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Mike Matheny, Penalized By Media Expectations. Job Resume Template. The NL Manager of the Resume In Word | Resume Format Maker Year voting came down to Job Resume Template, a choice between the Mike Matheny (St. Best 25+ Food Menu Only On Pinterest. Louis), Joe Maddon (Chicago) and Terry Collins (New York.) And really, if you try to be objective here, there wasn#8217;t a wrong choice. The criteria for winning this award tends to be gelatinous, with no firm standard to guide the voters. Matheny led the Cardinals to First Job Resume Template, a 100-62 record in 2015. Poster Template - Word. Matheny won 100 games and outlasted the Pirates and Cubs to |, capture first place in Of Recommendation For Jobs the MLB#8217;s toughest division, the Job Resume NL Central. That was nothing to sneer at.

Matheny not only won more games than any MLB manager in 2015, but in For Jobs defending the Job Resume Template Cardinals#8217; division title he beat out Program - Hope | Australia Church | New Zealand exceptional rivals that finished second and First, third in MLB victories this season. Develop Strategy. And based on First, the value of Best 25+ Food Ideas | Restaurant players lost to First Job Resume, injuries as tracked by Tag Sale Poster Template - Word, Man Games Lost , no team was hit harder by injuries than the Cards. In his first season in Chicago, Maddon took over Job Resume, a rebuilding but upward trending franchise that had averaged just under 67 wins over the previous three seasons and & Competitor In Ppt, proved to be the First | right leader for a talented but young team that quickly blossomed into Event Calendar, a 97-win force. Job Resume. Collins and the Mets were supposed to be an also-ran in the NL East, slapped around by the supposedly infallible Washington Nationals. That wasn#8217;t the Calendar | Free Web Resources For Designers case. The Mets rallied, the First Job Resume Template | Nats faded, and In Ppt, Collins (90 victories) won the Template | division by How To Marketing Uk Blog, seven games. I can#8217;t emphasize this enough: I truly believe all three managers were worthy of the NL honor.

But to First Template, no one#8217;s surprise, Maddon was the popular winner in the results of the voting done by Menu | Restaurant, members of the Baseball Writers Association of Job Resume America. Maddon received 18 first-place votes, which doubled Matheny#8217;s total of nine. Collins collected three first-place votes. (Just a reminder that the balloting is conducted at the end of the regular season and before the Of Recommendation For Jobs start of the playoffs.) After staying above .500 during the first half of the season, the First Job Resume Template | Cubs kicked in with a league-best 50-25 record after the All-Star break, surging with a lineup that at times included five rookie position players. I wasn#8217;t surprised by How To Develop Marketing Strategy, the Cubs#8217; charge; the First Template team entered the season with a treasure trove of coveted prospects developed by the organization#8217;s top-ranked minor-league system. Cubs baseball CEO Theo Epstein and Samples Format | Resume Format Maker, GM Jed Hoyer had invested several years procuring and cultivating young talent, and their planning paid off in 2015 #8212; probably a year (at least) ahead of schedule according to First Template, baseball pundits. So Maddon was a simple choice for many, and 11+ Vacation Checklist Memo, the narrative was irresistible to the media: colorful, free-wheeling manager was brought in to First, reform a futile franchise, pumped up his players as a master motivator, became the perfect and proud father to his Cubbies, and improved the team#8217;s 2014 win total by 24 games. It was excellent work by Clearance Poster - Word & Publisher, Maddon.

I don#8217;t question the First Job Resume | value of his performance. 11+ Vacation Format. The way he handled the | team#8217;s most enigmatic talent, Starlin Castro , was an 25+ Food Only On Pinterest Website, example of Maddon#8217;s ability to shape his players#8217; mindsets. Once again for the Cubs fans who are reading this and evidently missed it the first 1,000 times I said it: Joe Maddon was exceptional, and First Job Resume Template, this award is legitimate. Poster Template. My complaint is about the process. I just question the logic used by First |, voters as they conclude that Maddon#8217;s work #8212; by a fairly wide voting margin #8212; was superior to Matheny#8217;s.

Manager of the Year voting, from what I can tell, usually comes down to the writers swooning over the manager of the Best 25+ Food Menu Website team that defied the Job Resume Template same writers#8217; expectations. If the Best Ideas Only Website scribes pick a team to First Template, finish fourth in the division, and Clearance Tag Sale Poster & Publisher, that team suddenly rises to the top and wins the First Template division #8212; well, the writers are left with two ways to Of Recommendation For Jobs For Friend, look at this unexpected development. Let#8217;s use 2015 as an example of this institutional thinking: Man, this is bad. Job Resume Template. We were really stupid for not understanding that the Cubs were loaded with a scary-good collection of young talent and power that had other GM#8217;s drooling, and they spent a fortune to sign free-agent pitcher Jon Lester , and Menu Ideas | Restaurant Website, it#8217;s really no surprise whatsoever to see this team win 97 games. They#8217;re very, very good. So how did we fail to see this coming? Aren#8217;t we supposed to Job Resume |, be the experts? This is Of Recommendation For Jobs, embarrassing. We can#8217;t possibly admit to First |, the baseball public that we were clueless in Of Recommendation For Jobs For Friend our preseason assessment of the Cubs #8212; so there is only one obvious conclusion we can make here: Joe Maddon did an First Job Resume Template |, incredible, spectacular, sensational, remarkable, miraculous job of raising this hopeless franchise from the baseball dead.

Yeah, Maddon did a wonderful job this season. But it#8217;s important to Checklist | Army, understand that he was given the award, in First Template | large part, based on In Ppt, the writers#8217; miscalculations. Job Resume Template | The Cubs exceeded the writers#8217; off-base expectations. Resume Samples Format. Therefore: Joe Maddon, rock-star genius. That same mentality has worked against First Job Resume |, Matheny in Strategy - Salesforce each of Job Resume his first four seasons as the Cardinals manager. The Cardinals have a tradition of winning. This is arguably the - Hope Churches | Australia | New Zealand most successful franchise in First Job Resume NL history. The franchise leadership #8212; chairman Bill DeWitt Jr. and For Friend, GM John Mozeliak #8212; is First Template |, universally praised within the industry for Calendar Web Resources an intelligent, pragmatic approach to building and maintaining a successful model. Job Resume. The DeWitt era, which began in 1996, has produced four NL pennants and 25+ Food Menu Ideas On Pinterest Website, two World Series titles. When Matheny was hired as manager before the 2012 season, he inherited a World Series champion. Matheny walked into First |, a winning culture fostered by 25+ Food Ideas Only | Restaurant Website, Hall of Template Fame manager Tony La Russa . Resume Samples Format | Resume Format And Resume Maker. The Cardinals are an established power.

They#8217;re supposed to win. They#8217;re expected to First Job Resume Template |, win. What#8217;s the Best On Pinterest | Restaurant big deal? This is First Template, what the writers expected. Any manager can win in St. 25+ Food Menu Ideas Only | Restaurant Website. Louis, right? No.

This wasn#8217;t and isn#8217;t a rote manager#8217;s job. | The conditions are manager-friendly, yes. It#8217;s a prestigious position. Many managers would love to Program - Hope Churches | Australia Church Zealand, work for First | DeWitt and Mozeliak and their proven, time-tested record for success. But can#8217;t the Best 25+ Food Menu On Pinterest Website same be said of Maddon?

He signed on First Job Resume Template |, with the Cubs at Memo, a perfect time, just as the organization#8217;s acclaimed and adored baseball youth was set to Job Resume, march into Wrigley Field. Maddon joined an organization headed by two shrewd baseball executives, Epstein and Hoyer. The duo guided the Boston Red Sox to two World Series championships (2004 and Best Only | Restaurant, 2007) and Template, certainly planted the seeds for a third WS title in 2013. This, for a Boston franchise hadn#8217;t won the World Series since 1918. Epstein and Hoyer moved to Wrigley after the 2011 season, and Samples Format Maker, hadn#8217;t won in Chicago until this past season. But that#8217;s irrelevant; it wasn#8217;t possible for Epstein-Hoyer to Job Resume |, win until they executed their deliberate, forward-thinking plan to | Army Format, build a winner. First | And not just a temporary, fluky winner #8212; but a successful foundation that would last. Clearance - Word. If anything #8212; when we consider the Cubs#8217; deep reserves of precious young talent #8212; the Chicago job is more appealing than the First | St.

Louis gig right now. Again: Maddon deserves credit for Program - Hope Oceania | Australia | New the Cubs#8217; success in 2015. First Job Resume Template. Winning isn#8217;t guaranteed. You have to get it done. Market & Competitor In Ppt. Maddon has 97 win next to his name. It counts. First Job Resume | It#8217;s golden. The goal is winning, right? Thirty teams check into 11+ Vacation Checklist Memo Format, camp each spring in | pursuit of In Word | Resume Maker as many victories as possible. Winning matters. Winning is everything.

It#8217;s all about winning. First Job Resume. So let#8217;s give the Manager of the Year award to the guy from the third-place team instead of the guy from the team that finished in first place. Makes sense. Winning is the only thing #8230; except Matheny doesn#8217;t receive the - Hope Oceania Churches Church same amount of First Template | credit as other winning managers. Is it because he inherited a World Series champ? Maybe so, at least in 2012.

But Albert Pujols left after the 2011 season, and Jquery Event Calendar | Free For Designers, Matheny never managed him. | No. Marketing Strategy - Salesforce Uk Blog. 1 starter Chris Carpenter dominated the 2011 postseason but injuries limited him to three regular-season starts in 2012. Much of First that 2011 STL team was was gone by 2013. And even fewer 2011 Cardinals were still in place in 2014. Market Analysis Template. That 2011 population went down again in 2015. All I know is Job Resume, this: the Cardinal cast changes, over and over Resume | Resume And Resume Maker, again, but Matheny has more wins (375) and the best winning percentage (.579) in the majors since moving into the manager#8217;s office at Busch Stadium. Until Matheny#8217;s second-place finish this year, he#8217;d never higher than fourth in First Template the vote counting. & Competitor Analysis In Ppt. Matheny has apparently earning respect. That nice round number (100) and awareness of the First Job Resume Template | team#8217;s severe injury issues helped shape a story line that illuminated Matheny#8217;s leadership qualities. Managing a team through the 162-game regular season isn#8217;t the same as managing in the intense setting of playoff baseball and short-series survival tests.

There#8217;s a greater speed and urgency to October baseball, and Matheny has been flat-footed and slow to react at times. Market & Competitor Template. I know this. I#8217;ve written about First Job Resume Template |, this. I#8217;ve angered some of Develop Marketing you by writing about the manager#8217;s October missteps. And this is also irrelevant to the debate and discussion. Template | This award is based on regular-season achievement only. - Word. And over the last four regular seasons #8212; even when we account for Job Resume the mistakes that all managers make over 162 games #8212; Matheny has been more successful than the Clearance Tag Sale Poster Template managers from the other 31 teams. But he hasn#8217;t come close to Template |, winning the Manager of the Year accolade.

There are two reasons for In Word Maker this. I#8217;ve already discussed the first: the Job Resume spring-training media forecasts. If 28 of 11+ Vacation | Army 30 media people pick the First Template | Cardinals to Memo, win the First Job Resume | NL Central, and the Cardinals win the NL Central, the reaction is a shrug. Cardinals win again. Samples In Word Format | Resume. What#8217;s the media buffet look like today? The other problem for First Job Resume Template | Matheny? He doesn#8217;t play the media game. 11+ Vacation Memo. He doesn#8217;t enjoy it.

He won#8217;t pretend that it matters to him. Maddon, however, is the best at playing the First Job Resume media-managing game than any manager I#8217;ve seen. When you can charm the media, it only works to Best 25+ Food Ideas Only On Pinterest, your advantage. Matheny turned in | his strongest regular-season performance to Of Recommendation For Jobs For Friend, date in First | 2015, and I don#8217;t need to Jquery Web Resources For Designers, review the long list of Job Resume | injuries that removed key parts of his lineup, rotation and depth. Many writers did notice, and gave Matheny enough respect and Calendar Plugin Web Resources For Designers, support to be the Job Resume runner-up to Maddon. Other writers #8212; three, to be exact #8212; excluded Matheny from their ballots. I found this interesting, and I mentioned it on Wednesday#8217;s radio show: I looked at the voting done by writers in | Army Memo the NL Central markets. | (Two from Calendar Plugin Web Resources, each city.) In an attempt to filter potential bias, I didn#8217;t count the First Job Resume Template | four ballots coming from Chicago and In Word | Resume Format And Resume Maker, St. Louis. Job Resume Template. I also excluded one vote from Milwaukee, because it was cast by In Word | Resume Format And Resume, a New York-based writer that has no affiliation with the Job Resume Template Milwaukee market.

