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Rime of the Ancient Mariner Essay. With their remarks the crewmembers form the first foundation of their sin. Jesus states “Judge not lest ye be judged” (Matthew 7:1) so by judging the Mariner, the crew submit themselves to the judgment of heaven, setting themselves up, much like the Mariner, for Resume Template Nz a punishment. The second sin of the crewmembers comes when they condone the murder of the albatross, revealing, as the weather becomes warmer and the mist disappears, how they believe it “twas right, said they, such birds to slay/that bring inhibits fellowship. D.W. Harding asserts that “The Mariner’s sin…was that in killing the Masquerade ~ Mardi, albatross, he rejected a social offering…The Mariner wantonly obliterated something which loved him and which represented in a supernatural way the Resume Nz, possibility of affection in the world”(78). Apartment Lease Free Pdf Documents Download? The Mariner’s rejection of the albatross’s extension of Resume Nz, hospitality or of fellowship to the Mariner is self-assertion, but it also paves the way for a self-caused isolation. Harding goes on to claim that the Mariner’s rejection the human mind, with its instinct to organise and harmonise, and the baffling powers of the Brochuremonster Blog, universe about it.” Coleridge stated that poetry “gives us most pleasure when only generally and not perfectly understood”.
He preferred to consider The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere a work of “pure imagination” rather than a textual construction representing a particular cultural ideology. However, his writing of the text as a Romantic poet, espousing all ideologies that the Romantic Movement represented subsequent events. For reasons not specifically mentioned in the text, the mariner kills the albatross, which can be easily related to a couple of infamous Christian sins. First, the reader can see obvious similarities between the Template, mariner and the Biblical character Adam. Following Storms, Congressional Delegation? According to Resume Template Nz Christian belief, Adam committed the original sin that caused mankind to suffer as a whole (Harent 3). In The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, the original sin is the mariner’s killing of the God-sent albatross. Storms, Makes? Even though As the ghost ship nears, a spell is cast upon the ship and all of the mariner's young crew fall dead.
The mariner is able to see the Resume Nz, souls of his crew leave their bodies and it is at Lease Template Free this point which he begins to feel remorse and guilt. and every soul, it passed me by, like the wiz of my cross-bow! (Coleridge 222). the Nz, mariner now knows that it was his actions that caused this and must take accountability for what he has done. Coleridge's use of the word bow in this quote is very important. In order for the Mariner to be forgiven of this sin he must first admit his guilt. In lines 91 through 96 he does so by saying, And I had done a hellish thing, And it would work 'em woe: For all averred, I had killed the June Storms, Congressional Delegation Makes, bird That made the breeze to blow. Ah wretch! said they, the bird to Resume Nz slay, That made the breeze to blow! It is this admission of guilt that allows the process of Amazon.com: Mask ~ Mardi, forgiveness for the Mariner to begin. It also allows the Albatross to become a reminder of the Resume, Mariner's Four varying viewpoints exist concerning what or who the White ~ Mardi Gras, mariner represents, the Template, first being the superficial idea that he is simply the wise old man who imparts wisdom to the younger generations (Williams 1116). Going beyond the literal connotation, the Apartment Lease Pdf Documents Download, most common and supported argument it that the mariner represents the Christian sinner.
The diction chosen by Resume Template Coleridge often alludes to Apartment Lease Template - 3+ Word, Pdf Documents Download Christianity, examples include “Christian soul”, ”God’s name”, “[i]nstead of the cross…about my neck was hung” Then, as the Template Nz, Mariner continues, “The Albatross did follow” (72), just as Christ did not save and leave, but he is omnipresent, just as the Albatross. After the salvation of the sailors, with the Albatross in tow, the Mariner feels jealousy and hatred and murders the Albatross, killing the very thing which gave him and Format | Free his ship mates’ life. Lines 81-82 explain the act: “With my crossbow/I shot the Albatross” (81-82). The use of the Resume, crossbow as the Nebraska Delegation, weapon of Template Nz, choice is Sample, Example, Format a clear symbol of farewell! but this I tell To thee, thou Wedding Guest! He prayeth well, who loveth well Both man and bird and beast. He prayeth best, who loveth best All things both great and small; For the dear God who loveth us, He made and loveth all.
The Mariner, whose eye is bright, Whose beard with age is hoar, Is gone: and now the Resume Nz, Wedding Guest Turned from the bridegroom's door. He went like one that hath been stunned, And is of sense forlorn: A sadder and 522 Best On Pinterest a wiser man, He rose the morrow morn. breeze to blow the ship from the icy South Pole towards the Resume Template, Equator. However, in its death by the hands of the Mariner, the albatross is a testament of the Mariner’s sin, and by hanging around the Mariner’s neck, it symbolizes a hovering curse. The Mariner’s lifelong penance is to relay his story and message throughout the lands to the various individuals he holds a calling towards. The Mariner can only relieve his frequents bouts of extreme agony and guilt from his past by narrating his story and lesson horned moon, with one bright star / Within the nether tip (line 210-211) is a pagan symbol signifying the absence of Informed-Consent In Idaho, God. It is only when the Mariner began to bless all living things and saw beyond his own self that the Albatross fell off. He then felt a connection with nature and Template God, for Heaven sent down rain that refreshed the ancient Mariner and angelic spirits led him onward. He needed to change and become penitent before he could be rid of the guilt. In repenting, he was given a penance death of the Template Free Word,, albatross is quite similar from the standpoint that it was the event that gave rise to the Mariner’s problems. The Mariner killed the bird in order to Resume Template Nz support the crew in their time of great hunger and thirst (Coleridge, 32).
The death of the bird was at first followed by good luck. The fog and frost that had once consumed the seas around the Mariner and his crew is replaced by good weather (Coleridge, 34). This break in treacherous conditions is only temporary, though. Upon arriving The guilt of the Mariner is Amazon.com: White Mask ~ Mardi Gras Masks another symbol. The guilt is a morbid weight that stays around his neck until he can pray. This fact is a symbol of Resume Nz, religion for the Mariner. The guilt of wronging one of 11+ Daily Templates - Free Format | Free, God’s creatures hangs around the Resume Template Nz, Mariner’s neck, making him weary and unable to pray. Only when the Mariner realizes the beauty of God’s creatures and what he has done does the weight of the Apartment Template - 3+ Pdf Documents Download, albatross and his guilt fall away. Once this happens the Mariner is again able to pray.
The albatross is a complex Its is at this point in Resume, the poem that the Congressional Makes, Mariner feels guilty for having killed the Albatross and for the deaths of his shipmates. However, it is directly after this description that the Mariner observes the Nz, beauty of the water snakes and forms a respect for the presence of God in nature. In this poem Coleridge uses the wrath and guilt of the apocalypse, but adds his own ideas of divine love and conversion, which lead to paradise. Even thought the Mariner must continue with his penance, he is free as in The Ancient Mariner in which an anonymous third-person narrator recounts how an old sailor comes to tell a young wedding guest the story of On Pinterest Ideas,, his adventures at the sea. When we refer to a frame narration, we are telling that is a narrative that recounts the telling of another narrative or story that thus “frames” the inner or framed narrative. So in Frankenstein, Walton’s letters shape a frame around the main narrative and Victor Frankenstein’s story, while in The Ancient Mariner, the story small age. The penance given to Nz the man in “Rime of the Ancient Mariner” is in fact credibly harsh.
However, we can learn from our mistakes, in doing this we can look at the messages in the poem Rime of the Ancient Mariner. In the poem, “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” there are three distinct message that include living your life thoughtfully, all life is precious and treat all life with respect. The first important message from, “Rime of the Ancient Mariner” tells to live your life thoughtfully. When human rather than to the section which recognises its reason and depth. In RAM, the mariner is subjected to the elements of nature, where all his senses are exposed to extreme environmental lengths. His instinct strays away from that based on his position amongst the dead men and the burden he has acquired. He becomes extremely sensitive in his sight, hearing, sense of touch, smell and Lease - 3+ Free Download taste and it is then that the mariner becomes inharmonious with nature, recognising its amazing transformation power which contribute to this mimesis. In part one, when the mariner begins to tell his tale to the wedding guest, he says “the ship was cheer’d, the harbour clear’d/ Merrily did we drop/Below the kirk, below the hill/below the lighthouse top” (21-25).
The stress on “cheer’d” and “clear’d” helps the reader feel the meter of the poem. This pattern continues even when the meter changes from quatrains to sixains. In lines 48 and 49, the mariner tells the wedding guest “the ship drove fast, loud roared Colderidge’s Rime of the Resume Template, Ancient Mariner, the old man learns three lessons. In Colderidge’s poem, Rime of the Following Nebraska Congressional Makes, Ancient Mariner, the Resume Template, old man learns to live your life thoughtfully. While the old man is at sea, he goes through many different things, including having every single one of his 200 sailors die, except for him. This must have been a life changing event! He himself was also so close to death, but was cursed to live so that he must endure the hard times in result of Template - 3+ Free Download, his crew dying. The Mariner learned be explicitly encapsulated in a maxim. The mariner is cursed with a lifelong penance after he killed the Albatross. Template Nz? He has to Apartment feel a pain in his chest that becomes unbearable until he sees a certain soul that is the right one to tell to.
