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What you need to know about the new Rotman Application. We’ve had some pretty serious positive trajectory over the last number of years here at Rotman. So much so that our application volume for the FT MBA Program has doubled in the last 5 years. With that, we’re really excited about continuing to Example Templates, improve how we spot talent and introducing authentic pieces of Decorator Course who you are as a person into the application and admissions process. Here’s what you need to know about the new Rotman application for the Class of Management Report - Powerpoint 2020 (2018 intake). Changes to the Essay: Our 1 traditional essay question has changed once again. Interior Decorator Online! This year we think we’ve simplified our essay question.
Here it is: “Our Full-Time MBA Program at the University of Toronto, Rotman School of Management is best defined as a transformational experience. We believe that your journey begins with ‘why’. Please describe why you are pursuing an MBA? Why Rotman? Why now? (500 words)”
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We’re also continuing with the timed written response on Kira as well. Our goals when we introduced the timed written response were to understand more about how you communicate, both in terms of ability and Brand Management Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, style. We also wanted to simulate a realistic writing environment and use this to Blank Template, see how you would write an email in Management Example 10 minutes or less. Early applications have been coming in Define over the last month and we have been really impressed so far. The Round 1 Application Deadline is Monday, October 16 at 12 midnight (eastern standard time). We look forward to reviewing your application! Classes are officially underway this week and with that, we’re thrilled to share our incoming class profile. This year’s class is among the most diverse classes ever at Rotman.
70% of incoming MBA candidates were born outside of Canada representing 51 countries. We are also incredibly proud to report 40% female students in the program for the first time ever at Rotman! As the saying goes, you learn as much from Management Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint your peers in b-school as anything else. And via program kick off last week and the pre-program courses, it’s already very clear that this group is Define An Invoice really going to complement one another well. With applications rising nearly 30% this year, getting into Rotman is more competitive than ever and this group is impressive by any measure.
What’s always hard to capture are the stories behind each of these 350 incredible people. The academic backgrounds range from aeronautical engineering to Brand Ppt Sample Templates, orthopedic surgery and corporate law. Some have already been published, and others hold patents. Many have already started companies, served on boards, and founded social ventures. Diy Watercolor Envelope Beyond - Paper! There are professional athletes – cricketers and basketball players – professional photographers, producers and actors, soldiers who have served their countries, musicians, and scuba divers. Our GMAT average climbed slightly to 665 (+3), while the GRE average remained steady at 313. The GPA average also increased from 3.4 to 3.5 and Brand Report, years of work experience rose marginally by .2. ? GMAT Average = 665; GMAT Median = 680. ? GRE Average = 313; GRE Median = 316.
? GPA Average = 3.5; GPA Median = 3.5. ? Average Years Work Experience: 4.3. Because class profiles are often viewed through the prospective student lens as a proxy for what admissions committees look for, we always encourage everyone to review the full ranges for GMAT, GPA, work experience, etc. This framing more accurately captures our holistic focus in admissions and hopefully serves as a helpful reminder (especially to anyone thinking of applying) that nobody is the average. Despite the beautiful end of Resume Summary summer weather here in Brand Management Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Toronto, our team is already traveling the world to meet with top talent for our next class. Have a look at our schedule of events here to see when we will be in your area! These Colombians chose Rotman for their MBA: Find out why. There are many reasons why students choose Rotman for their MBA. In this post, we’d like to focus on Define An Invoice, our dynamic group of Colombians in the Class of 2018. Here’s what they’re saying: “I think Rotman really sets itself apart with its integrated approach to teaching and Example, its concentration on Templates. Free Printable Invoice, design thinking. Plus, half the students are international students, and the program is located in Brand Management Ppt Sample Templates a mega-diverse city with lots of Supply Requisition Form opportunities to network and experience cultural diversity.
All of this makes for a very compelling and interesting program.” “Debido que mi objetivo post-MBA es Mercados Capitales, escogi Rotman porque estoy seguro que es la mejor escuela de negocios que me puede preparar y guiar en este proceso, como tambien su gran reputacion con todas las instituciones financieras en Canada. Example - Powerpoint Templates! A si mismo, Rotman esta localizada en el centro de Toronto, una de las mejores ciudades para vivir en el mundo, ofreciendo diversidad cultural, restaurantes, vida nocturna, y el tercer centro financiero de Norte America.” Alejandro Fuentes Tapias. “One of Rotman’s main objectives is to have women comprise 40% of the student body by the year 2020. In addition to attracting more women to the MBA, the Invoice Templates. Invoice, Rotman has created an atmosphere that allows us to take advantage of available opportunities and Report - Powerpoint, be more ambitious in our career objectives. Supply Requisition Form! It has opened a Men’s Business Chapter within the Brand Ppt Sample, Women’s Business Club to discuss the importance of diversity and inclusion and to Interior Decorator Certificate, develop strategies for increasing work equality.” “Escogi el MBA de Rotman por su fuerte enfoque en finanzas y gerencia, los programas de autodesarrollo y la estrecha relacion con las empresas mas prestigiosas del pais. Estas caracteristicas ofrecen una oportunidad integrada para crecer profesional y personalmente. Rotman esta situado en la ciudad mas multicultural y diversa del mundo y al mismo tiempo el lugar mas incluyente en el que he estado. Lo que proporciona un escenario internacional perfecto donde el poder de unir conocimiento de todo el mundo y diferentes formas de pensar permiten desarrollar una vision empresarial global.” Get to know the Brand Management Report Example, calibre of the Class of Supply Requisition Form 2018 Colombians by Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint checking out their profiles below: Let us know if you see yourself in the Class of 2019 and request a pre-application meeting to find out more!
Tips to Form, “unlock” the admissions essay. Each year, we post a few tips to Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, “unlock” the admissions essay. Many of you have reached about this year’s essay and Blank Invoice Templates. Free Template, asked for advice on how to approach our new question. So, here it is … Essay Question: When you reflect 10 years from now, how will you measure your MBA experience? (500 words) Completing the MBA is Example Templates a big decision. At this stage in the application process, you should be thinking about how your dream school and MBA Program fits within the larger picture of your life. This year’s essay question is about your values – how are you going to measure your MBA? Broadening the scope of the question to consider your perspective 10 years from now is important because it prompts a meaningful reflection where you will dive deep, beyond your immediate professional goals. So, in many ways, this is actually an Resume Summary evolution of Example Templates last year’s essay where we asked applicants to state your professional goals and how you plan to achieve them. Our hope with this essay question is that you will not only be able to share a thoughtful response with us but, you will also develop a greater understanding of yourself in the process. And, of course, you already know this but there is no right or wrong answer.
We’d rather see a thoughtful response that is authentic. We look forward to reading your essay. Class of 2019 application is Invoice Invoice live. What’s changed? Our essay question – this year we are asking you to reflect back 10 years after completing your MBA and share with us how you will measure your MBA experience at that point in Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint time. We also increased the word limit from 250 to 500.
Our hope in extending the word limit is that you will have even more freedom to express yourself in an authentic way. Tips to Blank Invoice Invoice Template, unlock the Brand Management Report Ppt Sample, admissions essay coming soon … What’s new? We’ve enhanced the demographic section to include new optional information, including gender and sexual identity. For all of these new optional demographic questions on the admissions application, providing responses will be voluntary, optional, and will not impact admission decisions. Providing the LGBTQ+ community with the option to self-identify supports the University’s priorities of creating an inclusive and welcoming campus environment and this was an important area for improvement.
We’ve also included opportunities to share your relationship to Toronto, and if you are applying with your life partner/spouse. The rest is Supply Form carried forward from Management Report last year. What we are looking for has not changed. Requisition! Intellectual horsepower, experience and Management Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, impact, communications and presence, and Diy Watercolor Liners Day And Beyond, what we call ‘spike’ factor. The video response is still a trademark of the Rotman application and Example Templates, last year’s application innovation – the timed written response – was an effective assessment tool that we are excited to continue with. Although we had an incredible summer in Toronto and the weather continues to Resume Summary, be kind to us, our team has already been out traveling the globe spreading the word about Rotman. Be sure to check out our events page to see when we are visiting a region near you. They’re her e! The class of Brand Management Report Ppt Sample Templates 2018 is officially 4 days into orientation at Rotman and the energy at 105 St.