The five relevant voters in Cincinnati, Milwaukee and How To Marketing, Pittsburgh obviously saw the First Template | Cubs and the Cardinals more often than the Clearance Template & Publisher voters based in First Template | the NL East or NL West. Resume Format Format And Resume Maker. And they had more familiarity with the relative merits of Maddon and Template |, Matheny#8217;s managing. The five pertinent voters from Cincinnati, Milwaukee and Pittsburgh cast their first-place ballots this way: We can parse this in & Competitor Analysis In Ppt any number of ways. We can laugh as we point to past voting results, see all of the National League #8220;Manager of the First Job Resume | Year#8221; winners that soon were fired. San Diego#8217;s Bud Black , the Marketing - Salesforce winner in 2o10 (Fired in 2015.) Arizona#8217;s Kirk Gibson , winner in Job Resume | 2011. (Fired in Market & Competitor 2104.) Washington#8217;s Davey Johnson , winner in 2012. Job Resume Template | (Nudged into Jquery Event Calendar Web Resources For Designers, retirement a season later.) Pittsburgh#8217;s Clint Hurdle , winner in First Job Resume Template | 2013 (a great choice, and still thriving with the Pirates.) Washington#8217;s Matt Williams , winner in Tag Sale Poster - Word & Publisher 2014 #8212; and Job Resume Template |, fired at the end of - Hope Oceania Church 2015.

We can come to understand the First Job Resume Template relative foolishness of this endeavor when we realize that Whitey Herzog (Hall of Fame manager) was voted Manager of the Year in Clearance Tag Sale - Word his league one time. And that Bruce Bochy , who has managed San Francisco to First Job Resume, three World Series titles, has a single Manager of the Resume Samples In Word Format Year award on Job Resume |, his resume, and Event | Free Web Resources For Designers, that was handed to him back in 1996. (Bochy was managing San Diego at the time.) I#8217;ve written this before but it#8217;s worth mentioning again: two of the Template most acclaimed managers of their day, Herzog and Bochy, have as Manager of the Year awards (one apiece) as Gibson, Jim Tracy , Larry Dierker , Tony Pena , Eric Wedge , Williams, Jerry Manuel , Jimy Williams , Gene Lamont , Black and Jeff Torborg . I#8217;ll get on board early for 2016 and 11+ Vacation Memo, predict a fourth career Manager of the Year award for Dusty Baker who was hired by Washington a couple of Job Resume weeks ago. Program Oceania | Australia | New. He#8217;s my betting favorite because the Nationals are very talented and First Job Resume, capable of an instant turnaround. Baker#8217;s positive energy will make a major impact. Baker will need an Event Calendar For Designers, advance favor from the First writers; they#8217;ll have to pick the Jquery | Free Nationals to finish second, maybe third. And if the Nats proceed to win the First | NL East in 2016 after flopping in 2015, the narrative writes itself. The Washington job already has lured the Jquery Event Calendar Web Resources For Designers writers into First Template |, this expectations-game trap. & Competitor Analysis Template In Ppt. Not once #8212; but twice.

Davey Johnson was apparently a mystical magi in Job Resume Template | 2012 #8230; and evidently a detached old coot a year later, in 2013. Matt Williams was apparently the rookie-manager firebrand that motivated the Nationals in Churches Church | New Zealand 2014 #8230; and evidently an aloof, incompetent and irredeemable buffoon a year later in First Job Resume | 2015. Jquery Event | Free For Designers. So I#8217;m thinking there#8217;s a good chance of this comical cycle #8212; genius, bum, genius, bum #8212; will begin anew in Job Resume | Washington next season. Menu Ideas On Pinterest Website. I don#8217;t know what any of Job Resume Template | this means for Matheny. But as long as he continues to win more games than his 29 peers, I think he#8217;ll be OK with that. Checklist | Army Memo. Thanks for reading #8230; Matheny was caught #8220;flat footed#8221; in the playoffs. That is true, since, as the Template manager, he can#8217;t make the plays (fielding a bunt or ground ball to second in A B2b Marketing - Salesforce Game 2 vs, the Cubs), or make the critical pitches (Lackey allowing a hit to First Job Resume Template, the pitcher and HR to a light-hitting shortstop) . I do think he looks a bit flat-footed when watching from the dugout. Can#8217;t argue with that. I hope you#8217;re joking.

Spot on. Samples In Word And Resume Maker. BTW, here#8217;s a pretty laughable note about the First Job Resume voting. Two of the Market & Competitor Template NL MOTY voters (representing Chicago LA) are from Japanese publications. Now that alone shouldn#8217;t necessarily disqualify them #8212; for First | all I know they#8217;re more qualified than most. - Hope Churches. BUT they aren#8217;t beat writers covering a specific team or MLB as a whole (like Verducci et al).

Their jobs are pretty much solely about covering Japanese players in First Job Resume Template MLB, which still might not be an issue except that other than an aging and Strategy Uk Blog, platooning Ichiro, ALL of the top current Japanese players are in the AL (Darvish, Tanaka, Iwakuma, Uehara, etc). Hard to imagine they spent any significant time #8220;covering #8221; the NL. | (Both voted for Analysis In Ppt Maddon of First Job Resume Template | course) I will try to be objective in responding, but in Samples In Word Format Maker fairness admittedly Matheny at times drives me crazy with in-game decisions and at times appears to be frozen in time on |, the dugout steps. Program Zealand. I agree it is Template |, more than fair to Market & Competitor Template, judge a manager based on wins and that likewise it makes sense to point out how they got there such as managing through injuries or mentoring rookies. But there is another dimension to that, namely at what cost did you pay for First those wins and in Matheny#8217;s situation he paid dearly by way, way over-using Maness, Siegrist, Rosenthal, Peralta, Yadi, and arguably bears some blame for Of Recommendation For Friend pushing two young starters Wacha and Job Resume Template |, Martinez beyond a prudent amount of Of Recommendation For Jobs innings given the former#8217;s previous season injury and First, the latter#8217;s record number of innings pitched. For reasons only known to & Competitor Analysis Template In Ppt, him, Matheny could have used Pham and Garcia more and First Job Resume Template, could have made wider use of Of Recommendation For Friend his bullpen instead of First Job Resume Template going to the well way too often with the usual suspects. Of Recommendation For Jobs. Instead, he oversaw a ton of | wins, but at two key points the All Star Break and the end of the Samples | Resume And Resume Maker regular season it was clear to any observer that he had sunk his ship in order to Job Resume, reach the harbor (playoffs). Given that, I find it really difficult to 11+ Vacation Checklist Memo, see him as the | manager of the year and all the Market & Competitor Template In Ppt more so if you throw in his suspect in-game managing. Job Resume Template | But he did all that in an effort to Best Ideas On Pinterest | Restaurant Website, win the First Job Resume | division, which he did. If he hadn#8217;t done all that the Cards would have gotten knocked out a week earlier than they did (in the WC game). Resume Samples In Word Format Format And Resume. And a quibble: you say he #8220;arguably bears some blame#8221; for Wacha and Martinez, but it#8217;s a weak argument indeed.

It#8217;s Mo#8217;s responsibility to chart out their use and First Job Resume |, enforce the Program - Hope | New Zealand limits he and MM decide on together. He is Template |, Matheny#8217;s boss. Mo#8217;s the one who should have given them a month off around the All-Star break when Cooney was still healthy. & Competitor In Ppt. Mo is First Job Resume Template, similarly to blame for being too conservative at the trade deadline, especially with regards to Jquery Calendar | Free, pitching and infield help, which he has basically admitted since the season ended. I am a huge fan of Mo and believe him to Job Resume |, be one of the top 3 GMs in baseball, but he had some #8220;flat-footedness#8221; of his own going on this season. I look forward to Samples In Word Format | Resume And Resume Maker, him adjusting for the future. I believe he will, because if he doesn#8217;t he#8217;s not as good as I think he is. Understand and First, respect your points. The question though is what#8217;s the goal?

To win the 11+ Vacation division or to position yourself to win in the playoffs. Winning pennants is nice, but making sure you can field a competitive team come playoffs is Job Resume, paramount if winning the Clearance Poster - Word & Publisher World Series is your ultimate goal. First Template | Bernie would have to Samples | Resume Format And Resume Maker, answer this to make sure I am correct, but my understanding is Mo#8217;s relationship with Matheny is Job Resume, based on Tag Sale & Publisher, Mo providing him the Template | talent, but Matheny decides on how to Of Recommendation For Friend, use it as the manager. By no means am I saying Matheny needs to First Job Resume Template, go, rather only saying if the In Word Format entirety of First Job Resume Template | your season comes down to 11+ Vacation Checklist, the manager wrecking a Ferrari, then he bears responsibility. First | As for Maddon, I can tip my cap to How To Develop A B2b Marketing Strategy - Salesforce Uk Blog, him but completely agree with Bernie that his winning was driven by Job Resume |, a media narrative more than anything else. Oceania | Australia Church | New Zealand. As for First Job Resume Template | Mo, I agree. His bets haven#8217;t paid off mid-season but in fairness to him between the death of Taveras and How To Marketing Strategy, the multitude of injuries, he wasn#8217;t in a great negotiating position in Job Resume terms of Jquery Event Plugin For Designers trades. Agree in general. I still think you#8217;re misplacing blame from Job Resume |, Mo onto Poster Template & Publisher, Matheny. And IMO winning the division in the two-WC system is First Job Resume, SYNONYMOUS with positioning yourself for Resume In Word | Resume Format Maker the playoffs, or at least it was this year. Would you really have preferred Matheny to Job Resume Template |, better rest his players but then go up against Arrieta in A B2b Strategy - Salesforce the WC game?

As I said, if Matheny had done what you#8217;re criticizing him for First Job Resume NOT doing, the Of Recommendation For Jobs Cards post-season would have ended even a week earlier. I didn#8217;t see you respond to that but I can#8217;t see how you can disagree with it. I take issue with the First Template | Ferrari metaphor. A B2b - Salesforce. The team this year after all the injuries was a Mustang at best and First Job Resume Template |, it was racing a Ferrari and a Lamborghini. Best Menu Website. Matheny won the race with it anyway, but in doing so the car overheated and couldn#8217;t race anymore. I get what you are saying but unless I am mistaken, Matheny is the guy who fills out the line-up card and First Template |, decides when to make subs and pitching changes and as such to - Hope Churches | Australia Church | New Zealand, the extent he overused the First Template | usual suspects, that#8217;s on him. Absolutely, there is also organizational fault here whether it was bringing Holliday back too soon or questionable weight room training that felled Grichuk twice and Carpenter at least once (fatigue). Market & Competitor Analysis. Lastly, the reason I used Ferrari as an First, analogy was that given its torque reserve, you can afford to take your foot off the gas and know that extra power is there when you need it.

Yes, technically, he one the Checklist Format race, but isn#8217;t that more akin to winning a qualifying race or time trials? PS: As I need to Template |, step into a meeting, my comments here aren#8217;t to Format, trash Matheny at all. He#8217;s a great guy and First Job Resume Template |, I admire his position on Of Recommendation For Jobs, youth coaching. Rather they are just focused on what kind of First Template | learning curve he needs to Jquery Event Calendar Plugin Web Resources For Designers, go through in First order to have more success in Analysis Template the post-season. I think we#8217;re talking past each other. Agree to Job Resume, disagree? I appreciate how consistently respectful you maintain these discussions. Resume In Word Format | Resume Format And Resume Maker. Agreed. And yes, it is First Job Resume, amazing to Tag Sale Poster - Word, see how many online #8220;debates#8221; quickly become laced with vitriol and devolve from there.

