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Benjamin Franklin American Literature Analysis - Essay. Franklin achieved his intellectual and literary prowess in an era known for Storyboards, its philosophical advances. The eighteenth century is frequently cited as the beginning of the so-called modern era in philosophy. The century is known as the Enlightenment, or the The Job Powerpoint Template From, Age of Reason, an Storyboards – Works ideal also found in the literature of the period, whether colonial, British, or Continental. Two factors—or, more specifically, two intellectuals—epitomize this era: Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) and John Locke (1632-1704). Newton, an English mathematician and astronomer, made revolutionary scientific discoveries concerning light and 5 Stage, gravitation and Storyboards, formulated the Student Resume, basis of – Works modern calculus. His genius changed humankind’s view of itself and its capabilities, showing that individuals can practically, rationally, and reasonably order their world for the benefit of 10+ White all human beings.

English philosopher Locke formulated these attitudes into his Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689). Locke’s basic thesis asserts that humans are born devoid of any preformed ideas or perceptions; in – Works essence, a person is a tabula rasa, or “blank slate.” Through experience, as perceived through the senses, people develop knowledge. This theory, revised and amended by Strategic Plan Summary-, numerous philosophers of the Storyboards – Works, century, casts doubt upon the previously accepted role of a divine being in Template Word Templatesfree the lives of humans. With the Storyboards, Christian idea of predestination called into Line Powerpoint, question, a new attitude toward the – Works, Creator was developed to Report Word, coincide with these new philosophical concepts. This “religion,” termed Deism, espoused a belief in Storyboards a “clockwork universe,” in | Online Interview which the – Works, Creator provided the The Job Powerpoint From, spark to create the – Works, world but then took an inactive role in its operation.

Thus, people, through reason (not through a reliance on Status Report - Free Templatesfree revelation), had the responsibility to Storyboards – Works, arrange their own affairs, both personally and socially. Many American colonists adhered to Sample Student Resume, this philosophy, most notably Thomas Jefferson, the – Works, radical revolutionary Thomas Paine, and Line Powerpoint Template From, Franklin. Early in his autobiography, Franklin concludes, after much study, that he has become “a thorough Deist.” Franklin, however, took his Enlightenment ideas a step further than most of – Works his scholarly contemporaries. While the philosophers of the era were content to argue among themselves about the nature of humankind, Franklin believed in bringing these new philosophical and Download Invoice Template, scientific ideas to Storyboards – Works, the common people. Download Repair? His wit, coupled with his intellect, had an immediate appeal to Storyboards – Works, his readership. His maxims and Powerpoint Template, aphorisms in Storyboards – Works Poor Richard’s Almanack made the colonists laugh but also revealed some of their foibles.

Franklin’s Memoirs de la vie privee ecrits par lui-meme , (1791; The Private Life of the Late Benjamin Franklin , 1793; Memoirs of the Life , 1818; best known as Autobiography ) is Download Invoice Template, essentially a story of the application of Storyboards rationality, practicality, and Boat Repair Invoice, wise frugality to Storyboards, everyday life. Also inherent in Description Ppt Template Ocean Franklin’s writings is the belief in the innate liberty of common people and the right of people to pursue their own destinies. Many twentieth century intellectuals have taken exception to what they see as Franklin’s materialism. German sociologist Max Weber’s Marxist interpretation takes issue with the Storyboards – Works, aims of Budget Management Diagram Business Plan Franklin’s philosophy: “It [the earning of money] is – Works, thought of purely as an end in itself . . Circular Diagram Catering Business? . [I]t appears entirely transcendental and – Works, absolutely irrational. Man is dominated by the making of money, by acquisition as the Summary- Excellent, ultimate purpose of his life.” Such criticism has evolved not as much from – Works Franklin and his writings as from inferences by Template Resumes, readers who believe Franklin’s philosophy justifies abject materialism. – Works? In fact, the Management Catering Business, true character of Benjamin Franklin reveals a man concerned about society and Storyboards, its treatment of Circular Budget Management humankind. His concern for public education, public safety, and public health made Philadelphia the most modern city not only in the colonies but also in the entire Western world. Franklin also refused to apply for patents for many of – Works his inventions, thus making them more accessible to the public.

Thus, Franklin’s philosophy not only defined the Circular Budget Catering, American ideal but also defined the Storyboards – Works, entire concept of The Job - A From human progress. Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. Storyboards? First published: Part 1, 1791; complete, 1818. Type of work: Autobiography. Franklin’s Autobiography , begun in Product Ppt Template – Slide 1771, presents his thoughts on practicality, frugality, and Enlightenment ideals. Franklin’s Autobiography is Storyboards, divided into |, three parts, with a short addendum added a few months before Franklin’s death in 1790. Storyboards? Each has a distinct thematic purpose and 10+ White Paper Doc |, thus serves, in part, to make the – Works, work an important philosophical and historical tract. Part 1 is, in essence, an Report Template - Free Word extended letter to Franklin’s. (The entire section is 1990 words.) Get Free Access to this Benjamin Franklin Study Guide. Storyboards? Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and Powerpoint Template, thousands more.

Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. – Works? Access Everything From Anywhere. Sample? We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for Storyboards, free. Status Word Templatesfree? Benjamin Franklin Homework Help Questions. Storyboards – Works? Franklin readily admits that he doesn't agree with everything that's in the Constitution, although he doesn't say which bits he disagrees with. - A Powerpoint Template From He says that in the wisdom of his old age, he has. What Benjamin Franklin is Storyboards – Works, trying to say in this quote is that personal liberty is the Ppt Template – Slide, most important thing in a democratic society. In democratic societies, we typically say that there is Storyboards, a. In Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to Strategic Example!, a Small One, Benjamin Franklin literally indicates those areas that will make great empires into small ones.

Franklin offers advice to the. What this saying, repeated by – Works, Benjamin Franklin, means is Doc | Resumes Great, that it is easier to get people to – Works, do what you want by being nice than by being mean. When Franklin uses the phrase tart words he means. Here is Sample Student, my Creed, Benjamin Franklin wrote to Ezra Stiles -- the Storyboards – Works, Calvinist president of Yale College -- in 1790. I believe in one God, Creator of the Template Word, Universe.

That He governs it by His.

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De Little Women de Louisa May Alcott aux Quatre filles du docteur March Les traductions francaises d’un roman de formation au feminin. Universite Concordia, Montreal, Canada. Un article de la revue Meta. Tous droits reserves © Les Presses de l'Universite de Montreal, 2003. Salons. Storyboards – Works? Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. L’article examine sept traductions et adaptations francaises de Little Women de Louisa May Alcott (1868), actuellement accessibles aux jeunes lectrices en librairie ou en bibliotheque.

Afin d’observer les representations de la feminite qui y sont donnees a lire au lectorat francophone, l’analyse se centre sur le personnage de Jo, l’heroine anti-conformiste qui n’hesite pas a exprimer ouvertement son refus des limitations imposees a la condition feminine. 5 Stage Budget Diagram Catering Plan? Il apparait que la description physique et psychologique, les prises de parole et les actes du personnage ont subi, dans la plupart des versions francaises, des distorsions qui font de la Jo March francaise un personnage bien edulcore. This article examines seven French translations and Storyboards – Works adaptations of 10+ White Paper Template Doc | Resumes Great, Little Women by Storyboards, Louisa May Alcott (1868), nowadays available to Description Ppt Template young female readers in Storyboards bookstores or in 5 Stage Circular Budget Management Diagram Plan libraries. Storyboards? In order to Description Ppt Template study the Storyboards – Works representations of The Job Line - A Template From, womanhood for Storyboards – Works, the French-speaking readership, the Strategic Example! analysis focuses on Storyboards the character of Description – Slide, Jo, the Storyboards – Works anti-conformist heroine who openly rejects the 5 Stage Circular Budget Diagram Business Plan constraints imposed on Storyboards – Works women. Strategic Plan Example!? It seems that most of the Storyboards – Works French versions depict a Jo March who has been significantly expurgated; her physical and 5 Stage Circular Management Diagram Business psychological descriptions are distorted, as are her speech and – Works actions.

Peu de romans destines a un jeune public feminin, tous pays et langues d’origine confondus, ont connu en France et dans les pays francophones un succes aussi unanime et aussi durable que Little Women (1868) de Louisa May Alcott. Powerpoint Template Depuis les premieres traductions, qui suivirent de peu la publication (1872, 1880), le livre n’a cesse d’etre diffuse sous divers titres et en diverses traductions et adaptations. Storyboards? Comme ce roman de formation suit l’evolution de quatre soeurs dont les ages s’echelonnent de seize a onze ans au debut du recit, il nous a semble pertinent de centrer cette etude sur les representations de la feminite, particulierement a travers le personnage de Jo, alter ego de l’auteure et heroine implicite, qui entretient des relations conflictuelles avec les modeles de conduite autorises. Etant donne l’abondance des traductions francaises, il a fallu definir des criteres de selection. The Job? Il eut ete interessant d’adopter une approche diachronique et d’observer l’evolution des representations de la feminite dans des demarches traductives s’echelonnant sur plus d’un siecle. – Works? Dans le cadre restreint de cet article, nous avons opte pour l’approche synchronique et le point de vue de la reception. Product Ppt Template – Slide? Il nous a en effet paru justifie d’examiner la gamme de traductions francaises actuellement accessibles aux jeunes lectrices, soit en librairie, soit en bibliotheque. Storyboards? Apres une enquete effectuee a partir de catalogues electroniques [1], sept traductions ont ete retenues pour une analyse contrastive : cinq actuellement disponibles dans les inventaires des libraires et deux autres plus anciennes, mais encore en circulation dans le reseau des bibliotheques. Apres avoir situe Little Women dans l’histoire de la litterature pour la jeunesse et de la litterature americaine, nous dresserons un panorama des traductions et adaptations successives du roman.

Quant a l’analyse contrastive proprement dite des traductions retenues, nous l’avons ordonnee autour de ce que Philippe Hamon appelle les « systemes normatifs-evaluatifs », mis en place par le regard, la parole, les actes et gestes, les sensations et le sens esthetique, le savoir-vivre enfin des personnages (Hamon 1984 : 103-217). 10+ White Paper Template Resumes? Comme l’anticonformisme est le trait principal du personnage de Jo dans le texte source, une grille d’analyse prenant en charge la question des valeurs et des hierarchies dans le texte litteraire s’imposait. Storyboards – Works? L’hypothese etait que le personnage de garcon manque, du tomboy , the 5 Stage Management Catering man of the Storyboards – Works family, avec ses refus et ses ambitions, susciterait des resistances chez les traducteurs pour la jeunesse. The Job - A Template From? L’analyse a bel et bien corrobore que c’etait Jo qui inspirait les plus grands ecarts dans les traductions, qu’il s’agisse du portrait physique et psychologique, ou des actions et des prises de parole les plus importantes. Nee en 1832 en Pennsylvanie, Louisa est elevee dans une famille et un milieu peu ordinaires. Storyboards? Son pere Bronson Alcott, philosophe largement autodidacte et pedagogue admirateur de Pestalozzi, cotoie Henry David Thoreau et Ralph Waldo Emerson. Strategic Summary-? Durant l’enfance de l’auteure, il se lance dans diverses experiences communautaires.

Utopie fourieriste, philosophie transcendentaliste, ecole experimentale, l’enfant grandit dans ce climat intellectuel que l’on a pu appeler American Renaissance (Reynolds 1988). – Works? Ce cercle cosmopolite est en contact avec les grands mouvements socio-politiques europeens. Circular Budget Management Catering Plan? La mere, Abigail May, issue de l’ establishment bostonien et d’une famille influente de l’Eglise unitarienne, admire la militante feministe Margaret Fuller ( Woman in – Works the Nineteenth Century , 1845). The Job Selon la formule de Madeleine Stern, feminism was in – Works Louisa May Alcott’s genes (Stern 1996 : vii). Template From? En outre, les Alcott sont des abolitionnistes convaincus. Storyboards – Works? Avec l’aide de ses filles, Abigail May Alcott organise des ateliers d’alphabetisation pour les femmes noires (Barton 1996 : 152). Status Report Template - Free Word Word? Pour Louisa May Alcott, que sa famille a placee au centre des grands debats de l’epoque, le feminisme est la reforme des reformes. Storyboards? La critique feministe americaine l’a bien compris, qui considere Little Women comme l’un des premiers Female Bildungsromane americains (Langland 1983). Des sa parution en 1868, Little Women, or Meg, Jo, Beth, and – Slide Amy a ete un best-seller. – Works? Ecrit en deux mois, il est d’inspiration nettement autobiographique.

L’entree du journal de Louisa pour mai 1868 nous apprend que le roman est entrepris a la demande de son editeur, qui lui demande une girls’ story . The Job - A Powerpoint Template Ainsi Louisa May Alcott, qui avoue ne pas beaucoup connaitre et aimer les filles, a part ses soeurs, fait-elle partie du club select des ecrivains pour la jeunesse mandates par leurs editeurs [2] ! Little Women , qui assure instantanement la notoriete a la romanciere, n’est pas sa premiere oeuvre publiee. Storyboards – Works? En 1854 etait paru un recueil de contes, Flower Fables , ecrit a l’origine pour la fille d’Emerson. Product Description Ppt Template? Mais il faut surtout mentionner les recits abolitionnistes et feministes qui precedent Little Women de quelques annees, parmi lesquels Moods (1864) et Hospital Sketches (1863) qui transpose son experience d’infirmiere a Washington pendant la Guerre de Secession. Storyboards – Works? Devant le succes de Little Women , l’editeur lui demande une suite : Good Wives parait en 1869. Report Word Word? Ce n’est que dans les annees 1880 que les deux volumes seront reunis. Storyboards – Works? Au fil des annees, Louisa May Alcott poursuit l’histoire de la famille March : Little Men (1871), Jo’s Boys (1886). Application Form? Pour la jeunesse, elle signe aussi Eight cousins (1875), Rose in Storyboards – Works Bloom (1876) [3] et Under the Template Word Templatesfree Word Lilacs (1877), et elle assume, entre ses deux voyages en Europe, la direction du journal Merry’s Museum (1868-1869).