No matter what. In the long poem, “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” by Samuel Taylor Coleridge has three lessons about Resume human life and they are supernatural, pride, and suffering. In “Rime” by Sam Coleridge, the mariner goes through many supernatural events that Coleridge adds his own special ‘coloring.’ This can be seen in his supernatural works, such as “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,” the story of a seaman haunted after needlessly killing an albatross. Watson describes Coleridge’s nature as “changer and enchanter, supplying qualities of light unknown before. So the poet, by the power of - Free, his imagination, changes the familiar into something rich and strange…Rime is filled with images that we recognize but which are transformed by the context and narrative…” In The Rime of the Template, Ancient Mariner, Samuel Coleridge writes of a sailor bringing a tale to life as he speaks to a wedding guest. An ancient Mariner tells of Informed-Consent, his brutal journey through the Resume Nz, Pacific Ocean to the South Pole.
Coleridge suffers from loneliness, because of his lifelong need for 11+ Daily Planner Sample, Example, love and livelihood; similarly, during the Template, Mariner’s tale, his loneliness shows when he becomes alone at sea, because of the loss of his crew. Having a disastrous dependence to opium and laudanum, Coleridge, in partnership Due to repeated guidance and reliance of food and play to the sailors, the ancient mariner mistook and shot the bird to death. Fellow shipmates cried out, aroused by Apartment Lease - 3+ Free Word, Pdf Documents the act considered taboo, the mariner sinned, he did not solve the stormy issue but instead the wind blew continuously. Until the ceasing of mist and the rise of Template, glorious sun, the 11+ Daily Planner - Free Sample, Format, shipmates accomplice the crime of killing an innocent, bird of good luck. Regarding this reality, people used assumptions and diverse views on sin commitment ever reaching Kurtz. But it was the same traits that allowed him to analyze the Template Nz, true nature of the lawless environment and of the people in it, as in his “suspicion of” the natives’ “not being inhuman” (pg. 37). The adventures of Marlow and the Mariner ended with profound revelations. After he unconsciously blessed the snakes, he was returned to Apartment Free Download his homeland by a higher power. But he had “penance more” (l.
410) to Resume Nz do for his actions. Upon returning, he found himself compelled to tell his story Content and theme of Frankenstein rivaled to Rime of the Brochuremonster Blog, Ancient Mariner English novelist Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and English poet Samuel Coleridge’s The Rime of the Template Nz, Ancient Mariner share very closely tied themes respectively in Masks, their own literary worlds. Through both novel and poem, in the eyes of Template Nz, each Victor Frankenstein and the Mariner three themes recur within. Knowledge, Frankenstein is addicted to knowledge in younger pursuits.
The Mariner is cursed on the spread of knowledge of his obliterate Another change that was made between the 1798 and the 1817 was the spelling. In the Blog, 1798 version of the Resume Template, poem the spelling is very old fashion. It makes the reader feel as if the poem was extremely old. In the 1817 text the spelling in the text is much more modern.
It seems as if Coleridge was updating the Brochuremonster, poem to keep up with the times. I believe he wanted to keep people interested in the story so he updated the language to make it easer for people to under stand. Here is an example: The 1798 each turned his face with a ghastly pang, and cursed me with his eye… all dumb we stood… I pass, like night, from land to land”. Nz? There are key differences in the function and style of Kubla Khan to the workings of the imagination in the Rime of the Ancient Mariner. Instead of being a force that causes sterility, suffering, and 11+ Daily Planner - Free Sample, Format loneliness, in Kubla Khan the imagination becomes a creative, imaginative, fecundative force. It has the power to create not just emotions and feelings, but with the right tools said that the Mariner has no character (22-3). But Charles Lamb, another contemporary of Coleridge, said the ancient Mariner as a character with feelings, faced with such happenings as the poem tells about, dragged [him] along like Tom Piper's magic whistle (House 107). John Livingston Lowes in more recent times spoke of the real protagonists in the poem as the elements, Earth, Air, Fire, and Water (Bodkin 20).
Irving Babbit echoed Wordsworth's criticism in Resume Nz, saying that the Mariner does not do anything It eventually turns out that those bars of prison are the shadows of Death’s dead and dying ship, but does this not allude to the approaching change in life that the Ancient Mariner suffers? He becomes trapped in life, to wander the earth forever, spreading his story--a prison of Planner Templates - Free Example, Format | Free, freedom, a cell made out of eternal life. A curse disguised as the world’s greatest blessing. He goes further to describe the boat when he says the line, “Are those her ribs through which the Template Nz, Sun/ Did peer, as through a we stood! I bit my arm, I sucked the blood, And cried, A sail! A sail!
Then all the Informed-Consent, shipmates die Four times fifty living men, (And I heard nor sigh nor groan) With heavy thump, a lifeless lump, They dropped down one by one. And so the ancient mariner was Alone, alone, all, all alone, Alone on a wide wide sea! A never a saint took pity on Resume Template, My soul in agony. He sat By killing the albatross, the Mariner sets in motion Christianity’s idea that all except Jesus are sinners, but through repentance one can seek forgiveness and ultimately salvation. However, Coleridge poses a dichotomy regarding the transparency of forgiveness in this ballad. After the Mariner blesses the snakes, the reader presumes the Templates - Free | Free, curse was lifted and forgiveness was granted. Template? Although the “Albatross fell off, and sank Like lead into the sea” (288-91), the Mariner was compelled to Amazon.com: Mask ~ Mardi Masks serve a long-term the idea of the poem.
Coleridge tells of a Mariner on a ship who makes a sin against God and therefore is cursed. This curse, the Template Nz, killing of an Albatross - one of God's creatures, costs the Example, Format, entire crew on the ship their lives yet he lives so that he can realize what he has done and be given a chance to ask forgiveness for his sin. Resume Template Nz? The deaths occurred when a ship was sited and on it two women like figures were playing dice and life won the Mariner and death got the crew. Until he began to pray not uncommon they set up a contrast between what should be living, acting, and thinking, (the sailors) and what shouldn’t have these powers, (the ice, the Congressional Delegation, storm, and Template the bird.) The Albatross is the one creature described as living that is so. The Mariner quickly remedies this contradiction by killing the Albatross. By giving life to the lifeless and death to the living Coleridge pushes the Brochuremonster Blog, boundaries of what, in this story, is Template actually alive, adding to the ghostly and ghastly nature of the tale. he is paranoid and unsociable. The Mariner is obviously very isolated because eventually all his ship mates die and he alone is left alive to be tormented. This is shown when the mariner tells the wedding guest “O Wedding-Guest! This soul hath been/ Alone on a wide sea/ So lonely ‘twas, that God himself/ Scarce seemed there to be” (7.19.597-600).
Both Victor and the mariner respond the same way to their isolation. Victor eventually goes mad and Blog the mariner becomes a very bizarre and mysterious The Stone Angel and Samuel Taylor Coleridge The Ancient Mariner is at a wedding and starts to tell a story to the Wedding Guest. The Mariner was in Resume Nz, a ship sailing towards the south pole. All of a sudden the ship was driven by a storm. It started to snow and the ship appeared to Template - 3+ Free Word, Pdf Documents be in an ice land where no living thing was found. Resume Template? Out of the fog an Albatross (a sea bird) came and was received with great joy and Apartment Template - 3+ Free Pdf Documents Download hospitality by the ship mates. Resume Template? It was a sign of life.
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collection contains a large selection of Egyptian, Classical, Ancient Near Eastern Art sculptures, or paintings in relief. Many statues are generally idealized and Brochuremonster Blog incorporated into animal form, since the intention of Template Nz, Ancient Egyptians was often to illustrate as much of a traditional king as possible. Realistic features had greater possibility in the non-royal portraits than in White Venetian Masquerade ~ Mardi Gras, the one for royal purposes . The assumption that Ancient Egyptian royal portraits were accurate is based loosely on Resume, the Contributions of Ancient Civilizations Essay. particularly important in medicine during modern times. Ancient Greece was an Apartment Lease Template Pdf Documents, incredible civilization that made contributions that are crucial to modern day life. Athens, a city-state in Resume, ancient Greece, was the first to Brochuremonster use direct democracy, a system in which male citizens took part in government every day. Many democratic ideas from Greece were used in later times such as Rome and even in the United States today. Also, the ornate columns that the ancient Greeks developed are still used in different types be seen in genre of burlesque, which involved elaborate, risque parodies of well-known operas, plays, and ballets. Modern comedies, which typically involve practical jokes, sexual humour, and drunkenness, are inspired by satyr plays as well. Ancient Greece was one of the first democratic societies and has greatly influenced modern day governments.
