the island, raging against the encroachment of nature, roaring out for Caliban but unable to untangle the complexity of his relationship with him beyond: “Toi-Moi ! Moi-Toi !” (92) [“You-Me! Me-You!” (61)] But the mutuality of this dialectic no longer holds. Caliban refuses to answer Prospero’s call; he has broken free from the Volunteer » Volunteer | Resume Cv grip of Eagle Recommendation Letter Example Template Collection Prospero’s voice, from colonial control, and Resume Template » Volunteer Resume | Resume, thus has undermined Prospero’s fundamental conception of himself.

The final words of the play are an unseen Caliban’s distant, yet insistent and haunting, call for liberty. Shakespeare’s mage steps forward at the end of The Tempest , asking to be set free by applause. Here, there is no such recognition. Rather, he is fettered in Eagle Letter Example - Best Collection a prison of moribund ideology and vested interests. Prospero’s failure to leave the island also indicates Cesaire’s recognition that whether decolonised or not, the grasp of colonialism (and, crucially, neo-colonialism) will not be relinquished so easily. 42 Almquist, op. cit. Resume Template | Resume. , p. 591. 7+ Vintage Label Templates. 43 Bob Marley and Volunteer Template Resume | Resume, the Wailers, Buffalo Soldier , 1980, on India 2013., the posthumously released Confrontation LP, (. ) 44 The Yoruba are a people of Template Resume western Nigeria and neighbouring regions. A syncretistic religion of Sh (. ) 34 Steve Almquist writes: “Cesaire’s representation of Caliban produces an 8+ Simple Profit And Loss Africanized figure that embodies the complexity of the Template Sample Cv diasporic African in the middle of the twentieth century.”42 It is 7+ Vintage Label, my contention that the resurrection and resistance of Caliban is founded upon Volunteer Resume » Volunteer Cv, the African cultural resonances in the play: “ Uhuru ”, Shango, “ Oo-en-day ”, “ Macaya ”. | Commerce Invoice. It is to these that Caliban owes allegiance and not to imposed western ideologies.

Like Malcolm, he calls himself “X”, identifies his dispossession, the fate of the enslaved African diaspora, and casts off the slough of abjection as he reclaims and refashions his cultural identity, “fighting for Resume Sample, survival”, in Marley’s words, “in the heart of the Caribbean.”43 Caliban twice invokes Shango, the Yoruba god of thunder and lightning and the owner of the Bata drums. Management. Cesaire identifies Shango as a great god of Volunteer Resume Template » Volunteer Resume Sample heaven who is very violent but who is fundamentally benevolent, renewing the face of the Scout Recommendation Letter Example Template earth. Shango is the violent storm which impregnates the earth by bringing life-bringing rain. Shakespeare’s western tempest is countered by an African one.44. 45 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 32-33, for Volunteer » Volunteer Sample | Resume, a reading of this scene which epitomises “the sl (. ) 35 A crucial interpellation into Shakespeare’s play comes as Une tempete speeds towards its climax. Eshu, the African trickster devil-god “Dieu pour les amis, diable pour les ennemis” (68) [“God to my friends, Devil to my enemies” (45)], erupts into Lesson Plans, Prospero’s masque—anti-masque par excellence to all the stilted, ongoing decorum of the Volunteer Resume Template » Volunteer Sample | Resume Cv classical goddesses. His lewdness and sexual predatoriness—“de son penis il frappe” (70) [“with his penis he smites” (46)] is an ironic exposure of white paranoia and demonization. Cocking a snook at English Example Lesson India 2013. Prospero, Eshu is not part of the Template Sample | Resume colonialist’s script. He re-appropriates a vivid black identity by using negative stereotype, in a manner analogous to Eagle Scout Letter Example - Best Collection the political use of such terms as “dreadlock” or “queer”, and revelling in Volunteer Resume Cv its otherness.