Bien que l’oeuvre de Louisa May Alcott comporte plusieurs tendances : romans gothiques, fictions engagees sur le racisme et le feminisme, c’est comme auteure de Little Women qu’elle s’est acquis une renommee internationale : The Children’s Friend donne lieu de nombreuses conferences et elle n’hesite pas a rencontrer son lectorat [4]. – Works? De son vivant, un million d’exemplaires du roman sont vendus. 5 Stage Circular Catering? Little Women et sa suite Good Wives figurent dans toutes les collections de chefs-d’oeuvre internationaux pour la jeunesse. Storyboards? Les auteurs de la recente Louisa May Alcott Encyclopedia soulignent le caractere resolument novateur du roman, particulierement en ce qui a trait aux representations feminines (Eiselein et Phillips 2001 : 181) et, globalement, sa valeur litteraire [5]. Summary-? En terminant, il peut etre interessant de rappeler que dans l’edition de 1948 des Children’s Illustrated Classics , une note de l’editeur fait pourtant allusion aux resistances que l’engagement nordiste de cette fiction pourrait susciter chez certains lecteurs. – Works? Laissant entendre que le livre n’est plus lu par les jeunes generations, ce paratexte encourage les lecteurs eventuels a aller au-dela de la lecon morale explicite [6]. 10+ White Template Doc | Resumes? A en juger par le nombre d’editions et de traductions recentes des Quatre filles du docteur March , il est clair que ce dernier aspect – le traumatisme de la guerre civile etant peu probable – n’a pas diminue l’interet des lectrices francophones ! Traductions et adaptations francaises. Ce qui frappe des qu’on aborde la reception de Little Women en milieu francophone, c’est le nombre et la constance des reeditions. Storyboards? Une consultation du catalogue de la Bibliotheque nationale de France donne une idee precise des traductions et adaptations « nouvelles », des « adaptations abregees », des « abreges » proposes par les divers editeurs. Application Form & Job? Pour les annees 1990, pas moins de neuf de ces versions plus ou moins nouvelles ont ete deposees [7].

Puisque l’objectif n’est pas ici de faire l’histoire de la traduction francaise de Little Women , un survol des traductions successives suffira a eclairer notre propos. La premiere traduction remonte a 1872, soit quatre ans apres la publication de l’original ; publiee a Lausanne, elle est l’oeuvre de Madame Remy, connue egalement pour un manuel de francais [8]. Storyboards? La traductrice dit avoir « traduit librement de l’anglais avec l’autorisation de l’auteur ». Template - Free Templatesfree? Puis, en 1880, Pierre-Jules Hetzel, celebre editeur francais pour la jeunesse, publie sous le pseudonyme de P.-J. Storyboards? Stahl, Les Quatre filles du docteur Marsch [sic] d’apres L.M. Victoria's Secret & Job Interview? Alcott , pour son « Magasin d’education et de recreation », fonde en 1864. Storyboards? P.-J. 10+ White Great? Stahl a joue un role decisif dans la transmission de Little Women en domaine francophone. – Works? Cette adaptation, plus ou moins retouchee par les editeurs et des adaptateurs anonymes, continue d’avoir cours et nous l’avons incluse dans le choix de traductions. The Job Line Powerpoint Elle a impose au recit des distorsions qui n’ont pas ete rectifiees depuis. Ainsi c’est Stahl qui impose cette fiction du « docteur » March, en faisant jouer au pere dans l’armee nordiste, non pas le role d’un aumonier, mais celui d’un medecin [9]. Storyboards – Works? Version plus acceptable dans une France republicaine ou s’affrontent les tenants du catholicisme ultramontain et de la laicite, peu receptive dans son ensemble au mariage des guides spirituels.

L’editeur estimait en effet que le livre « tel qu’il etait, n’aurait pu […] reussir en France [10] ». Status - Free Word? Si les traductions recentes ont corrige l’erreur dans le texte, le titre demeure inchange, et les lectrices francophones continuent de croire que le pere des soeurs March est docteur en medecine. Storyboards? Son absence dans le premier tome permet d’ailleurs de ne pas se poser trop de questions. The Job Line - A From? La seconde modification substantielle apportee au texte est le gommage systematique de l’intertexte bunyanien. Storyboards – Works? Chez Stahl, la Morale familiere remplace le Pilgrim’s Progress . 10+ White Paper Great? Or, ce texte cle de la spiritualite protestante (1678), evoque des le premier chapitre, imprime son mouvement au texte d’Alcott ; plusieurs titres de chapitres, completement modifies dans la traduction, y renvoient explicitement : « Playing Pilgrims » (ch. Storyboards? 1), « Burdens » (ch. Report Template - Free Word Templatesfree? 4), « Jo meets Apollyon » (ch. Storyboards? 8), etc. Template Resumes? Enfin l’adaptateur, qui de son propre aveu ne connaissait pas le second tome, a imagine un denouement, dont s’inspirent quelques adaptations actuelles.

La maison Hachette, qui racheta le fonds Hetzel, a publie l’adaptation de Stahl, sensiblement remaniee, dans les collections « Ideal-Bibliotheque » et « Bibliotheque Verte » [11]. Storyboards? L’editeur belge Casterman propose une reecriture anonyme basee sur cette adaptation, qui est dans l’ensemble plus fidele au texte de 1880 que ladite traduction de Stahl publiee par Hachette, comme nous le verrons plus loin. Product Description Ppt Template – Slide? On voit donc que les textes issus de l’adaptation de la fin du xix e siecle connaissent encore une importante diffusion. Dans les annees 1930 et 1940, Little Women a ete traduit et edite pour un public adulte [12]. – Works? Au cours des annees 1980, apparaissent, dans des collections destinees a la jeunesse, des textes plus conformes a l’ethique moderne de la traduction, qui ne se permettent pas de coupures ou d’ajouts. Template Doc | Resumes Great? Nous en incluons deux dans le corpus, celle de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard (Folio-Junior et Gallimard Jeunesse) et celle de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche/Flammarion. Quelques mots suffiront a presenter les six adaptations et traductions selectionnees pour l’analyse comparative, que nous classons par ordre chronologique : l’adaptation de P.-J. Storyboards? Stahl reeditee, avec diverses modifications, par Hachette dans « Ideal-Bibliotheque » ; la traduction anonyme [13] des editions G.P., collection « Rouge et Or » – ces deux ouvrages sont epuises mais connaissent encore une grande diffusion dans les bibliotheques scolaires et municipales qui n’ont pas toujours fait l’acquisition de nouvelles editions – ; l’adaptation anonyme de Casterman, basee sur celle de P.-J.

Stahl ; la traduction de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard ; la traduction de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche ; enfin il nous a paru interessant d’inclure une adaptation recente, celle de Remi Simon pour Nathan. Strategic Summary- Excellent? Nous avons egalement examine celle de Chantal Baligand pour les editions Hemma, mais nous n’avons pu l’utiliser dans une comparaison systematique, etant donne l’importance des coupures apportees au texte (14 chapitres sur 23). – Works? Dans les passages traduits, on 10+ White Template peut observer une dependance a l’egard du texte de P.-J. – Works? Stahl. 5 Stage Diagram Catering Business Plan? Nous nous y referons ponctuellement. Avant d’examiner les traductions sous l’angle particulier que nous avons choisi, quelques commentaires plus generaux s’imposent. – Works? La traduction parue chez G.P. 5 Stage Budget Diagram Business? s’avere dans l’ensemble la plus litterale ; elle n’a pas craint de restituer les references a Bunyan en les explicitant [14]. Storyboards – Works? Le texte de Casterman, base sur P.-J. The Job Template Stahl, comme le prouvent de nombreuses formulations identiques, notamment dans les titres de chapitres, comporte des omissions, mais conserve aussi de son modele certains ajouts de l’adaptateur qui ont ete supprimes chez Hachette.

Ainsi, au chapitre 3, quand Meg et Jo se rendent au bal, il precise que Madame March n’a pu les accompagner, car elle etait souffrante et qu’elle a demande a une amie de veiller sur ses filles [15]. – Works? Quand Jo rend visite a Laurie dans sa chambre, elle glose que le jeune voisin a ete malade et qu’il n’est qu’un « petit garcon » [16]. Paper Resumes? A la fin du chapitre 12, se trouve une longue addition sur les vertus de l’Amerique et l’independance des jeunes filles americaines [17]. Storyboards – Works? Par ailleurs, cette traduction a une nette tendance a la miniaturisation, designant regulierement les protagonistes comme des « petites » filles et des « petits » garcons [18]. Victoria's Application | Online Form? Dans l’ensemble, elle ennoblit le caractere de Jo, comme nous le verrons plus loin. Storyboards – Works? L’adaptation de Remy Simon pour Nathan se permet des ajouts sur le ton et les gestes dans les phrases introductives du discours rapporte, modifiant imperceptiblement le caractere des personnages. Circular Management Diagram Catering Business? Ainsi, dans le chapitre 1, Meg regarde « d’un oeil critique » sa vieille robe « encore tres mettable », Jo siffle « d’un air meprisant ». Storyboards – Works? Amy est qualifiee d’« insupportable ». Strategic Summary- Example!? Quant a la servante, elle est regulierement appelee la « vieille » Hannah. – Works? Enfin les traductions de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard et de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche se sont attachees a rendre integralement et fidelement l’oeuvre d’Alcott. Secret Application Form Tips? Nous examinerons leurs choix de traduction sur la question de la feminite. Une jeune feministe americaine en francais.

Comme il a ete dit plus haut, la « poetique du normatif » proposee par Philippe Hamon a servi de cadre theorique a notre analyse des textes source et cible. Storyboards? Nous avons concentre l’analyse des traductions sur les passages ou le personnage de Jo se definissait ou etait vue par les autres, sur ceux ou elle se distinguait par les actions ou l’expression des gouts et de la volonte : les « nexus normatifs » (Hamon 1984 : 220). 10+ White Resumes? Les travaux en linguistique de l’enonciation sur les marques de subjectivite nous ont aussi guides. Storyboards – Works? Nous avons particulierement examine la traduction – et souvent la non-traduction – des phrases introductives du discours rapporte, porteuses d’indication sur les sentiments, la gestuelle, la voix des personnages. Report - Free Word Templatesfree Word? Dans les portraits et les descriptions, une attention particuliere a ete accordee aux termes evaluatifs, particulierement les adjectifs (Kerbrat-Orecchioni 1980 : 83-100), dont la traduction donne lieu a des choix tres revelateurs. – Works? Pour la brievete, nous refererons desormais aux traductions et traductions par les abreviations : H (Hachette), GP (G.P.), C (Casterman), N (Nathan), FJ (Folio Junior) et CP (Castor Poche), initiales de leurs editeurs respectifs, et a l’original par l’abreviation LW, toutes suivies du numero de page.

L’abreviation S est occasionnellement utilisee pour envoyer a l’adaptation de Stahl de 1880. – Slide Ocean? Des tableaux presentes en annexe permettent de rendre l’analyse contrastive plus concise. a) Portrait physique et psychologique. Le premier chapitre comporte un portrait des quatre soeurs ; il est frappant de constater que c’est le portrait de Jo qui a ete le plus diversement traduit. Storyboards? Les divergences apparaissent notamment dans la traduction des nombreux adjectifs qui permettent aux lectrices de se representer l’heroine (tableau 1). Doc | Resumes Great? Les traducteurs francais tentent souvent d’attenuer ce qui dans l’apparence physique de l’heroine peut leur sembler outre ou disgracieux, en se conformant a leurs propres canons de la beaute feminine. Storyboards? Ainsi le comical nose devient « retrousse » ou « petit », la bouche ( decided ) est « bien dessinee ». Strategic Plan Summary- Excellent? Ces retouches, particulierement evidentes dans les versions derivees de l’adaptation de 1880, se retrouvent encore dans les plus recentes. Storyboards? Ainsi, dans CP (1995), Jo est « tres elancee ». Victoria's Application Form & Job? L’hesitation entre « mince » et « maigre » est egalement revelatrice.

Les ajouts de l’adaptation de N (1988) soulignent la difference de Jo en la comparant a son ainee Meg, explicitant ainsi ce qui n’est qu’esquisse dans le texte source [19] : la seconde est « nerveuse » et ses mains sont « quelque peu masculines ». Storyboards – Works? Il est a noter que les portraits sont omis dans l’adaptation de C. A propos de l’adjectif tall , le premier evaluatif applique a Jo, il convient de remarquer que le meme adjectif est utilise par Alcott pour decrire Madame March lors de sa premiere apparition ( a tall, motherly lady , LW : 9). Application Form & Job Interview Tips? Dans la suite du texte (chapitre 8), on – Works apprendra que cette ressemblance physique se double d’une ressemblance morale, car Jo a herite du temperament impetueux de sa mere. Status Template - Free Word? Or, cet indice important a ete gomme dans quatre des six traductions analysees. Generalement decrits dans les phrases introductives du discours rapporte, le ton de voix, les expressions et la gestuelle de Jo ont ete dans une proportion importante effaces des traductions. Storyboards – Works? Alcott fait un grand usage de ces segments textuels, que Gerald Prince appelle de facon eclairante le « discours attributif » (Prince 1978), caracterisant la voix, l’etat d’esprit du personnage, sa relation aux autres. Template - Free Word Word? La repetition de certains adverbes ou syntagmes prepositionnels en association avec la prise de parole de tel ou tel personnage a pour effet de fixer ses traits de caractere.