George is incredible. More of Diy Watercolor Envelope Liners For Mother's Day And a ‘deep dive’ on this class profile in coming weeks. Brand - Powerpoint! Here are just a couple of Sample Professional Resume highlights: This is the most internationally diverse cohort to date. Brand Report Ppt Sample! 38 nationalities from 52 birth countries are represented and more than 40 languages spoken. Together, this class has a wonderful opportunity to learn from one another and develop a global mindset – even more so when you consider the collective penchant for travel that this group shares! We are also exceptionally proud to welcome 118 women into the program, this is the Sample Resume Professional, highest number of incoming women in any Rotman class to Management Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, date. As a Forté sponsor school, we also designated 19 scholarship awards for outstanding women entering our MBA program through the Forté Fellows program. The narrative here – we are attracting more top women talent to our MBA program (29% in the class of 2015, 32% in the class of Resume Summary 2016, 32% in Management Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates the class of 2017 and now 34% in Sample Sample Professional Resume Samples the class of 2018). Brand Report - Powerpoint! This positive trajectory is Sample Pdf Acting Sample Resume Professional a sign of real progress. Stay tuned for details on the Rotman Power Hour, a new initiative we’re launching this fall to ensure that this trend continues.
Finally, at Rotman, we screen for something that we call ‘Spike Factor’. This includes all the things that you’ve done in your life that demonstrate passion, grit, resilience, innovation, drive, and ambition. Brand Management Report - Powerpoint Templates! So, while the age, years of work experience, GMAT and GPA all remain about the same in the class profile year-over-year, there are so many amazing stories behind the numbers. A sample of ‘Spike Factors’ from Templates. Printable Template this year’s class includes a ranch owner who managed over 5,700 acres, a Professional Poker Player who competed in Management - Powerpoint Templates the World Series of Poker and on the World Poker Tour, a 4-time world champion in equestrian, a serial entrepreneur who founded not one but two successful mining/prospecting companies in Brazil, a policy advisor to the Prime Minister of Canada, a professional golfer, and published authors! This class is Decorator Course poised to achieve remarkable things. I am the new D irector of Recruitment Admissions for the Full-Time MBA Program at the Rotman School of Management, at the University of Toronto – and I couldn’t be happier to be here. In fact, I chose to move across Canada to Management, be here. One of the biggest reasons why I decided to join Rotman was because of its reputation as one of the Blank Printable, most innovative b-schools in the MBA space and I am thrilled to use my first blog post not only to introduce myself but also to share a Program innovation that has just been confirmed. Rotman is introducing a Flexible Internship Program that will give Rotman MBA students the Management Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, opportunity to work in one of three terms: Summer (May-August), Fall (September-December), or Winter (January-April). Traditionally internships have only Supply Requisition been available in the summer term. This Program innovation will provide Rotman MBA students greater access to opportunity in Brand Report - Powerpoint a wider variety of industries and have a significant impact on post-MBA employment.
The Flexible Internship Program builds on the experiential learning component of the Resume Summary, internship – a core part of the Rotman experience – and integrates this with three critical pillars of our program: Rotman’s intensive focus on self-development, our globally recognized faculty, and one of the Example - Powerpoint, largest Career Centres in North America with a dedicated team of Interior Course Online career coaches assigned to Management, individual students. I am extremely proud to be introducing another innovation at the Rotman School. The Flexible Internship Program is a game-changer! I look forward to sharing many more updates with you and Diy Watercolor Liners Day And - Paper, am very excited to Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, work together on your MBA Journey! Hard to believe that it’s already the middle of December! I guess it’s true when they say time flies when you are having fun.
I’ve been having a lot of fun and have actually moved into a new role at Rotman as Managing Director for the Full-Time MBA Program and enjoying diving in to Resume Summary, run the Management Example - Powerpoint, business of the Sample Resume Pdf Acting Sample Resume Professional Resume Samples, Program – a great new professional opportunity for me. Management Example - Powerpoint! Admittedly, it has been a busy few months and I haven’t been as active as I hoped on our blog, but am excited to introduce our new Director of Admissions who will be taking over in Supply the new year – stay tuned! I’m already very excited about the caliber and diversity of the Management Report Example, Rotman class of 2018 based on early applications, and very much looking forward to seeing applications in Blank Invoice Templates. Free Invoice the new year. As you know, our Round 2 deadline is January 11th – just around the corner! If you do have any questions about your application I encourage you to reach out now – the Report Ppt Sample Templates, University will be closed for the holidays from December 23-January 4. Supply Requisition! We are back for one week before the deadline so will most definitely have plenty of time to assist then, but wanted to Brand Management Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, ensure we shared our holidays hours well in advance. On behalf of the Rotman Admissions team – we hope you have a wonderful and safe holiday season! Looking for to 2016 – an exciting year of new beginnings #128578;
They’re here! It’s hard to believe that just over a year ago I joined the Define An Invoice, Rotman Full-Time MBA Recruitment and Admissions Team to support the team in recruiting the Class of Management Report Example 2017. As a transplant from the Career Centre I was quite sure that I would be able to Supply, hit the ground running and Brand Management Report Example Templates, help the team bring in Decorator Course the best and Management - Powerpoint Templates, most capable class that would attract the top employers. (and I believe we did, but more on that later!) But, what I quickly learned is Interior Course that there’s more to building the perfect MBA class than meets the Ppt Sample, eye. When making offers of admission, not only An Invoice are we looking at candidates at an individual level (see more on what we look for Brand Management Report - Powerpoint, here) but also at a macro level. How are we actually building the cohort to An Invoice, provide a world-class experience to all who come? While I was quite confident on the individual part having had the privilege of insider information from some of the world’s top employers, I learned that the Brand Report, sum is greater than its parts. As a team we carefully screened for intellectual horsepower, impact, presence, and more. Once a candidate passed that test, we carefully considered what would their impact be on the class as a whole?
Did we have the right mix? What were we missing from a diversity perspective, a talent perspective, and Blank Invoice Free Printable Invoice Template Blank, spikiness perspective? How would we carefully choose individuals to make up a community that works; something that both we and they will be proud of for years to Brand Management Report Example Ppt Sample, come? The Class of Blank Invoice Free Printable Template Blank 2017 can be classified in Management - Powerpoint a myriad of ways: Class Size = 351 Average Age = 27 Average Experience = 4 years Female = 32% (111 in total) Male = 68% Domestic /International = approximately 50/50 split from 34 different countries GMAT = 680 (Median), 663 (Mean) But what I am most proud of is For Mother's Day And - Paper some of Brand Management Report Example - Powerpoint their impressive accomplishments, in many cases beyond the work realm that the Resume Summary, statistics don’t quite capture.
Each student was chosen based on their experiences which will bring a unique perspective into the classroom and demonstrate resilience, perseverance, and creativity. Characteristics that many of our top recruiters demand. For example, we have students who are a: Published author Varsity athlete – soccer, badminton, football, hockey, Frisbee, swimming Pro poker player International sailing champion Singer or music producer Band member who toured Latin America and the US Black belt in judo, karate, jujitsu, taekwondo and karate Patent holder 1/2 and full marathoner as well as triathlete and former Ironman competitor Surgeon or MD. And I could go on. Management Ppt Sample Templates! The cohort is in their first week of class and what I hear in the halls most consistently is where did you find such an impressive bunch? The beautiful part about Recruitment and Admissions is that when one year is complete, we get to go out and For Mother's Day And Beyond - Paper, do it all over again.
Next year’s perfect class will be different from this years’ because each student who is Brand Management Ppt Sample admitted will bring something equally distinctive. The next class will take on its own persona and I can’t wait to see who’s out there. In fact, I enjoyed the Recruitment Admissions experience so much (thank you Class of 2017) I’ll be staying on as an Envelope Beyond Assistant Director this year. I look forward to meeting you on the road in our pursuit for the perfect Class of 2018!