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Pension system in the Netherlands. The Netherlands has a pension system that can be considered unique around the world. The Dutch pension system consists of three so called pillars. The first pillar includes the state pension (Algemene Ouderdoms Wet, AOW), which consists of Resume Nz, a flat benefit and is granted to every Dutch citizen aged 65 years or older. The second pillar consists of White Venetian Masquerade Mask ~ Mardi Gras Masks, mandatory collective pension schemes which are arranged within pension funds or insurance companies. A certain occupation, industry or company is often linked to a particular pension fund, meaning that with practicing a certain occupation, your pension fund is already predetermined.
The last and third pillar consists of voluntary private pension savings (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Although the pillar structure of Dutch pension system itself does not differ much from the pillar structure of other western countries, the size and relative importance of Template Nz, each of the pillars is rather different. As can be seen in table 1, the size of the second pillar is relatively large in 11+ Daily Planner - Free Sample, Format, the Netherlands compared to other European countries (Bovenberg, 2014). As a consequence, pension funds are important institutions in the Dutch pension system. Table 1 size of the different pillars of pension systems in European countries. The Netherlands Germany France Italy Spain Swiss UK US. 1st pillar 50 85 79 74 92 42 65 45. 2nd pillar 40 5 6 1 4 32 25 13. 3rd pillar 10 10 15 25 4 26 10 42.
This unique position of second pillar pensions in the Netherlands demands realignment of the financing structure of the first and second pillar through the Resume Template franchise. The AOW in the first pillar is financed by 11+ Daily Templates Format | Free social premiums every employed Dutch citizen pays to Nz the government. The pension benefits received from the pension funds in the second pillar are financed by paying pension premiums into the pension fund. Originally, the franchise is meant as an Following Nebraska instrument to achieve the integration between both pillars. In order to establish this integration, part of the Template labor income is exempted from paying pension premiums over into a pension fund; the franchise (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Fracoes | Teaching Teaching! Since the relative importance of the second pillar is unique for the Netherlands, the franchise is a typically Dutch phenomenon. Theoretically the franchise equals the part of the Resume Template labor income over which AOW benefits are granted (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). To this respect, no Dutch citizen should pay ‘double’ for their pension income.
Strictly speaking, the one to one relationship between the franchise and the AOW should result in a franchise that is uniform across pension funds. Following Storms, Congressional Delegation Makes! In practice the level of the franchise differs between pension funds (Eberhardt et.al., 2014), although it has a uniform character within the funds itself (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Before 2006, the Resume Dutch pension system was characterized by a final salary system. In this system the relationship between the White Venetian Masks franchise and the AOW was maintained. However, with the transition to the average salary system in 2006, the relationship between the franchise and the AOW diluted . The uniform franchise used by the large Dutch industrywide pension funds is an Resume Template element of a uniform accrual system further consisting of a uniform pension premium and a uniform accrual rate. These aspects of the financing structure within a pension fund are uniform in the sense that their level is the same for every participant of the fund regardless of his or her individual characteristics (CPB, 2013). This implies that every participant of a pension fund pays the same pension premium in terms of percentage for which the same amount of labor income is exempted by the franchise, to accrue the same accrual rate per year. Amazon.com: Venetian Mask Masks! Especially the franchise and accrual rate are highly interdependent. To this respect they are inseparable: a higher accrual rate implies a higher franchise and vice versa (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). Template Nz! An aspect of the uniformity characterizing Dutch pension funds which has given rise to a great deal of debate is the fact that participants in pension funds are often not uniform at all.
The uniform accrual system finds its origins in Blog, the notion of solidarity between the different participants of a pension fund. Furthermore solidarity enables the Resume Nz sharing of risks such as longevity risk and capital market risk. However when a pension fund has participants that differ widely in certain characteristics such as life expectancy, career path taken, or career length, the Amazon.com: White Venetian Mask Masks uniform accrual system causes structural redistribution between them (CPB, 2013). A system is then said to be actuarially unfair. A measure of this redistribution is the net gain.
The net gain shows the ratio of the discounted sum of pension benefits during retirement over the discounted sum of paid premiums over the working life (CPB, 2013). Template Nz! In an Storms, Makes actuarially fair situation the net gain should always equal one for every individual at Resume Template Nz, every point in time, regardless of their characteristics. However, generally speaking the uniform accrual system is not actuarially fair, meaning that certain participants either overpaid or underpaid for their pension rights (CPB, 2013). Apart from the redistribution between participants of a fund, the pension outcome differs considerably between participants of a fund too. Informed-Consent! The pension outcome can be thought of as the replacement rate.
The replacement rate shows the Resume Nz ratio of the In Idaho pension benefit of a certain individual over the main source of their income during working life at a certain moment in time. Thereby the replacement rate is a measure of the effectiveness of consumption smoothing (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The pension benefit includes pension income from both the first and the second pillar. Just as the Resume Template Nz net gain, the replacement rate is influenced by the uniformness of the system and individual characteristics of the participant too. Although the uniform pension premium and uniform accrual rate have received much attention in 522 Best Teaching, the literature, the uniform franchise remains relatively underexposed.
To my knowledge, up until this date no quantitative literature exists on the sole topic of the franchise. The reason for this may lie in the fact that the Resume Nz maximum levels of the franchise are largely determined by law (Kakes and In Idaho Broeders, 2006). Another explanation might be that the Resume franchise is less important in other countries due to the relatively smaller size of the second pillar. This in contrast to Apartment Template Download pension premium, which influences the affordability of labor and thereby influences the labor market. Next to Resume Nz that the pension premium is something that is relatively seizable and concrete for the average citizen. The uniform accrual rate on its turn receives much attention in the light of the redistribution discussion. Next to that the accrual rate has a certain fiscal angle since it reflects the amount of pension rights to be accrued in a fiscal beneficial way.
It is Fracoes Images | Teaching, however unjust that the franchise receives little attention. Since, as being part of the uniform accrual system, it certainly might affect both the redistribution between participants within a pension fund, as the pension outcome for these participants. Therefore the research question of this thesis is the following: ‘How are the Resume Template redistribution between – and Apartment Lease Word, pension outcome of individual participants of a pension fund influenced by their individual characteristics in Resume, terms of starting salary, career path and length of career, and to what extend does the level of the uniform franchise and accrual rate change the redistribution and pension outcome?’ The research question has been formulated such that it addresses both the role of the franchise and accrual rate in the often discussed redistribution between participants of a pension fund, as well as their eventual pension outcome. Since longevity risk is not one of the characteristics taken into account, only redistribution within the accrual phase is considered . As already stated before, the franchise and the accrual rate are inseparable. Therefore it is not possible to examine the influence the franchise has as a sole concept in an adequate way. The net gain is used as the outcome variable for the redistribution, while the replacement rate will be used as the outcome variable for On Pinterest Ideas, the pension outcome. The replacement rate and net gain are not necessarily linked.
For example, the net gain can have the same value for every participant in a fund, while the Resume Nz replacement rates for these participants can differ widely. Amazon.com: White Venetian Masquerade Gras Masks! To this respect the net gain is a flow variable, while the replacement is a stock variable. Both the net gain and the replacement rate are simulated by typical agent models which have been written for the purpose of Resume Template Nz, this thesis. Storms, Delegation Makes! Another unique aspect of this thesis is that it makes use of data instead of presumed values in the simulations. More specifically, data on the five largest pension funds in the Netherlands, in terms of assets under management (van der Westen, 2014) are used. This thesis first examines the net gains and replacement rates of Resume Template Nz, individuals for their individual characteristics separately (cetirus paribus). Amazon.com: Venetian Masquerade ~ Mardi Masks! Afterwards the different levels of the characteristics are combined into Resume Template Nz scenarios.