Ainsi, dans le cas de Meg : kindly, soothingly, graciously, with her sweet voice, mais aussi : with a complaining tone , petulantly , bitterly . Storyboards – Works? Les traductions effacent souvent ces termes au profit d’incises neutres, ou les modifient. The Job Line - A Powerpoint From? Ces amputations et distorsions s’appliquent a l’ensemble des protagonistes, et on Storyboards – Works ne peut dire que le personnage de Jo ait subi un traitement particulier a cet egard. Strategic Plan Example!? Il n’en demeure pas moins que les modalisateurs de la parole de Jo – briskly , impetuously, sharply, impatiently, fiercely – n’apparaissent que sporadiquement dans les textes francais. Au chapitre 2, dans la scene du matin de Noel ou les quatre soeurs decouvrent un exemplaire du Pilgrim’s Progress , l’instance narratoriale decrit Jo lisant, with the Storyboards quiet expression so seldom seen on Template Great her restless face (LW : 16). Storyboards? Seule la traduction de FJ (27) a traduit restless (visage mobile). Status Template Templatesfree Word? La gestuelle du « garcon de la famille » ou du « fils Jo » est egalement l’un des points nevralgiques de la traduction francaise. Storyboards – Works? Exemple caracteristique, dans le chapitre premier ou Amy reproche a sa soeur d’utiliser des termes argotiques, la phrase introductive du discours rapporte se lit : observed Amy, with a reproving look at Line - A Powerpoint Template, the long figure stretched on Storyboards the rug (LW : 3).

Dans les quatre traductions qui ont conserve le dernier segment, on 5 Stage Circular Budget Management Diagram Catering Business hesite entre l’elegant : une « longue silhouette etendue sur le tapis » (C : 9), la pointe de reproche : « longue silhouette etendue de tout son long… » (CP : 7), « grand corps etendu… » (GP : 11) et la nette reprobation, endossant ainsi le point de vue d’Amy : « a son ainee, toujours vautree sur le tapis » (FJ : 12) Un peu plus haut, l’une des paroles de Jo est suivie de l’indication : cried Jo, examining the Storyboards – Works heels of Template Word Word, her shoes in – Works a gentlemanly manner (LW : 2). 10+ White Template Doc |? Seules les deux traductions recentes l’ont prise en compte et rendue par « male assurance » (FJ :10) et « aplomb tout masculin » (CP : 6). – Works? Les exemples pourraient etre multiplies. Plan Summary- Excellent? En voici un dernier des plus probants : au chapitre 3, l’heroine rajuste sa toilette avant de faire son entree a son premier bal. – Works? La phrase introductive d’Alcott se lit : returned Jo, giving her collar a twitch, and Application Tips her head a hasty brush (LW : 34). – Works? Les traductions attenuent generalement la brusquerie des gestes de Jo, que l’on doit imaginer, « mettant sa collerette droite et donnant un dernier regard a sa coiffure » (H : 23-24 et C : 26), « donnant un coup de pouce a son col et un coup de brosse a ses cheveux » (GP : 36).

Seules les deux traductions recentes restituent cet aspect de la presence physique de l’heroine : « tirant sur son col d’un coup sec et rectifiant sa coiffure a la va-vite » (CP : 39), « qui passa vaguement la main sur son chignon et rajusta son col d’une pichenette » (FJ : 48). Le chapitre 20 comporte des notations decrivant precisement la gestuelle de Jo, qui ont ete soit gommees soit attenuees dans la traduction, comme le montrent les deux exemples qui suivent. Budget Diagram Catering? L’adolescente a une conversation orageuse avec sa mere a propos des amours naissantes de son ainee. Storyboards – Works? Dans le feu de la conversation, elle joue avec ses cheveux, objet semiotique particulierement important dans le texte ; en effet, le chapitre 1 les decrit comme sa seule beaute ( her one beauty , LW : 5) et elle vient de les sacrifier pour apporter une aide financiere a son pere malade (chapitre 15). 10+ White Paper? L’indignation de Jo s’exprime dans la facon dont elle tire sur ses cheveux : And Jo pulled her hair again with a wrathful tweak (LW : 261).

La colere, trait constitutif du caractere de Jo, comme nous le verrons plus loin, a ete attenuee dans certaines traductions (tableau 2). – Works? Une seulement (GP) traduit : « avec fureur », deux preferent le desespoir (H et C), deux l’adverbe « rageusement », dont le contenu semantique est nettement affaibli dans les emplois modernes et souvent associe aux manifestations enfantines. Budget Management Diagram? Le geste meme de tirer est corrige dans certaines traductions : « se passer la main dans les cheveux » (H et C), « fourrager » (GP) et le diminutif « tortiller » (CP). Storyboards? Chez H et C, la gestuelle est transposee a l’expression du visage. Product Ocean? Plus loin, le mouvement de Jo se levant est compare a celui d’un pantin ( said Jo, unfolding herself, like an Storyboards – Works animated puzzle , LW : 264) ; l’image percue comme peu feminine est gommee dans les versions francaises a l’exception des deux traductions recentes. Le registre linguistique de Jo est stigmatise des le premier chapitre.

Au fil du texte, sa mere et ses soeurs citent ses ecarts de langage, entre guillemets. Status - Free Templatesfree Word? Bien que la liberte verbale soit, avec le temperament impetueux, l’un des traits constitutifs de l’etiquette du personnage [20], les traductions ont souvent renonce a traduire son juron prefere, Christopher Colombus [21] ! (chapitres 12 et 17). Storyboards – Works? C le tempere d’un « Priez pour nous ! » (75). 10+ White Paper Doc | Great? Curieusement, les traductions recentes proposent des equivalents : « Nom d’un petit bonhomme » (FJ : 203), « Sacre nom d’un pipe » (CP : 172), « Bon sang de bonsoir » (N : 94), traductions d’un ciblisme tres hexagonal sur la justesse desquelles on Storyboards – Works pourrait s’interroger. Pour le portrait psychologique de Jo, nous nous attarderons sur les traductions du chapitre 8 : Jo meets Apollyon, ou l’adolescente fait l’experience des consequences desastreuses de sa colere. Plan Summary-? Il faut rappeler que Little Women consacre un chapitre particulier a chacune des soeurs March et que celui qui est consacre a Jo est particulierement dramatique. Storyboards? Or, ce chapitre donne lieu a des ecarts notables dans les traductions.

Rappelons brievement les evenements. Report Template - Free Word Templatesfree Word? Amy, furieuse que ses ainees ne l’aient pas emmenee au theatre et particulierement ulceree par les rebuffades de Jo, brule le cahier ou celle-ci avait soigneusement recopie des contes de fee qu’elle esperait voir publies un jour. Storyboards – Works? Le lendemain, Jo, toujours en colere, omet de mettre Amy en garde contre les dangers de la glace trop mince et sa jeune soeur manque de se noyer. 10+ White Template Resumes? Le chapitre est d’autant plus central que la perte du cahier touche aux ambitions les plus profondes de l’heroine. – Works? Il peut se diviser en trois sequences : la colere de Jo en decouvrant la calamite ; l’accident d’Amy ; la conversation au cours de laquelle Madame March avoue a sa seconde fille ses propres faiblesses.

Le titre du chapitre, reference au Pilgrim’s Progress , a ete sensiblement modifie dans trois des traductions : « Double choc » (H et C), « Ou Jo se met en colere » (N) ou explicite « Jo rencontre le demon Apollyon » (GP et FJ). | Online Form Interview Tips? Le traducteur de G.P. – Works? fait oeuvre didactique en glosant her bosom enemy (LW : 96) : « son ennemi interieur, son Apollyon, comme le vieux Bunyan l’appelle dans le voyage du Pelerin » (GP : 75). Le caractere, les reactions, les motivations de Jo apparaissent sensiblement differentes selon les traductions. 10+ White Paper Doc | Resumes? La troisieme partie varie beaucoup en importance. – Works? Completement effacee chez C et N, elle est condensee tres allusivement dans la formule : « tout le monde a ses faiblesses » chez GP. 5 Stage Budget Diagram? H resume, mais conserve l’essentiel des confidences de la mere en deux paragraphes. Storyboards – Works? Seuls F et C donnent le texte au complet, y compris l’aveu de madame March au sujet des sacrifices qu’elle a du consentir pour sa patrie.

L’existence d’un modele maternel fort, voire heroique – personnage dont la charge positive se communique a l’heroine qui lui ressemble – est donc gommee dans la plupart des textes francais actuellement offerts aux jeunes lectrices. Dans la premiere partie, la violente reaction de Jo a l’egard d’Amy est diversement traduite, et souvent temperee, comme le montrent les extraits compares (tableau 3). Description – Slide Ocean? Il faut cependant noter qu’il y a moins de suppressions, dans ce chapitre dont les traducteurs ont reconnu l’importance, que dans le reste du roman. Storyboards – Works? Le tableau permet par ailleurs d’observer la parente de H et de C derives de Stahl. Strategic Summary- Example!? La traduction de H est la plus edulcoree : Amy, secouee, perd la respiration et Jo s’en va « cacher » son chagrin. – Works? Le geste final, le parting box , semble poser probleme a certains traducteurs. Victoria's Application Form? Supprime chez Hachette, il reapparait sous forme de « tape » dans le texte de Casterman. Storyboards – Works? Remi Simon (N) a arrete le bras de Jo. Summary-? Ailleurs, on Storyboards – Works parle de gifle, maitresse meme (GP) ou de taloche. Description – Slide? Curieusement, aucun des traducteurs et traductrices n’a juge utile de faire mention de l’oreille d’Amy.

On notera aussi qu’une seule traduction (FJ) mentionne la nature violente ( hot temper ) de l’heroine. Des traductions minimisent egalement la profondeur du desespoir de Jo, quand elle voit son oeuvre litteraire detruite. Storyboards – Works? Les ambitions personnelles du personnage sont nettement restreintes chez Hachette ou il s’agit de venir en aide a sa mere : « reve innocent ». Strategic Excellent Example!? Casterman rencherit avec la mention d’un journal pour bebes ! Plus loin dans le chapitre, quelques ajouts des traductions tendent a ennoblir le personnage de Jo. Storyboards – Works? Dans l’adaptation de Stahl, Meg dit a Amy que Jo « est peut-etre la meilleure de nous toutes » (H : 62 ; C : 57). Product Ppt Template? Remi Simon ajoute qu’elle n’est pas rancuniere (N : 79).

La scene centrale de l’accident sur la riviere gelee et le role de Jo donnent egalement lieu a des distorsions (tableau 4). Storyboards? Seules les deux traductions recentes osent plonger dans les mauvais sentiments de l’heroine. Paper Doc | Great? Les paroles du petit demon sont diversement interpretees. Storyboards – Works? La traduction de Casterman deculpabilise l’heroine. Doc | Great? Remi Simon (N) evacue l’idee du demon, et traduit dans un registre familier sa voix qu’il prete a l’heroine. Storyboards? Dans l’ensemble, les traductions en disent plus sur les bons sentiments de Jo que l’original. Template - Free Word Word? Strange feeling est traduit par « inquietude » par G.P. – Works? et Nathan. Report Template - Free Templatesfree? Casterman precise : « inquiete sans vouloir le paraitre » et ajoute « son bon coeur l’emportant », « se retourna vivement pour avertir Amy ». Storyboards? Ces extraits suffiront a montrer que la traduction resiste dans l’ensemble a exprimer la violence des sentiments de Jo.

Viennent completer le portrait de l’adolescente anti-conformiste les appreciations de son entourage : ses parents, ses soeurs, l’acariatre tante March, les voisins amis – M. Example!? Laurence et son petit-fils Laurie ; ces jugements sont vehicules par la voix narratoriale ou par les personnages eux-memes. Storyboards? Au chapitre 2, les soeurs qui vont porter leur dejeuner de Noel a une famille dans la misere sont comparees a des anges par l’heureuse beneficiaire. Report Template Word? La voix narratoriale commente que le compliment fait particulierement plaisir a Jo qui s’est fait traiter de diable depuis sa naissance. – Works? Voila un point ou les traductions different. Budget Management Diagram Business? Deux des traductions (GP, N) ont supprime cette remarque, deux autres (H : 18, C : 19) l’adoucissent : « mais surtout Jo qui avait merite maintes fois (souvent recu C) dans son enfance le sobriquet de “petit diable” ». Storyboards? Jo a su s’attirer l’affection de tante March qui l’a engagee comme dame de compagnie : Something in Line - A Powerpoint Template her comical face and Storyboards – Works blunt manners struck the The Job - A old lady’s fancy (LW : 47). – Works? L’adjectif se revele encore une fois l’un des points nevralgiques de la traduction du personnage de Jo : le syntagme comical face derange autant que le comical nose du chapitre 1. Doc | Great? Meme dans les traductions recentes, il est adouci par les hypocoristiques « frimousse » (FJ) ou « minois » (CP). – Works? P.-J. Report - Free? Stahl (H) avait resume les deux caracteristiques par « originalite ». Storyboards – Works? Remi Simon (N) a rendu comical face par « visage franc ». Product Description Ppt Template Ocean? Le chapitre est supprime chez Casterman. Storyboards – Works? La traduction de G.P. Product – Slide Ocean? est comme dans bien des cas la plus litterale (tableau 5).

Les manieres originales de Jo plaisent aussi a leur voisin Laurie des la premiere rencontre, manieres que les traductions ont hesite a qualifier : Jo’s gentlemanly demeanour (LW : 37) est omis par H et N, C (29) traduit « son air gentleman », les autres optent pour les manieres garconnieres (GP : 38, FJ : 53) ou l’attitude garconne (CP : 43). Storyboards – Works? Enfin l’un des jugements les plus significatifs portes sur Jo est celui d’une jeune Anglaise visitant l’Amerique (chapitre 12). Description Ppt Template? Le passage vaut d’etre examine en detail (tableau 6). Storyboards – Works? Il est curieux qu’aucune des traductions n’hesite a qualifier Jo de bizarre ou d’etrange par le truchement de la Britannique Miss Kate, mais que certaines hesitent a lui accorder de l’intelligence, la preferant « sympathique » (G.P.) ou instruite (C). – Slide Ocean? Les exemples pourraient etre multiplies, mais nous esperons avoir montre que la caractere audacieux et extreme du personnage a ete estompe, et que l’energie extraordinaire de la queer girl ne passe pas toujours en traduction. L’expression de la volonte de Jo est un aspect que les traductions se revelent recalcitrantes a transmettre. Storyboards – Works? Jo entend dire ce qu’elle pense ( good, strong words, LW : 45), deteste attendre, veut agir sur les choses et se soucie peu du qu’en-dira-t-on. Paper Great? Elle exprime son desir de liberte en toute occasion.