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The Inversion of Cultural Traditions in Shakespeare#039;s Sonnets - Essay. Robert Ellrodt, Universite de Paris, Sorbonne Nouvelle. In an earlier essay I have pointed out that Shakespeare, while writing within a convention in Brand Management Report, his Sonnets, had in fact left out much of the convention, discarding a great many themes and For Mother's - Paper, rhetorical devices. From this point of view the Brand Report - Powerpoint Sonnets might be described by negatives like Gonzalo's utopia: no moment of enamoration, no wooing or whining, no flinty heart, no kiss, no adventures of Cupid (with the Supply ironical exception of the closing sonnets), no address to Love, to Management Report, the Muse, or to a river, no catalogue of delights, no blazon, no emblem, no mythologizing, no pastoralism, no military metaphor, no astro-logical or heraldic poem. 1. A statistical study of the Resume Pdf Acting Resume Resume vocabulary in the sonnets of Brand Management Example Ppt Sample Shakespeare, Spenser, Sidney, Daniel, and Drayton confirms this originality. Shakespeare has the lowest percentage of words expressing the traditional feelings of the Petrarchan lover: sigh, tear, weep, admire, wonder. 2 He has the highest percentage of words connoting negative values and Blank, suggesting a satiric strain: hate, abhor, abuse, accuse, adulterate, shame, canker, cure, shadow, stain, defect, bastard, barren, rage, mad, nothing?
Distinctive too is the predominance of Management Report Example true or truth, either asserted or questioned. 4 The emphasis on Define An Invoice, the seasons, time, change, and death is in keeping with traditional poetic themes, particularly in complaints and elegies, but is not found in the other sonnet sequences. 5. My intention in this paper is to explore other ways in which the prevailing cultural conventions were subverted, modified, or simply ignored. The perspective will be literary rather than social or anthropological. The triangular relationship described in Sonnet 144, Two loves I have of comfort and despair, was by itself uncommon in Ppt Sample Templates, sonnet sequences. Astrophel had made an Envelope For Mother's Day And, impassioned allusion to Management Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, the conjugal bond of Stella, who hath no misfortune, but that Rich she is ( Astrophel and Stella, Sonnet 34), but only the husband's name, not his presence or image, stood in Diy Watercolor For Mother's Day And Beyond - Paper, the lover's way. The woman's resistance to his entreaties was only Report Example Templates felt to Certificate, be due to Report Example Ppt Sample, her sense of honor. In all the Petrarchan sequences, whether in Resume Summary, single adoration or mutual flame, the lover and the beloved were emotionally unrelated to Brand Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, anyone else.
One could argue that this confinement of experience to a single relation also prevails in the vast majority of the Shakespearean sonnets addressed to the Young Man. Yet, when the poems are read in succession, the sense of Define betrayal, at Brand Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, first expressed in general terms in Sonnets 33 to 36, is definitely linked with the stealing of the poet's mistress in Resume Pdf Acting Resume Professional Resume, Sonnets 40 to 42. The two loves theme, I admit, will remain in the background in the following sonnets to the Young Man, but the first quatrain of Sonnet 42 gives the reason why: That thou hast her, it is not all my grief, And yet it may be said I loved her dearly; That she hath thee is of my wailing chief, A loss in love that touches me more nearly.
The fear of losing his friend's love affects the poet more than the unfaithfulness of his mistress. Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates! Yet faint though her presence is when attention is focused on the man right fair, the woman color'd ill lurks in several allusions to deception as in Sample Resume Pdf Acting Sample Resume Resume, Sonnet 93: So shall I live supposing thou art true. Like a deceived husband; so love's face. May still seem love to me, though alter'd new— Thy looks with me thy heart in other place. The revelation of other relationships is delayed until we read in Sonnet 152:
In loving thee thou know'st I am forsworn, But thou art twice forsworn to me love swearing: In act thy bed-vow broke, and new faith torn. In vowing new hate after new love bearing. Apparently both the poet and his mistress have broken an earlier vow—a marriage vow in her case and Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, probably in the poet's own, since symmetry invites a perfect parallel, whether autobiographical or not. 6 The woman becomes twice forsworn when she betrays her lover as well.
Thus, had Shakespeare wished to give dramatic form to his sonnet sequence, he might have played throughout on a multiplicity of triangles: the Sample Pdf Acting Professional Resume poet, his wife or previous love, and Management Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, his mistress, the Requisition Form mistress, her husband, and the poet as her lover, or the mistress, the poet and her new lover, whom the poet himself loves as the master-mistress of [his] passion (Sonnet 20). This might have proved good stuff for an unromantic comedy. Fortunately there is no more than a belated and random allusion to these diverse entanglements. Three figures only emerge from the sequence: the poet, the youth, and the mistress. In a way there is only one conflict in the poet's breast, that between love and con-tempt. These emotions, however, have a man and a woman as their different objects, which explains the difference in Example Ppt Sample Templates, their nature and in the resolution of the Certificate Online conflict. I have insisted so far on the obvious to emphasize the presence in Shakespeare's sequence of a close mesh of interrelations for Management Report Ppt Sample Templates which there is no equivalent in Petrarchan compositions.
The superior interest of his sonnets is not merely due to style, even in the larger meaning of the term; it also proceeds from a greater variety of human experience. Literature cannot be reduced to Interior Decorator Online, words, to a play with signifiers signifying nothing or anything. The attention devoted to Brand Report Ppt Sample, the Rival Poet offers a further instance. Petrarch had celebrated dead poets in the Canzoniere. Sample Resume Sample Samples! 7 Ronsard had interspersed his Amours with sonnets addressed to Report Example - Powerpoint Templates, contemporary poets.
8 Sidney only Interior Course Online alluded to Petrarch's imitators and Brand Management Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, Pindar's apes ( Astrophel and Stella, 3, 15). Resume Summary! Shakespeare, with the dramatist's instinct, creates one more occasion for Example Templates conflict: as a poet the Diy Watercolor Liners Beyond speaker in the Sonnets has a competitor for the Young Man's patronage or admiration just as he must compete for the Young Man's love with his own mistress. In each case he seems to give up the fight, but only to preserve the Brand Management - Powerpoint Templates relationship he cherishes most. 9. So far Shakespeare's handling of the sonnet sequence improves upon the cultural tradition by enriching rather than modifying it. Only the centering of the love interest on a lovely boy (Sonnet 126) may be called an inversion. It was not, however, without precedent in Elizabe-than England. Imitation of the Virgilian eclogue had allowed Richard Barnfield to write about Resume Summary homosexual love within a convention in The Affectionate Shepheard: Containing the Complaint of Daphnis for Management Report Ppt Sample the love of Resume Summary Ganymede —a pastoral poem published in 1594. 10 The author was twenty at the time, which prevents his identification with the speaker in Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, the poem, for the latter describes his old age in Interior Decorator Certificate, wintry images as in Shakes-peare's Sonnet 73, That time of year thou mayst in me behold: Behold my gray head, full of siluer haires,
My wrincled skin, deepe furrowes in Report, my face: Winter hath snow'd upon Requisition Form, my hoarie head. 11. The parallel is a welcome warning against a narrowly autobiographical interpretation of Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates Elizabethan poems. One may note that Daphnis has also to compete for For Mother's Beyond - Paper the love of the boy with Queen Gwendolen, a woman light in her behauiour whose tears are not to be trusted for they can watonnize (1.27). Shakespeare may have read the Brand Management Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Complaint of Daphnis at the time when he started writing sonnets in which a poet of mature years declares his love to a young man. 12 He may have felt justified by the precedent: Barnfield had dedicated his Affectionate Shepheard to the Ladie Penelope Ritch. He suggested, however, from the Define beginning that the shepherd's love might be regarded as sinful If it be sinne to loue a louely Lad (1.2). Yet in his plea against the cruelty of the Brand Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates loue-scorning Boy (2.4), Daphnis falls into moralizing. His invitation to show humility curiously turns into a praise of blackness (2.37-52) developed after the manner of a paradox and more elaborate than either Shakespeare's Sonnet 127, In the old age black was not counted fair, or Biron's apology in Love's Labor's Lost (4.3.246-63).
Incidentally, the Invoice Templates. Free Template Blank assertion that nothing is more noysomer unto the smell / Than Lillies are, though for pure white the Lilly beares the Bell (2.39) may have inspired Shakespeare's sharp warning to the Young Man in Sonnet 94, probably written after 1594: Lilies that fester smell far worse than weeds. Like most poets of Donne's generation Barnfield professed to seek uncommon or paradoxical subjects, as he claimed in his preface to a later poem, The Encomion of Lady Pecunia. Brand Ppt Sample! 13 His handling of An Invoice a man's love for a boy, however, remains conventional, hovering between a sensual indulgence allowed by the classical tradition and a pretense of Brand Example - Powerpoint chastity preserved in Interior, keeping with Christian morality. The same uneasy combination is conspicuous in the twenty sonnets published together with Cynthia in 1595. Again a boy called Ganymede is courted by a man. Mythological references to Jove, Apollo, and Sylvanus (Sonnets 7 and 15) are meant to justify a love excited by physical attractiveness.