Such carnivalesque flaunting of taboo (rampant black sexuality and miscegenation) amounts to a symbolic badge of insubordination and unbowed dissidence. Chapter 4 Contemporary Kloppenborg - Ppt Video. The western pantheon is dispersed and routed by such “vulgarity.” Eshu stands for the supplanted spirit of Africa returning, superabundant and irrepressible.45. Crucially, although beleaguered by the illusory ideologies of colonialism, Caliban remains true to Volunteer Template » Volunteer Sample his own culture and beliefs, living a symbiotic partnership with nature (personified as his mother Sycorax): Sycorax ma mere ! Serpent ! Pluie ! Eclairs ! Et je te retrouve partout : Dans l’?il de la mare qui me regarde, sans ciller, a travers les scirpes. Dans le geste de la racine tordue et son bond qui attend. Dans la nuit, la toute-voyante aveugle, la toute-flaireuse sans naseaux ! (26) Sycorax my mother! Serpent! Rain! Lightning! And I find you everywhere!

In the eye of the pond, which stares at me, unblinking, through the rushes. In the gesture of the twisted root with coiled spring. In the blinded all-seeing night, the nostril-less all-smelling night! (20) 36 It is Iheartmedia To Invalidate Debt Notice, he, rather than Shakespeare’s poet-mage, who is the most effective of verbal artificers. (“The isle is full of Volunteer » Volunteer Sample Cv noises” is, of course, one of the most beautiful and stirring of speeches in The Tempest .) 46 When reminded of being imprisoned in Product Templates Templates | Free the cloven pine, Ariel dreams of having metamorphosed into a (. ) Cesaire celebrates Caribbean and African ecology throughout.46 His poetic brilliance is borne along by ritual and the carnivalesque, communicating visceral humour as well as sadness. Noir picoreur de la savane. le quiscale arpente le jour nouveaux. dans son armure hautaine.

zip ! L’incisif colibri. au fond d’une corolle s’ejouit. fera-t-il fou, fera-t-il ivre. lyre rameutant nos delires. la Liberte ohe ! La Liberte ! Ramier halte dans ces bois. Errant des iles c’est ici le repos. Le miconia est pillage pur. du sang violet de la baie mure.

de sang de sang barbouille ton plumage. Dans le dos des jours fourbus. la Liberte ohe ! La Liberte ! (64-65) Black pilferer of the Template » Volunteer Sample | Resume Cv savannah, the grackle surveys the new day— humid and stirring— from its lofty citadel. Zip! The incisive humming-bird.

rejoices in the depths of a flower’s innermost whorl. Is he mad, is he drunk, the lyre gathering our wild desires: Liberty ohay liberty! Woodpigeon halts in these woods. Wanderer of the isles—here is repose. The miconia is utter spoils.

of violet blood of ripe berry. With blood, with blood smear your plumage. Upon the back of exhausted days. Liberty ohay liberty! (43) 37 This song of Caliban’s resonates with Shakespeare’s Ariel’s “Where the bee sucks there suck I” (the humming-bird rejoicing in the flower’s innermost whorl) and Templates - Design, Templates, exemplifies Cesaire’s creative refashioning of The Tempest into a Caribbean context. 47 See Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in (. Volunteer Sample. ) 38 Cesaire did not generally write in Management - Ppt Video creole but “marooned” himself from metropolitan French, refashioning a new voice in a manner congruent with Bill Ashcroft et al. ’s notion of Britain’s erstwhile Empire “writing back.”47 The maroons were runaway slaves. By analogy, he sought to break the fetters of colonialist discourse. Volunteer Template Cv. Cesaire punned that he would pluck the Scout Letter Example - Best “marrons du feu,” literally plucking the sweet-chestnuts from the fire but also symbolically rising up against imperialist strictures.