Best/ct. Great thoughts yet again Bernie. I especially liked how you analyzed the votes from NL Central writers, fascinating. I#8217;m actually surprised Matheny got as many votes as he did, just because I generally consider the media to be as bumbling as you characterized above. I thought Maddon would be near-unanimous.

A fair amount of First Template them got it right though, more than I thought would anyway. Agree with you that detailing the Central#8217;s votes is very illuminating and telling. Plugin | Free For Designers. Previous Story Lack of Triple Crown Threats Another Reminder of First Job Resume Easier Sports Era. Next Story Daily Bernie: Apr. 21 Crunch Time for Tarasenko?; Cards Suiting Cuban Prospect Luis Robert.

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Importance Of Education In Our Life. A society which is uneducated cannot think on First Job Resume Template, rational lines. In the Clearance Poster - Word & Publisher, medieval period, long before the renaissance, people often fought mindless wars that resulted in bloodshed as they were illiterate and Job Resume, ignorant. Best 25+ Food Ideas Only On Pinterest Website? Importance of education in modern times cannot be understated as it forms an First Job Resume | integral part of our lives in Market following ways: Improve position in society: All money in First | the world will not give you satisfaction and prestige as the education can.

Women were enslaved and looked down upon due to the lack of education. As they become literate the outlook of the society improved. In fact, if you want to move within the 25+ Food Menu Ideas On Pinterest | Restaurant Website, certain segment of the people, it is important to First Template, be qualified or get a certain level of education. Eliminating superstitions: Superstitions have percolated to every part of the society with people blindly following them without any scientific base. Clearance? They have existed since ancient times, however, educated person questions the age old customs and practices. He / she doesn’t follow the rituals blindly because change is the name of the game on the planet. Rational thinking: Believing anything without a reason is not the trait of an educated person.

For instance, a farmer may not able to analyze the fertility of the soil and Template |, determine the type of the crops that are to be grown. In olden times, in the absence of research, people used to pray to the rain gods for a good harvest. Best 25+ Food Menu Ideas | Restaurant Website? Therefore, education is necessary to remove the different evils of the society. Education helps in evolution: Education plays an important role in the evolution of human life. Television became the Template |, household commodity in the 20th century while internet took over in 21st. Advancement in technology is only possible due to - Hope Oceania Churches Church | New, the education. Ignorant people are not able to understand the logic behind the natural phenomenon and are not able to develop a vision for the future.

Wide exposure: Through the use of educating, we come to know about the different cultures and traditions in the world. It helps people to become more tolerant of each other. Wide exposure enhances the knowledge base of the individuals and prepares them to face the challenges of life in Job Resume Template | a better manner. A B2b Marketing Uk Blog? In olden times, due to sheer ignorance, foreign travel was considered an unholy activity and people had to undergo a purification process. Independent decision making: Education plays a very important role in First decision making by gaining feedback from others. A logical person would plan accordingly before starting any business venture. If you are learned and Jquery Event Web Resources For Designers, knowledgeable, it is easier to plan the economic activity and determine whether it is profitable. Healthy lifestyle: Health is wealth is an old adage but the proverb holds a lot of meaning in modern times. People are now aware of the benefits of the vegetables and Job Resume Template |, fruits however in past they were ignorant due to How To Marketing, lack of education. As they are able to read, it is First |, possible to view the blogs related to health on the internet.

More and more people know how fresh food provides vitamins and minerals to improve the immune system of the body. In addition, they have detailed knowledge about the symptoms that help them to get timely help from the diseases. Using new techniques to improve productivity: Education is essential to incorporate new techniques to improve the productivity of the employees. For instance, if the workers are not educated, they cannot use the machines which would help to boost the production. In other works, you have to be knowledgeable and skilled in a particular stream to perform various tasks in the modern world. Farmers should also update their knowledge about the new methods of irrigation to make agriculture more effective. Ethical values: As people become more informed, they know what is right and what is wrong. Hence, the society in all likelihood would not resort to wars however ignorance breeds prejudices and hatred. Medieval and the first as well second world wars are the result of biased thinking due to lack of modern and rational education. Working in a cross-cultural environment: An illiterate person may not be able to migrate to an alien land and Market & Competitor Template In Ppt, work with the natives however educated people would take it up as a challenge and do everything to achieve success. It is a wonderful attitude that develops due to the accumulation of First Job Resume Template, knowledge perfectly capable of removing the darkness of ignorance.

Growth of the country: Developing nations around the world have achieved 100% literacy. Educated society develops quickly because they are not bounded by the narrow realms of caste, creed, and religion. Instead, it focuses on the problems that hamper daily living. The government elected by the educated citizens service the nation rather than ruling it. A corruption free society is Samples In Word Format, only possible when people are blessed with the true knowledge of life. Lower infant mortality rate: Educated mothers are in a better position to take care of the newborn infants. They consume nutritious food and supplements for the child so that he or she is First Job Resume Template, born healthy. Mother listens to get doctors advice and gets her kids immunized to prevent the occurrence of life-threatening diseases. In addition, education parents focus on the all-round development of the children. Education is A B2b Strategy, responsible for Job Resume Template, achieving the goals in life: An ignorant individual would never be able to plan and Ideas Only On Pinterest, achieve success. It is Job Resume Template |, only possible with the help of Develop A B2b Marketing - Salesforce Uk Blog, sustained education at different levels.

Without the capability to read, write and think, human life is no better than an animal. Knowledge provides numerous means to the people to accomplish the goals. For instance, if you want to become a successful entrepreneur, it is necessary to get an First Template education about the relevant business domain. Conclusion: Child attending schools are taught under the supervision of capable teachers. They understand the essence of life and gain invaluable knowledge about their surroundings. Fostering basic principles of humanity and reasoning, the modern education is an eye opener for every person on earth. In short, a balanced life and reputed standing in society is only possible with the shining light of knowledge. This essay is also available in Spanish. I took the inspiration for this essay from ThePensters. They can help you in essay writing along with the Poster Template - Word, educational process. Job Resume Template | Don’t forget to share your thoughts about importance of education in How To A B2b Uk Blog the comments below.

importance of education importance of education essay importance of education in life education essay essay on importance of First Job Resume, education importance of - Hope Oceania | Australia | New Zealand, education in Job Resume our life essay on education essay about education important of education Importance of education in Program | Australia Church | New society. 49 responses to “Importance Of Education In Our Life” There is no doubt education is really important for humans. And I truly agree to Template, your statement that education is not limited to age. I recently read an article about a 92 years old lady who is Jquery Calendar Plugin For Designers, pursuing a doctorate degree from Sydney University, Australia. Her name is Lis Kirkby. Job Resume | You can Google her name to know more about her. This proves that there is no age limit to How To A B2b - Salesforce Uk Blog, education. Tony, Thanks for sharing the story about First Job Resume Lis. Truly inspiring!

yes , you are absolutely right, sir. Can anyone tell me who the author to the commentary is? Without education, one couldn’t achieve big in his/her life. I’m not talking about the education you take from schools or college. There have been so many examples in the past when people who don’t hold any big degree in their hands but changed the Template, world.

Yeah, I strongly agree that. Yes i agree with you. Yes, because Education is the key to success.I hope you learn something about what I said it is short but brief . realy,education is Template |, very necessary for all human being it can not deny.if a person has no education they can not prove theirselves. A saying is that-wisdom is worshiped everywhere but king is Resume Format And Resume Maker, not…… education is everything that you need in life it provides a world to be a better place. Subjects ends with classroom but education ends with life. I like your thinking very much. without education life is Job Resume |, possible in modern period of time.

human beings are incomplete without education. thank you so much for learn about education….. It is really awesome that education is very necessary.i read all the comments. And they told the importance of education . Man without education is like a complete living being without an eye site.Just imagine. Education is like the most important food we will ever need (WATER). I do not think that man would have ever existed up to now in the absent of education (KNOWLEDGE). Thank alots for your posting. NO EDUCATION NO DEVELOPMENT. Education is very important to because it makes our future bright. Education begin at the knees of a mother.

Educatiion is a big achievments for people who aim a lot to explore the real essence of life! #128578; as i know, education is just for learn and earn. education also defines ur personality. No doubt, education is the basic foundation of Poster Template - Word & Publisher, any human being who wants to succeed in life and want to achieve his/her goals. Job Resume | But today’s education system is totally f****d up. Education has become a business and teachers don’t take pride in their profession like before. Education is a must for every living being. In today’s world, education has become a need. It is true that there is no life without education. Well thanks for providing us a short and sweat essay on Web Resources For Designers, such a great topic.

Nice Essay I am thankful to the writer of this essay . I prepared my assignment with the help of this essay. Truly impressive Thank you sir! Very helpful to me. sure education is the key to human success in life. their is this saying that says he who is Job Resume, not educated can never be forgiven of his sin but he that has education can be forgiving I believe that in term of moral norms and values.thanks. To acheive our Ultimate goal in life education is the Event Plugin | Free, most important point. Was a very pleasing and soothing explanation on education. Explained all basic and Template, necessity thing that a educated man has. Really was a very soothing and heart touching essay . Thanks my essay point.

I completed my English project because of your essay. Teaches us the real sense of education ? The points given are wonderful, all is true and was nicely explained or pointed out. Education really is a magnificent thing that shouldn’t be neglected and should be experienced or should have by everyone. Education as stated has not only one but many more advantages and gifts to Event Calendar | Free Web Resources, an individual and to the society itself, education produces knowledge that when honed can become a sustainable competitive advantage of an individual and of a company. Education also not just produces knowledge but also builds confidence for First Job Resume Template, anyone to put into action what he/she has learned or gained. This essay is Plugin | Free Web Resources For Designers, a truly powerful one. thanks to First Job Resume Template |, the writer. Very nice and helpful essay.Helped a lot with my assignment.Good job with this essay. A man without education, Life is incomplete.Every life is not possible to achieve his /her goal without education.

Education is never ending process… The story of LIS is Program Oceania Churches | New, very inspiring. at 45 I’m doubtful about pursuing my masters degree, coz i thought I AM too old for First Job Resume |, this, but LIS at 92 pursuing her doctorate. This showed me that education has no age limit. i will make a go of Poster Template - Word, it. First Job Resume? thanks for sharing lis story. Eduction is a thing which is very important for 25+ Food Menu On Pinterest | Restaurant Website, our life. When we take risk then we will get education. nice essay … its help me a lot.. First Job Resume | thanks this essay show the importance of education not only in our life but also in our society. education is very important for Tag Sale Poster Template - Word, every person . well educated people make good society .. yea really agree with you education is the First Template, noblest of all life’s concept even the bible says that you should preserve your education for it is your future and this means that WD have to Calendar | Free Web Resources For Designers, account for it in the presence of the author/creator.

I truly agree with u master ji. Education is an First essential human virtue, a necessity of society, basis of good life and sign of freedom. Education is important for integration of separate entities. Let’s take a look at the importance of education in Jquery | Free our life: If you are in your academic career, then you might be hearing the words like ‘Education is Must’, ‘There is no Life without Education’ etc., right? So, why all such words come from people around you? What is the importance of education in our life? Forget about it for a while! First, do you know what education really is? Those who don’t, here is definition of education by First Job Resume

“The process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, esp. at a school or university: “a new system of public education”. Well, the education is Samples In Word Format | Resume Format And Resume, not limited to schools or colleges only, nor it is limited to age. Job Resume Template? The things happening in Marketing Strategy - Salesforce Uk Blog the practical life also educate us. First Template? Anyways, coming to the question in hand, read out the importance of How To A B2b Marketing, education in our life below. Education Makes Better Citizens. Man is |, nothing but an animal. It is the education that teaches him many things, teaches the manners, rules and regulations of life etc. All these things result in 25+ Food Menu Ideas converting man from an animal to well-mannered citizen. Nothing in the life can be achieved if we don’t have belief on ourselves. Education is what brings self-confidence in us.

We get the confidence of First Template, doing the things on our own. Our self-confidence then helps us in passing all the difficulties that come on way to our aim. Education also makes us better in communication with others. An educated person lives a happy life always. He/she has a bright future that on one can pull from them. Education wakes the hidden talent and skills of any person. This hidden talent and skills give us employment and a completely secure future. It is the education that helps us in achieving new heights in our life. An educated person tries to understand each and every thing on its own rather than blindly following anyone else.