Hereby all possible combinations of the individual characteristics are captured. Template Word, Pdf Documents! The scenarios are determined in the following manner: # scenarios = # starting salaries*# career paths*# lengths of career. For reasons of variation in outcomes and keeping in mind the scope of this thesis, these scenarios are simulated for Resume Nz the replacement rates. This procedure is repeated three times for three different combinations of accrual rates and franchises. Pension funds can choose the level of the franchise, and consequently the level of the accrual rate themselves. However, not all combinations are allowed. The law prescribes three fixed combinations which are legally binding and On Pinterest Teaching are shown in table 2 for the year 2015 (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014). Table 2 Lawful Combinations of Template, Franchise and Accrual rate, 2015. Combination Accrual Rate Maximum Franchise Level. Combination 1 Maximum of 1,875% ‘ 12.642,- Combination 2 Maximum of 1,788% (but not lower than 1,701%) ‘ 11.395,-
Combination 3 Maximum of1,701% ‘ 10.095,- These fixed combinations represent maximum levels of the franchise and accrual rate combination. Pension funds can choose to have a lower accrual rate or franchise than these fixed combinations, but cannot choose a higher level (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014). Therefore these three combinations are used in this research. Following Storms, Nebraska Delegation! The series of simulations for the three different combinations, result in a spread of net gains (for the three different characteristics separately only) and Resume Nz replacement rates (for the three different characteristics and Blog all of them combined in the scenarios). Next, the magnitude of above described effects the Resume Nz individual characteristics and In Idaho the combination of the franchise and accrual rate have on the replacement rates is estimated using a log linear model. In this way the marginal effects can be quantified. The magnitude is only examined for the replacement rate as an Resume Nz outcome variable since the scenarios are not simulated for In Idaho the net gain. The remainder of this paper is Template, organized as follows. Section 2 describes the Fracoes Images | Teaching Ideas, structure of the Dutch pension system, the franchise and the uniform accrual system in detail. Furthermore, previous literature on Resume Template Nz, relevant topics is - 3+ Download, discussed.
Section 3 discusses the Resume Template Nz methodology, including the typical agent simulation models and the data that are used. The results and Blog implications are discussed in section 4. Resume Template! Subsequently, section 5 examines possible policy implication. Section 6 describes and Masquerade Mask Masks discusses the general conclusions. Resume Template! Finally, section 7 discusses and gives recommendations for further research. Structure of the Dutch Pension System. The Dutch three pillar pension system is a system that is rather complex to understand.
Especially considering the relative importance of the 522 Best On Pinterest Teaching second pillar pension schemes and thus the pension funds. Pension schemes can be financed in roughly two ways; on a pay as you go (PAYG) basis, or via funding. The AOW public pension has a pay as you go (PAYG) character which implies that the AOW is paid entirely out of Resume Nz, current revenue sources. The AOW thereby has a contractarian nature, meaning that no savings have to be accumulated in anticipation of Lease Template - 3+ Free Download, future pension claims but instead the government can tax the working population to pay for the pension benefits of the retirees. Consequently, a PAYG system relaxes the Template constraint that the benefits received by any generation must be matched by its own contributions (Barr and Diamond, 2008).
A PAYG financed pension scheme usually has two main objectives. First it redistributes income from the younger generations towards the older generations which are retired. Second it redistributes and shares risks across generations (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The level of the AOW benefit depends on the household’s composition. Planner Format! And the number of Template, years which an individual has been insured. Informed-Consent! Every individual that lives or works in the Netherlands is automatically insured and thereby accrues two percent AOW benefit per Nz, year. Lease Free Word, Pdf Documents! After fifty years of Template, either living or working in the Netherlands, a person is fully insured and is thereby granted the full amount of AOW which he or she is eligible for. Brochuremonster Blog! This amount depends on the household composition. A person that cohabits with another individual receives a flat benefit of fifty percent of the net minimum wage. A person that lives alone receives seventy percent of the Template Nz net minimum wage (Sociale Verzekeringsbank, n.d.). Furthermore the age at which citizens become eligible for Following Delegation the AOW benefit will be increased gradually to age 67.
When this age is reached, the retirement age may further increase if life expectancy increases (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). To the contrary, the Template Nz occupational pension schemes in Apartment Lease - 3+ Word, Pdf Documents Download, the second pillar are funded. This means that contributions are invested in financial (or physical) assets of which the return is credited to Template Nz the plan’s participants. Funded schemes can be either individual or collective. When a person retires he or she receives either an annuity or draws down the Planner Templates - Free Sample, accumulation in some other way, for example via a lump sum.
The annuity or lump sum is based on either the individual contributions to Resume Template the fund, or the accrued pension rights depending on whether the fund has individual accounts or a collective nature (Barr and Fracoes | Teaching Teaching Diamond, 2008). In the Netherlands the vast majority of the pension funds have basic pension schemes which are collective and pension benefits can only be received in the form of an annuity. Funded schemes on its turn, can be classified into Resume Nz two main categories; defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) schemes. In DB schemes pension benefits are based, among other things, on the worker’s wage, length of employment history and the so called accrual rate. The accrual rate determines how much pension rights a person accumulates per year over his or her labor income minus the Following Storms, Delegation Makes franchise. The accrual rate can either be a percentage of a person’s start- average- or final salary (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The replacement rate constitutes the number of Template Nz, years in which a person accrued pension rights times the accrual rate.
Moreover, the Fracoes | Teaching replacement rate expresses pension benefit as a fraction of one of these three salary levels. In 2006, a transition took place from the final salary scheme to the average salary scheme in Resume Template Nz, the Netherlands. Therefore the average salary scheme is the most common. In 2008, 87 percent of the active members of pension funds had an average salary scheme (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Blog! As of the first of January 2015, the fiscal regulation surrounding the accrual of pension rights has been adjusted with the adaptation of the Template Nz ‘Witteveenkader’. The maximum boundary which guarantees fiscal beneficial pension saving is set at a labor income of 100.000 euros. This means that above this boundary individuals have to arrange the accrual of pension savings themselves. This accrual will be out of Nebraska Delegation Makes, net income, instead of gross income which is the case below the boundary. Another measure which has been taken is the decrease of the fiscal maximum of the accrual rate. This maximum is lowered from 2,15% for average salary schemes in 2014, to 1,875% for average salary schemes in Nz, 2015 (Staatsblad van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, 2014).
In defined contribution schemes the pension benefit depends on Fracoes Images On Pinterest Ideas, Teaching, the contributions paid into the fund. In DC schemes the Nz pension benefit is not pre-determined but the pension premium is, for Amazon.com: Mask a certain period of Resume Nz, time as opposed to DB schemes where the Fracoes Images | Teaching Ideas, pension benefit is mostly pre-determined. Defined contribution schemes can be either individual (IDC) or collective (CDC). In CDC schemes participants accrue pension rights based on the average salary system against a pre-determined pension premium (Mercer, 2015). The eventual pension benefit is not predetermined since it depends on the factual funding ratio of the pension fund at the time of retirement (Chen et.al., 2014).
In IDC schemes every pension fund participant saves for its own pension benefit. Resume Template Nz! The eventual pension benefit is the sum of the paid pension premiums and the realized return on them (Chen et.al., 2014). In IDC schemes, risks cannot be shared between participants as opposed to CDC schemes. In CDC schemes risks can be shared between participants in an intra- as well as intergenerational manner. Intragenerational since pension benefits are paid out in the form of an annuity which enables the Storms, Nebraska Congressional Delegation Makes sharing of, for example, longevity risk (Barr and Diamond, 2008) and Resume Template intergenerational since shocks in the funding ratio can be spread out over a number of years and thereby shared between various generations (Chen et.al., 2014). IDC schemes are not very common in the Netherlands (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Most pension funds that do have a DC scheme implement a CDC scheme. Recently, DC schemes start to gain in popularity in the Netherlands and are more often used in the discussion surrounding the future of the Dutch pension system (van Dorssen and Nauta, 2014). Apartment Template - 3+ Word,! This is mainly the Resume Template Nz case since DB schemes more or less guarantee a certain pension benefit irrespective of the financial market return (Der Wal, 2014), while DC schemes do not provide such certainty. This implies that contributing participants in Lease Template Free Pdf Documents Download, a pension fund with a DB scheme bear the risks surrounding the pension benefits of the pension fund retirees, while those risks are shared between contributing participants and pension fund retirees in Template, DC schemes.
The franchise exempts a certain amount of the labor income of pension fund participants over which pension premium needs to be paid. The franchise relates to Brochuremonster the accrual rate. Consequently, the combination of the franchise and Template Nz the accrual rate a pension fund uses determines their pension premium. Lease Free Word, Pdf Documents! Therefore the franchise, accrual rate and pension premium find themselves in a triangular relationship. The franchise and accrual rate combination a pension fund chooses is bound by legal requirements . Reasons for this may lie in the fact that by legally binding the choice of the combination, the premium stays within a certain bound and Resume cannot take an outrageous level. Besides, by legally binding the choice of the combination the risk for pension fund participants is In Idaho, limited. For example a low franchise in combination with a high accrual rate would result in either a relatively high premium, or a pension fund taking more risk in Template, their investment strategy in 11+ Daily Planner Templates - Free Format | Free, order to be able to finance the accrued pension rights. Therefore such a combination is not allowed. The accrual rate determines the final replacement rate a pension fund participant reaches. The objective of a pension fund with regard to the envisioned replacement rate is a matter of pension fund policy.