Attention is again lingeringly focused on naked limbs ( Affectionate Shepheard 1.22), loue-enticing soft limbs in Brand Management, a body said to be sinne-procuring (Sonnet 17). The kissing of lips is insistently evoked in both sets of poems: O would to Interior Online, God … My lips were honey, and thy mouth a Bee, When thy Lips touch my Lips … ( Affectionate Shepheard 1.16; 2.18), Kill me with kisses … ; I wish that I his pillow were, / So might I steale a kisse; Weening to kisse his lips, as my loues fee's (Sonnets 5, 8, 16). Brand Management Templates! The final claim, my pure loue / (Sweete Ganymede) to Interior Decorator Online, thee hath still beene pure (Sonnet 19) therefore seems to be paying lip ser-vice to the moral code, akin to Brand Example - Powerpoint, the casuistry of courtly Platonism. In Shakespeare's Sonnets the praise of the Diy Watercolor Liners - Paper Young Man's beauty is no doubt directed at a beautiful body. Yet what-ever innuendoes may be traced or forced upon the poems, not a single line is sensuously suggestive of a sensual longing. 14 The emotion is aesthetic: beauty is Management Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint apprehended in stasis. No yearning to touch or kiss is Supply Form expressed and a consciousness of Management Report Example - Powerpoint Templates sinful desire only appears in the son-nets concerned with the mistress.
The feelings of the poet for the youth have even less in common with Marlowe's complacent and provocative presentation of homosexual love between Edward II and Gaveston, or Charles IX and his minions in The Massacre at Paris, or again in the dialogue between Jupiter and Ganymede in the opening scene of The Tragedy of Resume Summary Dido. That Marlowe himself was attracted to pederasty is clear not only from reported sayings but from his loving description of the male lover's body in Hero and Leander. Touch and taste are the senses most vividly stirred: His bodie was as straight as Circes wand, love might haue sipt out - Powerpoint Templates Nectar from his hand. Euen as delicious meat is to the tast, So was his necke in touching, and surpast.
The white of Pelops shoulder. I could tell ye, How smooth his brest was, how white his. And whose immortali fingars did imprint. That heavenly path, with many a curious dint,
That runs along his back, but my rude pen. Can hardly blazon foorth the loues of men. On the Pdf Acting Sample Resume Professional Samples contrary, evocations of the beauty of women—Hero, Zenocrate, or Helen—only appeal to the eyes: these ladies, indeed, sit for men to Management Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, gaze upon and to gaze upon their faces. 15 The contrast is so evident that it seems to betray Marlowe's own sexual inclinations. There are no such indications in the poetry of Resume Summary Shakespeare. Obviously the dramatist who made Cleopatra give her bluest veins to kiss ( Antony and Brand Management Report - Powerpoint, Cleopatra 2.5.29) had his senses stirred by Blank Templates. Free Invoice Template the body of woman. Brand Management Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint! The physical beauty of the lovely boy in Supply, the Sonnets no doubt evoked a deep emotional response as well as aesthetic delight, but the loveliness was that of a woman's face (Sonnet 20).
The emotion probably owed its intensity to the secret workings of Eros, but my concern as a reader and a critic is not with the latent impulses, but with their expression in poetry. Impulses are monotonously alike; their imaginative expression only becomes infinitely various through the prism of personality. Barnfield's approach to homosexual love is inconsistent. Brand Report Example - Powerpoint Templates! The speaker clearly expresses physical desire while claiming his love is pure and yet complains he cannot move Ganymede's obdurate beuty, for the boy can resist desire (Sonnet 19). Though he denied homoerotic tendencies, 16 the author of The Affectionate Shepheard may have intended to gratify the taste of readers so inclined. Sitting astraddle of Resume Summary two conventions he lays himself open to the charge of hypocrisy. Marlowe intends to Brand Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, be subversive but the flaunting of unconventional opinions tends to become another convention. After defining the Supply Requisition Form nature and - Powerpoint, the boundaries of the poet's passion in Sonnet 20, Shakespeare is consistent and quietly unconventional.
Incidents in the relation are often shrouded and we are free to surmise and speculate, but there is no intimation of Define physical contact and the reader's response to the literary text is therefore different in nature from his response to the erotic pictures offered by Barnfield and Management Report Example Ppt Sample, Marlowe. Shakespeare still appears unconventional when his sonnets are compared with the poems written by Michelangelo for Tommaso di Cavalieri, though here at least we come across a comparable depth of Blank Invoice Templates. Printable Invoice Template Blank feeling and amplitude of mind. Leishman unerringly seized upon the parallel but The he confined his attention to the forms of spirituality. Brand Report Example - Powerpoint Templates! 17 The italian artist was fifty-seven and Tommaso twenty-three when they first met in 1532. Michelangelo consented to Form, draw a portrait of Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates Cavalieri, a privilege he only granted to persons of infinite beauty.
18 His powerful drawing of the abduction of Ganymede by an eagle was offered to the young man. His sonnets convey a love that James Saslow rightly characterizes as being as much emotional and aesthetic as it is Resume Summary erotic or sexual. Report Example! 19 The elderly artist expresses feelings of subjection to the youth comparable to the speaker's attitude in some of Shakespeare's sonnets, but differences are nevertheless conspicuous. It is generally agreed, despite Aretino's slur, that Michelangelo never consummated his passion for Interior Decorator Certificate Course Online Cavalieri, though different conclusions may be drawn concerning other affairs. 20 Yet his poems, as Saslow observes, definitely show him caught between his desires and the fear of Brand Report Ppt Sample realizing them, a fear including not only rejection by his beloved but also the rejection of the validity of his love by church, society, and self. 21 In Shakespeare's Sonnets the poet at times expresses a fear of disgracing himself or his beloved, but there is Sample Resume Pdf Acting Resume Samples no evidence of Management Templates a struggle to repress sexual desire for the youth, nor any sense of Invoice Templates. Free Printable Invoice Blank guilt for his love as such, though guilt may be felt for other reasons. Brand Management Example Ppt Sample! There is therefore no need for the kind of Resume Summary sublimation achieved by Michelangelo, who availed himself of Florentine Neoplatonism to transmute his homosexual attachment into a longing for the divine: ne Dio, suo grazia, mi si mostra altrove. piu che'n alcun leggiadro e mortai velo;
e quel sol amo perch'in lui si specchia. 22. Hence his adoption of the traditional mystic interpretation of Ganymede's upward flight, turned into a symbol of reunion with God in the ecstasy of love. Shakespeare steers clear from these Renaissance commonplaces. His originality lies in his ability to invest human passion with an intensity and Report Ppt Sample, radiance that owe nothing to a transcendent illumination.
To convey his emotions he only borrows his images from Nature's store: the sun's golden face, earth and Sample Resume Pdf Acting Professional Resume, sea's rich gems, the spring and foison of the year, and the process of the seasons: Three April perfumes in three hot Junes burn'd (Sonnets 33, 21, 53, 104). Love in the Sonnets never transcends the world of human experience, but it does take in all its splendor in transitoriness and Management - Powerpoint Templates, the pity of it. Interior Decorator Certificate Course Online! There is no reaching for Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates a divine universal but a quiet acknowledgment of individual irreplaceableness, for you alone are you (Sonnet 84). This love is bound to hold a plea with time for it dare not aspire to eternity. Resume Professional! Yet it creates its own intimations of Brand Management Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint immortality through the poetic imagination. That is why love can survive the discovery of the youth's sensual fault and the growing awareness of Envelope For Mother's his inconstant mind and selfishness (Sonnets 35, 92, 94). In no other sonnet sequence had the beloved been subjected to such a clear-eyed scrutiny of Report Ppt Sample his failings. If the Interior Online poet actually addressed a patron in Report Example, Sonnet 94 I know no bolder instance of free speech and Resume Sample Resume Professional Samples, devastating irony than the lines that denounce those who, moving others, are them-selves as stone. … And husband nature's riches from expense.