Bien que cela ait ete respecte, globalement, dans les traductions francaises, certains reves de Jo ont semble choquer. Storyboards? Au chapitre 14, apres une bonne course avec son ami Laurie, qui lui vaut la reprobation de Meg, l’adolescente s’exclame : « I wish I was a horse ; then I could run for Ppt Template Ocean, miles in Storyboards – Works this splendid air, and Status Template - Free Word Templatesfree not lose my breath. – Works? It was capital, but see what a guy it’s made me… » (LW :198). Excellent? La tenue vestimentaire de Jo a en effet souffert de l’exercice, et elle a perdu toutes ses epingles a cheveux. Storyboards? L’allusion au cheval a ete gommee par GP et N. 5 Stage Circular Budget Business? Chez H (105) et C (88), a la suite de Stahl, on – Works choisit un animal plus associe a la feminite : « Je voudrais etre une gazelle, ou un cheval… », « Ou meme un cheval », concede C, plus fidele au modele (S : XXXII, 61). Les ambitions litteraires de Jo, composante essentielle du systeme de valeurs mis en place par le roman, sont souvent minimisees dans les traductions.

Cette censure, dont nous avons deja touche un mot au sujet du chapitre 8, s’observe encore au chapitre 14. Circular Management Diagram? Quand Jo avoue a Laurie qu’elle a soumis deux textes a un journal, le texte de H (102) et de C (85) suivant Stahl, se lit : « j’ai donne deux histoires de ma facon au directeur du Journal des Enfants ». – Works? La fin du chapitre a subi d’importantes distorsions. Line Template From Quatre des traductions resument considerablement la fin de l’episode. Storyboards? La reaction de fierte de Madame March devant le succes de sa fille est escamotee chez H et N qui arretent le chapitre aux exclamations de joie des soeurs. The Job Powerpoint? Le passage est supprime chez GP egalement. Storyboards? Chez C (91), Madame March « ne se montra pas mecontente », car « l’histoire etait gentille et convenable ; elle faisait honneur aux sentiments moraux de l’auteur » (S : XXXII, 61). 5 Stage Circular Budget Management Diagram Catering Plan? Les dernieres lignes du chapitre : « For to – Works be independent, and Summary- earn the – Works praise of 5 Stage Business Plan, those she loved, were the Storyboards dearest wishes of Circular Management Plan, her heart […] » (LW : 203), si importantes pour la comprehension globale du texte, n’apparaissent pas chez H, N, C. Storyboards – Works? Chez GP, la fierte devient de l’approbation.

Encore une fois, seules les deux traductions recentes traduisent « faire honneur » (FJ : 254) et « faire la fierte » (CP : 215). 5 Stage Circular Budget Management Plan? Il est curieux aussi que la fin de la phrase precedente ou Jo explique qu’elle aimerait aider ses soeurs ( support myself and Storyboards help the Template Resumes girls , LW : 203) est traduite par une generalisation – « aider les autres » (GP :131), « aider les miens » (CP : 215) – dans deux des traductions qui l’ont conservee. – Works? On peut faire un rapprochement avec les propos d’Amy au chapitre 15 : la plus jeune soeur, qui reve d’une carriere artistique, assure que dans dix ans Jo et elle auront fait la fortune de la famille. Strategic Summary- Example!? Cette phrase a ete supprimee dans quatre des traductions (H, GP, C, N). – Works? Il semble que, tout autant que la personnalite affirmee de Jo, ses ambitions professionnelles heurtent en traduction ! Le reve de liberte et d’independance s’exprime aussi quand Laurie, fache contre son grand-pere, propose a Jo de partir avec lui pour Washington (chapitre 21).

Dans le texte d’Alcott, l’heroine est fortement tentee par l’aventure et se bouche meme les oreilles pour ne pas entendre la suite des projets seduisants. Summary- Excellent? GP occulte completement ce moment de reverie de Jo, qui propose tout de suite a Laurie de l’aider a se reconcilier avec son grand-pere. – Works? H (162) donne l’essentiel du passage et explicite meme she was tired of Plan Excellent Example!, care and Storyboards confinement (LW : 273) par « elle etait fatiguee de sa reclusion aupres de Beth ». Victoria's Application | Online & Job Tips? Reprenant exactement son modele (S : XXXII, 283), C (163) rend compte de la tentation de Jo, mais moralise par des ajouts : « l’etourdie », « ses yeux tomberent heureusement [sur sa maison] », « ce fou de Laurie », etc. Storyboards – Works? N (167) resume en quatre lignes, concluant avec autorite : « son bon sens naturel reprit le dessus ». Form Interview? Encore une fois, les deux traductions recentes sont plus fideles. Les lamentations de Jo sur les restrictions imposees a la condition feminine (chapitres 1, 3, 5, 10, 16, 20, 21) ont ete traduites dans l’ensemble du texte sans trop d’amplification ni d’attenuation. Storyboards? Toutefois, dans cette scene du chapitre 21, les differences dans les traductions francaises signalent un point nevralgique. Strategic Excellent Example!? L’emphase de H et surtout de C contraste avec le detachement de N, alors que GP, comme on – Works l’a vu, n’a pas juge bon de s’appesantir sur la tentation de Jo (tableau 7). Que devient l’heroine contestataire a la fin du roman ? Plusieurs reponses sont donnees selon les points de vue narratifs. 10+ White Template Doc | Resumes? Jo elle-meme s’avoue tres mecontente et ne fait que se resigner aux fiancailles de Meg qui rejouissent toute la famille. Storyboards? Elle sent qu’elle n’a aucune prise sur les cadres sociaux. 10+ White Paper Great? Le parcours de l’adolescente au cours de l’annee delimitee par les deux fetes de Noel est decrit par monsieur March a son retour.

Il dit ne plus reconnaitre le « fils Jo » qu’il a laisse l’annee precedente. Storyboards – Works? Les transformations qu’il note concernent la tenue vestimentaire, le langage, les gestes, la voix, le developpement du sentiment maternel. The Job - A Powerpoint? La traduction de la fin de son discours presente quelques ecarts (tableau 8). Our black sheep , la metaphore paternelle est on Storyboards – Works ne peut plus claire. Application Tips? L’image a ete supprimee dans trois traductions (H, C, N). Storyboards – Works? « Tete ronde » de H et C renvoie allusivement au sacrifice des cheveux au chapitre 15.

S’il enonce quelque regret, Monsieur March se felicite de voir sa fille entrer dans le rang. Paper Doc |? Les traductions francaises n’ont ni force la note, ni attenue la portee du discours. – Works? L’adaptation de Remi Simon (N : 177) ajoute cependant, au nombre des progres de Jo : « et dont les recits sont publies dans les journaux ! ». Powerpoint Template From Observons aussi la facon dont les traductions ont rendu les trois adjectifs strong, helpful, tender-hearted ( woman ) qu’il oppose a wild (girl) . Storyboards – Works? Stahl (repris par C) avait opte pour quatre adjectifs « tendre, devouee, forte encore, mais civilisee ». 5 Stage Circular Management Catering? H omet l’idee de force, tandis que l’adaptation de Simon la conserve. Storyboards – Works? Dans les deux traductions recentes, proches l’une de l’autre, on Secret Interview a prefere le courage. – Works? Il faut noter par ailleurs que la traduction « brebis galeuse » de FJ et CP est nettement plus pejorative que « mouton noir ». L’adaptation de P.-J.

Stahl, encore tres diffusee par l’intermediaire d’Hachette (Ideal-Bibliotheque et Bibliotheque verte) et de Casterman, prend beaucoup de libertes avec la fin de l’histoire [22]. Catering? H ajoute un chapitre « Perspectives d’avenir » qui a fonction d’epilogue. – Works? La lectrice y apprend que Jo « renoncant a ecrire toutes les histoires qui lui passaient par la tete, s’adonna avec ardeur a la confection du trousseau de sa soeur » (H : 184) ! C (185-187) ajoute au dernier chapitre des details touchants, comme ce geste de Beth montant sur les genoux du fiance de Meg, Monsieur Brooke, pour lui demander a l’oreille s’il rendra sa soeur heureuse. Plan? Monsieur March annonce que Meg se mariera dans deux ans, ce qui lui permettra de perfectionner son education : « Cela vous donnera aussi, Jo, l’occasion de completer la votre ». Storyboards – Works? En quel sens ? peut-on se demander. Resumes Great? Et l’adaptateur conclut : « Monsieur March avait appris a Jo tout ce qu’il y avait a apprendre ». Storyboards? Enfin, la resistance de Jo au mariage de sa soeur a completement disparu grace a ses « sages reflexions », comme elle l’explique a Laurie. Application? Mais P.-J. Storyboards – Works? Stahl allait plus loin encore en mariant Jo a Laurie. 10+ White Template Resumes Great? Fort curieusement, l’adaptation toute recente de Chantal Baligand reintroduit cette fin improbable et en totale contradiction avec le second tome. Storyboards – Works? Elle reprend en effet, en l’abregeant, l’epilogue « Quatre ans apres » de 1880, ou le jeune dandy Laurie devenait fermier pour l’amour de Jo, avec la benediction de son grand-pere (Baligand 2002 : 153-156).

Ainsi, le denouement matrimonial – par une union que Louisa May Alcott s’etait toujours refuse a faire, en depit des prieres de ses lectrices [23] – est-il reactive a l’aube du xxi e siecle ! La seconde fille du « docteur » March, pale reflet de l’heroine d’Alcott ? Il serait a peine exagere de dire que des textes bien differents circulent actuellement sous le titre des Quatre filles du docteur March . Template Great? Sur les six adaptations et traductions que nous avons analysees en detail, quatre presentent des distorsions marquees par rapport a l’original. Storyboards – Works? L’amputation de chapitres (de trois a cinq), la suppression de passages complets ou d’elements significatifs des phrases y a pour pendant des gloses interpretatives, particulierement dans l’adaptation anonyme de Casterman, la plus fidele a Stahl. Strategic Summary- Excellent? Nous avons observe en particulier de quelle facon le « discours attributif » des paroles des personnages etait souvent prive des notations sur le ton, l’expression ou le geste. Storyboards – Works? En outre, nous avons eu la surprise de decouvrir que, parmi les versions les plus recemment editees, se trouvaient aussi bien des traductions soucieuses de transmettre le sens global de l’oeuvre que des adaptations qui la denaturaient. Cette etude des representations de la feminite en traduction francaise, que nous avons centree sur le personnage de Jo, l’adolescente eprise d’action et d’independance, fait apparaitre – meme dans les traductions recentes, sous certains aspects – une edulcoration de l’heroine. Excellent Example!? Les traits physiques, la parole, les actions et les ambitions ont subi d’importantes retouches dans les versions francaises, qu’il s’agisse des adaptations, mais aussi des traductions. Storyboards? Les soeurs March continuent de fasciner les lectrices francophones, car il reste toujours quelque chose des grandes oeuvres, meme dans les adaptations les plus desinvoltes ! Mais on Victoria's Secret Form & Job Tips peut deplorer que le premier contact avec ces heroines americaines du xix e siecle soit bien souvent fausse et appauvri, selon l’edition qui leur sera accessible en bibliotheque ou en librairie.

[1] L’enquete, effectuee a partir des ressources disponibles a Montreal, nous parait toutefois representative de la diffusion actuelle des traductions francaises de Little Women . Storyboards? Il est a noter qu’aucune traduction n’a ete publiee a ce jour en Amerique francophone ; une telle entreprise presenterait de l’interet en raison des liens etroits entre la culture source et la culture cible. Doc |? [2] « Mr. – Works? N. Secret & Job Interview? [Niles] wants a girls’story , and – Works I begin “Little Women”. Victoria's | Online Tips? Marmee, Anna, and Storyboards – Works May all approve my plan. Victoria's Secret Application | Online & Job Tips? So I plod away, though I don’t enjoy this sort of – Works, thing. The Job - A Powerpoint From Never liked girls or knew many, except my sisters, but our queer plays and – Works experiences may prove interesting, though I doubt it. Victoria's Secret Form? » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 165-166) Sur les « vocations » d’ecrivains pour la jeunesse suscitees par les editeurs, voir par exemple Shavit 1986 : 33-57 ; Grenier 1993. Storyboards – Works? [3] Pour juillet-aout 1876, elle note dans son journal : « Get an Description idea and – Works start “Rose in Product Ppt Template Bloom”, though I hate sequels. – Works? » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 201) [4] L’entree de son journal pour les mois de juin a aout 1875 fait etat de 92 visiteurs : « Fame is an Secret | Online Form & Job expensive luxury. Storyboards? » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 196) [5] « Particularly when studied within its critical and The Job Template cultural contexts, Little Women emerges as a substantial, multidimensional literary text. – Works? » (Eiselein et Phillips 2001 : 182) [6] « Indeed, one can guess that with the Report Template - Free Templatesfree Word passage of Storyboards – Works, time, when a new domestic culture is Description Ocean, sufficiently established not to Storyboards – Works be embarrassed by Status Template Word Word, reminders of the Storyboards – Works past, youngsters no less than adults will return to Line - A Powerpoint From it with fresh enthusiasm as a charming and Storyboards – Works authentic record of 10+ White Template Doc | Resumes Great, New England life in Storyboards the Civil War period.. Template Doc |? […] For the Storyboards contemporay reader, what is Line Powerpoint Template, perhaps most striking about Storyboards Little Women , even more archaic that its social scene, is Doc | Great, its overt moral emphasis. Storyboards? » (Alcott 1948 : couverture arriere) [7] Pour la derniere decennie, outre les traductions selectionnees pour cette etude, il faut mentionner : une « traduction nouvelle » d’Anne Joba avec dossier de Nicole Bon aux editions France loisirs, Paris, 1992 ; une « adaptation abregee » anonyme aux Editions du Tournesol, Limay, 1994 ; une traduction anonyme avec dossier de Francoise Gomez chez Pocket Junior, Paris, 1995 ; un abrege de Marie Page aux editions Lito, Champigny-sur-Marne, 1995 ; une traduction d’Anne Joba et France-Marie Watkins aux editions Hachette, 1995 ; une traduction anonyme aux Editions de la Fontaine au roy, « Arpege Junior », 1996 ; une adaptation d’Evelyne Hiest-Lallemand aux editions Lito, Champigny-sur-Marne, 1997 ; une adaptation de Chantal Baligand pour les editions Hemma, Chevron, 2002. Plan Summary-? [8] Madame Remy (1872) : Petites femmes , Lausanne, H. Storyboards – Works? Mignot, « traduit librement de l’anglais avec l’autorisation de l’auteur » ; Madame Remy (1878) : Dictees sur l’orthographe usuelle, les participes et les principales difficultes de la grammaire , Paris, A. Product Description Ppt Template Ocean? Pigoreau (3 e edition). Storyboards? [9] « I think it was so splendid in 10+ White Paper Template Resumes father to Storyboards go as a chaplain when he was too old to Product Ocean be drafted, and – Works not strong enough to | Online Tips be a soldier, said Meg warmly. – Works? » (Alcott 1948 : 10) Traduction de P.-J. Status Report Template - Free Templatesfree Word? Stahl : « Comme c’est beau a papa d’etre parti a l’armee comme medecin, puisqu’il a passe l’age et qu’il n’aurait plus la force d’etre soldat ! dit Meg avec enthousiasme. Storyboards – Works? » (Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 30) [10] P.-J. Paper? Stahl ajoute au titre une note ou il s’explique sur son travail d’adaptation : « Cet ouvrage se compose de deux gros volumes dans le texte americain. Storyboards – Works? Je n’ai connu que le premier, par une traduction litterale de M. Secret? Lermont.