Consequently, pension funds have different pension schemes which result in different time paths in Template, which the replacement rate can be reached. A shorter time span in which the replacement can be reached consequently corresponds to a higher accrual rate and higher franchise. The replacement rate is Brochuremonster, applicable to both pension income coming from the first ‘ and the second pillar which, theoretically, should result in a uniform franchise of Nz, 10/7th times the AOW benefit (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Historically speaking the franchise is Venetian Masquerade ~ Mardi Gras Masks, meant as an Template Nz instrument to integrate the first and the second pillar of the Dutch pension system. With the Planner Templates - Free Example, Format introduction of average salary schemes this relation got diluted, resulting in franchises which are lower than this theoretical level. Some pension funds even wield a franchise of Resume, exactly ‘0 (Eberhardt et.al., 2014). As of 2015 the relationship diluted even further, since the levels of the franchise which are connected to the fiscally allowed maximum accrual rates are lower than they would be if they were at a level of 10/7th times the Informed-Consent AOW. Therefore even the law does not take notice of this presumed relationship anymore. The fact that the relationship between the franchise and the AOW got diluted, indicates the possibility that the franchise is used for other purposes by pension funds.
Nowadays, one of this main purposes is to keep the pension scheme affordable for the pension fund (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). The level of the franchise is usually adapted to Template the characteristics of the Following June Storms, Delegation Makes participants of a pension fund. A pension fund with participants which have a relatively low labor income benefit from a relatively lower franchise in combination with a lower accrual rate. For this income group the disadvantage of a lower accrual rate is Template, outweighed by Lease Template - 3+ Download the lower level of the franchise.
At higher franchise levels they run the risk of earning a labor income that is lower than the franchise and thereby not accruing pension rights. Resume! To the contrary, pension funds with participants earning relatively higher labor incomes, benefit from 522 Best Fracoes Images On Pinterest | Teaching Ideas,, choosing a relatively higher franchise level in combination with a higher accrual rate. Template! For these income groups the franchise constitutes a relatively low share of their labor income. Consequently the disadvantage of a higher franchise level is outweighed by 11+ Daily Planner - Free Example, the higher accrual rate. The franchise is uniform in the sense that it is applicable to all participants in a certain pension fund. Template Nz! It is Brochuremonster, this uniform character that may affect the replacement rate objective the pension fund has set in an adverse way. Resume Template! This is the case for two reasons. First, participants of pension funds are not uniform in terms of their labor income.
Usually pension funds have participants who fall both in the higher and lower income categories. Pension funds therefore choose a franchise and accrual rate combination which is beneficial for the average participant, so ass to minimize welfare losses in terms of the replacement rate for their participants. However, zero welfare loss is not possible since above policy always results in losses for participants who are not average. The most optimal solution would be to completely differentiate the level of the franchise and accrual rate per pension fund participant, so as to achieve tailor-made solutions. This would result in zero welfare loss since every participant is subject to a franchise and accrual rate combination adapted to his or her characteristics.
This is however impossible since the franchise should have a uniform level within the pension fund. Therefore the franchise and accrual rate combination pension funds choose is always a suboptimal one. Second, the AOW benefit that is used in calculating the franchise can differ from the AOW benefit that people actually receive. Most pension funds calculate a franchise on the basis of a AOW benefit which is 70 percent of the net minimum wage; the AOW benefit for singles (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). Apartment Lease Template Word, Download! However, married or cohabiting couples receive an Resume Template Nz AOW benefit of 50 percent of the net minimum wage each, resulting in a combined AOW benefit of Lease Template Free Word,, 100% of the net minimum wage (Frericks et.al., 2006). Moreover, employees who deviate from the ‘average’ participant in others ways than their labor income or level of the Nz AOW benefit, can experience problems in reaching the desired replacement rate. This could concern, for example, employees who have disrupted careers due to unemployment since participants usually do not accrue pension rights while being unemployed . Considering all this, it can be stated that the franchise could have implications for the final outcome of the pension plan; the pension income in terms of the replacement rate and the redistribution in terms of the net gain (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). The Uniform Accrual System.
Besides the franchise being at a uniform level, the accrual rate and the pension premium are uniform too. The uniform accrual system causes certain losses and redistribution. Template Free Word,! First, part of the pension rights in pension funds is financed on a PAYG basis as younger workers subsidize the older ones (Bovenberg et.al., 2014). Resume Nz! The return on a PAYG scheme consists of June Storms, Nebraska Delegation Makes, population growth combined with real wage growth, while the return on a funded scheme consists of the capital market return. Therefore the cost effective contribution into a uniform accrual system is higher due to the lower return on Resume, the PAYG component of the Amazon.com: Venetian Masquerade ~ Mardi Gras system (CPB, 2013). Resume Template! Next to that the 522 Best Fracoes Images On Pinterest Ideas, system is often viewed as unfair since it causes redistribution between different cohorts in the population.
First, time inconsistency causes the uniform accrued pension rights to Resume Template Nz be worth less to the younger cohorts than to Amazon.com: White Masquerade Masks people approaching the retirement age since the investment horizon of Nz, young people is longer. Second, structural differences in life expectancy are not taken into account which is beneficial for cohorts with a longer life expectancy as opposed to cohorts with a lower life expectancy (Lever et.al., 2014). Moreover, the modern labor market imposes problems on Planner - Free Sample, Example, Format, the uniform accrual system due to Resume Template issues such as shorter life cycles of Images On Pinterest | Teaching, businesses and sectors, increased labor mobility and changing employment relationships (SER, 2015). This more flexible character of the labor market causes people to deviate from the average career path most pension funds envision in determining the level of the accrual rate, franchise and pension premium. These issues result in the accrual rate and pension premium to be actuarially unfair at every moment in time.
There is Nz, just one moment in time in which both of them are fair; when they exactly equal the value of the accrued pension rights. Only when a person stays within the same pension fund during his or her entire career , the eventual outcome will be actuarially fair for this particular person. Pdf Documents! However in current dynamic labor markets this is far from usual anymore. Figure 1 describes the uniform accrual system and its redistribution (CPB, 2013). The difference between the red and Resume Template the blue line reflects the PAYG component loss. The difference between the purple and the blue line reflects the loss due to 522 Best time inconsistency. Finally, the difference between the Resume Nz purple and the green line reflects the loss due to In Idaho differences in life expectancy. Figure 1 Decomposition of the Redistribution. In light of above described losses and redistributions, the Dutch parliament recently decided that the uniform accrual system will be abolished in Resume Nz, phases. This process will be concluded in 2020 (Rijksoverheid, 2015).
The accrual system that will replace the uniform accrual system is Informed-Consent In Idaho, designed at Resume Nz, the very moment. Several proposals for Brochuremonster this redesign have been made already. Bonenkamp, Cox and Lever (2014) in a Netspar Design Paper proposed to maintain the uniform pension premium in combination with degressive accrual of pension rights. In this way the pension premiums paid by Nz younger cohorts result in Brochuremonster, more pension rights which makes the system actuarially fair at Template Nz, every moment in time. Another proposal is to maintain the uniform accrual of pension rights, while making the pension premium progressive. However this proposal could cause wage profiles to become even steeper since part of this increase in the pension premium will be paid by the employer resulting in relatively higher wages for Amazon.com: Masquerade Mask ~ Mardi Gras older employees. This could cause harm for Resume Nz the older cohorts of the working population. Especially considering the current situation of the Dutch labor market in which wages for older employees are already relatively high (CPB, 2014). Every pension scheme and every transition from one pension scheme to another, is in principal a ‘zero sum game’ in terms of Fracoes Teaching, market value. Resume Nz! An improvement for Following Nebraska Delegation Makes a certain generation or cohort will hurt another generation or cohort. Moving from Resume, a uniform accrual system to an actuarial fair system results in Apartment Lease Template - 3+ Free Word, Pdf Documents Download, a higher return on Template Nz, pension savings for all current and future generations (CPB, 2013).
However, both proposals go alongside with a substantial transition burden of approximately a hundred billion euros. These hundred billion euros are the result of the generations who already paid a certain tax into the system by paying a too high premium for the pension rights which they accrued, but will not receive the subsidy which the system provides at a later age. This burden is also referred to Amazon.com: White Masquerade Gras Masks as implicit debt. The burden will be the Template highest for the participants who are exactly at the cutting point as presented in figure 1. This results in a politically sensitive discussion as to which generation should bear the burden of this transition. Without compensation for the generations that will be hurt by this transition, the whole burden will be placed upon them.
However, the burden can be spread over 11+ Daily - Free Sample, Format, multiple generations by an increase in the pension premium. This will hurt younger cohorts. Another solution would be to Resume finance the transition burden via the pension fund capital by shortening indexation (CPB, 2013). This thesis can be considered a first attempt to fill the gap in the quantitative literature concerning the franchise, by examining the influence the combination of the franchise and the accrual rate has on both the net gain and the replacement rate. In this way, both redistribution and pension outcome are taken into account. Furthermore the Blog effect of individual characteristics like occupation, career path and career length on both the net gain and Template the replacement are examined, as a complement to below described literature. After an intensive inquiry, to my knowledge no quantitative literature exists on the topic of the influence of the franchise on the eventual pension outcome and redistribution within a pension fund.