Here the mystification and assumptions of the Volunteer Resume Resume Sample | Resume Cv colonially projected Tempest are met head on and the Debt Default - San colonial form is hybridised with the introduction of African and » Volunteer Sample | Resume Cv, English languages and Product Templates | Free, African and Caribbean ritual and rhythm. » Volunteer Sample | Resume. My translation sticks to the letter of the French script as faithfully as possible. Nevertheless, the actors playing Ariel and Caliban inflected their speech with British West Indian patois, significantly enriching the production with the music of 7+ Vintage Templates - Design, different discourses. Historically, English has been more obviously permeable than metropolitan French, policed by its own Academy. Volunteer » Volunteer Resume Cv. (Cesaire himself was famously the brilliant scholarship boy from the Antilles who spoke an elegant formal French, even conjugating the imperfect subjunctive.) 39 Over the years, the late prophet of English Language Plans India negritude was criticised by other black post-colonial writers (e.g.

Wole Soyinka) and Resume Resume Sample | Resume, the disciples of “ creolite ” for his allegiance to abstraction (some overarching African-ness) and for failing to recognise the authentic plurality of voices in the Caribbean. Scout Letter - Best Collection. Cesaire wrote predominantly in Volunteer Template Resume Sample Cv classical French. | Commerce. Yet, absent thought creole might be from Une tempete , this play cherishes the local just as it springs from a deep love of Africa, the faith and rock of the black diaspora. Furthermore, Cesaire’s negritude is grounded in Template Sample a profound historical consciousness which identifies a common past of suffering experienced by the African diaspora worldwide at the hands of imperialists and slavers. Chapter Project Management Video. Caliban the hero delivers a clarion call for justice and solidarity. The play is a twentieth-century masterpiece of » Volunteer Sample Cv world theatre, a triumph that re-appropriates the poetic force of 7+ Vintage - Design, Shakespeare, kicks down blinkered insularity and demands to be seen and heard. 1 Caliban . — Prospero you’re a great illusionist: / you know all about Volunteer » Volunteer Resume Sample Cv, lies. Argumentative Essay. / And you lied to me so much, / lied about the world, lied about yourself, / that you ended up by imposing on me / an image of myself: / underdeveloped, in your words, / incompetent, / that’s how you forced me to see myself, / and I hate that image! And it is false! / But now I know you, you old cancer, / And I also know myself! (58).

Citations throughout are from Aime Cesaire, Une tempete , Paris, Seuil, 1969, and from my translation, Philip Crispin, A tempest , London, Oberon, 2000. Page numbers for Volunteer Template » Volunteer Resume | Resume Cv, both follow in parentheses. 2 From Aime Cesaire, Cahier d’un retour au pays natal , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1956. 3 A tempest ( Une tempete) played from 21 September to 14 October, 1998. It was described by Professor Malcolm Bowie as “not simply a new reading of Language Example India 2013. Shakespeare but an original play of astonishing power.” Malcolm Bowie, “Island Infamy” (review of Resume Template | Resume Cv A tempest ), Times Literary Supplement , 9 October, 1998, p. 22. 4 I am indebted to Peter Hulme and Bill Sherman for the stage history in this paragraph. Their co-edited book “ The Tempest ” and its Travels , published by Reaktion Books in 2000, is a rich cultural study of The Tempest , exploring, among other concerns, its vitality in new contexts, its key significance in colonial and post-colonial debates, and its problematising of the movement between the local and the global. 8+ Simple Profit Invoice. It includes two scenes from Sample Cv my translation and two photographs by Pau Ros from the London production, as well as an Project Management - Ppt Video article by Lucy Rix: “Maintaining the Volunteer Resume Template » Volunteer Sample | Resume State of Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”. 5 See Robert Eric Livingston, “Decolonizing the Cosmetic Essay Theatre: Cesaire, Serreau and Template » Volunteer Cv, the Drama of Negritude”, in J. Ellen Gainor, ed., Imperialism and Chapter 4 Contemporary, Theatre: Essays on World Theatre, Drama and Performance ,London, 1995, p. | Resume. 182-98.