This results in spreading awareness everywhere. An educated person does not only reject the misconceptions him/herself, but also explains the real logic behind any happening, to others. Thus education clears out the darkness with the intense light of knowledge. Educated Persons Help in Progress of Program - Hope | Australia Church Zealand, Country. People of any particular country can live happily only if the country has all the resources, or simply say, country is rich in every aspect.

Educated persons know pretty well that what is wrong and what is right. They do not need to follow the words of third person. Educated persons are well aware from their country’s rules and laws. They know pretty well about their duties and First Job Resume |, fundamental rights. They know the value of paying taxes, and thus pay their taxes on Resume Samples Format | Resume, time. All these qualities of First Template |, educated persons help them play a vital role in the progress of their country. So, this was the In Ppt, list of some benefits of education in our life. If there is no education, then there is no life. All those of you who are reading in good schools and First Template |, colleges are indeed very lucky.

You all have the golden chance to own the ornament-like study, and to get yourself counted in Jquery Event Plugin | Free Web Resources For Designers the list of educated people. U r absulutely right. Education is the key of success without education human being couldn’t achieve anywhere in your life. First? Really education is most important for all human beings. If a person has no educated then he can’t prove themselves. For example :- I am saying some words, this is right up to great extent. Wisdom is worshipped everywhere but king is not. Education is more important because it makes our bright future better citizens. Market & Competitor? This always defines our personality. It was very helpful.

It’s very helpful for me. I really like your essay, it has given me inspiration for my year 6 speech thanks.

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A life science recruiter's blog on placing RD professionals. First | What Biotech Recruiters Look For In A Good CV. What do biotech recruiters expect in Calendar For Designers a good CV (Curriculum Vitae) of a life science professional? How do they tell a good CV from a bad one? As an executive recruiter who specializes in finding life scientists and doctors, I review thousands of CVs and over the years I have developed a pattern in First Job Resume Template my CV review process. I search for Best 25+ Food On Pinterest Website, specific items in a certain order and if the First item is Program - Hope Oceania | Australia | New unacceptable or missing, the CV and Job Resume | hence candidate will be rejected. Below is what I seek in a good CV to quickly pinpoint strong candidates for Tag Sale Poster & Publisher, my current pharma and First Job Resume Template biotech jobs as well as for - Hope | Australia | New, any future positions I might have. Each item is listed in First Job Resume the order of what is most important to me as an executive recruiter for pharmaceutical and Tag Sale Poster biotechnology companies. Most of the first few steps in my process only take seconds. A candidate€™s CV holds my interest depending on: 1. Educational Experience : I only recruit PhD or MD candidates and if someone does not have at least one of these degrees I have no interest in the person and he will be rejected.

Next I look to see where the First Job Resume person got his PhD or MD. I hate to Calendar Plugin For Designers, be a snob when it comes to schools, but the fact of the matter is | a client will react more favorably to a candidate from a top school. Of course work experience counts too and Samples In Word Format | Resume Format someone who has risen well through the ranks and done well for himself will not be penalized for Template, not attending the best schools. I always take into consideration the fact that perhaps there were extenuating circumstances, such as cost, that prohibited a candidate from attending a top school. Next I check when the PhD was received. Although I am not allowed to discriminate for Oceania Church | New Zealand, age, I do need to quickly get a handle as to the approximate amount of experience I am dealing with. Someone who is just past postdoc or residency is in a different ballpark than someone with 10-15 years under their belt. By looking at the year of Job Resume |, graduation I can quickly ascertain whether someone has the right level of Clearance Poster Template - Word & Publisher, experience for First Template, the position I am working on. Then there are a few other items I scan in the educational section of a CV. I like to Clearance Tag Sale, see if an MD candidate is Board Certified and if so in what specialty.

I note where a medical doctor did his training and for how many years. Likewise, I look to see where a PhD candidate did his postdoctoral work. I check to see if there were large gaps during the educational process and try to figure out First Template what this means (perhaps the Best Menu Ideas person had to work his way through school and Job Resume | could only attend part time). Candidates take note: Since education and training are so critical for a scientist in the pharma and Jquery Event Calendar | Free biotech industries I like to see this information at the beginning portion of a CV and not buried further down. Please don€™t make me go flipping through pages of information about committees you are on First or conferences where you have spoken. These are important items but not as critical as your education and training. Analysis. 2. Current Employer : After educational background the next important thing to me in a good CV is where a candidate is currently employed. A person who was hired by a quality pharmaceutical company like Merck, or biotechnology company, like Genentech, goes higher up on the list than someone from a company I never heard of. Of course I do not know all the life sciences companies, especially new ones, and if I don€™t recognize a company I will scroll down to Template, see where else the Marketing Uk Blog candidate has worked before passing judgment.

And generally it is a negative if I see a candidate is consulting because clients want currently employed candidates and ideally ones from their competitors. However I recognize there are circumstances when a person might have to consult in Template order to make a living until they find their next job. And I know many great people were downsized, through no fault of their own, because pharma and biotechs have cut jobs to stay viable during difficult times. Market. All this gets mentally calculated when I do a quick scan of a CV. But if a person has been a consultant for many years I usually will bypass the person. Clients and recruiters are afraid consultants are not a team players and are too independent to stay on at their company. Some consultants use recruiters and say they want a full time job when in Job Resume Template fact they just want the opportunity to sell their consulting company to the client. 3. Current Title: Titles say a lot about the Clearance Tag Sale - Word & Publisher candidate.

A Principal Research Scientist or Investigator is a different animal than a Vice President. One is on the technical track and Job Resume | one is on the management track. The title will quickly pinpoint whether a candidate is right for Resume Samples In Word Maker, a life science job I am working on. 4. First Job Resume. Previous Companies: Just as the current employer is so important previous employers also paint a picture of the candidate. Did the person recently leave academia to go to Market & Competitor Analysis Template In Ppt, industry? Did the person start in biotech and First Job Resume Template then migrate to big pharma?

Or the more normal track would be to work many years in big pharma and then test the waters in biotech. The companies a person has listed will reveal to the recruiter whether he or she is a risk taker. If I see a person has spent his entire career in big pharma, it might be a hard sell to convince the Resume Format Format candidate to go to my tiny startup client. First Job Resume. 5. Career Progression: Closely connected with current and previous employment is Best 25+ Food Menu Ideas how a candidate has progressed from job to job. Was there a position of more responsibility and title with each new role? Did the person go backwards (not good), say from a VP to Job Resume Template, a Director? Did the candidate strive for increasingly better quality companies? 6. Job Hoppers: Next I look at the number of Market & Competitor In Ppt, years that a candidate has worked at a company. Template. Did he leave after only one or two years from several companies?

Did he have a long career at one particular company and then hop around, which could be a sign the candidate just hasn€™t found the right fit? Perhaps the & Competitor Analysis candidate is in biotech and hence moved from Job Resume Template |, job to job as individual companies were sold or shut their doors. When dealing with biotech candidates this has to be taken into consideration when it comes to Best Only Website, a CV with frequent moves listed. Template. Then again, it isn€™t always a great candidate either who has stayed at one place their whole career. Such a person might be inflexible and fear changes. He or she might be a dinosaur and certainly hasn€™t gained from the experience of trying new corporate cultures. | Free For Designers. 7. Publications and Patents: Before a more thorough check of publications and patents, I do a quick review of the quantity and quality of the publications listed by the candidate. A good CV will have many publications with many or at least one at top journals, like Science. I check to see if the candidate in Job Resume Template question was a first author on some of the papers. Although some companies will not allow much publishing by their employees, a strong candidate will have a strong publication record.

8. Speaker or Chair at Scientific Meetings: A good CV will have a record of speaking or chairing scientific meetings. This tells me, the Tag Sale Template - Word biotech recruiter, that his scientific colleagues deem the scientist a leader in his field. On the opposite extreme someone with a padded speaker list begs the question, €śwhen does this guy get any real work done?€ť Another point I note is First Template | which meetings are listed on a CV as this is & Competitor Analysis as important as having the Job Resume | right journals for publications. 9. Spelling and punctuation errors: Many of the scientists and doctors, who send me their CV, took heavy science courses in college and were not English majors. So an eloquently written CV is Clearance Poster - Word not to be expected.

Mistakes can occur since so many scientific words end up underlined in red by spell checkers allowing a common misspelled word to be overlooked. And really in this day and age of spell checkers and autocorrect, who hasn€™t had the wrong spelling for a word included in written work? (I for one often type €śfro€ť instead of Job Resume, €śfor€ť and my computer does not pick this up. Sorry readers if you spot this in my posts.) However, blatant and Market consistent errors should not happen and the candidates should always have another person, preferably someone who writes English well, proof read the First CV. 10. Keywords and Descriptive Text: I know keywords are important so recruitment software can spot qualifications etc., but at the higher level I recruit for, I don€™t like to see a lot of Analysis, keywords or skills listed. By the time someone has worked the number of years I need for my positions, most necessary keywords are embedded just in the natural flow of writing about the various roles the candidate has accomplished.

Instead, I like descriptive sentences telling me exactly what a person did at each job. Remember a two page short CV is not expected of Template |, scientists when they have such technical positions to describe. And don€™t dumb down your CV but also don€™t assume all readers will understand your technical lingo. Again it pays to How To A B2b Uk Blog, have a non- scientist proof read the CV to be sure it is Job Resume Template readable by a lay person as well as to the scientific hiring manager. Another interesting post titled, #8220;What Recruiters look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend on Your Resume#8221; by Vivian Giang came to Market & Competitor, my attention after I wrote this post. But it has some very good advice. For one, it mentions what recruiters look for most and First these are exactly what I mentioned above: #8220;In the short time that they spend with your resume, the study showed recruiters will look at your name, current title and A B2b - Salesforce company, current position start and First Template end dates, previous title and company, previous position start and end dates, and education.#8221; The post also states that you should create a CV with a #8220;clear visual hierarchy#8221; as these get greater attention from recruiters. As someone who only recruits scientists, I know how to spot the €śreal deal€ť quickly while reviewing a CV. The above points should help candidates who want to write a good CV that will catch the eye of pharma or biotech recruiters. 01/22/14 Recruiters spend about - Hope Oceania | Australia | New 6 seconds reviewing a resume or CV.

But as a life science recruiter, I spend a few more seconds. I also check out the quantity and quality of scientific publications. Remember the number of publications isn#8217;t as important if they are not in top tier science journals like Science. The Differences Working for First Job Resume |, Biotech vs. Pharma Review. The other day I was interviewed by author Mark Terry. Recruiting for 3 Life Science Jobs.

Clark Executive Search is searching for a Director, Translational Medicine. The Importance of Thank You Notes. Samples Format Maker. Thank you notes are an important key to. Review: #8220;Vault Career Guide to Job Resume Template |, Pharmaceuticals and Program - Hope | Australia | New Biotech#8221; The €śVault Career Guide to Pharmaceuticals and Biotech€ť.

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Downsizing the Federal Government. Your Guide to Cutting Federal Spending. The Federal Emergency Management Agency: Floods, Failures, and Federalism. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is the lead federal agency for disaster preparedness, response, and relief. FEMA’s budget fluctuates from year to Job Resume year, but spending has trended sharply upwards in recent decades.

The agency spent $22 billion in fiscal 2013 and $10 billion in & Competitor, fiscal 2014. The main activity of FEMA is First Job Resume, distributing aid to individuals and state and local governments after natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes. In addition, the agency provides ongoing grants to the states for Tag Sale Poster - Word & Publisher, disaster preparedness, and it operates the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA’s response to some major disasters has been slow, disorganized, and profligate. The agency’s actions have sometimes been harmful, such as when it has blocked the relief efforts of Template |, other organizations.

FEMA’s dismal response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005 dramatized the agency’s bureaucratic dysfunction. FEMA’s grants for disaster preparedness are known for wastefulness. As for the NFIP, its insurance subsidies are spurring development in flood-prone areas, which in turn is & Competitor In Ppt, increasing the | damage caused by floods. The NFIP also encourages an expansion of federal regulatory control over local land-use planning. Federalism is A B2b Marketing - Salesforce, supposed to undergird America’s system of First Job Resume, handling disasters, particularly natural disasters. State, local, and private organizations should play the dominant role. Looking at American history, many disasters have generated large outpourings of aid by individuals, businesses, and charitable groups.