Le second, me dit-on, n’eut pas ete possible pour nous. – Works? Mais la donnee generale de l’oeuvre m’a paru si interessante que j’ai cru bon de faire pour elle le travail d’adaptation que j’avais fait precedemment pour les Patins d’argent . Strategic Example!? N’ayant eu a ma disposition que la premiere moitie de l’ouvrage, j’ai du, en bien des points, le modifier, l’arranger, pour le conduire a un denouement qui ne pouvait etre celui de l’auteur, puisque je l’ignorais. Storyboards – Works? Le livre, tel qu’il etait, n’aurait pu, je le crains, reussir en France ; mais la physionomie des caracteres des quatre soeurs meritait d’etre conservee dans ses lignes principales. | Online Form Interview Tips? J’ai cru pouvoir en faire une lecture agreable et profitable pour nos jeunes lecteurs, et je ne regretterai pas mes efforts si j’y suis parvenu. – Works? » (Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 24) [11] Reeditions successives : 1923, 1934, 1952 pour la « Bibliotheque Verte » et 1950 pour « Ideal-Bibliotheque ». Ppt Template Ocean? [12] Petites Americaines , Mme Tissier de Mallerais, Hachette, 1935, Meilleurs romans etrangers ; Little Women . Storyboards – Works? Les Quatre soeurs Marsch (sic) , Henriette Rouillard, Paris, Delagrave, 1936 ; Les Filles du Dr. Victoria's | Online & Job Interview Tips? March . Storyboards – Works? Traduction nouvelle de Madame H. Plan Summary- Excellent Example!? Giraud.

Paris, Pre-aux-Clercs, 1945. – Works? Les Quatre soeurs March , Germaine Lalande, Paris, Hazan, 1946. Strategic Plan Summary- Excellent? [13] La premiere edition, parue sous le titre Petites bonnes femmes, les quatre filles du docteur March , portait la mention « Adaptation de R. Storyboards – Works? et A. 10+ White Paper Resumes Great? Prophetie » (Paris, G.P., « Bibliotheque Rouge et or », 34). – Works? [14] Exemple, au chapitre 8, « mais son ennemi interieur, son Apollyon, comme le vieux Bunyan l’appelle dans le voyage du Pelerin, etait toujours pret a la faire s’irriter, et a vaincre sa resolution » (75) traduisant « but her bosom enemy was always ready to Status Template - Free Word Templatesfree Word flame up and – Works defeat her » (Alcott 1948 : 96). Product Description Ppt Template – Slide Ocean? [15] « Madame March, mal portante, ne pouvait les accompagner, mais elle les avait dans la journee recommandees aux soins d’une de ses amies, qu’elles devaient retrouver au bal. Storyboards? » (Alcott 1993 : 25 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 89) [16] Jo plaide aupres de sa mere : « – Il est malade, avait-elle dit, et tres change, chez les Gardiner, il m’avait presque fait l’effet d’un petit jeune monsieur, mais je vois bien que ce n’est encore qu’un petit garcon. Strategic Plan Summary- Excellent? » (Alcott 1993 : 37 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 153) [17] On y lit par exemple qu’« un Americain rougirait de penser a la dot de sa fiancee et [que], s’il lui arrivait de s’en inquieter et de s’en enquerir publiquement, il ne trouverait plus une fille honorable qui consentit a porter son nom ». Storyboards – Works? Et la visiteuse britannique, admirative de tant de vertu, s’exclamerait : « Dieu veuille qu’en vieillissant l’Amerique ne perde pas ces sages principes. Secret Application Form & Job? » (Alcott 1993 : 78-79 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 377) [18] Monsieur Laurence appelle Laurie, age de seize ans, un « marmot » (Alcott 1993 : 168). Storyboards – Works? [19] Ajout de l’adaptateur : « Il y avait evidemment un air de ressemblance entre elle et Margaret, mais Jo etait tres differente d’aspect. Secret Application | Online Form & Job Interview Tips? » (Alcott 1988b : 9) [20] Voir, au chapitre 4, sa reponse au reproche de Meg, « Don’t use such dreadful expressions » : « I like good, strong words that mean something. – Works? » (Alcott 1948 : 45) [21] Il faut en outre noter que le choix de cette exclamation n’est peut-etre pas fortuit, Louisa May Alcott etant nee un Colombus Day, le 29 novembre 1932 ! [22] Dans un paragraphe tenant lieu de postface, P.J. Management Diagram Business Plan? Stahl assure que « pas plus qu’un etre humain un livre ne voyage impunement » et qu’il faut se resigner a « sacrifier quelque chose aux gouts et aux moeurs » du pays qui adopte le livre (Stahl 1880 : XXXII, 344). – Works? [23] Cf. Strategic? l’entree de son journal pour le 1 er novembre 1968 : « Girls write to Storyboards – Works ask who the Plan Summary- little women marry, as if that was the Storyboards only end and 10+ White Resumes aim of Storyboards – Works, a woman’s life. Secret | Online Form Tips? I won’t marry Jo to – Works Laurie to Summary- Example! please any one. Storyboards – Works? » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 167) PhD, is Application | Online & Job Interview Tips, professor in Storyboards – Works the Department of Victoria's Secret | Online Form & Job Interview, French Studies, Concordia University, Montreal. – Works? Her main research interests include medieval studies and Strategic Plan children’s literature.

She has published numerous articles on – Works the novel and Management Diagram theater for – Works, the young, and The Job Line - A is currently doing research on Storyboards the translation of Secret Application | Online Interview, children’s literature from Storyboards – Works, English into Strategic Excellent French. – Works? She also has research projects, such as “Socio-aesthetics of the 10+ White Paper Resumes novel for Storyboards, young people in Report Template - Free Word Quebec,” funded by Storyboards, the Social Sciences and Strategic Plan Summary- Excellent Humanities Research Council of – Works, Canada, and Paper Doc | Great “Children’s literature: a hermeneutic approach,” a team-project funded by Storyboards, the Fond de recherche sur la societe et la culture (Quebec). a) Textes ayant servi de base a l’analyse comparative. Narratology meets Translation Studies, or, The Voice of the 5 Stage Circular Budget Catering Business Plan Translator in – Works Children’s Literature. Par Emer O’Sullivan. When Children’s Literature Transcends its Genre : Translating Alice in The Job Line Template Wonderland. Par Douglas Kibbee. When Modern Little Red Riding Hoods Cross Borders… or Don’t… Par Sandra Beckett.

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#8220;Angela#8217;s Ashes#8221; by Frank McCourt Essay. The autobiography Angela#8217;s Ashes by Frank McCourt tells the life of the McCourt family while living in poverty in Limerick, Ireland during the 1930#8217;s and 1940#8217;s. Frank McCourt relates his difficult childhood to the reader up until the time he leaves for America at the age of Storyboards, nineteen. Angela#8217;s Ashes has many prevailing themes, but one of the most notable is the 10+ White Paper Template settings relationship to the family. The setting of the book ultimately influences the choices and lifestyle of the McCourt family in – Works, many ways. Living in poverty and not being able to meet basic needs leads the characters to result to desperate measures, such incidents as stopping Frank McCourt#8217;s education and taking a job to support the family. Frank is forced to take the job mostly because his father is an alcoholic and uses all the money to buy beer instead of feeding his family. Frank describes this pattern of drinking away the money by saying #8221; when dad comes home with the drink smell there is no money and Mom screams at him till the twins cry#8221;(42). This situation lasts until Mr.McCourt leaves to work in England and is never heard from again which forces Frank to take a job at fourteen years old. Frank takes on the role of the head of the family proudly and comments #8221; Its hard to sleep when you know the next day you#8217;re fourteen and starting your first job as a man#8221;(309). Frank#8217;s ability to provide financial stability leads to greater comfort and living conditions for his family.

The members of the Application | Online McCourt family are also forced to beg and steal in order to help the family#8217;s well being. Mrs.McCourt begs charities especially the St.Vincent de Paul Society for help with basic necessities for – Works, the family such as food, clothing, and furniture. Mrs.McCourt is Product Description Ppt Template – Slide Ocean, even forced to beg for Storyboards, the family#8217;s Christmas dinner. The butcher who she begs to tells her #8221; What you can now missus, Is black pudding and tripe or a sheep#8217;s head or a pig#8217;s head#8221;(97). Mrs.McCourt reluctantly accepted the pig#8217;s head and Word is ridiculed walking home with it. Also, the Storyboards – Works children are forced to pick up scraps of coal for the fire from the road on The Job Powerpoint, Christmas Day. Frank describes the children#8217;s humiliation by saying, #8221; Even the poorest of the poor don#8217;t go out – Works Christmas Day picking coal off the road#8221;(99). Despite Frank McCourt#8217;s horrid poverty, tiresome starvation and devastating losses, Angela#8217;s Ashes is not a tragic memoir. It is in fact up lifting, funny and at 10+ White Paper Doc | Resumes, times triumphant. #8220;When I look back on Storyboards – Works, my childhood I wonder how I managed to survive at all. It was, of course, a miserable child hood: the happy childhood is hardly worth your while. Worse than the ordinary miserable childhood Is the miserable Irish childhood, and worse yet is the miserable Irish Catholic childhood#8221;, writes Frank McCourt of his early life Although Frank McCourt#8217;s autobiography, Angela#8217;s Ashes, paints a picture of both terrible poverty and struggles, this text is appealing and up lifting because of its focus on both humor and hope.

McCourt#8217;s text shows the determination people living in dreadful conditions must have in order to rise above their situations and make better lives for themselves and their families. The effect of the story, although often distressing and sad, is not depressing. Frank as the young narrator describes his life events without bitterness, anger, or blame. Poverty and hardship are treated simply as if they are a fact of life, and in spite of the hard circumstances, many episodes during the novel are hilarious. Frank McCourt was born in Brooklyn in Product – Slide Ocean, 1930, just after the beginning of the Great Depression. During this time, millions of people around the world were unemployed and struggling to survive.

Franks father, Malachy McCourt, struggled to obtain work and lost it easily due to his alcoholism. His mother, Angela McCourt, being a good catholic wife produced five babies in four years, leaving her unable to provide the most basic care for – Works, her children. Secret | Online Form & Job Tips. When the baby, Margaret, died due to – Works, the shocking living conditions in Brooklyn, Angela subsided into clinical depression, which went untreated. Other women in the building where the McCourt#8217;s lived looked after the children until Angela#8217;s cousins arranged for the family to return to Ireland. Life in Status Template Templatesfree, Limerick was considerably poorer, with a less supportive population than Brooklyn. The McCourt#8217;s lived in Storyboards – Works, a succession of substandard flats and houses characterized by poor sanitation and Victoria's Application Tips lack of electricity. The family had so little furniture that they shared beds, with no sheets or blankets. Storyboards – Works. When Malachy McCourt took his family back to an impoverished Ireland he chose to live in the south, where he was discriminated against because of his northern name and accent. He was unable to 10+ White Doc |, find work and when he finally did it was too late. He had become an alcoholic, unable to control his drinking and Storyboards – Works conform to the demands of a job.

This meant that his family was reduced to existence on the dole and as a result, his children starved, and were forced to Paper Template Doc |, pick coal up from the side of the road in order to keep the fire burning. When Malachy left for work in England he sent no money home and Angela was forced to beg for food. In these terrible situations two more of her children died, Angela was hospitalized with a miscarriage and pneumonia, while Frank was hospitalized with typhoid fever and conjunctivitis. Survival for the family was clearly difficult and life only improved when Frank found full time employment as a telegram boy. His sense of responsibility guided him to give his mother his wages in order to support the family. Life in Limerick was often associated with humor. Storyboards. A lot of laughter derived from religious practices such as taking the Summary- wafer at – Works, mass. Since the wafer regularly stuck to peoples tongues, the boys at school had to practice sucking pieces of newspaper, sticking their tongues out for the teachers. The sins that the children confessed were also often sources of humor for the priests, and when grandma#8217;s demand to know if she should clean Franks vomit up with Holy Water is pure mockery. #8220;bless me father for Secret Application | Online Form & Job Interview Tips, I have sinned, its been a minute since my last confession#8221;, becomes a sarcastic comment on Grandma#8217;s ignorance. Storyboards. Poverty itself reduced the family to other slapstick situations. Ppt Template – Slide Ocean. Pious Grandma#8217;s deliberate lie to the real estate agent when she denied that there had ever been two rooms upstairs in Angela#8217;s house has a savage humor in light of Storyboards – Works, her piety.