Concerning the uniform accrual system as a whole and the redistribution it causes, the situation is different. Most of the research surrounding this topic focusses on the inter- and intragenerational transfers. In a CPB discussion paper Bonenkamp (2009) quantifies lifetime redistribution in Dutch occupational pension schemes associated with uniform pricing. The uniform contribution to the pension fund is split up in Brochuremonster Blog, a saving part and a transfer share representing the redistribution. The transfer share is split up in Template, an inter- and intragenerational part. Intergenerational transfers occur because of a gain for the elderly working generations at the time the second pillar pension schemes were introduced.
These generations benefit from the premium which is lower than their actuarially fair value of the uniform accrued pension rights. However, these generations never had to 11+ Daily Planner Sample, pay a premium that was higher than the actuarially fair value of these pension rights when being young. This introductory gain cannot be passed on to all generations without any costs. This results in an intergenerational transfer. Template Nz! Intragenerational transfers occur because of redistribution between different cohorts within the same generation, due to, among other things, differences in life expectancy and Informed-Consent In Idaho education. The results show that the saving share is higher for female than for male pension savers implying that there is an Resume intragenerational transfer of Nebraska Delegation Makes, 9 percent from men to women. Furthermore, the saving share is lower for lower educated people than for higher educated people, again pointing at an intragenerational transfer from the lower educated to the higher educated. The intergenerational transfer is relatively small at a 2 percent level (Bonenkamp, 2009).
In this thesis only intragenerational transfers are taken into account. With respect to Template the redistribution caused by differences in career path, the CPB document ‘Voor- en nadelen van de doorsneesystematiek’ (2013) is relevant. This paper measures, among other things, the redistribution in the second pillar resulting from flat, average and steep career paths in Lease Free, terms of Resume Nz, income profile. It concludes that people with a flat income profile benefit far less from the uniform accrual system than people with a steep income profile do. This effect mainly arises due to Brochuremonster the fact that people with a flat income profile mainly accrue pension benefits at the beginning of their career when the actuarial value of the pension rights is low. In later stages of their career, when the actuarial value of the pension rights is higher, they build up less pension benefits. For people with a steep income profile the opposite is true (CPB, 2013). Simulation Model Characteristics.
Both the net gain and the replacement rate are modelled using a typical agent simulation model. An important difference between the two outcome variables is the fact that the net gain solely models a pension fund. It models pension premiums paid to Template Nz the pension fund and pension benefits received from the pension fund. To the contrary, the Template Word, Download replacement rate includes both the pension benefits coming from the pension fund and the AOW benefit. Since both the Nz net gain and the replacement rate represent different concepts, they are both simulated using different models which have been written for the purpose of this thesis.
However, although the model equations are different they are based on Informed-Consent In Idaho, the same type of models in the taxonomy of simulation models, namely typical agent models. The taxonomy of simulation models regarding pensions is presented in table 3 (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Table 3 Taxonomy of Simulation Models for Pensions. Microsimulation Models Standard Models. 1.1 Static microsimulation models Standard cohort models.
1.2 Dynamic microsimulation models 2.2 Typical agent models. Microsimulation models are the Resume Nz most comprehensive type of models in In Idaho, terms of equations used and sectors of the economy that are taken into account. Moreover, they need a large amount of Template, data as input. Therefore making use of a microsimulation model is In Idaho, out of the scope of this research and the choice is made to Template use a model falling into the standard model category. Microsimulation models simulate changes in Blog, a sample of a large number (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009).
The sample can be either cross sectional or a panel. The simplest type of microsimulation models are static microsimulation models. These models compare two states of the world, for example two different institutional settings. In these type of models time is not included as a factor. Resume Template! To the contrary, dynamic microsimulation models do include time. Thereby these models are capable of Templates Format, explicitly modelling life paths of individuals. They take into account both behavioral responses and the policy environment (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Cohort models usually start from current cross-sectional information on certain characteristics of various social groups which are most frequently cohorts. This current set of information is then simulated into the future. In this simulation assumptions on Nz, the state of the Word, labor market and demographics are made. The simulation path attempts to reweigh the group averages of the cohort resulting from the current information set influenced by Template these assumptions.
The major advantage of Sample, | Free, cohort models is that aggregate conclusions can be obtained (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Typical agent models draw typical histories of fictitious individuals. These typical agents usually differ in Resume, main features and life-path characteristics such as career path taken, career length and occupation. Based on the typical histories the level of the On Pinterest pension benefit is simulated and expressed in a certain way, for example by using the replacement rate as an outcome variable (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Typical agent models are capable of including the country-specific institutional setting. Moreover, the accrual of pension rights is properly tracked since the whole history of a fictitious individual is simulated. Typical agent models are well suited to asses, among other things, incentives to Nz work longer or to compare the generosity of the pension scheme for different types of Blog, individuals. They are, however, incapable of Template Nz, producing aggregate outcomes (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). This makes it difficult to draw conclusions about, for example, the Following June Nebraska Makes average net gain or replacement rate of Resume, a pension fund, or the weighted distribution of these variables.
However, this will not cause considerable problems, since the focus of this research is on outcomes on Apartment Lease - 3+ Free, an individual level, namely on the level of Resume, pension fund participants. Therefore, I have chosen to write two simulation models which fall into this category. First and foremost since these models are most appropriate for simulating the replacement rate which is one of the main variables of interest within this thesis. Moreover, the disadvantages of this model type do not form a considerable threat to the research. Furthermore, the models are deterministic and non-stochastic which means that they concentrate on Apartment Lease Template Free Word, Download, outcomes which are simulated without taking notice of external shocks. Examples of external shocks could be decreasing interest rates or a sudden decrease in fertility. In the design of these models, external shocks would most probably influence the values of Resume Template Nz, certain parameters. The simplification of not taking into account external shocks is In Idaho, justified, since the Template primary interest of this thesis is in expected (ex-ante) redistribution and Apartment Pdf Documents expected (ex-ante) pension outcomes. However, this simplification also causes the Template Nz model to be stylized.
In certain situations this could cause a certain outcome which would be different when the model would be stochastic. For example, it could be concluded that no redistribution between partcipants of a pension fund takes place while this would be the case if certain variables would be allowed to Informed-Consent vary. An example of this is described in appendix (‘). The model that is used to simulate the net gain took the model of Template, Joop Hartog (2013) as a starting point. This model can be found in appendix II. In this thesis the net gain is simulated using equation the following model/equations : List of variables:
W = length of Informed-Consent In Idaho, working life in years. P = duration of retirement period in Resume Nz, years. i??i?? = replacement rate (length of working life times the accrual rate) r = discount rate (real rate of return on standard life cycle investment scheme) y = starting salary as a fraction of the White Mask minimum wage. n = individual real growth of the wage. f = franchise as a fraction of the minimum wage.
i??i?? = pension premium (as a fraction of the salary minus the franchise) i??i?? = accrual rate. Equation (1) computes the net gain (NG) by dividing the Template Nz discounted sum of pension benefits from the June Storms, Nebraska pension fund over the discounted sum of paid pension premiums to the pension fund. Both sums are discounted back to period 0, which means to the period before an individual starts working. This is done so as to equal the time value of Resume, these sums and simulate a time-consistent net gain. 522 Best Fracoes On Pinterest | Teaching! The discount rate (r) takes the value of the real rate of return on the standard life cycle investment scheme. The nominator represents the sum of discounted pension benefits.
The sum is computed by multiplying the replacement rate (i??i??) with the average salary, since the accrual system in the Netherlands is characterized by an average salary system. The replacement rate is determined exogenously by multiplying the Resume Template Nz length of the working life with the accrual rate. This is the case since participants generally only accrue pension rights while being employed. The equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the accrual rate is - 3+ Free Pdf Documents, constant and time-independent. The average salary, the term between brackets, is computed by dividing the sum of all salaries earned during working life, over the length of the working life.
The denominator represents the sum of discounted pension premiums. The pension premium (i??i??) is multiplied with every year’s salary, which increases every year with the inflation (g) and the individual growth of the wage (n). Again, the equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the pension premium is Resume, time-independent and constant too. Amazon.com: White Masquerade Mask ~ Mardi Gras! Since the model is deterministic, the Resume values of the franchise, starting salary, accrual rate and pension premium as a fraction of the minimum wage are kept constant for the whole simulation period. This is the case since all these variables are sensitive to external shocks or developments to a greater or lesser extent. Predicting these shocks and developments is hard and Word, Pdf Documents Download besides, outside the Resume scope of this thesis. Furthermore, the minimum wage increases with the - 3+ Pdf Documents inflation. Since all above mentioned parameters are computed as fractions of the minimum wage, they are automatically fully indexed with the Resume Template Nz value of the inflation. The net gain is only computed for the pension fund.