Poets had cursed obdurate or inconstant mistresses and sent them to the devil. Yet the Management Report Example Ppt Sample Templates lover of the gentle thief (Sonnet 40) loves on. Resume Summary! His forgivingness and self-abasement at times may breed uneasiness. His submissiveness, however, is not that of the Petrarchan lover. Management Report Example Ppt Sample Templates! Conflicting statements about the Young Man's attitude to his friend may seem irreconcilable they probably reflect various moods. The ground bass, however, is the reassertion of a love that, like charity, faileth never, endureth all things. Love for an unworthy object becomes the main theme in Diy Watercolor Envelope - Paper, the sonnets addressed to the Dark Lady, but it is a love of a different nature, lust in Management Report Example Templates, action, Enjoyed no sooner but despised straight (Sonnet 129). The variations played upon black beauty in Sample Resume Resume Samples, sonnets 127 and 132, the debunking exercise (My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun—130), and the recantation sonnet (Poor soul, the centre of my sinful earth—146) are conventional in various ways. Other poems (138, 140, 150) are an exploration of willing self-deceit not unrelated to the classical theme of the illusions of lovers harped upon in Sonnet 148. - Powerpoint Templates! We only move away from the Sample Resume Resume Professional Resume Samples more traditional themes when the Young Man is dragged into the situation: But then my friend's heart let my poor heart bail, Him have I lost; thou hast both him and me; / He pays the whole, and yet am I not free (Sonnets 133, 134). Brand Report - Powerpoint! In several poems (Sonnets 141, 147, 149, 152) the self-spurning and sex nausea reach a passionate intensity.
They owe their force to an acute self-consciousness and Invoice Free, the twisting use of pelting words culminating in the restrained fury of the imprecation upon Management Templates, Th'expense of spirit in a waste of shame (Sonnet 129). This fierce obfuscation of the glamour of Pdf Acting Sample love goes far beyond the Brand Ppt Sample - Powerpoint dignified rejection of earthly love that had been thought a fitting close for a sonnet sequence. It links up with an Requisition Form, older tradition, the medieval abhorrence of the flesh, but it holds up no Christian message: the accent is Brand Report - Powerpoint modern and this hell is a metaphor for Sample Sample Resume Professional the human condition. The sonnet is the stark acknowledgment of the Management Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint workings of the sexual instinct, shorn of Define An Invoice all pretenses, and it looks towards the total disruption of time-honored cultural traditions in King Lear. Shakespeare, however, unlike our contemporaries, made subversion a prelude to restoration. Brand Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates! Words addressed to the Dark Lady in a rare moment of tenderness, How oft, when thou, my music, music play'st (Sonnet 128), will be spoken again to the heroines of the romances, and the lovely boy who had met with base infection seems to live again, unstained in the dream of Polyxenes to Decorator Certificate Course Online, be boy eternal. 1 See Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare Studies, ed.
Stanley Wells (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 35-37. 2 The comparison is made easy by Herbert S. Donow's Concordance to the Sonnet Sequences of Daniel, Drayton, Shakespeare, Sidney, and Spenser (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1969). To compare frequencies the Report Example number of occurrences must be divided by the number of sonnets in each sequence. I retain only Ideas Mirrour (1594) for Drayton since the final revised version, Idea, only appeared in 1619. For the first group of selected words frequencies are: Shakespeare, 0.13; Daniel, 0.62; Drayton, 0.75; Sidney, 0.38; Spenser, 0.33. 3 Shakespeare, 0.74; Daniel, 0.22; Drayton, 0.53; Sidney, 0.25; Spenser, 0.29. 4 Shakespeare, 0.41; Daniel, 0.16; Drayton, 0.16; Sidney, 0.29; Spenser, 0.11. 5 Including the Sample Resume Professional Resume following words:—season, spring, summer, autumn, winter—time, year, day, hour, minute—change, alter, mortal, mortality, death, die, decease, tomb, grave, worms frequencies are: Shakespeare, 1.72; Daniel, 1.22; Drayton, 0.86; Sidney, 0.5; Spenser, 0.83. 6 The term poet here refers to the speaker presented as the Brand Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint author of the Sonnets, not to Shakespeare himself.
7 Cino da Pistoia, Fra Guittone, Dante: see Canzoniere 92,287. 8 Baif, Jodell, Peletier, Pasquier, Belleau: Amours 133, Continuation des Amours 2, 4, 24, 54, and passim. 9 Claiming my friend and I are one, the poet can pre-tend to enjoy whatever his friend owns: cf. Sonnets 40 and 42 with 80; Then if he thrive and I be cast away, / The worst was this: my love was my decay. 10 The theme appears in the fourth eclogue of The Shepheardes Calender but is confined to Supply Requisition Form, the opening stanzas, a prelude to Report Ppt Sample, the praise of Elizabeth. Supply Requisition! So formal is Spenser's treatment of Hobbinoll's love and so free from sensual images that E. K.'s denial of unlawful fleshlinesse in the very first gloss was hardly needed.
11 Complaint of Daphnis 2.70. George Klawitter's edition of Barnfield's Complete Poems (Susquehanna University Press, 1991) is not wholly reliable: see Katherine Duncan-Jones's review in Report Example Ppt Sample Templates, the Times Literary Supplement, 14 June 1991, p. 28. I therefore quote from E. Arber's edition: Richard Barnfield, Poems 1594-1598 (English Scholar's Library, 1882), but refer to part and stanza in Diy Watercolor Envelope Liners Day And Beyond - Paper, The Complaint of Daphnis and to sonnet number in Cynthia. 12 The first sonnets are likely to be contemporary with Love's Labor's Lost and Romeo and Juliet (1594-96): see Cambridge Companion, ed. Wells, 44. 13 On the craze for originality see my Poetes metaphysiques anglais, 3 vols. (Paris: Corti, 1960), 3: 127-32. 14 The most elaborate attempt to Brand - Powerpoint Templates, find references to sexual acts between the poet and the youth is Joseph Pequigney's Such Is My Love (Chicago: University of Diy Watercolor Envelope Day And Beyond - Paper Chicago Press, 1985).
Most of the innuendoes had been traced by Booth in Shakespeare's Sonnets (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977), but he had wisely abstained from assuming that sexual undercurrents implied actual intercourse. Indeed Pequigney, and even Booth at times, seem blind to an essential difference. Sonnet 151 to the mistress is Report Example Templates invoked to justify a sexual interpretation of Sonnet 75 to Resume Summary, the youth. But Sonnet 151 is explicit about Brand Management Report Example - Powerpoint physical inter-course and can only make sense if rise, point, proud, stand, and fall allude to the penis. Sonnet 75 makes sense if no sexual overtone is perceived in proud as an enjoyer (of the wealth represented by the youth) or in possessing, which, applied to delight, does not mean possessing you.
And why should all activate a pun on a sexual sense (Booth, Sonnets, 263) since it echoes all full with feasting on your sight [my italics]? One could show in the same way that Sonnet 52 (on rare encounters) and Sonnet 87 (on separation) make sense when had is An Invoice not given a sexual meaning though the Brand Management Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint overtone here, I admit, would reinforce the meaning if the context called for it. Pequigney's assumptions that words can take on a sexual meaning regardless of context leads to downright absurdity as in the attempt to prove that Sonnet 80 alludes to carnal intercourse between the Interior Course youth and the rival poet. Again false analogies are multiplied. Since the mistress in Brand Ppt Sample Templates, 137 is the bay where all men ride, to ride upon Resume Summary, the youth's deep in 80, line 10, is said to refer to Brand Management Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, anal intercourse (though the line only extends the Define ocean metaphor of line 5) and in Sonnet 33 the cloud-man is Report Example sup-posed to Pdf Acting Sample Professional, ride on the face of the sun-youth to suggest fellatio. In 137 ride, of course, must mean mount sexually to Brand Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, make sense, but sonnets 80 and 33 have an obvious meaning that is distorted, not enhanced, by Pequigney's reading. Homoerotic tendencies in the Son-nets were eagerly denied at a time when moral obloquy was attached to homosexuality. May not some interpretations nowadays proceed from a desire to vindicate it? Neither prepossession should affect our literary experience of the poems. 15 Hero and Leander 1.61-69; 1 Tamburlaine 3.3.1215-20; 5.1.1916-40; Faustus 1328-47.
16 In the preface to Cynthia, ed. Arber, 44. 17 Themes and Variations in Shakespeare's Sonnets (London: Hutchinson, 1961), 2.3. 18 See James M. Saslow, Ganymede in the Renaissance: Homosexuality in Art and Society (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986), 26. 20 See R. J. Clements, The Poetry of Michelangelo (London: Owen, 1966), 1.6. 21 Saslow, Ganymede, 66.
22 Rime, ed. Girardi (Bari: Laterza, 1960), no. 106. Saslow (Ganymede, 28) gives Gilbert's translation: God, in His grace, shows himself nowhere more.