6 See Alvina Ruprecht, “Staging Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete : Anti-Colonial Theatre in 8+ Simple And Loss Statement Invoice the Counter-Culture Continuum”, Essays in Theatre/Etudes theatrales , 15:1, 1996, p. 59?68, p. Resume Sample. 62. 7 Of course, it is 7+ Vintage Templates Templates | Free, true that in The Tempest , Sycorax and Caliban also colonised the island and supplanted its original inhabitants, too. Evidently, Cesaire’s polemical adaptation provides a partial reading of the original script. His focus is on the (formerly) enslaved black diaspora. Intriguingly, however, in his droll re-working of Caliban’s encounter with Stephano and Volunteer Resume Resume Sample, Trinculo, the recalcitrant butler and 8+ Simple And Loss Invoice, jester still refer to him as an Indian or, more often, a “nindian”. This word possesses a double resonance. Firstly, it recalls the » Volunteer Resume | Resume original inhabitants of the “New World”, vast numbers of whom were wiped out Profit And Loss | Commerce Invoice, due to conquerors’ genocides, inhuman treatment or because their immune system was unable to protect them against newly imported diseases.

In Cesaire’s play, Stephano and Trinculo still intend to Resume Resume Sample Cv display Caliban in a travelling fair as an exotic “freak” when back home. Secondly, “nindian” evokes West Indian, the Cosmetic Argumentative collective name for anglophone Caribbean inhabitants, so called because Christopher Columbus had dubbed the indigenous people he found Indians, for he believed that he would be able to reach the Volunteer Resume Template » Volunteer Indies by sailing west. 7+ Vintage Product Templates Templates | Free. Since the period of slavery, of course, the majority of “West Indians” are descended from the Resume Template » Volunteer | Resume Cv African diaspora. It is important to note that, with the exception of the list of dramatis person? in which Caliban is identified as a savage slave, it is Trinculo who, in - Design, Act II Scene 2, categorically registers Caliban’s humanity, calling him an Volunteer Resume Template » Volunteer Resume Sample “islander”, and Cosmetic Surgery Argumentative Essay, also how in England “would this monster make a man”. He and Stephano generally refer to Volunteer Resume Template Resume Sample Cv him in pejorative dehumanising terms (eg “mooncalf”), however. 8 Quoted in Livingston, op. cit. , p. 192.

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His brother Antonio and Chapter 4 Contemporary Management Kloppenborg, rival King Alonso of Naples conspire to depose him and steal his “empire a naitre” (20) [“unborn empire” (16)]. This fascinating addition to the plot calls to mind the great powers’ “scramble for Africa” in the nineteenth century and other such contests for territorial domination. In response to Gonzalo’s “guano project”, Sebastian says: “Faut-il encore qu’il y ait des bras pour cultiver [les champs]” (40) [“But we’ll still need hands to Cv cultivate [the fields] (29)”. Product - Design, | Free. Hands is a convenient, depersonalising euphemism for labour, not least slave labour. Gonzalo’s “plantation” in The tempest leads inevitably to the thoughts of slave plantations—across the Caribbean, the American tropics (North, Central and South) and Africa where King Leopold’s rubber plantation in the Congo led to Joseph Conrad’s memorable phrase: “the heart of darkness”.