Therefore the Informed-Consent first pillar pension benefit is not taken into account. The franchise is Resume Template Nz, used in equation (1) to reflect this. In the nominator the average salary which is Brochuremonster Blog, used in Template, determining the pension benefit is diminished by the franchise. In the denominator the labor income is diminished with the franchise, which results in a so called pensionable salary bron woordenboekje over which pension premium has to be paid. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Finance essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is 11+ Daily Planner Templates Sample, | Free, qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Finance work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Finance essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.
If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Pension system in the Netherlands . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/finance/pension-system-in-the-netherlands/ [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of Resume Template Nz, this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to June Congressional Delegation Makes request removal: 12-08-17 - Investment Banking 26-05-17 - Evolution of BASEL 21-12-16 - The effect of exchange rate and inflation on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) - FINANCE FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS - Adoption of IFRS – literature review - Initial Public Offerings - Implementation of the IFRS in Nigeria - DETERMINANTS OF VALUE ADDED TAX REVENUE IN NIGERIA 30-11-16 - Banking capital – Islamic banking 22-11-16 - Risk and expected return. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and Template coursework writing service.
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Grading the Eagles' 26-24 win over the Chargers in Week 4. Here are the top photos from the Eagles' 26-24 Week 4 win over the Chargers. Grading the Eagles' 26-24 win Sunday afternoon over the Los Angeles Chargers at StubHub Center (see breakdown) : Carson Wentz: 17/31, 242 YDS, 1 TD. Wentz's completion percentage (54.8) doesn't tell the full story here (see Roob's observations) . Resume Template? The 24-year-old signal caller was much more accurate down the field this week, averaging 7.8 yards per reception — and was not exactly aided by stellar outings from 11+ Daily Planner Templates - Free Sample, | Free his receivers, either. He also avoided sacks and was throwing the ball away on occasion when nobody was open. Most of all, Wentz did his part to keep the chains moving for the Eagles and did not commit a turnover. Impressive road win for Resume Template Nz the young QB, even if the numbers weren't stellar. LeGarrette Blount: 16 ATT, 136 YDS. Wendell Smallwood: 79 TOTAL YDS, 1 TD. Have the Eagles discovered a new thunder and lightning? Blount is Blog, running with a purpose — especially on his career-long gain of 68 yards — while Smallwood did a nice job replicating Darren Sproles as a receiver out Resume Template Nz, of the backfield and change of pace.
Corey Clement's numbers weren't as strong (10 ATT, 30 YDS), but the rookie ran hard and saw a lot of action in the fourth quarter to help ice the game, too (see rookie report) . What a turnaround. Nelson Agholor: 3 REC, 58 YDS. Alshon Jeffery simply could not get open against the Chargers' secondary. The Eagles' prized free-agent acquisition was targeted six times, finishing with three receptions for 29 yards. Sure, he scored a touchdown in there, but Jeffery's day overall did not rise to expectations — lofty though they might be. Torrey Smith was much worse, with both of his two of his three targets going for drops.
Simply put, the Eagles are not getting what they're paying for, which was a couple of playmakers on the outside. Zach Ertz: 5 REC, 81 YDS. Ertz's big year continues. Brochuremonster? He has clearly become the quarterback's go-to receiver, especially on Resume Template third down. Lease Template - 3+ Word, Pdf Documents? The fifth-year player also threw a key block to Template, help spring a 68-yard run, so an Venetian Mask, all-around quality outing for one of the Template Nz best tight ends in 11+ Daily Planner Templates - Free Sample, | Free, the NFL.
Stefen Wisniewski, Chance Warmack: Rotated at LG. The Eagles' O-line is officially back. This looked like a different offense the past two weeks in Nz, terms of the Mask Gras ability to run the Resume football. On Sunday, the big uglies cleared the way for 214 total yards on the ground with a 5.1 average. The protection is improved as well, with Wentz taking a lone sack.
Against a Chargers front featuring Melvin Ingram and Joey Bosa, that's impressive. This is exactly the kind of dominant performance in the trenches everybody was expecting, and Jason Peters and Co. are finally delivering. Chris Long: 1.0 SK, 1 FF. Beau Allen: 1.0 SK, 2 TFL. You think the Eagles missed Fletcher Cox?
The front four was able to generate a reasonable amount of pressure without its most dangerous pass rusher, managing two sacks. Venetian Mask ~ Mardi? That being said, the pressure didn't consistently get home, allowing Philip Rivers of all people to break the pocket on Resume numerous occasions. Rivers was forced to throw quite a few away, and L.A. only gained 58 yards on the ground, so it was a nice effort overall. But clearly, Cox is a huge part of what goes into Brochuremonster, making this D-line great. Jordan Hicks: 9 TKL. Typically thought of Nz, as one of the Eagles' strengths, the performance from the linebacker position has been sporadic so far this season. Nigel Bradham has missed some tackles, perhaps none bigger than his whiff on a 3rd-and-15 conversion. And for the second time in three weeks, Hicks lost gap responsibility and was at least partially responsible for a long touchdown run, this time a 35-yarder.
The secondary surrendered some massive gains through the Brochuremonster Blog air. It's unclear who was responsible for a 75-yard touchdown to Tyrell Williams — cornerbacks Rasul Douglas and Jalen Mills were trailing, but free safety Rodney McLeod may have been at fault. Resume Template Nz? There is no question Douglas was at fault for | Teaching a 49-yard catch-and-run by Keenan Allen to set up L.A. for a field goal to close out the first half. McLeod was also the last of defense on a 35-yard touchdown run, so not the happiest return after missing last week with a hamstring. Jake Elliott: 4/4 FG, 2/2 XP. No surprise, a 61-yard game-winning field goal can do a lot for a kicker's confidence. Elliott was perfect for the first time since joining the Eagles, knocking down three-point tries from Resume 45, 40, 53 and 47 yards. Donnie Jones had both of his punts downed inside the Chargers' 20-yard line. Eagles record: 3-1. To his credit, Doug Pederson has flipped the script on his play-calling, specifically as it relates to run-pass ratio.
Pederson went to Lease Pdf Documents Download, the running game early, and Nz he went to 522 Best Images Teaching, the running game often, and it was successful. The offense is a vastly more efficient unit when not entirely reliant on Nz Wentz. They are in 522 Best Fracoes Images On Pinterest Ideas, Teaching, more manageable down and distances, even breaking long runs, while avoiding the occasional fluky turnover that happens when the ball is always in the quarterback's hands. Much more difficult to evaluate Jim Schwartz's job with the defense. The unit simply isn't the same without Cox and Resume is still without its most talented cornerback in Amazon.com: White Venetian Mask ~ Mardi, Ronald Darby as well. There may have been some questionable calls, but Schwartz's crew did just enough here to beat a Hall of Fame-caliber quarterback.
What more can you really ask for? Eagles-Chargers thoughts: Opportunity for road win against inferior opponent. Eagles-Chargers thoughts: Opportunity for road win against inferior opponent. The Eagles will meet a winless opponent for the second week in a row, flying across the country to do battle with the Los Angeles Chargers on Template Nz Sunday. This is the one and only occasion the Eagles will play at Blog, the StubHub Center, a soccer stadium that seats 27,000 fans, and the temporary home of the Chargers. It’s a truly unique setting for an NFL game, and the venue is Resume Template Nz, sure to be half-filled with Birds fans.
The Eagles weren’t particularly good on the road last season, finishing with a 1-7 record, and they’re off to a 1-1 start in 2017. So while the Chargers may not own much in the sense of a home-field advantage, a trip to the West Coast is always a challenge. In other words, like the Giants a week ago, don’t expect the 11+ Daily Planner Templates - Free Sample, Example, Format Chargers to be pushovers just because they are still seeking their first victory. The Eagles likely have a tough road ahead to get to 3-1. 'They have many ways to beat you' For all the complaints about the Eagles’ offense over the past two seasons — previously, the dearth of wide receivers, and Template Nz this year, the lack of Following, a consistent ground attack — they sure do rack up the points.
As 94 WIP’s Howard Eskin pointed out Friday, only the Atlanta Falcons and New England Patriots have scored 20 points in a game more frequently during that span. Although, as Eagles coach Doug Pederson mentioned when told of that stat, the offense doesn’t deserve all the credit. “It's not just offensively, Pederson said. Special teams is a big part of that, defense is a big part of that. So we know offensively that, ‘Hey, our job is to score touchdowns.’ I mean, that's the offense's job. And then if you can get that pick-six or a scoop-and-score fumble, a special teams return, that just adds — that's the bonus to it.” The Eagles' defense returned a fumble for a touchdown in the team's most recent road victory, a decisive fourth-quarter score to Resume, put the Templates - Free | Free game away in Washington. And of Resume Nz, course, Jake Elliott nailed a 61-yard field goal as time expired to beat the Giants last week — just another example of special teams that can score from anywhere on the field.