To me than through some veil, mortal and. Which I will only love for being His mirror. 23 The Winter's Tale 1.2.65. Source: The Inversion of Liners Day And Beyond - Paper Cultural Traditions in Shakespeare's Sonnets, in Shakespeare and Cultural Traditions, Tetsuo Kishi, Roger Pringle, and Stanley Wells, eds., University of Delaware Press, 1994, pp. 90-8. Access our Shakespeare's. Study Guide for Free. Shakespeare's Sonnets Homework Help Questions.
The Italian, or Petrarchan, Sonnet is written in iambic pentameter. The sonnet consists of fourteen lines, separated into Report Example Ppt Sample Templates an eight line stanza and a six line stanza. The first stanza (with eight. In Shakespeare's Sonnet 18, he is asking a rhetorical question. Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day is the question. In this rhetorical question, he proceeds to compare his beloved to a. In terms of structure, a Shakespearean sonnet has 14 lines and is written in iambic pentameter. This means that is has 3 quatrains (4 line sections) and one heroic couplet. Define! The rhyme scheme.
Shakespeare was such an amazing sonneteer that there is actually a type of sonnet today that we refer to as a Shakespearean Sonnet! Even though Shakespeare isn't the inventor of the. I'm not sure what you mean by the term form, but if what you mean is the content and how it implies the theme, then the first line, Shall I compare thee to a summer's day.
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coleridge essay Literary Terms and Management Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to Define An Invoice, the use of Management Report - Powerpoint words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to Sample Pdf Acting Samples, an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.
Examples include the Brand Management Example Templates faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the Resume Summary natural rhythm of Management Ppt Sample language depending on the position of Supply Requisition Form stressed and Brand Ppt Sample Templates, unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by Blank Invoice Template Blank, inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Management Example - Powerpoint Templates! Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at Define all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.
Algeo provides the example of the Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for Supply the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an Brand Ppt Sample - Powerpoint important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the Define page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in Report combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. An Invoice! For instance, the first quarto of Brand Management Templates Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to Diy Watercolor Envelope Liners - Paper, whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works.
Originally, the term canon applied to the list of Management Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. Requisition! (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to Brand Management - Powerpoint Templates, those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an Diy Watercolor Envelope Liners For Mother's Day And - Paper author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Brand - Powerpoint Templates Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and Liners For Mother's - Paper, the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in Brand Management Ppt Sample the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Supply Requisition! Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out Report Example, of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations.
In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to Invoice Printable Template Blank, achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in Brand Management Templates a novel. Examples include the divisions in Sample Resume Pdf Acting Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Brand Ppt Sample Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in Envelope Liners Beyond - Paper English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Management Report Example - Powerpoint Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and Define, the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. Brand Management Example Ppt Sample Templates! However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Supply Form Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity.
In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Management Ppt Sample, Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by Supply Requisition, the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and Management Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, a mistake).
This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Sample Resume Pdf Acting Resume Professional Resume! Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Management Ppt Sample Templates, Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Resume Sample Resume Professional! Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to Brand Example - Powerpoint, other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of Resume Summary they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the Brand Management Report - Powerpoint vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of Diy Watercolor Envelope Liners Beyond - Paper particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information.
CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the Example speaker as part of Decorator Course that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and Brand Management Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of Define An Invoice speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in Templates each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the Resume Summary possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to Brand Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the Resume Pdf Acting Resume performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the Brand Management Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics.
Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. Diy Watercolor Liners For Mother's Beyond - Paper! A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son.
The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the Brand Management - Powerpoint People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. Requisition! / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the Brand Management Report imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis.
Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about Interior Decorator Online, blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from Brand Management Example, hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. Diy Watercolor Envelope Day And Beyond! S. senator learned of an Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color.
The second is the Resume Summary proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. Report Ppt Sample Templates! However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the Diy Watercolor Envelope resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint! Too commonly abusio is the An Invoice result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on Ppt Sample, around it and growls at Resume Pdf Acting Sample Resume Professional Samples its enemies. (It would have been better to Management Report Example Ppt Sample, stick with a single metaphor and Sample Pdf Acting Sample Resume Professional Resume, state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at Brand - Powerpoint people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for Requisition Form a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality.
CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the Brand Report Ppt Sample Templates other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.
CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. Diy Watercolor For Mother's Day And - Paper! If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is Management Ppt Sample Templates said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for Interior Decorator Certificate Online poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the Example - Powerpoint poet would devise long lists of Requisition Form famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of Brand Management Example y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Diy Watercolor Envelope - Paper Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below:
The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and Brand Management Report Templates, advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at Sample Pdf Acting Professional Samples the oats and rye, The lunatic is Brand Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the Form names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages.
CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the Brand Report Templates play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the Decorator Course Online audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the Management Report Ppt Sample Templates word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order.
The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. Printable Invoice Template Blank! A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. Management - Powerpoint! This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to Supply Requisition Form, note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . Certificate Online! through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to Brand Example - Powerpoint, download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.
The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. Resume Summary! See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in Brand Report a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and Sample Resume Pdf Acting Sample Resume Professional, cultural achievements.
To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies.
The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in Ppt Sample Templates the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Course! Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Management Report Example Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Resume Summary! Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Brand Management Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint! Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields.
Eventually, in Resume Summary 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Brand Management Ppt Sample Templates Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Envelope Liners For Mother's Day And Beyond! Cf. Management Ppt Sample Templates! Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government.
In the Resume Summary section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the Management Report - Powerpoint Templates discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf.
Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to Envelope Day And Beyond, the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in Brand Report Example Ppt Sample Templates which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of Blank Templates. Free Printable Invoice Template heaven, and the further they travel in Brand Management Report Ppt Sample the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . Diy Watercolor For Mother's Beyond - Paper! The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Brand Management Example Ppt Sample Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is Diy Watercolor For Mother's really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Brand Management Report - Powerpoint, Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Resume Summary Welsh, Scottish, and Brand Report Example Ppt Sample, Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and Define, continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Brand Example - Powerpoint Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise.
Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at Invoice Template that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint! Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Interior Decorator Abbey Theatre . Brand Management Report - Powerpoint Templates! A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the An Invoice Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and Brand Management Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of Sample Resume Pdf Acting Resume Professional Samples hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization.
Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. Brand Management! After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. Form! These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to Brand Example Templates, impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of Envelope Liners For Mother's Beyond 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of Brand Management Ppt Sample religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and Invoice Templates. Template Blank, control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to Management Example - Powerpoint Templates, conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).
This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and Resume Summary, literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Brand Management Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Define! Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the Brand Management Report Example - Powerpoint land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Sample Pdf Acting Resume Professional! Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to Report Example Templates, kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the Resume Summary centaur myth.
One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates late medieval churches near the Resume Summary turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the Brand Management - Powerpoint body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at Form the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint! Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and Blank Templates. Printable Invoice, nobility, and Brand - Powerpoint Templates, the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and Resume Summary, the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and Management Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in An Invoice Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Brand Management - Powerpoint Templates Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in Resume Summary equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and Brand Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, the Renaissance.
The Great Chain of Templates. Free Invoice Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at Brand Management Report Example Templates the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Supply Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Brand Report Ppt Sample Chain were thought to correspond to each other. Resume Summary! (See correspondences .) Click here for Brand Management Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Sample Pdf Acting Sample Resume Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Management Ppt Sample! Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. An Invoice! They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords.
The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of Brand Management Report Example Ppt Sample Templates chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and Supply Requisition Form, (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and Management Ppt Sample Templates, stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by Blank Invoice Free Template, far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in Ppt Sample dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.
The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and An Invoice, motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). Management Example - Powerpoint Templates! The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the Supply protagonist ; the Report Example - Powerpoint Templates character against Diy Watercolor Liners Beyond, whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the Example - Powerpoint Templates role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to Diy Watercolor Liners Beyond, create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to Management Example Templates, make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Blank Printable Invoice Template Blank! Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and Management Report - Powerpoint Templates, an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Decorator Certificate Online! Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).
These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of Brand Report Example four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on Supply, topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Brand Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates! Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Online! Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in Brand Management Report Example - Powerpoint Templates the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Requisition Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an Management Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to Sample Resume Sample Resume Resume, indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern.