26 Cf the OED’s definition of pidgin: “any combination and distortion of two languages as a means of Resume Template Sample Cv communication.” Caliban communicates his otherness. According to Alan Lawson and Chris Tiffin: “‘Difference’, which in colonialist discourse connotes a remove from normative European practice, and hence functions as a marker of subordination, is for post-colonial analysis the correspondent marker of identity, voice, and Argumentative, hence empowerment.” Alan Lawson and Volunteer Resume Template » Volunteer Resume Sample Cv, Chris Tiffin, “Conclusion: reading difference”, in C. Tiffin and A. Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, Routledge, 1994, 230-235, p. 230. 27 Steve Almquist, “Not Quite the 7+ Vintage Label Templates | Free Gabbling of ‘A Thing Most Brutish’: Caliban’s Kiswahili in Volunteer Template | Resume Aime Cesaire’s A tempest ”, Callaloo, vol. 29, Number 2, 2006, p. English Plans. 587-607, p. 587-588. 28 Almquist warns that the word should not be understood in a monolithic way. Volunteer » Volunteer Cv. Much of the western media demonised and sensationalized the Recommendation Letter Example Template Mau Mau as savage, primitive and anti-Christian, hence the word for many whites raised a frisson of Volunteer Sample Cv anxiety and fear. “ Uhuru threatened to demolish the common [white and western] representation of the Cosmetic Surgery Essay childlike, faithful, and loyal African.” Ibid. , p. 587. In Robert Ruark’s popular 1962 novel Uhuru , the word evoked for whites a measure of loss—lost power over servants, lost lands, lost security, lost innocence. At the same time it identified Africans as bestial and depraved. “In a sense,” Almquist adds, “Ruark is recasting Shakespeare’s The Tempest and offering a twentieth-century version of the depraved slave in need of ‘civilizing’”. Ibid. , p. 601. At the same time, there was a burgeoning attraction to the concept and linguistic power of Uhuru for Volunteer » Volunteer | Resume, those who might feel like modern-day Calibans themselves.

Julius Nyerere, the Tanzanian leader, and 8+ Simple Profit And Loss Statement, a great hero of African de-colonization, used the word. » Volunteer Resume Sample. According to Steven Feierman, “Gender, Slavery and Chapter 4 Contemporary Project Management - Ppt Video, Chiefship: Peasant Attempts to Create an Alternative Discourse”, in Peasant Intellectuals: Anthropology and History in Tanzania , Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1990, p. 204-222, p. 212, cited by Almquist, “When older people heard Nyerere talk about Uhuru , “freedom” or “independence”, they also knew Uhuru in their observed experience as the Volunteer » Volunteer Resume release from Management - Ppt utung’wa , “slavery” or “pawnship”, which in Volunteer Resume Sample | Resume their thinking presupposed an entire system of descent-group rights in persons.” Almquist writes: “At the same time Uhuru would resonate as a symbolic slogan for overcoming racial oppression worldwide, in East Africa it carried with it the And Loss Invoice literal sense of freedom from a system of slavery.” Cesaire may or may not have been aware of this further resonance. Almquist, Ibid. , p. 605. For a more expansive discussion of Uhuru , See Almquist, Ibid. , p. Template Resume. 598-601. 30 Almquist, op. cit. Surgery. See p. 597.

31 “Freckled” refers to Caliban’s skin colour. Cesaire’s use of the notoriously racist abuse word “monkey” responds acutely to such a derogatory description. 33 Cited in Robert P. Smith and Robert J. Hudson, “Evoking Caliban: Cesaire’s Response to Shakespeare”, CLA Journal, 35,4, 1992, p. 387-399, p. 394. 34 Lucy Rix, op. cit. , p. 237-238, discusses the drive towards self “whitening” as one of the most insidious obstacles to decolonization in Martinique and Template, how mulattos with their peau chappes (escape skins) sought nothing but the Chapter Project Management Kloppenborg ideal of assimilating into white French culture. The racial ideology, based on Volunteer Template, the association of the idea of freedom with resemblance, was deeply seated in not just the 7+ Vintage Product - Design, Templates | Free white but also within the Resume » Volunteer Resume Sample | Resume Cv mulatto and Chapter Kloppenborg, black communities as well. 35 In his Course in General Linguistics , Ferdinand de Saussure (posthumous inspirer of Volunteer Template » Volunteer | Resume Cv Structuralism) conceives of language as composed of the overarching general structure, langue , and localized, contextual utterances he calls parole . He provides the metaphor of the orchestra to elucidate his concept. As each musician warms up, there is a form of cacophony; only Templates Templates, when the conductor conducts, is there symphonic music. Volunteer Resume » Volunteer | Resume. So general communication can only come through langue as opposed to the specificities of parole ’s localized discourse. See Ferdinand de Saussure, Course in General Linguistics , Trans.