Today, however, growing federal intervention is undermining the role of private institutions and the states in handling disasters. Policymakers should reverse course and begin cutting FEMA. Ultimately, the agency should be closed down by How To Marketing - Salesforce Uk Blog, ending aid programs for disaster preparedness and relief and privatizing flood insurance. President Jimmy Carter created the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by executive order in 1979 to coordinate the government’s growing involvement in Job Resume, disasters. Among federal agencies, FEMA has the lead role in Best Menu Only | Restaurant Website, helping communities respond to both natural and man-made disasters. However, the great bulk of First Job Resume Template |, FEMA spending is for natural disasters, which are the main focus of this essay.

Aside from Jquery Plugin | Free, disaster relief, FEMA provides ongoing aid to the states for emergency preparedness, and it operates the First | National Flood Insurance Program. FEMA employees are generally not first responders. Instead, their main role is providing financial aid to state and local governments and individuals. FEMA spent $10 billion in fiscal 2014, but annual expenditures fluctuate depending on the occurrence of Program Oceania | Australia | New, disasters. | 1 Spending has trended upwards in recent decades as federal aid packages have become larger and more frequent. Annual average FEMA spending was $0.7 billion in the 1980s, $2.8 billion in & Competitor Analysis In Ppt, the 1990s, $13 billion in First Job Resume |, the 2000s, and $13 billion so far in the 2010s. Since 2000, 61 percent of FEMA spending has been for disaster relief, 20 percent has been for ongoing grants to state and Event Calendar For Designers local governments, and First | 12 percent has gone to the NFIP. 2 The remaining 7 percent has gone to other programs and administrative costs.

Prior to the mid-20th century, federal involvement in disasters was generally limited to the activities of the U.S. military, which provided relief after some major disasters. There was very little civilian federal involvement in disasters, which were the responsibility of state and local governments and Resume Samples In Word Format the private sector. But since the 1950s, federal intervention has grown as numerous laws have expanded the scope of federal authority and as policymakers have increased spending. Nonetheless, the federal role is Template, still supposed to be very limited under current law. Under the 1988 Stafford Act, the federal government is supposed to get involved in disasters only if they are of “such severity and magnitude that effective response is A B2b Uk Blog, beyond the capabilities of the state and the affected local governments.” 3 A very limited federal role is appropriate under the American system of federalism. Template | State and local governments and the private sector should fund disaster preparedness and relief for disasters by themselves, unless it is truly beyond their capabilities. And even then, states hit by disasters can rely on aid from other states. Federal involvement is Develop Marketing Strategy Uk Blog, appropriate when it has unique capabilities to offer. First. The Coast Guard’s search and & Competitor Template In Ppt rescue operations are often vital after hurricanes.

And the National Guard under state command can provide a crucial resource after major disasters, both for First Job Resume Template, law enforcement purposes and relief operations. Other federal agencies have unique resources to - Hope | Australia Church Zealand deal with threats such as terrorism, pandemics, and chemical and biological attacks. However, the great majority of what FEMA does is not unique. Rather, FEMA’s main role is simply to Template | transfer money from federal taxpayers to state and local governments and individuals for disaster-related costs. Market & Competitor In Ppt. But there are few, if any, advantages in funding these costs from the federal level, and Template there are many disadvantages, as this study discusses. The first section provides a brief history of disaster response in the United States. The next section discusses the Oceania Churches Church Zealand threat posed by the rising federalization of disaster preparedness, response, and relief. Federal policymakers are increasingly ignoring the Stafford Act limit, which could undermine the effectiveness of the nation’s disaster response system. Then the study examines FEMA’s performance in disaster response. The agency’s efforts have often been plagued by First Job Resume Template, poor decisionmaking, wasteful spending, and excessive bureaucracy.

Some of its actions have been counterproductive and harmful. Best 25+ Food Ideas. FEMA’s confused response to Hurricane Katrina was a prime example of the dysfunction that the First Template | agency has become known for. Next, the - Hope Oceania | Australia Church | New study looks at FEMA’s ongoing grants to state and local governments for disaster preparedness, which are mainly grants for local emergency services. These grants have often wasted money on low-value activities. It is more efficient to fund local emergency services—such as fire and First Job Resume Template | police—locally. Lastly, the study examines the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).

For decades, the NFIP has been subsidizing development in flood-prone areas, which has ended up putting more property at risk and exacerbating the damage from floods. The NFIP has also undermined federalism by increasing federal regulation of local land-use planning. The essay concludes that policymakers should end FEMA aid for disaster preparedness, response, and Best Menu On Pinterest | Restaurant relief. They should repeal the NFIP and move flood insurance to the private sector. Those reforms would reduce FEMA spending by more than 90 percent. First Job Resume Template | Remaining activities that may fulfill a unique role—such as flood mapping, planning for the continuity of government, and preparedness for technological and radiological hazards—should be moved to other federal agencies. With these reforms, FEMA should be closed down. Since the 19th century, the federal government through the U.S. military has occasionally provided aid after major disasters. 25+ Food Menu Ideas On Pinterest. 4 Until the mid-20th century, however, civilian federal aid for disasters was rare. After some disasters, Congress passed specific relief legislation, but many times it did not.

Relief bills were often blocked because policymakers did not believe that aid was a proper role for the federal government. 5 Between 1803 and Job Resume | 1947, Congress passed legislation just 128 times to either express sympathy for Resume Samples In Word Format Format And Resume Maker, victims of particular disasters or to provide some modest aid. 6. In 1802 Portsmouth, New Hampshire, was destroyed by a fire. Fortunately, a large number of private donations totaling more than $45,000 poured in from around the Job Resume Template country to help rebuild the town. 7 Congress provided aid in the form of temporarily suspending duties owed to the federal government by merchants in the town. 8 Duties on Jquery Event Plugin | Free Web Resources, Portsmouth trade were an important source of federal revenues, so the government had an interest in allowing the merchants to get back on their feet. In 1812 Congress provided $50,000 for aid to victims of an earthquake in the new republic of Venezuela, apparently for foreign policy reasons. 9. In 1815 Congress passed the New Madrid Relief Act, which provided aid to rural Missourians after a series of earthquakes.

The aid bill led to dissention and First Job Resume scandal. The act allowed victims in Missouri to exchange their damaged properties for Tag Sale, certificates to acquire land elsewhere. But outside speculators descended on the area to Job Resume Template buy land at bargain prices from owners who had not yet heard about the federal relief. At the Clearance Template - Word same time, some owners who knew about the relief sold title to their land to multiple different speculators. The resulting unfairness of the process led to large amounts of litigation, which took decades to resolve. 10. In 1827 Congress gave $20,000 in aid to Alexandria, Virginia, after a major fire. Even though the town was part of the District of Columbia at the time, many members of |, Congress questioned the constitutionality of providing public money to aid private individuals. 11.

In 1835 the Great Fire of Manhattan razed 674 buildings over 50 acres in New York City. Congress passed legislation temporarily suspending payments owed to the federal government by the city’s affected merchants. 12. In 1871 the Great Chicago Fire left about Resume Samples In Word Format And Resume 300 people dead and 90,000 homeless. The U.S.

Army helped to restore order and provide security until the city got back on its feet. 13 Within days of the disaster, huge amounts of aid from individuals, charitable groups, businesses, and other cities poured in from around the nation and abroad. 14 Chicago rebuilt very quickly. The private organization Chicago Relief and Aid Society played the First dominant role in coordinating the huge relief efforts. & Competitor In Ppt. 15 The effective efforts of the Society were based on the organization’s deep roots in the local community and its skilled leadership by experienced business people. In 1878 Congress passed the First | Posse Comitatus Act, which has had important implications for the federal role in disasters. Program - Hope Oceania Churches Zealand. The Act generally bars military forces under federal command from being used for civilian law enforcement purposes. Job Resume Template. 16 Under current law, federal military personnel may be used for disaster relief operations at the request of a state, but not for law enforcement. 17 By contrast, National Guard units under the command of Jquery Calendar Plugin For Designers, state governors are available to First Template aid in law enforcement in disaster situations, as they were after Hurricane Katrina when the New Orleans police force collapsed.

In 1887 President Grover Cleveland famously vetoed a bill that would have provided $10,000 in aid to drought-stricken Texas farmers because of his concerns about constitutional federalism. Clearance Tag Sale Template - Word & Publisher. In his veto message, Cleveland said, I can find no warrant for Job Resume Template, such an appropriation in the Constitution; and How To A B2b Marketing - Salesforce I do not believe that the power and duty of the General Government ought to be extended to Job Resume Template the relief of individual suffering which is in no manner properly related to the public service or benefit. A prevalent tendency to disregard the limited mission of this power and Calendar Plugin For Designers duty should, I think, be steadily resisted, to the end that the lesson should be constantly enforced that, though the people support the Government, the Government should not support the people.” 18. In 1906 San Francisco was struck by a massive earthquake and fire that destroyed 80 percent of the city and killed about 3,000 people. 19 At least 225,000 people out of about 400,000 in the city were left homeless, and 28,000 buildings were wrecked. 20.

The San Francisco earthquake is remembered not just for the terrible destruction it caused, but also for the remarkably rapid rebuilding of the city. More than 200,000 residents initially left the city, but the population recovered to pre-quake levels within just three years, and residents quickly rebuilt about 20,000 buildings. 21. The private sector response to the disaster was extremely impressive. Job Resume. Voluntary aid poured in from around the country. John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and W.W. Astor, for example, each donated $100,000.

22 Charitable groups, including the Salvation Army and the Red Cross, played a large role in relief efforts. The health care and Samples In Word Format | Resume Maker home-products company Johnson and Johnson quickly loaded rail cars full of First |, donated medical supplies and sent them to San Francisco. 23. The insurance industry was crucial to the rebuilding. About 90 percent of San Francisco residents had fire insurance from more than 100 different companies. 24 The companies ended up paying out a massive $225 million in claims, which was equal to what the entire U.S. & Competitor Analysis Template. insurance industry had earned in profits in the prior four decades.

25 Insurance payouts totaled about 90 percent of what was owed, as only a relatively small number of companies failed. 26. The banking system was devastated, with nearly all of San Francisco’s bank buildings destroyed. Job Resume Template | The small bank owned by Samples Format | Resume, Amadeo Giannini, which he had opened just two years earlier, was also ruined. But Giannini was able to rescue his gold and securities, and Job Resume Template | the next day he opened for business on a wharf on San Francisco Bay. His rapid response and willingness to provide loans to all types of people after the disaster helped him gain the respect of the city.

His bank would eventually grow to be the second-largest in the nation, the Bank of Resume In Word Format | Resume Maker, America. Another impressive story is that of the First Southern Pacific Railroad, which immediately swung into action and provided free evacuation for more than 200,000 city residents to anywhere in the country. 27 Within five days of the earthquake, the company had filled 5,783 rail cars with passengers leaving the city. 28 Southern Pacific president Edward Harriman made disaster response the highest priority of Resume Samples Format And Resume, his rail network. 29 Only one day after the earthquake, the first of First Job Resume Template |, his rail cars full of emergency supplies left Omaha for San Francisco. 30 Harriman personally donated $200,000 to relief efforts.

31. What about the Market & Competitor Analysis government response to the San Francisco conflagration? The city had unfortunately suffered for years from a corrupt local government. The good news was that in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, leading citizens formed essentially a new city government called the “Committee of 50,” which was credited with a very organized and effective disaster response. First Job Resume | 32 For its part, Congress appropriated just $2.5 million for relief to San Francisco, or about $50 million in today’s dollars. 33. The main federal organization that responded was the U.S. Market In Ppt. Army, which moved quickly to take control of the city and provide water, food, tents, and other relief items. First | Within five hours of the Program Oceania | Australia earthquake hitting, the Army had 1,500 troops in the city. 34 Some of the First Template actions of the Army were controversial, but the swift response by the commander of the nearby Presidio base is an example of how local resources and local decisionmaking are crucial in the aftermath of disasters. 35.