For the children Grandma was often the source of unintentional humor from the moment they heard her accent. There is humor in The Job Line - A Powerpoint Template From, the situations caused by Storyboards, Roman Catholic censorship. On one occasion Frank is evicted from the public library for reading a book about sex left on the table. The irony here is he really wanted to read Butlers Life of the Saints but was enticed by a book that shocked the librarian. From an early age Frank promised to support his family.

To do this he dreamed of returning to America. During the Product Description novel there was discussion between Frank and his father about the Storyboards – Works difference in economies of the two countries when his father discussed this over the paper he encouraged him to get a good job in the land of opportunity. These discussions were placed in the context of the Status - Free Word Templatesfree English oppression of Ireland. It is the symbols associated with New York that really sustained Franks dream over the years. The images of the Statue of Liberty and – Works Ellis Island which he kept as he left New York as a small boy were so clear that he recognized them on his trip back. McCourt#8217;s hope of a better future was shared by his father, brother Malachy and hisUncle Pa Sheehan. However, it was Frank that had the determination to work at any job available and to save money even id his family starved, in order to Report Word, make the dream real. There is – Works, no magic in The Job Powerpoint From, Angela#8217;s Ashes. Poverty and despair are cured by – Works, both hard work and breaking the law. Not everything that Frank did to From, save his fare was honorable, but his choices were made with long term goals in mind. Angela#8217;s Ashes depicts unrelenting poverty and the terrible consequences for individuals living in dirtiness.

However, Frank McCourt shows that there is always humor in – Works, life, no matter how desperate the Secret Application Form Interview Tips situation is. Combined with this is the hope that sustained McCourt and – Works drove him to seek a better life in the USA. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 21 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Product – Slide Ocean, #8220;Angela#8217;s Ashes#8221; by Storyboards – Works, Frank McCourt.

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Above all I wanted to see if the negatives out weighed the positives and Storyboards – Works, if cosmetic surgery should be banned or not. Why do so many women want cosmetic surgery ? According to Louisa Peacock, the. Breast , Breast implant , General surgery 832 Words | 3 Pages. The Negative and Positive Effects of Cosmetic Surgery Are you considering cosmetic surgery ? . The numbers of individuals electing these surgeries are growing rapidly each year. Much of this rapid growth is because of advances in technology that have made plastic surgery techniques both safer and Description Ppt Template – Slide Ocean, more affordable, as well as cutting down on recovery time. Cosmetic surgery improves body image and self-esteem and reconstructive surgery fixes irregularities such as hereditary disorders, birth.

General surgery , Hospital , Microsurgery 1258 Words | 4 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery on Teenagers Shirrena E. Perkins Course: COM/150 February 28, 2010 . Storyboards? Grace Clausing Table of Contents • Introduction • Body and Report Template - Free Word Templatesfree, Mind Still Developing During Teenage Years • Is It All Right To Seek Surgery With Unrealistic Expectations • Regrets • Legal or Illegal • Conclusion Introduction A desire among teenagers to undergo cosmetic surgery has been on a rapid rise. This can mostly be contributed. Adolescence , Breast implant , Hospital 1851 Words | 6 Pages. Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Most people want to be more beautiful than other people. Storyboards? They are always seeking the “beauty”, which . Word Templatesfree? makes them believe that they will be happier. That is – Works, why there is more and more people using plastic surgery as a solution. Those patients have a variety of ages and sexes. It can be ranged from 5 Stage Circular Diagram, twenty to fifty-five or over. It is included both sexual: males and females. There are thousands of reasons for them to see a plastic surgery doctor.

They may want to look younger. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1568 Words | 4 Pages. The Hidden Dangers Of Cosmetic Surgery “I wish I had a twin, so I could know what I'd look like without cosmetic . surgery ” a quote by Joan Rivers. She is an American famous person who has done so many cosmetic surgeries . Rivers most likely said this quote because she regretted about all of the cosmetic surgeries that she had. Cosmetic Surgery is a phenomenon that has increased over the past few years and became popular in Storyboards, everywhere on the world. Moreover, many people have been thinking of Paper, doing. Addiction , Anesthesia , Emotion 1245 Words | 4 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery All types of cosmetic surgeries are on the rise. Young people and old people around . the world are having all types of cosmetic procedure done at Storyboards some point in their lives. The Job - A Powerpoint Template From The media portrays beauty in Storyboards, a certain way, which causes people to feel pressured to look a certain way. Ppt Template Ocean? Why else would a person decide to – Works go under the knife?

Even people with medical conditions or some type of Strategic Plan Excellent Example!, disfiguration want to be accepted in society and be normal without being judged because of their physical. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1958 Words | 5 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery – a blessing or a curse? When you have a look at the women on Storyboards the streets, and it is Paper Great, so hard to find no one . Storyboards? with heavy make-up; when you are watching through the 10+ White Template Doc | Great, newspaper, and you will never stop to see large number of advertisements on cosmetics surgery , none of Storyboards – Works, them focus on natural beauty. Circular Business? As we all know, chasing beauty is the natural instinct of women, and the advancement in technology allows the women to have a different change in Storyboards – Works, their appearance through cosmetic surgery. Aesthetics , Beauty , Human physical appearance 1044 Words | 3 Pages. While cosmetic surgery has been happening since ancient times, it has only recently become accepted by Circular Diagram Business most. Television . Storyboards? programs that promote cosmetic surgery as a positive industry; “I Want a Famous Face” on MTV,“Nip/ Tuck” on FX, and “Dr.

90210” on The Job - A Hulu, to expose the public to a business once kept on the down low. Reality television embraces these due to its shock ­value and entertainment to – Works the audience, in result the public is becoming more and more relaxed to the idea of plastic surgery . A. Chin augmentation , General surgery , Hospital 1489 Words | 4 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery The way a woman handles herself is important, according to most Americans. Furthermore, the way a woman looks . on the outside surpasses all other qualities. Most women do not realize this, but this is the way in which they place their importance. Report Word? In a world filled with superficiality, it is not astonishing to think that most women are un-satisfied with their outward appearance. Unhappiness with one’s outward appearance has lead to cosmetic surgery being the only solution. Cosmetic. Craniofacial surgery , General surgery , Hospital 1095 Words | 3 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery Have you ever thought about how much cosmetic surgery has progressed and . all the different types of surgeries ? Cosmetic surgery is the practice of reshaping body tissues.

It is also known as plastic surgery . Plastic is derived from the Greek word Plastikos meaning “to mold.” Plastic surgery dates all the way back 3000 years ago, to the Ancient Egyptians, Indians, and Greeks. We may not recognize that people back then used a form of plastic surgery , but they did. Centuries. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1323 Words | 4 Pages. Cosmetic surgery is Storyboards, not solving the problem at Status Report - Free Templatesfree Word route. Storyboards – Works? The problem is the perception that the mind has on what is Strategic Plan Summary- Example!, important. All . cosmetic surgery is doing is Storyboards – Works, changing the appearance but not the mental state.

Someone who has such a mental disposition to these illnesses will have their offending extremity changed, but they will ultimately always find something they are not happy with. Instead of 5 Stage Budget Management Business Plan, cosmetic surgery , these people should be offered psychological help. – Works? Cosmetic surgery only masks the 5 Stage Circular Diagram Catering Business Plan, inner. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1789 Words | 5 Pages. Pros and Cons of Cosmetic Surgery. In a society focused on – Works looks one may hastily consider cosmetic surgery to fix an Status Word Templatesfree Word abnormal nose or shed a few unwanted pounds. – Works? . Is it worth it? What are the risks versus rewards? In this essay I will explore the pros as well as the cons of cosmetic surgery because as with many choices in Paper Template Resumes, life, there are many risks as well as rewards. Cosmetic surgery originated in ancient India, but became more prominent starting with the – Works, First World War. Medical professionals started exploring new techniques.

General surgery , Hospital , Liposuction 1049 Words | 3 Pages. The Growing Popularity of Cosmetic Surgery. can cosmetic surgeons always guarantee you a successful result? Are you prepared to bear the Resumes Great, risk of any surgical failure? Over the past few . decades, cosmetic surgery has already gained mainstream acceptance, particularly in well-developed countries, such as the United States, Japan and South Korea. It is thought to be a miracle to Storyboards – Works fulfill perfection. Such fallacies have overlooked the negative impacts of cosmetic surgery have on patients. This paper aims to explore the phenomenon of cosmetic surgery. General surgery , Hand surgery , Hospital 1101 Words | 4 Pages. History of Cosmetic /Plastic Surgery COM150 Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with on 5 Stage Circular Diagram Catering Plan the . correction or restoring of external damage to the body.

The word plastic comes from the Greek plastikos meaning to Storyboards mold or to shape (Answers, 2010). Template Resumes? Cosmetic surgery involves techniques to enhance the appearance through surgical and medical techniques. I will also investigate the most popular surgery procedures of the last couple years. Do you wonder how this type of surgery went from. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1667 Words | 6 Pages. The huge success of the cosmetic surgery business, it gets me to – Works think if anti-aging actually means anti-human. It is true . that mostly every woman would prefer not to get any type of surgery done to their bodies, but feel it is the only way of 10+ White Paper Template, erasing their age from the outside.

While there is nothing wrong with using a lotion to Storyboards – Works keep skin smooth and hydrated, how far are some women willing to go in order to look younger than they actually are? Cosmetic surgery in Summary- Excellent Example!, North America continues. Ageing , Craniofacial surgery , Gerontology 2594 Words | 7 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery Be Informed Everyone has looked in the mirror and found something they want to fix. . Cosmetic surgery can boost self esteem, and give confidence it seems the pain associated is secondary. Many people are willing to take the involved risks even though complications can arise.

Cosmetic surgery changes the appearance by altering parts of the body that function normally but do not look the desired way. Storyboards? Cosmetic surgery has been laden with unrealistic demands and sometimes legal. Breast implant , Breast reconstruction , Hospital 1516 Words | 5 Pages. ?Marketing In Terms of Cosmetic Surgery Should Be Avoided Introduction Marketing is a vital part of business operation to . Status Report Template - Free Templatesfree Word? maximize benefits, especially for service providing business. However, in Storyboards – Works, spite of the extremely large profits marketing brings, is it always so positive a function that it should never be avoided, or even banned? A certain amount of Description Ppt Template – Slide Ocean, research on the nature of marketing and how it works to affect individuals and businesses has been conducted. However, whether it is always a best. Business , General surgery , Marketing 1725 Words | 7 Pages. Critique Essay: Cosmetic Surgery and – Works, Individual Identity. the Modern Face: Cosmetic Surgery , Social Research, Spring 2000. The American culture that produced cosmetic . – Slide? surgery is the increasingly visual, psychologically influenced culture of the twentieth century United States.

For those surgeons who perform cosmetic surgery , the relationship between the physical face and Storyboards – Works, the construction of individual identity has always been and continues to be central. In our modern twentieth century United States, our attitudes toward cosmetic surgery have been based. General surgery , Hospital , Microsurgery 1380 Words | 4 Pages. changing when the humankind are under the pressure of one addiction. There are many causes of cosmetic surgeries addiction . leading to negative effects and compose appropriate solutions.

In the specific case of the cosmetic surgery addiction, different factors as social status, idea of beauty, self-steem, and, even, social pressure are its most definitive causes. According to Berrios and Description Ppt Template – Slide Ocean, Kan (1996), cosmetic surgery addiction is a type of psychological disease, which makes people concerned a lot with body. Addiction , Anxiety , Avoidant personality disorder 1714 Words | 5 Pages. ? Cosmetic Surgery among women: Cause and Effect Table of Contents: Introduction . Page 2 Causes of Cosmetic Surgery (by Hilda) Page 3 Physical Damage after Cosmetic Surgery (by Bonnie) Page 4 Psychological Effects of Cosmetic Surgery (by Ashley) Page 5 Conclusion Page 6 Works Cited . Body dysmorphic disorder , Breast implant , Causality 1283 Words | 7 Pages. Effects of Cosmetic Surgery In today’s society the way we look is everything. Storyboards? There are specific standards for someone to be . considered as beautiful. These standards include being young, tall and thin or curvy with perfect hair, flawless skin, voluptuous lips, and 5 Stage Circular Budget Management Catering Plan, pearly white teeth. Society is highly influenced by magazines such as Vogue and Cosmopolitan, which are well known for featuring top fashion models with pretty faces and slim waists.

Many people are turning to cosmetic surgery to Storyboards fit in. Abdominoplasty , Barbie , Hospital 1270 Words | 4 Pages. Review of the Literature Of the 223,000 cosmetic surgeries in 2003 on patients who were 18 years old or younger, 39,000 of Budget Diagram Business Plan, them . were breast augmentation, nose reshaping, and liposuction. Many parents are giving their teenage daughters breast implants for gifts. However, parents and teens do not take into – Works consideration that teens' bodies are still developing (Zuckerman, 2005). - Free Word Word? As the adolescent's body grows, body parts that seem to large or too small can become proportionate (Izenberg, 2004). Adolescence , Breast , Breast implant 857 Words | 3 Pages.

Teen Cosmetic Surgery Cosmetic Surgery is often done to improve physical flaws or to achieve . an ideality in Storyboards – Works, society. In the 5 Stage Circular Budget, United States, cosmetic surgery is an important concern. Nearly 219,000 procedures were performed as of 2010 (“Plastic Surgery ” 1). The risks involved with cosmetic surgery can sometimes lead to death. Many scientists believe that cosmetic surgery is dangerous for Storyboards developing teenagers. However, others say that teens can gain confidence from cosmetic surgery and it can. Breast , Microsurgery , Otoplasty 999 Words | 3 Pages.

Should Cosmetic Surgery Be Banned? Should Cosmetic Surgery Be Banned? Introduction Nowadays, cosmetic surgery has become more popular . for modern people. 10+ White Template Doc |? Some people believe that it is – Works, a science to improve the beauty of a person. On the other hand, there are some people disagree with it.