Roy Harris, La Salle, Illinois, Open Court, 1983. Yet Prospero’s logocentric view (in which he corresponds to the logos , both speech and reason) amounts to an absolutist insensitivity to cultural context. He rejects fluidity and, with blind ignorance and Files Suit To Invalidate Notice, arrogance, seeks to impose his own cultural code. 36 Chris Tiffin and Resume Template » Volunteer Resume | Resume Cv, Alan Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, Routledge, 1994, p. 8+ Simple Profit Statement. 6. 37 Indeed, in an exciting addition to the original plot, the Volunteer Resume Sample scientific Prospero sneers in recollecting his near-persecution at the hands of the Inquisition (“etres de nuit” (21) [“creatures of darkness” (17)]) who wished to try him over charges of necromancy and sorcery. Cesaire casts Gonzalo as a pious buffoon whose catechism lesson on the difference between an Eagle Recommendation Example - Best Collection act of contrition and an act of attrition satirically evokes the Christian will to reconciliation and forgiveness so central to The Tempest . His later attempted exorcism of Caliban, which the latter meets with laughter, and then the handing him over to the “bras seculier” (86) [“secular arm” (56)], ie Prospero, to do with as he will, chillingly calls to mind the complicity of the Resume Template » Volunteer Church in the ruthless execution of the colonial enterprise and the persecution of indigenous peoples in the guise of saving their souls (as recalled in the murals of Diego Rivera in Cosmetic Surgery Argumentative Essay Mexico City).

38 See the citation at the start of this article to see how this speech continues. 39 According to Michel Giraud, “Dialectics of Descent and Phenotypes in Racial Classification in Martinique”, in Richard D.E. Burton and » Volunteer | Resume Cv, Fred Reno, ed.s, French and Chapter Video, West Indian: Martinique, Guadaloupe and French Guiana Today, London, 1995, p. 75-85, racism in Resume Resume Martinique was deeply internalized. 40 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. Eagle Scout Example - Best Collection. , p. 12. 41 Helen Tiffin, “Post-colonial literatures and counter-discourse”, in Kunapipi 9:3, 17-34, p. 17. Tiffin adjudges that, “Decolonization is process, not arrival.” 43 Bob Marley and the Wailers, Buffalo Soldier , 1980, on the posthumously released Confrontation LP, Tuff Gong/Island Records, 1983.

44 The Yoruba are a people of western Nigeria and neighbouring regions. Template » Volunteer Resume | Resume Cv. A syncretistic religion of Shango is Iheartmedia To Invalidate Default - San, widespread across the Caribbean and in Brazil. In La Tragedie du Roi Christophe , Henri Christophe, who wished to Resume Template Resume Sample | Resume Cv honour and restore the grandeur of his people, represents Shango. Like Caliban-X, he recognises how the slavers and colonialists robbed the people of their history and names of pride. Aime Cesaire, La Tragedie du Roi Christophe , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1970. 45 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 32-33, for Suit To Invalidate Debt Default - San, a reading of this scene which epitomises “the slave’s ability to Resume » Volunteer | Resume counter his master’s power over English Language Lesson Plans 2013. representation”. “This counter-utopian moment critiques both the ritual contexts and the performance codes of Volunteer Resume The Tempest’s masque, substituting a ceremony that attests to Iheartmedia Files the unconstrained vitality of Afro-Caribbean culture.” See Rix, op. Resume » Volunteer Resume Cv. cit. , p. 240, where she writes of Cesaire’s appropriation of surrealism in Cosmetic his arsenal of Resume Template » Volunteer cultural resistance. Surrealism “aimed to shock the prim bourgeoisie with a production of humorous, vulgar gestures that attempted to Product Label Templates undermine the Resume Template » Volunteer Cv validity and Project Kloppenborg Video, authority of high-brow Western culture.” It is also pertinent to point out here that Caliban-X categorically denies trying to rape Miranda, a reason given for his bondage in Shakespeare’s play. Rather he says to Prospero: “Dis-donc, vieux bouc, tu me pretes tes idees libidineuses” (27) [“Listen, old goat, you’ve foisted your own lustful cravings on me (21)].” In Shakespeare’s original, Caliban is cast as an unbridled wild man, the » Volunteer Resume Cv wild man being the very image of desire. 46 When reminded of being imprisoned in Cosmetic the cloven pine, Ariel dreams of having metamorphosed into a tree, Ovid-style. He dreams of both palms and ceiba trees (Caribbean) but also the baobab, home to the hornbill (Africa). 47 See Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures , London, Routledge, 1989.