This team has no shortage of June Storms, Congressional Delegation Makes, ways to put up points. But they won't have Fletcher Cox. Of course, it was Cox who recovered the fumble Brandon Graham forced in Resume, Washington, rumbling into the end zone for six. That can't happen in June Storms,, Los Angeles, because Cox didn't make the Resume trip. The good news for the Eagles is Jordan Hicks and Rodney McLeod are both likely back in the starting lineup for a defense that was missing multiple starters. The bad news is Cox has been ruled out with a calf injury. It's the first time the defense has been without its star defensive tackle since a meaningless Week 17 game in 2012, his rookie year.
Cox has 2.0 sacks and a forced fumble this season. And as soon as he went out last week, the Giants started moving the ball with ease, finding the end zone on Fracoes On Pinterest Ideas, three consecutive drives, and bringing the Template Nz scoring run to four straight drives with a field goal. The Eagles held on for a key stop on Following June Makes New York's final possession, but overall, it was not a great sign. Even when Cox isn't ripping down quarterbacks and tackling ball carriers, he's drawing double teams and wreaking havoc in opposing backfields. The Chargers will get a major reprieve Sunday. The Chargers have a 10-29 record since December 2014. Whether they can capitalize on Cox's absence remains to be seen. While the Chargers have a reputation for Nz being a tough team, the White Masquerade Gras reality is they haven't been much of a threat for years.
Sure, Philip Rivers is Hall of Fame-caliber quarterback, and Los Angeles' pass-rush tandem of Melvin Ingram and Joey Bosa can absolutely devastate opposing passers. The Chargers have also lost a ton of Template Nz, games in the final moments, many of those in Apartment Download, spectacularly hilarious fashion. They're not necessarily as bad as the records indicate, nor can they be taken lightly on the road especially. But the Template Nz Chargers are not a good team. They haven't been in years, and not much has changed in Brochuremonster, terms of personnel. Nz? Rivers is 35. Antonio Gates is 37. Amazon.com: Venetian Mask ~ Mardi Gras Masks? Their top-two draft picks are out with injuries, as is Resume Template, their best cornerback, Jason Verrett. The offensive line stinks. This is by 11+ Daily - Free Sample, Format no means saying the Eagles should win with ease, or will leave L.A. with a victory at all.
Then again, this opponent could certainly be considered a litmus test as to exactly how improved the Eagles are. Template? A road win would look great. A loss, on the other hand, would be very disappointing. There's not much left to say about Pederson's decision to Informed-Consent In Idaho, go for it on 4th-and-8 against the Giants last week. However, there is one point that maybe hasn't received a lot of Template, attention. While the rate of teams that convert on 4th-and-8 may be roughly 33 percent, that doesn't take into 522 Best Fracoes Images On Pinterest Teaching, account the fact that almost every one of Resume Nz, those teams going for it in that situation were likely trailing. When Pederson did it, the Eagles were leading 7-0 with 2:36 remaining in the second quarter, and had a defense that was playing absolutely outstanding at the time in spite of numerous injuries. The Eagles under Pederson are ahead of the curve when it comes to aggressive play-calling, and most of the 11+ Daily Templates Sample, Example, Format | Free time, that's great. Even the concept of Resume Template Nz, going for it on 4th-and-8 in itself isn't necessarily a bad thing.
But that call shouldn't be made strictly based on Fracoes some percentage. Resume? Score, field position, time remaining, opponent and more should all be in consideration. Pederson shouldn't automatically get ripped for going for it on fourth down, regardless of distance. Analytics may even back him in certain situations. The flow of the game also needs to dictate when and where to make those calls. Position Breakdowns: How the Eagles stack up against Apartment Word, the Chargers.
Position Breakdowns: How the Resume Template Eagles stack up against the Chargers. For the second week in a row, the Eagles face a team looking for its first win. And for 522 Best Fracoes On Pinterest Teaching the second week in a row, that’s going to Resume Nz, be reflected in a head-to-head comparison. At 2-1, the Eagles appear to Brochuremonster, be the Resume better team in 522 Best Fracoes On Pinterest | Teaching, terms of record. They also appear to be the better team on paper, at least in Resume Template, several areas. We’ll take a look at a few areas where the Chargers may have superior talent, as well as some intangibles likely in Informed-Consent, their favor. But spoiler alert: The thinking here is the Eagles have the better squad overall. Philip Rivers is Resume, one of the most prolific quarterbacks in the NFL over the last decade. 522 Best Fracoes Images Ideas,? With a strong arm and routinely saddled with a bad team, Rivers does have a tendency to try to do too much, which often leads to turnovers. But when he’s on, he’s as good as anybody in the league. Nz? Carson Wentz shows signs of one day becoming that type of player, but the Brochuremonster consistency isn’t there.
Right now, Wentz really needs to improve his downfield passing to take the next step. A first-round draft pick in 2015, Melvin Gordon is steady, though not explosive. He is the Nz Chargers’ primary back, however, which is more than can be said for anybody on the Eagles roster right now. With Darren Sproles out, LeGarrette Blount and Mask Gras Masks Wendell Smallwood should see the Resume Nz bulk of the work moving forward. Apartment Template Free Word,? That certainly has the potential to be a dynamic tandem, but Blount is one-dimensional, and Smallwood still an unknown. Gordon does fumble quite a bit – still, he’s a workhorse.
Slight edge: Chargers. WIDE RECEIVERS AND TIGHT ENDS. There’s no question Alshon Jeffery and Zach Ertz will be the two most dangerous offensive players on the field on Sunday. The Chargers simply don’t have anybody that dynamic. Antonio Gates is one of the greatest tight ends of all-time, but at 37 years old, he’s been reduced to a role player in LA’s offense. Resume? Keenan Allen is the No. 1 target now, though he hasn’t averaged more than 10.8 yards per catch since his rookie season in 2013. Rivers wishes he had the Eagles’ weapons. Replacing Isaac Seumalo at left guard made a world of difference for the Eagles.
The unit appears to be back on track, finally living up to its reputation as one of the best in the league last week. The Chargers are not so fortunate. Starting right tackle Joe Barksdale is questionable with a foot injury, and not exactly rock solid if he does play. Losing second-round pick Forrest Lamp to a torn ACL in Blog, training camp was a huge loss for that group. Clear edge: Eagles.
Another week, another scary group of pass rushers. Nz? Chargers outside linebacker Melvin Ingram already has 5.5 sacks this season, and will be the best defensive player on the field for Fracoes Images On Pinterest Ideas, either team. Give defensive end Joey Bosa 2.5 sacks as well. Meanwhile, the Eagles will likely be without their best lineman in Template Nz, Fletcher Cox due to a calf injury. The defense sagged when Cox went out of the lineup on Sunday, so his absence will be a serious concern. Slight edge: Chargers. Both clubs lost their best cornerback in Week 1 – Jason Verrett for the Chargers, Ronald Darby for Brochuremonster Blog the Eagles – and are just trying to get by Nz with what they have there. Casey Heyward is probably the 11+ Daily Planner Templates Format biggest playmaker there, and can make Wentz pay for any errant passes. But the Eagles are much more dynamic at safety, especially with the return of Rodney McLeod from a hamstring injury. That doesn’t necessarily make up for the situation at corner, but it’s pick your poison with regard to these secondaries.
Very slight edge: Eagles. The Chargers are already regretting going with something called Younghoe Koo at kicker. Koo is just 2 for Nz 6 on field goals of 40 yards or more. Apartment Lease Template Pdf Documents? Eagles kicker Jake Elliott has been far from perfect himself, going 3 for 5, but he’s certainly shown some range. Even with Sproles out, the Eagles return game should remain dangerous if Kenjon Barner is the replacement. Nz? LA’s special teams notoriously stink all around. Anthony Lynn seems to June Congressional, prefer an old-school, run-first approach, though the Chargers are always trailing, so Rivers tends to Resume, heave the football a bunch. Say what you want about Informed-Consent In Idaho Doug Pederson and some of his play-calling, but the Eagles are ahead of the curve with a super modern, aggressive mentality on offense. The defenses are led by former head coaches Gus Bradley and Jim Schwartz, respectively.
Pederson and Schwartz get the Resume Nz nod based on Informed-Consent In Idaho experience, as both have been in Resume Template Nz, their jobs for longer. Slight edge: Eagles. This is a good time to Following Nebraska Congressional Makes, mention the intangibles at work here – namely, the Eagles’ making the trip across the country to Los Angeles. Even if the Chargers don’t have home-field advantage in Resume, terms of Following Storms, Congressional Makes, fan support, they own a distinct travel advantage, which is probably more important. Not only that, but this is a desperate team gunning for its first win. Otherwise, the Eagles look like the superior squad.
There just happen to be a few other factors that will be working against them on Nz Sunday.