In 1913 the Great Easter Flood ravaged a huge area in one of the most widespread and damaging disasters to ever strike the United States. 36 High winds and massive flooding caused destruction and more than 1,000 deaths across 14 states from Vermont to Alabama. The U.S. Resume Samples Maker. military aided with relief operations, and the National Guard was mobilized in numerous states. Job Resume Template. Americans responded with huge contributions to the Red Cross and other charitable organizations aiding victims. Resume Samples Format | Resume Format And Resume Maker. 37. Ohio was the hardest hit state, and Dayton probably the First | hardest hit city.

It was built on a flood plain, so when the city’s levee system collapsed it resulted in Samples Maker, disastrous flooding. Fortunately for Dayton, it was home to the National Cash Register Company (NCR) under President John Patterson. Seeing the flood disaster that was about to happen, Patterson seized the initiative and NCR become the central funder and First Job Resume organizer of relief in the city. & Competitor Analysis Template In Ppt. NCR built 300 boats to rescue flood victims, organized search teams, and provided meals and shelter for thousands of Job Resume Template, people. Template. On its peak day, NCR’s kitchens provided meals for First, 83,000 flood victims. 38 NCR headquarters also became the base of operations for - Hope Oceania | Australia Church | New, the Red Cross and Ohio National Guard. 39. John Patterson was an interesting leader.

He instituted innovative and Template enlightened management practices, such as providing a wide range of recreation and medical amenities for workers. Program - Hope Churches. But he was also an First Job Resume, aggressive businessman, and he and other NCR executives were found guilty of Samples Format And Resume, violating federal antitrust laws just weeks before the flood, although this was reversed on |, appeal. Oceania. 40 NCR’s leaders apparently saw a chance to redeem themselves in the eyes of the | community, and Resume Format their remarkable efforts to save their city during the flood gained them national praise. Historian Trudy Bell writes in detail about the First Template | 1913 disaster. Program Oceania | Australia Church | New Zealand. 41 One of her interesting findings is Job Resume, that there were widespread refusals of aid by Menu On Pinterest Website, affected individuals and communities, apparently because of cultural norms at the time regarding personal pride and the belief in Job Resume Template, standing on one’s own feet. 42 In 1913 some people and communities even gave back unused amounts of aid that they had received.

These days, sadly, the situation is the reverse: there is a large amount of | Resume Format And Resume, fraud in First Job Resume Template, relief programs in the wake of disasters. In 1917 War Department regulations established precedents that guided the federal role in disaster relief in subsequent decades. 43 The rules specified that state governments have primary responsibility for disaster response, federal resources should supplement not supplant state efforts, and federal aid is appropriate only when state governments are truly overwhelmed. In 1927 one of the most damaging floods in U.S. history occurred when the Mississippi River and tributaries broke out of levee systems in many places. The Great Mississippi Flood highlighted failures of the Army Corps of Engineers’ approach to flood control.

44 In annual reports before the flood, the Corps told Congress that the Mississippi was safe from serious flooding. 45. In the flood’s aftermath, President Calvin Coolidge appointed Herbert Hoover to Event Calendar Plugin | Free For Designers lead the federal disaster response, which mainly involved helping to coordinate private relief efforts. 46 Those private efforts included the Red Cross’s huge achievement in providing hundreds of thousands of First Job Resume |, people food and shelter in How To Develop Marketing Uk Blog, temporary camps. Job Resume Template. 47 Hoover made appeals to the public for donations and was impressed by the generosity of so many people: “No other Main Street in the world could have done what the American Main Street did in the Mississippi flood… . The safety of the United States is its multitudinous mass leadership.” 48. Despite Hoover’s prominent role in the 1927 flood, federal relief spending for Clearance Tag Sale Poster, natural disasters remained modest and First sporadic. It was the Disaster Relief Act of 1950 that started to change that by creating a permanent, civilian structure for federal disaster relief. The Act authorized only a small amount of funding, but it gave the president continuing authority to respond to Market hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, floods, and other events with various types of aid. 49. The 1950 law reaffirmed that the Job Resume federal role was to provide supplementary aid to state and local governments only in the severest of emergencies.

In 1953 President Harry Truman issued Executive Order 10427, which said that federal disaster relief should be “supplementary to relief afforded by state, local, or private agencies and not in substitution.” 50. In the decades after the 1950 law, Congress expanded the How To A B2b Strategy - Salesforce scope of federal aid in more than a dozen laws. As an example, federal aid was initially only provided to local governments, and generally not individuals. But Congress added aid for individuals in the Disaster Relief Act of 1970. 51. In 1968 the National Flood Insurance Act offered federal insurance to properties at Template, risk for flooding. A key justification by Program Oceania Zealand, supporters of federal flood insurance was that it would alleviate the First Template | need to pass special aid legislation after each flood disaster. As it has turned out, however, taxpayers are now both subsidizing flood insurance and paying for special relief bills passed after floods.

The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 created the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. This administration was the main forerunner of FEMA. The 1974 Act also created the current system of presidential “emergency” and “major disaster” declarations for adverse events. The main purpose of the declarations is to authorize a flow of federal dollars to aid state and local governments and individuals. The number of Clearance Tag Sale - Word, presidential declarations has soared since the 1970s, as discussed below. In 1979 President Jimmy Carter issued Executive Orders 12127 and 12148 to create and First Template | structure the A B2b Strategy - Salesforce Uk Blog Federal Emergency Management Agency. First Template | Carter was prompted to - Hope Oceania Churches Church Zealand create the new agency after the confused and ineffective federal responses to Hurricane Agnes in 1972 and the Three Mile Island incident of 1979. 52 His administration patched FEMA together from existing agencies located in various departments.

FEMA’s main responsibilities are to | hand out aid and to coordinate the Poster - Word federal response to major disasters that overwhelm state and First | local governments. In 1988 the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Event Calendar Plugin | Free For Designers Emergency Assistance Act updated the framework for presidential disaster declarations and the coordination of FEMA’s response. 53 The governor of Job Resume, a state may request the president to declare an “emergency” or a “major disaster” if an event “is of such severity and magnitude that effective response is Program Oceania Churches | Australia | New, beyond the capabilities of the state and First Template the affected local governments and that federal assistance is necessary.” 54 “Emergency” declarations are usually made before disasters such as hurricanes hit, while “major disaster” declarations come after disasters hit and create broad authority for federal agencies to aid state and local governments and Plugin Web Resources individuals. In recent years, 86 percent of First, major disaster declarations requested by In Word | Resume Format Maker, governors have been approved by the president. Template. 55.

Aid authorized under the Stafford Act is disbursed from FEMA’s Disaster Relief Fund (DRF). How To Marketing - Salesforce. DRF spending fluctuates from year to year depending on events, but since 2000 has averaged $8.3 billion annually. 56 Spending peaked at $24 billion in 2006 after Hurricane Katrina. In recent years, 50 percent of First Template |, DRF spending has gone to state and local governments for damaged public facilities and debris removal, 29 percent was spent on individual aid, and the rest was spent on administration and other costs. 57 For public facilities and debris removal, the federal government generally pays 75 percent of the costs and state and local governments pay the other 25 percent. But the president can increase the federal share of these costs, and he has done so about three-quarters of the time that governors have asked him to.

58. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) finds that the share of DRF funding spent on administration doubled between 1989 and 2011 from 9 percent to 18 percent. 59 Thus, almost a fifth of federal disaster aid is Calendar | Free Web Resources For Designers, consumed by the paperwork costs. The GAO notes that the Template | cost to administer some small disaster declarations actually exceeds the amount of federal aid provided. 60. On paper, the Stafford Act reaffirms principles of federalism in disaster response, but in practice it has spurred increased federal intervention in smaller-scale disasters.

Few of the In Word “major disasters” declared in Job Resume Template |, recent decades have actually been major enough to meet the plain language of the statute. 61 Heritage Foundation FEMA expert Matt Mayer notes, “it is clear that the current definition used by Program - Hope Oceania Churches | Australia Zealand, FEMA to issue declarations is routinely ignored.” 62 He observes that some declarations are made months after disasters occur, which indicates that the purpose is simply for states to get a federal bailout. In 2002 President George W. Bush signed into law the Homeland Security Act creating the massive Department of Homeland Security (DHS), which merged 22 existing federal agencies including FEMA. First Template | President Bush promised that the new DHS would “improve efficiency without growing government,” create “future savings,” and cut out “duplicative and redundant activities that drain critical homeland security resources.” 63. It has not turned out that way. DHS’s budget tripled from $18 billion in Develop, 2002 to $57 billion by 2013. 64 And, like other federal departments, DHS has become known for mismanagement and wasteful spending. For example, the department’s gigantic new headquarters being planned in Washington, D.C., is over-budget by $1.5 billion. Job Resume Template | 65. In 2005 Hurricane Katrina caused massive damage to the Gulf Coast, flooded New Orleans, and killed more than 1,800 people.

The storm damage was greatly exacerbated by the failures of Churches | Australia Church | New Zealand, FEMA, Congress, the Army Corps of Engineers, and First Template | state and local governments. 66 The fact that FEMA had been buried inside of the new DHS bureaucracy was one factor that may have contributed to the agency’s failed response. Congress appropriated more than $100 billion for FEMA and other federal agencies for the Katrina response and rebuilding, much of which was spent years after the disaster. 67. FEMA appears to have done a better job in responding to Hurricane Sandy in 2012, although there was still plenty of criticism. Jquery Event | Free. 68 With a presidential election only a week away, the Obama administration seemed determined not to be tarred with failure, as was the Template | Bush administration with Katrina. The storm caused an estimated 159 deaths and tens of billions of dollars in damage in Program - Hope Oceania | Australia Church | New Zealand, New York, New Jersey, and other states. Congress passed a $60 billion relief bill after Sandy, but most the funds were for rebuilding years down the road and other purposes, not for immediate relief. 69 Such spending should be a state, local, and private responsibility, not a federal one. One interesting aspect of the federal Sandy response was that the president pushed aside FEMA as the lead agency for disaster recovery and created a new Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force chaired by the secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). A larger share of the First Job Resume Template $60 billion Sandy aid money was channeled through HUD than FEMA.

70 These developments suggest an Program Oceania Churches Church | New Zealand, unfortunate broadening of Template, federal subsidy efforts in response to major disasters. Federalization of Disaster Relief. In the U.S. Jquery Event Plugin For Designers. disaster response system, the primary government responsibility is First Job Resume |, supposed to lie with the states. For Designers. The federal government is only supposed to play a supporting role in the largest of disasters. Here’s how the Congressional Research Service describes the system: The United States takes a “bottom up” approach to both managing and Template | providing assistance during a disaster.

The responsibility for responding to disasters begins at the local level with elected officials and emergency service personnel. If the local governmental resources are overwhelmed, non-governmental organizations in the community and neighboring governmental jurisdictions may be called upon to provide assistance. If those become exhausted, the state and tribal governments may supplement the local government’s resources, and the governor may make a state disaster declaration. Only after both local and state/tribal government resources have been overwhelmed, and the governor of the state has requested assistance, does the federal government begin to “supplement the efforts and available resources of States, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering. Under this principle, except in the most extraordinary circumstances, the local and state/tribal governments are in charge of the disaster response. FEMA, or any other federal agency, is there to aid the disaster response process through the Best Menu Ideas Only On Pinterest | Restaurant Website National Response Framework and programs it administers, and to coordinate federal resources in response to state requests—not to be in the lead or take command. First Job Resume Template | 71.

A decentralized approach to disasters makes sense. Best 25+ Food Menu Ideas | Restaurant. Under the U.S. Constitution, the Job Resume Template powers delegated to the federal government are “few and defined,” as James Madison observed in Federalist 45, while state powers “will extend to all the objects which, in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the Clearance Tag Sale Poster - Word lives, liberties, and First | properties of the Poster & Publisher people, and the internal order, improvement, and prosperity of the State.” Constitutionally, the states should generally handle their own disasters. From a practical perspective, it is state, local, and private organizations and resources that are on the scene and Template | available to immediately assist in emergencies. State and local governments employ 1.3 million people in police forces and fire departments, and How To Develop Marketing Strategy - Salesforce Uk Blog those first responders are spread out across our huge nation. 72 State governors have wideranging responsibilities during disasters, and First Job Resume Template | they typically have access to special powers, such as being able to order evacuations. Program - Hope Zealand. As for the private sector, the 9/11 Commission report noted that “because 85 percent of Job Resume, our nation’s critical infrastructure is controlled not by governments but by the private sector, private-sector civilians are likely to be the first responders in Resume Samples Format | Resume And Resume Maker, any future catastrophes.” 73. Nonetheless, the federal government’s role in First Template, disasters has been growing steadily in recent decades. This is a troubling development. Excessive federal intervention threatens to undermine and crowd out more efficient state, local, and private disaster response efforts.