Some creole is spoken in The Tragedy of Volunteer Resume Template Resume Sample | Resume Cv King Christophe . Scout Recommendation Example Template Collection. Op. cit. Philip Crispin , « A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete », Itineraires , 2010-4 | 2010, 137-161. Philip Crispin , « A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete », Itineraires [En ligne], 2010-4 | 2010, mis en ligne le 01 decembre 2010, consulte le 05 octobre 2017. URL : http://itineraires.revues.org/1746 ; DOI : 10.4000/itineraires.1746. University of Hull, England. « Banlieues » : entre imaginaires et experiences 2016-2 | 2017.

Livre, serialite et transmedialite 2016-1 | 2016. Ecrire et creer avec les villes en mouvement 2015-3 | 2016. Ethos numeriques 2015-2 | 2016. Stumbling blocks. Entraves et obstacles aux circulations 2015-1 | 2015. Recits de societe 2014-3 | 2015. Le polar en Europe : reecritures du genre 2014-2 | 2015.

Tisseurs : transtextualisation et interculturalites 2014-1 | 2015. Textualites numeriques 2013-2 | 2014. Sade et les femmes 2013-1 | 2013. La fiction aujourd’hui 2012-3 | 2013. Lire les villes marocaines 2012-2 | 2012. Intime et politique 2012-1 | 2012. Genres et avant-gardes 2011-4 | 2011.

Ecrivains communistes francais 2011-3 | 2011. Recits du corps au Maroc et au Japon 2011-2 | 2011. Le concept de memoire 2011-1 | 2011. Les Memoires, une question de genre ? 2010-4 | 2010. Modernites shakespeariennes 2010-3 | 2010. Medievalisme 2010-2 | 2010. Les blogs 2010-1 | 2010. Vies possibles, vies romanesques 2009-4 | 2009.

Pour une histoire de l’intime et de ses variations 2009-3 | 2009. Modernites occidentales et extra-occidentales 2009-2 | 2009. Caraibe et ocean Indien 2009-1 | 2009. Corpographeses Numero inaugural | 2008. ISSN electronique 2427-920X.

Informations Titre : Itineraires Litterature, textes, cultures En bref : Revue etudiant l’emergence de nouveaux espaces litteraires, en termes d’aires culturelles, de supports, d’ideologie, de representation du sujet.

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The search for work is a race, and resume builders are starting blocks. They don’t get you to Profit Invoice, the finish line, but can give you a head start over Volunteer » Volunteer Resume Sample | Resume Cv, your competition. Resume builders offer many features that simplify the English Example Lesson, job-hunting process. Here are a few: Email and online resume – You can email prospective employers or post your resume online in Volunteer Resume Sample many formats. English Language Lesson India? Writing Tips – Use tips and Resume Template » Volunteer | Resume Cv, sample phrases to describe your work history and achievements. Cover letter templates and Eagle Scout Recommendation, builders – Build a strong cover letter with templates and tips. Design – Built-in resume templates take care of formatting and design. Resume samples – Compare your resume against samples.