People said that cosmetic surgery involves risk which may cause serious diseases such as heart attack. Both of the Report Template - Free Word, side have their own reasonable reason based on – Works should or should not ban cosmetic surgery . Agree to ban the cosmetic surgery Point. Breast , Breast implant , Hospital 750 Words | 3 Pages. The Many Sides of Cosmetic Surgery. There are many different reasons why people of all ages, race, and sex get cosmetic surgery today. Strategic? The majority of people in . today’s society get it done because they want to enhance their personal appearance. There are many types of surgeries performed today that are used to boost self-confidence such as, breast augmentation, rhinoplasty, liposuction, Botox, and other implants. There is a wide variety of surgeries out there that can change anything you want modified about yourself. – Works? As people get.

Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1673 Words | 5 Pages. The Side Effects of Cosmetic Surgery. The Side Effects of Cosmetic Surgery Reading and Writing Level 4 Kirsten Ringstrom April 14, 2009 Table of Contents 1 . Introduction 2 The History of Cosmetic Surgery 3 The Trends of Cosmetic Surgeries 4 The Risks of Victoria's Secret | Online Form Interview Tips, Cosmetic Surgery 5 Conclusion References Throughout recorded history, a pale complexion has nearly always been more fashionable than a tan complexion because pale skin represents a woman who does not have to labour outdoors. So, most non-white women probably wanted. Breast implant , General surgery , Hospital 1317 Words | 5 Pages. Risks and Benefits of Cosmetic Surgery.

Risks and – Works, Benefits of Cosmetic Surgery Nichole Johns University of Example!, Phoenix Axia College Risks and Benefits of . Cosmetic Surgery What is – Works, cosmetic surgery ? Cosmetic surgery is The Job Line Powerpoint Template From, a process of one or more surgical procedures that are used to restore or enhance the appearance of Storyboards – Works, different parts of the body. Cosmetic Surgery is & Job Interview, a specialty field that is growing in the medical profession. The number of cosmetic surgery procedures performed in the United States increased by nearly 1 million from. Breast implant , Hospital , Liposuction 1268 Words | 4 Pages. planning to – Works have a cosmetic procedure? There are many things that a person considering having a procedure should know. Strategic Excellent Example!? Cosmetic . surgery has been practiced for many years however, it is Storyboards, dangerous and many people face addiction.

Before having a cosmetic procedure it is important to know all the - Free Templatesfree Word, facts. Cosmetic surgery being so popular, many people are not aware that there are two types of plastic surgery : Cosmetic plastic surgery and Storyboards – Works, Reconstructive plastic surgery . Cosmetic surgery is the improvement. Breast reconstruction , General surgery , Hospital 1593 Words | 5 Pages. A rESEACH PAPER | AGAINST COSMETIC SUGERY | ENC 1102Instructor: Luse | | By Maria Garzon | 3/25/2013 | Background and Plan Example!, Thesis . Storyboards? Opponents have historically overlooked the Line Powerpoint Template, primary reasons for it’s against to plastic surgery . Storyboards? It promotes a continuing descent into 5 Stage Budget Catering all things vain. Rather than accepting their perceived flaws, growing, and developing character, they take a chance going under the knife. Plastic surgery rarely produces the desired results and creates unhealthier obsession with. General surgery , Hand surgery , Hospital 2045 Words | 6 Pages. Teenagers and Comsetic Surgery Joyce Jenkins Com 150 May 30, 2010 Angela Robles Teenagers and Storyboards, Cosmetic . Surgery In our society today, what our bodies look like is Product Ppt Template, a big money making thing. Therefore, being a teenager and have plenty of money brings us to – Works having cosmetic surgery done to our beautiful bodies. The three factors that teens should consider when getting cosmetic surgery are peer pressure, the Secret Tips, credentials and reputation of the – Works, doctor and finally the Product Description Ppt Template – Slide, cost. The peer pressure that.

Adolescence , Hospital , Human body 1077 Words | 3 Pages. TEENAGE COSMETIC SURGERY How young should some one be before they are ready to have cosmetic . surgery ? According to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery reports “the number of Storyboards – Works, girls eight-teen and younger getting cosmetic surgeries , such as breast augmentations has nearly tripled from 3,872 in the year of 2002 to 5 Stage Circular Management Catering Business Plan 11,326 in the year of 2003“ ( Farrell 1 ). The increasing number of teenage girls under twenty having cosmetic surgeries should be aware of the Storyboards, risks, know that their bodies. Adolescence , Breast , Breast reconstruction 1858 Words | 5 Pages. worth it. What really is beauty, and why are people so obsessed with it?

These days there is a cosmetic procedure to Paper Template Doc | Resumes Great fix any kind of – Works, issue that . someone thinks they need to The Job Powerpoint Template From have, anything ranging from getting cosmetic dentistry work to getting liposuction. Today, people are under the impression that they have to do whatever it takes to be “perfect” even if that means going through extensive cosmetic surgery . People should embrace who they are for what God made them to be. A celebrity is who everyone. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 2112 Words | 6 Pages. “I am totally against plastic surgery . – Works? A lot of people think I have breast implants because I have the biggest boobs in the business. But I was . | Online? a 34C when I was 17…They stay up when I wear a push-up bra. But if people could see me when I come home and take off my bra, how could they think these are fake?” This is the famed quote from the Storyboards, famed retired supermodel/talk show host, Tyra Banks, an epitome of Description Ppt Template – Slide, natural beauty. Harvard Medical School psychologist Nancy Etcoff says in “Survival of the Prettiest. Body modification , Breast , Breast implant 764 Words | 3 Pages. beautiful and – Works, happy, one must look like these images. To most, the easiest way to achieve this is my having cosmetic surgery . Report Template Templatesfree Word? performed.

With the change of times, also has come the – Works, advancement of medical procedures, yet how safe can a person be who is having cosmetic surgery performed on Description their body. No matter how good the technological advancements, there is always the Storyboards – Works, risk of Secret Application Interview Tips, not only the surgery resulting in unwanted outcomes but in Storyboards – Works, some cases death. Society today has brain washed not. General surgery , Hospital , Liposuction 1538 Words | 5 Pages. Plastic/ Cosmetic Surgery Plastic surgery is a special branch of surgery that deals with the medical . Summary-? correction of a person's form and structure. The word plastic comes from the Greek word plastikos which means to Storyboards mold or to shape. So, plastic surgery basically means surgery that brings about a re-shaping of a part of the Victoria's Application Interview, body. A popular procedure in ancient Rome was scar removal, particularly scars on the back which were marks of shame because they suggested a man had turned his back in battle. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1108 Words | 3 Pages. In 2003, more than 223 000 cosmetic procedures were performed on Storyboards – Works patients 18 years of age or younger and almost 39 000 were surgical procedures . such as nose reshaping, breast lifts, breast augmentation, liposuction, and tummy tucks [1].

As we consider under what circumstances plastic surgery is appropriate for teens, it is important to recognize that very few studies have been conducted to examine the risks for Product – Slide teens of these increasingly common procedures. Research is especially needed for the more. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1291 Words | 4 Pages. Task A) Cosmetic surgery on Storyboards teenagers OUTLINE Text 1 and 2 The overarching subjects to which we are introduced in Secret | Online Form Tips, . texts one and two is, without doubt, the Storyboards, focus (or rather the criticism) on the many and 10+ White Doc | Great, more to come plastic/ cosmetic surgeries on adolescent girls and boys. Subjects appearing in the texts are for example, Valerie Ulene’s view on the increased procedures of plastic surgery , while Dr. Storyboards? John Canedy raises the question; does plastic surgery have a positive mental outcome, or. Breast implant , General surgery , Hospital 1069 Words | 4 Pages.

girls 18 years and younger had surgical and cosmetic procedures done to The Job Line - A Powerpoint From enhance, alter, or fix body parts that were seen as awkward and . unfitting (Preface to). For many girls, growing up in the ever-changing social world can be very over-rated. With constant pressure being thrown at girls from television, magazines, commercial ads, and movies it is not a surprise that many believe their only – Works option is Victoria's Secret Form & Job Tips, permanent cosmetic alteration. Opting for plastic surgery can leave very harmful, even permanent damage. Breast , Breast implant , General surgery 1695 Words | 5 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery and Its Affect on Storyboards – Works the World Today. their eyes, it has become nearly an epidemic. Plastic surgery is Strategic, a medical procedure invented to improve an Storyboards individual’s physical . appearance or to minimize scarring resulting from accidents, disease or birth defects as well as disfigurement. The word plastic is derived from the Greek, meaning molding or giving form.

Included in plastic surgery is cosmetic surgery , which can be used to reshape your face or body features. 10+ White Paper Template Doc | Resumes? Cosmetic surgery is designed to improve an individual's appearance. Some women. General surgery , Hospital , Human physical appearance 962 Words | 3 Pages. Should People Get Cosmetic Surgery? Should People Get Cosmetic Surgery ? Overview: Cosmetic surgery has become more popular for modern . people. Some people believe that it is a science to increase the Storyboards, beauty of a person. The basic aim of this surgery is to enhance the appearance of the Circular Management Diagram Business Plan, individual that is done by altering the parts of the body. On the other hand, other people disagree with it. They say that cosmetic surgery involves risk which may cause serious side effects and diseases.

In the – Works, recent years the technology and concept. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 686 Words | 3 Pages. Reseach Essay : Plastic Surgery Plastic . surgery Plastic surgery is 5 Stage Management, a medical specialty concerned with the correction or restoration of form and function. Storyboards – Works? Though cosmetic or aesthetic surgery is the best-known kind of plastic surgery , most plastic surgery is not cosmetic ; plastic surgery includes many types of Plan Excellent, reconstructive surgery , hand surgery , microsurgery, and the treatment of burns. General surgery , Hand surgery , Microsurgery 1400 Words | 4 Pages.

Reading (II) 22 March 2011 Persuasion Essay ( Cosmetic Surgery ) Outline I. INTRODUCTION 1. Background . Information: For modern people, cosmetic surgery nowadays has become more and more popular. Some people believe that it is Storyboards – Works, a technique to raise the beauty of a person. Status Report - Free Word Templatesfree Word? The basic intention of this surgery is to enhance the appearance of the individual by changing the parts of the body. On the – Works, other hand, other people disagree with it, saying that cosmetic surgery can post a risk of serious diseases. Anorexia nervosa , Body dysmorphic disorder , Body modification 644 Words | 3 Pages.

To what extent do different positions in structure versus agency debate affect our understanding of cosmetic surgery? This essay centres on the structure versus agency debate and Circular Budget Diagram Catering Plan, the extent to which different positions in this debate affect our understanding of . – Works? cosmetic surgery . Structure refers to external factors which are beyond an individual’s control and how these factors have a determining effect on the individual’s actions and behaviour. In contrast, agency refers to Report - Free Word Word the “characteristics of the Storyboards, individual which serve to Description Ppt Template Ocean construct the world around them.” In other words, as O’Byrne neatly puts it “do we make. Anthony Giddens , Emile Durkheim , Evolutionary psychology 1432 Words | 4 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery: Does It Help or Hurt You? Professor Perkins Rhet/Comp 1302 6 May 2013 Cosmetic Surgery : Does it help or hurt you? Everyone has seen that picture . perfect model on a billboard or in a magazine that seems to be flawless in – Works, every way. These types of things convince people that they need to alter their appearance in order to become what is perceived as beautiful. Strategic Plan? There are approaches to attaining the designated look they are trying to reach; cosmetic surgery is one of them.

Cosmetic surgery continues to become a popular trend among. Hospital , Microsurgery , Patient 1874 Words | 5 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery: Is It a Solution or a Problem in Storyboards – Works, Today's Society. M. Sandra Wood. (2005). Intenet Guide to Cosmetic Surgery for Status Word Templatesfree Women. New York: The Haworth Press. R. Merrel Olesen. Storyboards? (2005). . Cosmetic Surgery For Dummies. New York: John Wiley Sons Inc. James Partridge. (1996). ?Face Values', Health Education, 3/2:pp30-33 Time. Circular Budget Management Diagram Catering Business? (2002). ?Changing Faces'. August pp49-55 Her World. (2006). ?Why are we so quick to – Works erase time?'. January pp116-118 Health Today. (2005). ?Face Off'.

March pp66-67 Time. (2004). ?At what cost beauty?'. February pp48-50 . 1916 , 1920 , 1922 475 Words | 3 Pages. Building the Template, perfect face: New trends in cosmetic surgery. ?Building the perfect face: New trends in Storyboards, cosmetic surgery for men NOW THAT GOING UNDER THE SCALPEL IS CHEAPER, FASTER, AND LESS . Strategic Summary- Excellent? PAINFUL THAN EVER, SOME MEN ARE HAVING SECOND OR EVEN THIRD ROUNDS OF NIP/TUCK PROCEDURES. Storyboards – Works? ARE YOU READY FOR A LITTLE WORK? BY LESLEY ROTCHFORD, Published April 18, 2013 cosmetic - surgery -for-men/ Despite being chronically sleep-deprived and 5 Stage Budget, frequently hungover, not to mention regularly stressed. Chin augmentation , Microsurgery , Oral and maxillofacial surgery 1100 Words | 3 Pages. The Plastic Generation (Persuasive Speech on Storyboards – Works Child Cosmetic Surgery) The Plastic Generation Famous actress and model Patricia Heaton once said “Plastic surgery is like the big elephant in the Hollywood living . Circular Management Catering Business? room,” (Brainy Quotes). For celebrities, a plastic surgery operation is just another trip to the doctor’s office.

After all, in – Works, this day and Product Ppt Template – Slide, age, image is everything. We see this in high profile professions, and in large cities across the country. However, recently in Beverly Hills, California, girls as young as 16 are getting nose-jobs as a “Right of Storyboards, Passage”. Chin augmentation , General surgery , Hospital 954 Words | 3 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery In 800.B.C.

India, people’s desires to obtain beauty had resulted in a process, nose job. Resumes Great? . Cosmetic surgery was the result of Storyboards, human beings’ desires to be beautiful. Report - Free Templatesfree? Beauty was always important in society. Storyboards – Works? The more beautiful you are, the more you will be admired. This value and the desire had brought the cosmetic surgery to this world, but the Business, surgery had only recently become accepted by the public, so here the Storyboards – Works, questions come. Should cosmetic surgery become more accepted. English-language films , Mass media , Plastic surgery 647 Words | 2 Pages. spotlight.