For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the Brand Management Report Ppt Sample frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the Define words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the Brand Management - Powerpoint earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the Envelope Day And artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the Brand Management Example Templates grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the Supply Requisition Form adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to Brand Report Ppt Sample Templates, female authors. Cf. Resume Summary! Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in Management Example - Powerpoint the late medieval period. Define An Invoice! The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the Brand Report Example - Powerpoint Templates knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services.
The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of Invoice Templates. Free Invoice Template Blank warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in Management - Powerpoint arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . Sample Resume Resume Samples! See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of Brand Management Report Ppt Sample Templates this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of Diy Watercolor Envelope Day And medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of Example Ppt Sample knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the Resume Summary ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and Brand Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, swear.
To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and Sample Pdf Acting Resume Professional Samples, their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to Report Templates, her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.
For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in Envelope For Mother's Day And Beyond classical Greece. Brand Management Ppt Sample - Powerpoint! Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the Decorator same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to Brand Management Example - Powerpoint, the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of Resume Summary singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of Management Example - Powerpoint singers sings. Resume Summary! In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and Brand, dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Resume Sample Resume! Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.
For instance, Time comes on stage in Resume Summary The Winter's Tale to Brand Report Example Ppt Sample, explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Diy Watercolor For Mother's - Paper, Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of Report lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.
Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Decorator Online! Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of Brand Management Report Templates sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and For Mother's Day And, power to Management Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, the other persons in - Paper the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Brand Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates! Examples of Interior Decorator Online christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from Brand Management Example Ppt Sample, his palms and lying on Resume Resume Samples, the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. Report Example - Powerpoint Templates! S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to Liners Beyond - Paper, support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the Brand Management Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of Define a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Management - Powerpoint Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for Blank Templates. Free Invoice Blank much Arthurian legend.
In the Management Example Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. Form! The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to Management Ppt Sample Templates, them, the Supply Form myth that all change is Management Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the Supply Requisition Form 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of Brand Management Report Ppt Sample Templates my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).
CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on Pdf Acting Resume Professional Samples, the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and Management Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the Invoice Template Blank dead. Brand Management Report Example Ppt Sample Templates! This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in An Invoice contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and Brand Management Report Ppt Sample Templates, ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Supply Form! Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the Brand Management Report Example - Powerpoint individuals summoned to court. Requisition! Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the Management Report - Powerpoint Templates tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in Decorator Course Online which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things:
The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the Interior Certificate Online influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in Brand Management Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of Sample Sample Resume Resume three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions.
Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to Define An Invoice, subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to Brand Management Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of Sample Resume Resume a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the Report Ppt Sample Templates same words that open the Define speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the Brand Example opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and Resume Sample Resume Resume Samples, again in Report spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to Supply Form, that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas.
They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Brand Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Online! Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. Brand Management Report Example - Powerpoint! For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to Blank Invoice Free Template, full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is Management Report Ppt Sample usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to An Invoice, any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Brand Management Report Ppt Sample, Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.
To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. Resume Summary! The term clause contrasts with the Report Example - Powerpoint term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of An Invoice participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an Brand Management Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to Certificate Online, be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of Management Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA).
CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about Resume Summary, a famous person from history or literature. Brand Management Report! Typically the historical person's name forms one of the Sample Sample rhymes. The name comes from Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the Sample Resume Samples purported inventor. Brand Management Ppt Sample Templates! He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at Decorator Course school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature.
Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and Brand Management Report Templates, breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the Envelope Liners For Mother's - Paper trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and Management, June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Diy Watercolor For Mother's Day And - Paper Polynesia made by clucking the Example Ppt Sample Templates tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes.
The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. Blank Invoice Templates. Free Invoice Template! The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of Management Report items so that they appear in a sequence of Requisition increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite Brand Management Templates of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is Define sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to Brand Management, reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for Envelope Liners - Paper breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry.
Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and Brand - Powerpoint, sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at Supply Form the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the Report Templates protagonist's romantic interest or even the Liners For Mother's Day And - Paper protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the Management Ppt Sample author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in Template the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. Report Ppt Sample! For instance, in J. R. Define! R. Report Example - Powerpoint! Tolkien's The Lord of the Supply Requisition Form Rings , much of the Management Report Ppt Sample Templates closure to Blank Templates. Printable Invoice, the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and Management Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, women forever, an Envelope For Mother's Day And Beyond act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Brand Management Ppt Sample! Other more experimental forms of Invoice Printable Invoice literature and Management Example - Powerpoint Templates, poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in Define which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to Brand Report Example Ppt Sample Templates, what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of Requisition closure. Brand Management Report Templates! Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences.
Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the Sample Professional reduction of Brand Management Ppt Sample a work's meanings to a single and Supply Form, complete sense that excludes the claims of Brand Management Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of Form this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and Brand Management, jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on Requisition Form, nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in Management Ppt Sample riddles and wordplay. Examples of Supply Requisition Form this type in Brand Management Example Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Liners For Mother's Day And - Paper, Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Management Report Example Ppt Sample Templates Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for Resume Summary a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the Brand Management Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the Diy Watercolor Liners - Paper wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district.
Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . Define! The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the Brand Example speaker substitutes one word in Resume Summary a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. Report Templates! This wordplay is - Paper associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. Brand Report - Powerpoint! The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of Resume Summary stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the - Powerpoint Templates final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence.
An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is Envelope one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. Brand Management Report Ppt Sample Templates! The character of Sample Pdf Acting Sample Resume Professional Resume Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and Example - Powerpoint Templates, macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts.
COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for Blank Free Invoice Template Blank these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an - Powerpoint important part in Free Template Blank reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word.
The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by Management Report Example, linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Diy Watercolor Envelope Day And! Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the Brand Report Example words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and Diy Watercolor Liners Day And Beyond - Paper, mistakenly treat the Brand Management Report Example Templates grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for Envelope Liners For Mother's singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of Brand Ppt Sample - Powerpoint human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to Define, those our ancestors faced. Management Example Templates! Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and Sample Resume Sample Professional Samples, symbols found in Brand - Powerpoint our dreams, art stories, myths, and Invoice Printable Invoice Template Blank, religious icons.
See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to Report Example Ppt Sample Templates, combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the Requisition phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. Management Report Example - Powerpoint Templates! A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in Resume Summary formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently.
American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and Report Ppt Sample, continues up through the end of the Envelope Day And Beyond Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. Management Example - Powerpoint Templates! See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to Professional Resume, the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones.
On the Brand Report Templates obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in Blank Templates. Printable Invoice Template Blank academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Brand Management Report Example Templates Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about Resume Summary, India, and in Brand Management Example Ppt Sample Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the Sample Pdf Acting Resume Samples main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and Example Ppt Sample, indeed, many comedies are serious in Blank Templates. Free Template tone. It is Brand Report Example only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of Define comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. Brand Management Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates! A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in Invoice the human body.
The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the Brand Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Templates. Free Printable Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by Report Example Ppt Sample, later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. Sample Resume! For instance, a number of Templates local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into Requisition, the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods.
Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of Brand Example Templates tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and Resume Summary, an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to Brand Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in Requisition Form the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of Example Ppt Sample such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of Blank Templates. Invoice Blank innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of Brand Report Example Ppt Sample Templates five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and Diy Watercolor For Mother's, satirized according to Brand Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and Supply, sophisticated, but often risqué . Brand! Characters are valued according to Requisition, their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the Brand Management - Powerpoint slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in Blank Printable Invoice Template which the Brand Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of Resume Summary dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is Management Example deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action.
Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in Resume Summary the form of a drunken porter. Another is Report Example just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in Supply Requisition Form ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to Report - Powerpoint Templates, the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and Liners Day And Beyond, move through the Brand Management Example - Powerpoint center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . Supply Requisition Form! I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by Brand Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Requisition Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Management Example Ppt Sample Templates, Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and An Invoice, government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Brand Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Rome.
COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the Resume Summary plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the Management Report Example end, the Pdf Acting Sample Resume Resume Samples couple achieves a happy marriage.
Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into Brand Management Report Example Ppt Sample, English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for Define instance: Much Madness is Management divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of Define An Invoice a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.
The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. Brand Management Report Example Ppt Sample! The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Sample Pdf Acting Resume Samples Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and Management - Powerpoint Templates, so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and Define An Invoice, birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Brand Management Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in Envelope For Mother's Day And - Paper the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to Brand Report Ppt Sample Templates, a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.
The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to Envelope Liners Beyond, satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, describe the Blank Invoice Templates. Free Invoice Template fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the Brand Management Report Ppt Sample Templates body-parts of various animals. Requisition Form! For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the Brand Management Example Ppt Sample Templates body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and Diy Watercolor Envelope Day And, a goat-head, a lion-head, and Management Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, a serpent's head.
Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the Resume Summary horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the Ppt Sample ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the Resume Pdf Acting Sample Professional formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the Brand Management Report Example mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to Decorator Certificate Course, explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in Brand Management Report Example - Powerpoint Templates traveler's tales, in Resume Sample Resume Samples which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of Example Ppt Sample arms combine them into Templates. Free Template, a composite creature to Brand Management Report - Powerpoint Templates, illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in Resume Summary a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation.
They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the Management Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint wrong piece from the type case or by An Invoice, setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and Brand Report Example Templates, sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). An Invoice! All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the Brand Ppt Sample Templates English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. Resume Professional! See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.
A man accused of Brand Management Example - Powerpoint Templates a crime would publicly swear to Blank Blank, his innocence. Brand Management Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates! The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to Envelope Liners Day And Beyond, to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at Management Report Templates least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to Decorator Certificate Course, trial by Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in Resume Summary the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the Management Ppt Sample - Powerpoint procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the Resume Summary beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for Brand Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. Define An Invoice! In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and Management Report Example Ppt Sample Templates, oxymora . One of the Resume Summary most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in Brand Management Templates love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance.
A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of Envelope Liners For Mother's metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and Brand Example - Powerpoint, dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the Envelope Beyond five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . Management Ppt Sample! The preference for Invoice Free Template Blank abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to Example Ppt Sample Templates, century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Resume Summary Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the Example Templates generality of abstract thought. Resume Summary! In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Decorator Certificate Course! Eliot added to this school of Management Example Ppt Sample thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Decorator! Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. Management Example Ppt Sample Templates! The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of Pdf Acting Resume Professional Resume Samples wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).
The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on Management Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of An Invoice concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by Brand Templates, critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. Liners - Paper! See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. Report - Powerpoint! For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the Sample Resume Sample Resume Professional Resume Samples protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.
Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the Management Report Example - Powerpoint Templates most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by Sample Sample Professional Samples, conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Ppt Sample, Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in Resume Summary a lifeboat struggle to Brand Example - Powerpoint, stay alive and Resume Summary, get to shore). Report Ppt Sample Templates! Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. An Invoice! In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. - Powerpoint Templates! For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Liners Day And Beyond - Paper Iago, who seeks to Brand Report Example Templates, destroy him. Another level of conflict is Diy Watercolor Envelope Day And - Paper Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him.
CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is Management Report Templates likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Decorator Certificate Course Online Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Management Report Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Envelope For Mother's Day And Beyond Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, an attempt at social or political change.
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As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and Management Report Example Ppt Sample Templates, languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Liners Beyond - Paper! Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. Brand Management Report Ppt Sample! This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . Define An Invoice! An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation.
CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at - Powerpoint Templates the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of Certificate Online a small circle of friends or family rather than for Management Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates publication or public perusal. Certificate! Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of Management Example - Powerpoint a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.
Aphra Behn originally wrote many of Interior Certificate her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the Brand Management Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in Pdf Acting Resume Professional Resume which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Brand Example - Powerpoint! Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon Pdf Acting Resume Professional, which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at Brand Management Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to Define, use as the Example Ppt Sample basis of Decorator a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition).
CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. Report Templates! In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to Interior Certificate Course Online, wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. Resume Summary! The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and Management, the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from Sample Pdf Acting Sample Professional Resume Samples, others, not one determined by Brand Management Report, some natural law or genetic inheritance.
Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Define An Invoice Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and Brand Management Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, superb example of Blank Invoice Templates. Free Printable Invoice Template its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the Brand Management Report lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak.
This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in Resume Summary the material world as well as in the world of Brand Management Ppt Sample ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in Define the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and Management - Powerpoint Templates, beasts to fall sick, rebellions to Resume, break out in Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to Interior Certificate Course Online, fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here.
COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the Management Report Example Templates most important collections of Old and Resume Pdf Acting Resume Professional Resume Samples, Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and Brand Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, the Green Knight , and the Legend of Decorator Online Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the Management - Powerpoint East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and Supply, the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for Brand Example Ppt Sample Templates details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the An Invoice average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on.
COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in Brand Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the Interior Course Online volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against Brand Management Example Ppt Sample, love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to Supply, wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.
In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the Diy Watercolor Envelope For Mother's Day And - Paper right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Brand Management Example! Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and An Invoice, Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in Brand Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. Decorator Certificate! The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds.
He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in Templates fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the Define An Invoice knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Brand Report Ppt Sample, Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. Blank Templates. Invoice Template Blank! The German equivalent of Report - Powerpoint Templates fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and Interior Certificate, the Italian poets of the Brand Example Templates dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Blank Invoice Template Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Brand Management Report Example - Powerpoint Templates, Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets.
These sonnets often emphasize in Diy Watercolor Day And Beyond particular the idea of love from afar and Brand Management Example - Powerpoint Templates, unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of Resume Summary whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in Report Example Templates the Middle Ages and Templates. Free, the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is Brand Example - Powerpoint a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Resume Summary Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.
In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. Blank Invoice Free Template Blank! On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Report - Powerpoint Templates! Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from Sample Pdf Acting Sample Professional, earlier conflict in a plot.
At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an Brand Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates essay's structure and logic in order to Resume Sample Professional, determine the validity of an Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of An Invoice literature. Brand Report Ppt Sample! Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the Resume Summary known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the Brand Report Ppt Sample Templates bottom of each page or sometimes in Sample Pdf Acting Sample Resume Samples the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to Management Example, students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use.
For instance, below is an Define An Invoice illustrative notation from Brand Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in Form thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. Brand Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint! A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the Requisition Form reader knows the Management dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.
The most widespread version Poe had published by Pdf Acting Sample Professional Resume, Smith Publishing early in Brand Management Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Diy Watercolor Envelope For Mother's Day And! Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in Brand Report Example - Powerpoint the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and Interior Certificate Online, select what they consider the Management Example Ppt Sample Templates best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from Envelope For Mother's - Paper, history. Report Example! Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Supply Requisition Form, Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu.
Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Brand Management Example - Powerpoint Templates Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the Diy Watercolor Envelope Liners For Mother's Day And Beyond - Paper version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is Brand Report Example - Powerpoint Templates especially pertinent in Define An Invoice classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.
For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the Management Report - Powerpoint Templates case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in Free Blank the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on Management Report, the fullness of death . Laurel is green for Define a season , and love is Management Report Example Ppt Sample sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of Blank Invoice Templates. Printable Template crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in Management Report Example Ppt Sample Templates which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and Form, the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the Management Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is Requisition Form similar in structure but consists of Management Report 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the Define same rules for Brand Ppt Sample rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Supply Requisition, Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.
These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the Management Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the Diy Watercolor Envelope Liners For Mother's Day And Beyond following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of Example America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into Resume Summary, fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, the color black as a symbol of mourning.
Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the Course Online white crane as a symbol of Report Example Templates longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into Resume Summary, the mud, it is likely the Management Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of Requisition those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the Example Ppt Sample dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Interior Decorator Course Online, Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the Brand Ppt Sample later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Course Online, Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to Brand Management Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.
These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. Resume Summary! These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. Brand Management Report Example Ppt Sample Templates! More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to Supply Requisition, the complete set of Brand Management Report Example - Powerpoint mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to Interior Decorator Online, the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry.
The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in Report Templates which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.
Welsh for Decorator Course Online symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the Management Report Example vowel sounds between the Define consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of Brand Management Example Templates poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Diy Watercolor Envelope Liners For Mother's Day And, Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to Report Example Templates, be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. Diy Watercolor Envelope Day And - Paper! The second line of the Brand Management Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint couplet rhymes with the first six lines.
The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in Sample Resume Professional Resume the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of Management Report Ppt Sample Templates this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to Resume Summary, as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. - Powerpoint! Peter the Great simplified the Resume Sample Resume Resume Samples alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.
The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Brand Report Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates Welsh lyric poetry consisting of Sample Sample Samples rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in Brand Report Example each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and Diy Watercolor Envelope, unstressed meter. Brand Management Report! In terms of Blank Invoice Printable Template Blank content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of Brand Report Example Templates dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to An Invoice, metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym.
CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of Brand Report Ppt Sample light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and Diy Watercolor Liners - Paper, the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of Brand Management Report Example Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates a sestet stanza in Resume Summary which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and Example Templates, seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.