Also, federal interventions usually come with top-down rules that stifle innovation and reduce the efficiency of state and local government services. What is the How To Develop A B2b Strategy Uk Blog cause of rising federal intervention in disasters? Partly it was the response to 9/11, and partly it is the result of First Job Resume Template, today’s media environment. News reports often imply that the federal government should come to the rescue in response to local emergencies. Presidents often visit disaster sites hoping to make it look like they are in charge.

Television coverage shows officials from Program - Hope Oceania | New Zealand, FEMA and other federal agencies on the scene. However, such images give a misleading impression since state governments are actually in charge of disaster situations, and local and private organizations carry out the Job Resume Template bulk of response and relief. Homeland security expert James Miskel notes that FEMA leaders in disaster areas have “no directive authority and can only Jquery Event Plugin Web Resources request or suggest actions by the state.” 74. The bipartisan House report on Katrina in 2006 noted that “many Americans—and perhaps even some state and local officials—falsely viewed FEMA as some sort of national fire and rescue team” but “FEMA is not a first responder agency.” 75 Instead, for most disasters, the purpose of Job Resume |, federal intervention is simply to & Competitor In Ppt pay for state, local, and private costs with federal taxpayer dollars. The only federal role for the “vast majority” of declared major disasters is financial.

76. In his book, Disaster Response and Homeland Security , James Miskel writes: In all but a handful of instances, federal disaster relief amounts to a book-keeping exercise in which costs are shifted from the state’s ledger to the federal government’s and the federal action consists of little more than writing a check to the affected state and/or local government and subsequently auditing the expenditure. First Template. Thus for the typical disaster, the Resume Samples In Word Format | Resume Format And Resume Maker on-the-ground response action is really confined to two of the three system elements: the Job Resume Template | private sector and the state/local government agencies. In the typical disaster—even the Event Plugin For Designers typical federally declared disaster—the federal government plays no operational role at all. Even in major disasters the coordination function is led by the affected state or states. When a federal coordinator is Job Resume, appointed, his or her job is to orchestrate the response efforts of How To Develop Marketing Strategy, federal agencies, not to ‘take over’ the entire response. First Job Resume | 77. The large amount of federal disaster aid that is potentially available to the states has created a political dynamic that has pushed up federal costs. After even small, localized disasters, governors, state politicians, and state congressional delegations often lobby the White House to declare the event a “major disaster” so that the state can access federal aid. As a consequence, the number of Clearance Poster - Word, disaster declarations has soared in recent decades.

The annual average number was 51 in the 1970s, 29 in Job Resume Template, the 1980s, 74 in Program - Hope | Australia | New Zealand, the 1990s, 127 in the 2000s, and Job Resume 139 so far in How To Develop Marketing - Salesforce Uk Blog, the 2010s. 78 There has been more than one disaster declaration every three days, on average, in recent years. Politics infuses the process. Studies find states that are politically important to the president have a better chance of receiving a disaster declaration, and also that states with a member of Congress serving on the House committee overseeing FEMA typically receive more funding. 79. Recent presidents have tended to First | declare the most major disasters in the year that they were up for reelection. Resume Samples Format | Resume And Resume Maker. That was true for Ronald Reagan in 1984, George H. First Job Resume | W. Market & Competitor Analysis Template. Bush in 1992, and Bill Clinton in 1996. George W. Bush declared the most disasters of his first term in his reelection year of 2004. Aside from politics, another cause of increasing federal intervention is First Job Resume, that the threshold that FEMA uses to determine whether federal aid is appropriate is “artificially low,” says the GAO. 80 FEMA mainly relies on a per capita damage threshold to determine if federal aid is needed. Plugin | Free For Designers. In 2012 the | threshold for Samples Format | Resume And Resume Maker, damage to public facilities was $1.35 per capita, so that a state with 10 million people would receive federal aid to pay for First Template |, all disasters causing $13.5 million or more in Market Template In Ppt, damage.

81. GAO finds that FEMA’s dollar thresholds have not kept pace with inflation and growth, so that over time a larger share of disasters are meeting the threshold for aid. Occasional efforts to impose stricter limits have been rebuffed by Congress. 82 Yet the thresholds for federal intervention are absurdly low. Template | GAO finds that in recent years 60 percent of Event | Free, federally declared disasters had a cost of less than $25 million. 83 Even the smallest state could easily find the money to pay for a disaster of that size. What are the problems created by rising federal intervention?

As noted, it goes against the grain of constitutional federalism. And, practically, the great majority of first responder resources are owned and managed locally. Matt Mayer notes, “almost all disasters are indeed local, which is Job Resume Template |, why the vast majority of them should be responded to, run by, and funded by state and Calendar | Free For Designers local governments and their taxpayers.” 84. Federal intervention impedes disaster response and rebuilding because of all the extra paperwork involved. James Fossett of the Rockefeller Institute of Government notes that FEMA’s program for aiding state and local governments, “requires local governments to obtain advance approval for First |, each project and pay for Event Calendar Web Resources For Designers, each project up front before getting federal reimbursement for their costs, which must be exhaustively documented. These lengthy, complex processes inevitably delay the recovery process and make it difficult to spend money in a timely fashion.” 85 Fossett notes that FEMA does not have sufficient staff to review in a timely fashion the thousands of state and local projects submitted to First | it for approval after a large storm.

86. Another problem with federal intervention is that it creates inequities between the states. Marketing. Federal disaster aid means that the costs of living in more dangerous places, such as on First Job Resume, the Florida seacoast, are partly imposed on the residents of Event Calendar Plugin | Free Web Resources For Designers, other states. Some states, such as Michigan, have very few federally declared disasters, but have to foot the bill for the states where disasters are more costly 87. People should balance the First full costs and benefits of & Competitor Template, living in different places in First Job Resume, an unsubsidized manner. Florida has more costly natural disasters than Michigan, but people should trade that off against Menu Ideas On Pinterest | Restaurant Website the extra sun and First Job Resume Template warmth. The federal government should not incentivize people to live in Florida, but that is what federal disaster aid does. Perhaps the main problem with federal aid is that it reduces the incentive for state and Develop Marketing Strategy - Salesforce Uk Blog local governments to prepare for disasters themselves. In his book, Disasters and Democracy , Professor Rutherford Platt concludes that it is Job Resume Template, “good politics for state and local governments to neglect their own disaster response capabilities in Clearance Tag Sale Poster Template - Word & Publisher, order to make it easier to qualify for a presidential declaration.” 88.

A Heritage Foundation study finds that the First Job Resume states have cut their preparedness budgets and Calendar | Free Web Resources For Designers rainy day funds in recent years, apparently because they assume that Uncle Sam will pay for Template, disasters. 89 As federal subsidies expand, it may cause a “ratcheting down” of 25+ Food Only | Restaurant Website, state disaster response capabilities. 90 Adding to the problem, FEMA may have a bias toward turning down disaster aid for states that have strong emergency capabilities because such states do not “need” federal aid. 91. Experts have long been concerned about these negative incentive effects of federal aid. | A White House study under Richard Nixon warned against federal disaster aid that was “so generous that individuals, businesses, and communities have little incentive to take initiatives to reduce personal and local hazards.” 92 Vice President Al Gore’s “reinventing government” initiative looked at America’s disaster relief system in Best 25+ Food Menu Only On Pinterest, the 1990s, and concluded that it “encourages state and local elected officials to Template | ask for maximum federal disaster assistance.” 93 The report warned that “the ready availability of federal funds may actually contribute to disaster losses by 25+ Food Menu Ideas Website, reducing incentives for hazard mitigation and preparedness.” 94 Similarly, House and Senate reports after the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake concluded that the First | availability of federal aid had encouraged state and local governments to neglect disaster preparation and mitigation. 95. In the wake of 25+ Food Ideas Only On Pinterest, FEMA’s failures during Hurricane Katrina, Florida governor Jeb Bush warned against proposals that would strengthen federal powers at the expense of the states. Template | He said, “As the governor of a state that has been hit by seven hurricanes and two tropical storms in the past 13 months, I can say with certainty that federalizing emergency response to Resume | Resume Format Maker catastrophic events would be a disaster as bad as Hurricane Katrina.” 96 And, he said, “if you federalize, all the innovation, creativity and knowledge at the local level would subside.” 97. The upshot is that increased federal intervention would backfire. As Matt Mayer says, the “states should not be rewarded for being underprepared,” which they are under the First | current system.

98 Indeed, federal disaster aid in recent years is Plugin Web Resources For Designers, almost treated as if a state has won the Job Resume Template lottery. After Hurricane Sandy, politicians in the affected states announced grand ideas about how they wanted to spend the tens of billions of dollars of federal relief money. A Bloomberg headline captured the essence: “Sandy Seen as Stimulus, Thanks to Rebuilding.” 99. A federal response is, of course, crucial for terrorism and other threats where federal agencies have unique capabilities that states do not have. Federal agencies, for example, have specialized resources to handle chemical and 25+ Food Menu On Pinterest Website biological attacks, pandemics, and nuclear threats.

And, as discussed in this essay, the Coast Guard plays a crucial role in hurricane disasters, while the U.S. military is Job Resume |, sometimes called into service for Program - Hope Oceania Churches Church | New Zealand, relief in truly major disasters. But nearly all of First Template |, FEMA’s spending is for natural disaster preparedness, response, and relief that should be funded at And Resume, the state, local, and private levels. After numerous disasters, FEMA has been criticized for its slow response, wasteful spending, red tape, and poor coordination. FEMA’s response to Hurricane Katrina exemplified those problems, but it was only one “in a series of First |, major hurricanes in which the overall system performed poorly,” according to security expert James Miskel. 100 He notes that “an objective examination of FEMA’s history suggests that bureaucratic weakness is the rule rather than the exception for the agency.” 101. FEMA’s poor response to Hurricane Andrew in 1992 illustrated some of the agency’s shortcomings.

Andrew, which struck southern Florida, caused 61 deaths and was the Resume Format Maker third most costly hurricane in U.S. history, after Katrina and Sandy. 102 “The federal response … was fraught with delays and major problems,” notes Platt. First. 103 It took a long time for FEMA to get a detailed assessment of damage and to determine the A B2b Strategy Uk Blog needs of the Template victims. 104 The agency made poor decisions, such as setting up telephone banks for victims to Calendar Plugin | Free For Designers call in for aid—even though 150,000 people had lost phone service. 105. Another blunder was that FEMA did not arrange for pre-positioned supplies at locations close to the coming hurricane because of its misunderstanding of actions allowed before a presidential disaster declaration. 106 In the days leading up to Andrew’s landfall, the Department of First |, Defense readied supplies to Market & Competitor Template In Ppt be shipped to South Florida, but because of First Job Resume Template, FEMA’s flawed understanding of proper procedures, it did not authorize the shipments. One official report on Hurricane Andrew concluded that too many senior federal officials were political appointees without adequate experience in Develop Strategy - Salesforce Uk Blog, disaster response. Job Resume Template | 107 There were also many reports of fraud and waste in FEMA’s relief efforts. Best 25+ Food Menu Ideas Only Website. Overseeing a hearing on Andrew in First Job Resume |, 1992, Sen.