People are already put off by the idea that surgery could go wrong and instead the Paper Template Doc | Great, industry needs to set targets to reduce . complications and infections arising after cosmetic surgery . The UK market for Storyboards – Works cosmetic surgery is Description Ppt Template – Slide, estimated to have grown by ?617 million (17%) between 2008 and 2010 to Storyboards – Works reach an Summary- Excellent estimated worth of ?2.3 billion. A fear of Storyboards, surgery going wrong coupled with high costs put people off having cosmetic surgery and Status Report Templatesfree, has propelled the growth of non-surgical procedures. Million , United Kingdom 416 Words | 2 Pages. or what about a new nose? Well Cosmetic surgery is Storyboards, not new, but the popularity of it has rapidly increased in the last few years. . Not only Paper Doc | adults but also teenagers want to do the cosmetic surgery . Storyboards? Cosmetic surgery before the Strategic Plan Excellent Example!, age of – Works, eighteen is becoming increasingly more and more popular, and nobody can’t stop it.

Many factors are influencing the thoughts of young people for doing cosmetic surgery such as their appearance. Many doctors believe that cosmetic surgery is a science to increase the beauty. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 659 Words | 2 Pages.

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Laboratory and Storyboards Lab Safety Signs, Symbols and Their Meanings. Susan is a science geek, and Victoria's Application | Online Form & Job Interview if that wasn't enough, she gets all nerdy over technology too. She is Storyboards also a writer too. Did you ever come across laboratory signs or symbols but did not know what they meant? Or perhaps you would like to see pictures of Template Word Word, all the Storyboards, various signs you would see in a laboratory and on chemicals. In this hub, I will be giving you a detailed description of each laboratory sign or symbol and a photograph so you can easily identify it. Signs around the world may come differently, the Circular Budget Diagram Catering, signs in this hub are used internationally. Even if the sign is not exactly like the signs here but has the Storyboards – Works, same symbols imprinted on it, then you can be sure that that is the symbol. Product. The author of – Works, this article claims no responsibility to any accidents that happen in the laboratory.

Always consult a scientist working in a laboratory when dealing with chemicals. A laboratory is a place where dangerous events can occur, from high voltage stations to biohazards to The Job Line, corrosive substances. Many people are unaware of the – Works, dangers lurking in Secret Form & Job Tips a laboratory! To alert you of hazards such as biohazards and high voltage stations, there are hazard signs placed in Storyboards laboratories. 10+ White Doc | Resumes. You will very commonly find hazard signs in a laboratory, alerting you to various hazards you are expected to Storyboards, find. However, many people may not be able to identify what these hazard symbols mean. To help you get aware of the various meanings associated with each sign, this guide has been compiled to help you do so.

In this guide, there are two sections. One section which we will deal with first, is about signs that you can be expected to find on the walls of Status Report Template - Free Word Word, a laboratory workplace. The second will deal with signs you can be expected to find on various chemicals and even, household substances. This symbol means that you have to wear gloves in protection from harmful chemicals or other materials. It is recommended to – Works, always wear gloves when dealing with caustic substances and Report Templatesfree other dangerous chemicals. Most hospitals and laboratories have plastic glove dispensers, so wear gloves before you enter a hospital laboratory and Storyboards other chemical analysis laboratories. To stay safe, you can wear gloves at all times in The Job a laboratory if you wish, to protect you from chemicals. Biohazards are microorganisms which can potentially harm or even kill living organisms. These microorganisms can include viruses, contagious and dangerous bacteria, toxins and harmful microorganisms. You will very commonly find a sign like this in biochemistry laboratories in hospitals as scientists and – Works laboratory technicians working there would have to analyse samples from patients in Status Word Templatesfree Word the hospitals. These samples may contain highly contagious bacteria which may potentially threaten the health of the scientist.

If you ever see this sign, always ask a scientist working in the laboratory about such biohazards. It is – Works recommended that you always wear a face mask and anti-bacterial gloves when dealing with such substances. You may also see this sign on the packaging of The Job From, hypodermic needles, samples and living tissues to be analysed. It is common etiquette for – Works, scientists to The Job Line - A From, dispose of hypodermic needles in a sharps container. This sign, 'high voltage' means voltage at such a high level that if any living organism comes in Storyboards – Works contact with the electricity, the electricity will cause harm or even death. This sign is - A Template From found in industrial sites and – Works perhaps laboratories. Always stay clear of Secret Application | Online Tips, areas marked with this sign as coming in contact with the electricity will mean serious injury or death. Many people ask how many volts 'high voltage' is considered to be. The answer to this question remains debated but in electric power transmission, it is said to be 35,000 volts. The IET say that high voltage is over Storyboards 1000 volts. Product. In industrial sites, workers protect themselves by wearing plastic gloves and Storyboards – Works other clothing.

This sign means that you have access to a defibrillator nearby. This can be seen in hospitals, some laboratories and industrial areas. This sign warns you that the equipment and apparatus beside you may be extremely hot and can severely burn you. This sign can be found in laboratories with hot plates to Template - Free Word Templatesfree Word, industrial areas with hot machines and steam pipes. If you see this sign on a piece of apparatus, do not touch, you will get severely burned! This sign indicates very low temperatures, much lower than freezing point.

You may find this sign in chemical storage areas, for storing liquid nitrogen and Storyboards other chemicals. Do not enter these areas without the supervision of a scientist and without appropriate protection. This sign indicates the Secret Form Tips, location of an eye wash station. Storyboards. If you accidentally place foreign chemicals or substances into your eyes, always try to locate an eye wash station immediately! Although some eye wash station signs may look different, always try to locate the Strategic Plan Summary- Excellent, station if there is no sign. A typical eye wash station looks like the picture on the right, and contains two bottles of eye wash. Eye wash is a fluid which contains saline. Saline aids the rinsing of the eye and provides relief. However, if you do get foreign chemicals in your eyes, always go to your hospital immediately!

The chemicals that entered your eye could be corrosive and could cause permanent blindness! The term 'laser' stands for Storyboards – Works, 'Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. It is usually a direct beam of Line - A Powerpoint Template, light in one colour. Storyboards – Works. The colour of the laser is determined by its wavelength, the Victoria's Application Form & Job Tips, unit being a 'nanometer'. The light can be forced into one narrow beam which has a high radiant power per unit area.

Because of this, the laser is Storyboards very powerful enabling it to cut metal, seal objects and is used in Victoria's Application surgical procedures. – Works. That is why you will find laser beams in factories, hospitals and Strategic Plan Summary- Example! surgical theatres. As harmless as a laser may seem, that is Storyboards – Works not quite the case. Letting your skin to Summary-, come in direct contact with a laser beam can be very dangerous and can have some disastrous consequences. The eye is the Storyboards, most susceptible and can be damaged the easiest. Template Doc | Resumes. If you wear no eye protection, looking at a laser beam can cause retinal damage, leading to damage to the eye, which can cause blindness or partial blindness.

Always wear appropriate eye wear, always check with the owner of the equipment which eye wear is – Works best. Damage to the skin can also be caused if not protected. Strategic Excellent Example!. Wear protective non-flammable clothing. – Works. Laser beams can also cause fire so do not direct at any flammable substances! Recognising hazard laboratory signs in Victoria's Application | Online Form a laboratory is Storyboards only one part, but recognising hazard signs on chemicals and other substances is another part.

Many chemicals in a laboratory are harmful. They could irritate your skin, be dangerous to Victoria's Form, the environment, corrosive or toxic. Storyboards – Works. That is why hazard symbols were invented, to alert you of the various dangers associated with each chemical. Material Data Safety Sheets can also be obtained about each chemical, but if you want to know quickly which chemicals are harmful and which are not, check the - A, packaging. The signs on the packaging can tell you whether a chemical is irritant or toxic. This sign indicates a drop of a corrosive substance falling onto a hand and burning into the hand. The word corrosive comes from the Latin word 'corrodere' meaning to gnaw. Letting a corrosive substance come in direct contact with your skin can cause the substance to eat into your flesh, down to the bone. Not pleasant! Also, if your eyes come in contact with a corrosive material they will be permanently damaged leaving you with blindness.

An example of a corrosive substance is caustic soda, which is mainly used in soap and draining sewage areas. If you see this sign on – Works any chemical, aways handle with extreme care and wear gloves and Strategic Plan face protection! This is – Works a substance which may harm or kill natural species living in the environment including aquatic species, trees and Ppt Template plants. Throwing a substance with this sign into a lake or drainage system is not recommended, it could harm or even kill fish in the lakes, trees and plants or other animals. A substance which is dangerous to the environment is white spirit, which is used to Storyboards, clean paint from objects. This is a substance which can be ignited easily when they come near a source of fuel and burn very vigorously. Always be careful when handling substances like these! This symbol is denoted by a large black X on an orange background which has an Victoria's Secret Application | Online Form & Job, 'I' on the bottom right corner.

The word irritant means that it will cause your skin to turn red and may blister. Whilst irritant substances may not cause too much damage, it is still advisable to wear gloves. There is – Works another symbol which has a black X on an orange background and has no 'I' in 5 Stage Management Catering Business the bottom right corner. This symbol means that the Storyboards, substance is 'harmful'. by Joel Diffendarfer 8. Biological vs. Status Template Templatesfree. Chemical Pest Control. by Linda Crampton 26.

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I have learn a lot and also It make my project wonderful. WhoTheHellAreYou 12 days ago. i am going to say Thank You in 4 languages: This is great! dab on them haters! this web site helped me a lot with my assignment. I was actually looking for the radiation sign but this is Product Description Ppt Template – Slide Ocean a very good website for other sign. NICK CROMPTON 2 weeks ago. England is my city. Georgia wing 2 weeks ago.

Thank you so much this web site was last minute exsam helper thank you once again xx ;) i learn a lot on this web side we do this kind of work in school. doesn't have all the things I need try putting things like toxic, oxidising, explosive and harmful but it really helped me in my homework. Thanks.. bescause my damn teacher made a test without telling us and its all about symbols.. follow me on facebook kent perez. Thank you, for Storyboards – Works, i had to Product Description, study different symbols and this webpage worked as my last minute helper. thanks but this did not help at all. choco_chipzy 3 months ago. This helps so much in my homework! Thank you!

Llyne Barts 012 3 months ago. Hehe. Thanks for the information. Really helpful. Storyboards. Keep it up. what is the difference between the symbol of irritant and harmful??

bre2cute I think ur talking about biohazard. Solomon Desta 4 months ago. It would have been more useful if you write it separately for - A Powerpoint, each departments labs. Very helpful it helped me do my assignment and Storyboards – Works educational. So helpful ,it helped me with my assignment. Seailtoynup 9 months ago.

Thank you !! This really helped me for my assignment. really helped me with knowing symbols thanks. Charlene wooten 9 months ago. What's a 0301-laboratory, chemistry what does it envoy mentioned contains and Circular Diagram Plan a laboratory, hematology 0305 can someone please explain to Storyboards – Works, me what this means preferences from a doctor. Suresh Kumar Mandal 10 months ago. I am working in Victoria's Application Interview Tips a Chemical Laboratory. So I really got the knowledge after read this topic. kawaiicat777 10 months ago.

it helped me with my homework but it needs more sighns :) its supper for me to learn n0w that i now all the Storyboards – Works, signs. Vibekananda champati 11 months ago. Good ! but more symbols should be added. pretty good but u should put what to do in 5 Stage Circular Budget Catering case of an accident. I'm so glad to – Works, have found this! I am doing research for The Job Line - A Powerpoint Template From, a design quiz and this helped me so much - there isn't very much comprehensible information about safety signs online WITH information. So THANK YOU!

wajid iqbal 13 months ago. awesome bundle of Storyboards, thanks. wow its is amesome. wow it was awesome ,but it need to be more explained and also need more signs because new signs have been brought out. I love this website. hi it need more pictures so pls add more. Thanks it helped me a lot for my assignment. it was really really helpful thank you very much. it helped a lot but need more signs with xplanation. It helped a lot.

But it would be better with more signs in it. Thanks a lot it has helped a Templatesfree Word. it awesome! Susan W 2 years ago from The British Isles, Europe. Melanie - Thanks so much for Storyboards, reading this and the awesome comments. :D I agree, it's really important to know this, whether a scientist or not. The Job Powerpoint From. There are so many home products that have these signs, and most people don't even look at them! Melanie Shebel 2 years ago from Storyboards New Buffalo, Michigan. Wow! This is Line Template From such a helpful hub. I worked as a TA in a lab and have friends that do the same. Storyboards. We have to learn this and the students do too (although they often lack interest.) It's really important stuff!

Thanks for the nice blog,really appreciated it. thank you. Status Report - Free Templatesfree Word. really a big help. . thank you for this,. it will help me in – Works the laboratory..'was so helpful. Susan W 2 years ago from The British Isles, Europe. Jao - I'm the author, so if you have any questions just ask me. Thanks for the read and for commenting. It's always appreciated! :-)

i need the author of this, can you help me? sophia ellis 2 years ago. owesome this really good , it really helped me THANKS. thx for Strategic Summary-, putting this out if you didn't well i ll be dead. Thank you very much i am a Chemical Lab Analyst it has really made me to understand well the – Works, signs and its meaning.

this blog makes my assignment very good. Its really helpful for me thnku sooo much. Obuekwe Emeka 3 years ago. Thanks a lot, this is really gonna help in my MCB 315 Assignment. Life Saver. Whew. i got laboratory sign meaning. this really answer my question. you helped me a lot but there is one i am trying to find and i can't find it.

its good but needs more photos and The Job Powerpoint Template From the explanations art a little too long can u shorten them a little im a teacher and Storyboards the kids wont really understand those long things. Susan W 4 years ago from The British Isles, Europe. Thanks for commenting and giving such positive comments! I am glad you liked this hub! Zara Thompson 4 years ago from New York. Really appreciative ,thank you so much for your blog. Firoz 4 years ago from Plan Summary- Example! India. Really helped me. Storyboards. Voted up. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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