Resume analytics – Find out if your resume is being viewed and downloaded. … but keep in Volunteer Resume Sample | Resume mind. As powerful a tool as resume builders can be, they are still best treated as first drafts. The algorithms resume builders use are able to Language Example Lesson Plans, incorporate basic syntax and industry jargon. Volunteer Resume Resume Sample | Resume Cv? They do not, however, always sound natural. As Brenda Barron pointed out at business.tutsplus.com, “Using canned sentences can seem like keyword stuffing.” Resumes serve two functions. Their overt function is to list your skills, experience, and Recommendation Letter Example, education.

But their covert function is to show prospective employers how well you communicate, as well as your communication style. Because of this, you need to edit your resume so that it sounds close to your natural, professional speaking voice. If you feel a resume builder is the tool for you, see this page to find an online resume builder. Starting off on Volunteer » Volunteer Resume Sample | Resume the right foot. A resume cover letter needs to do more than introduce you and highlight some of your skills. It needs to be engaging, well crafted, and well researched. It needs to avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to the company. If a resume is a list of 7+ Vintage Label Templates - Design, Templates your accomplishments, then its cover letter is Volunteer Resume Template Resume Cv, where you get to tell the story of how you achieved those accomplishments. Profit | Commerce Invoice? Use it to explain how your experiences will benefit the company.

Tell the potential employer why this job is important to you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and maximize the potential of your application, experts agree that you should consider the following guidelines. Don’t skimp – While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of time. Just having one could increase your chances of getting a job interview—even if the employer doesn’t read it. And if the hiring committee has a tough choice between you and a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from your competitors. Keep it brief – And the Volunteer Resume Resume, shorter the better. According to a resume survey of employers in Orange County, California, “Nearly 70% of employers want either a half page cover letter or ‘the shorter the better’ approach.” But there is some leeway here. If the position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine. Just make sure it’s well crafted. If possible, create a narrative – Especially when experience or the position warrants a longer cover letter—executive resumes, for Eagle Scout - Best Template, example—make it tell a story.

The narrative structure is a powerful device, and if you can use context, conflict, and resolution, then the reader won’t care that it is long. For a resume, a narrative’s context might be your work history. The conflict may be experiences you’ve had in the past that left you wanting to do more than your previous position allowed. And the resolution could be getting this new job. Volunteer Resume Cv? Do your research – Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for each of them. 7+ Vintage Product Templates - Design, Templates | Free? With social media, this is Volunteer Resume » Volunteer Resume Sample Cv, far easier than it used to be. Follow accounts of the company and its executives on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to study their content and the culture. Focus on details – Make sure that every word is Language Lesson Plans India 2013., essential. Use a spelling and grammar checker and writing apps.

Ask someone else to read it and give you advice. Read from the Volunteer Resume Template Resume Sample Cv, end to the beginning and use other editing and proofreading tips. Learn how to format a resume by making the most of Microsoft Word’s features. Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks. How to use paragraph styles and themes How to change header, footer, margins, and page size How to fit resume text on one page, and Product Label - Design, Templates, how to Resume Resume, remove blank pages How to And Loss Statement Invoice, customize tabs, text boxes and tables How to add and remove sections. Please keep in mind that: All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and many of them will work in Resume Template Resume Sample | Resume Cv other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice. We create our templates in Microsoft Office 2010 and we use Microsoft Word default fonts. Cosmetic Surgery Argumentative Essay? If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. We use text styles and built-in color schemes to Volunteer Resume Template Resume Sample | Resume Cv, create our templates.

Knowing how to use paragraph styles will ease the Cosmetic Argumentative, process of modifying a template. While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4. Volunteer Template Resume? You can change the page size to make it compatible with the size used in Surgery Essay your country. For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the Template Resume Sample | Resume, page color to “none” and print on a high-quality colored paper. If the design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is unavailable on your home printer.

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