Barbara Mikulski (D-MD) said, “I am outraged by the federal government’s pathetically sluggish response and Template ill-planned response to First Job Resume the devastating disaster wrought by Program - Hope Oceania Churches Zealand, Hurricane Andrew … Time and First Template | again the federal government has failed to respond quickly and effectively to major disasters.” 108. Meanwhile, the U.S. military, the National Guard, and Samples Maker the private sector played large and effective roles in responding to Hurricane Andrew. Template. 109 The military provided supplies such as meals and medical care. Clearance Template. National Guardsmen under state command aided local law enforcement. 110 And the First Job Resume Template private sector response was exemplified by the impressive efforts of electric utilities to restore power. Hundreds of crews of utility workers from across Florida and Market & Competitor Analysis Template In Ppt numerous other states worked tirelessly to fix the | huge number of outages. 111. FEMA’s shortcomings, which were apparent during Andrew, were magnified during the agency’s dismal response to Hurricane Katrina. Katrina resulted in the flooding of Program | New, New Orleans, massive destruction along the Gulf Coast, $100 billion in property damage, and about 1,800 deaths. Weather forecasters warned the public and policymakers about the First Job Resume Template hurricane’s approach, and Program - Hope Churches | Australia Church Zealand so governments should have been ready for First, it. But they were not, and Katrina exposed major failures in disaster preparedness and response by FEMA and other federal, state, and local agencies.

Here are a few of the federal failures in the Katrina response: Confusion . Key officials in FEMA and - Hope Oceania Churches Church | New DHS were not proactive, they gave faulty information to the public, and they were not adequately trained to carry out First Template |, their roles. The 2006 bipartisan House report on Jquery Event Plugin | Free Web Resources For Designers, the disaster, A Failure of Initiative , says, “federal agencies, including DHS, had varying degrees of unfamiliarity with their roles and responsibilities under the National Response Plan and National Incident Management System.” 112 The report says there was “general confusion over mission assignments, deployments, and command structure.” 113 One reason that FEMA was confused was that its executive suites were full of political appointees with little disaster experience. 114 That has been the rule, not the First Template | exception with FEMA, which “has often been staffed with executives who were not highly regarded in the field of disaster relief.” 115 Failure to Learn . The government was unprepared for Program Oceania | New, Katrina even though it was widely known that such a hurricane was probable, and weather forecasters had been accurate in predicting the advance of Katrina before landfall. 116 A year prior to Katrina, government agencies had performed a simulation exercise—“Hurricane Pam”—for a hurricane of similar strength hitting New Orleans, but governments “failed to learn important lessons” from the exercise. 117 Communications Breakdown . The House report found that there was “a complete breakdown in communications that paralyzed command and control and made situational awareness murky at First Template |, best.” 118 Agencies could not communicate with each other due to equipment failures and a lack of system interoperability. 119 These problems occurred despite the Best 25+ Food Menu Ideas fact that FEMA and predecessor agencies have been giving grants to Template state and 25+ Food On Pinterest local governments for emergency communication systems since the beginning of the Cold War.

120 Supply Failures . Some emergency supplies were prepositioned before the storm, but there was nowhere near enough. 121 In places that desperately needed help, such as the New Orleans Superdome, it took days to First Job Resume Template | deliver medical supplies. 122 And FEMA wasted huge amounts of supplies. It delivered millions of pounds of ice to holding centers in cities far away from the Gulf Coast. FEMA sent truckers carrying ice on Samples Format | Resume, wild goose chases across the Job Resume country. 123 Two years later, the agency ended up throwing out $100 million of 25+ Food Menu On Pinterest Website, ice unused. 124 FEMA similarly gave away $85 million worth of household goods purchased for victims that sat unused in warehouses for two years.

125 The agency paid for First Job Resume |, 25,000 mobile homes costing $900 million, but these went almost totally unused due to FEMA’s own regulations that such homes cannot be used on Resume Samples In Word Format | Resume And Resume Maker, flood plains, which is where most Katrina victims lived. 126 Indecision . Indecision plagued government leaders in numerous areas, such as the Job Resume Template deployment of supplies, medical personnel, and other items. 127 Even the grisly task of body recovery after Katrina was slow and confused. Bodies went uncollected for days “as state and federal officials remained indecisive on a body recovery plan.” 128 FEMA waited for Louisiana to make decisions about bodies, but the governor of Louisiana blamed FEMA’s tardiness in Event, making a deal with a contractor. Similar problems of too many bureaucratic cooks in the kitchen hampered decisionmaking in Job Resume Template |, areas such as organizing evacuations and Program Oceania | Australia | New providing law enforcement resources to Louisiana. And before the storm, too many agencies were responsible for First Job Resume, New Orleans’ levees, so nobody took responsibility for In Word | Resume, the deficiencies. Fraud and Abuse . Free-flowing Katrina aid unleased a torrent of fraud and abuse. GAO estimated that $1 billion or more in aid payments for individuals were invalid or fraudulent. 129 Other estimates put the total waste at up to $2 billion.

130 An Associated Press analysis found that “people claiming to First Template live in as many as 162,750 homes that did not exist before the storms may have improperly received as much as $1 billion in tax money.” 131 A New York Times investigation concluded: “Among the many superlatives associated with Hurricane Katrina can now be added this one: it produced one of the most extraordinary displays of scams, schemes and Market In Ppt stupefying bureaucratic bungles in modern history, costing taxpayers up to $2 billion.” 132. Perhaps the most appalling aspect of the federal response was that FEMA frequently obstructed the relief efforts of other organizations. Here are some examples: FEMA repeatedly blocked the delivery of emergency supplies ordered by the Methodist Hospital in New Orleans from First Job Resume Template |, its out-of-state headquarters. Samples. 133 FEMA turned away doctors volunteering their services at emergency facilities. Methodist’s sister hospital, Chalmette, for First, example, sent doctors to Oceania the emergency facility set up at New Orleans Airport to First Job Resume Template offer their services, but were turned away because their names were not in a government database. 134 Private medical air transport companies played an important role in evacuations after Katrina. But FEMA officials provided no help in coordinating these services, and they actively blocked some of the Tag Sale Poster & Publisher flights.

135 FEMA “refused Amtrak’s offer to evacuate victims, and wouldn’t return calls from the American Bus Association.” 136 Indeed, both the Motorcoach Association and the American Bus Association could not get through to anyone at FEMA to offer help for evacuations. 137 The Red Cross was denied access to the Superdome in New Orleans to deliver emergency supplies. 138 FEMA turned away trucks from Job Resume, Walmart loaded with water for New Orleans, and it prevented the Coast Guard from delivering diesel fuel. 139 Offers of emergency supplies, vehicles, and specialized equipment from other nations were caught in federal red tape and shipments were delayed. 140. A New York Times article during the disaster said there was “uncertainty over who was in charge” and “incomprehensible red tape.” 141 A key problem that Katrina made clear is & Competitor, that the government’s emergency response system has become far too complex. The system “fractionates responsibilities” across multiple layers of governments and multiple agencies. 142 There are 29 different federal agencies that have a role in First, disaster relief under the National Response Framework. 143 These agencies are involved in 15 different cross-agency “Emergency Support Functions.” There is also a National Incident Management System, a National Disaster Recovery Framework, and numerous other “national” structures that are supposed to coordinate action. In 2006 the head of the bipartisan Senate committee that investigated Katrina, Sen.Susan Collins (R-ME), concluded that FEMA was a “shambles and beyond repair.” 144 But her committee proposed replacing it with a larger and A B2b Strategy - Salesforce more powerful agency, which is exactly the wrong way to Job Resume Template | go.

It is the intense bureaucracy that helped to cause the indecision and mismanagement we saw with Katrina, and so we do not need more of that. Disaster expert Rutherford Platt noted in his 1999 book that “during the past 50 years, Congress has created a legal edifice of byzantine complexity to cope with natural disasters.” 145 We have arrived at a point where “the numbers of and A B2b Strategy - Salesforce variety of federal agencies involved in disaster-related activities are breathtaking.” 146 The complexity has become worse over the past 15 years. Here is First Job Resume Template, one example: in an 84-page memo describing a single FEMA program, I counted 113 different acronyms, each referring to different homeland security structures, laws, and procedures. 147 The federal government’s official response framework is so complicated that it is & Competitor In Ppt, has been partly ignored during some disasters. First Template. 148. That said, some government agencies performed very well, even heroically, during Katrina. Market & Competitor. The Coast Guard’s performance, for example, was widely lauded. It rapidly deployed 4,000 service members, 37 aircraft, and 78 boats to the area. 149 The agency rescued more than 30,000 people in the days following the storm. Job Resume | 150.

Why did the Coast Guard succeed? Unlike FEMA, it has decentralized operations and relies much more on Template - Word, local decisionmaking. Template. Coast Guard employees live in local communities and are familiar with local leaders and institutions, so they were able to make decisions rapidly during Katrina based on the best information. 151 One expert writing about the Coast Guard’s culture says, “the Coast Guard has always emphasized decentralization with much decisionmaking authority vested in Market & Competitor Template In Ppt, the commander on First Template, the scene.” 152. Coast Guard officers have an “ethos of independent action,” which was crucial in the first days after Katrina when communications with higher authorities were down. 153 Indeed, some people in the Coast Guard viewed it as a “blessing” that communications were down because that allowed them to swing into action quickly, rather than having to wait for instructions and Analysis fill out paperwork. 154 The Coast Guard also has a fairly precise set of missions, while FEMA has more amorphous functions. A final factor is that the Coast Guard is Template |, more insulated from politics than is FEMA.

The National Guard under state command also played a crucial role during Katrina, as it has during other disasters. The Guard helped to reestablish law and order in New Orleans after the local police force was devastated. A key strength of the National Guard is the cross-state agreements in place for Guard units to share personnel and assets when disaster strikes. Best 25+ Food Ideas | Restaurant. The 50,000 National Guardsmen providing relief after Katrina were from 49 states of the union. They “participated in every aspect of emergency response, from medical care to law enforcement and debris removal, and First Job Resume Template | were considered invaluable by Louisiana and Mississippi officials.” 155. The private sector also played a huge and effective role during Katrina. Within the first four months after Katrina, private donations had topped $3 billion. 156 The Red Cross, which swelled to a 220,000-person operation, had 239 shelters ready to house 40,000 evacuees on the day Katrina made landfall.

In subsequent days, the shelters expanded to a peak of 146,000 evacuees and How To Marketing Strategy the organization served 52 million meals and snacks to hurricane survivors. Template. 157 The Salvation Army housed a peak of 30,000 evacuees in 225 shelters. During Katrina and other disasters, for-profit businesses have also been very important. Event Calendar Web Resources. Insurance companies send teams to affected areas that accelerate pay-outs to covered homeowners and offer quick loans to help people cover costs while their claims are being processed. 158 Electric utilities rush extra crews to disaster areas. They usually have standing agreements with nearby utilities for mutual aid. Utility companies have a strong financial incentive to return power rapidly, and that incentive works in their customers’ favor. Walmart’s rapid, organized, and proactive response bringing life-saving supplies into damaged areas after Katrina was remarkable and | widely lauded. Walmart had a war room in place days ahead of Katrina’s landfall and - Hope Oceania Churches | Australia Church Zealand supplies stationed and ready for the storm’s immediate aftermath.

Electric utility Southern Company was also well-prepared for Katrina based on its detailed disaster plans and First Job Resume | a large-scale prepositioning of people and Market Analysis Template assets. 159. Walmart employees distinguished themselves with independent decisionmaking based on First Template |, local information. Employees on the front lines knew that their on-the-spot decisions would be backed by higher management. Clearance Tag Sale Poster Template & Publisher. 160 The Washington Post reported that within days, Walmart delivered “an unrivaled $20 million in cash donations, 1,500 truckloads of free merchandise, food for 100,000 meals and the promise of a job for every one of its displaced workers.” 161.

Economist Steven Horowitz studied the performance of FEMA, the Coast Guard, and Walmart during Katrina. 162 He concluded that a government bureaucracy in First Job Resume |, Washington, such as FEMA, cannot operate effectively in response to local disasters. It does not have the right incentives, is too risk-averse, and tends not to learn lessons. The bipartisan House report on Katrina noted that the “government failed because it did not learn from past experiences” and because of the “risk-averse culture that pervades big government.” 163. Home Depot also earned wide respect for its rapid and efficient relief efforts during Katrina. Such companies acted with charity, providing many supplies free to needy people in the affected region.

Horowitz notes that businesses also have strong incentives to aid the public when disasters strike because in Market & Competitor In Ppt, the long run they gain respect and loyal customers in the communities that they serve. When Hurricane Sandy hit the Job Resume Template | East Coast in Develop A B2b Marketing, 2012, it was once again institutions other than FEMA that put in the best performance. The Coast Guard and the National Guard performed admirably, with the latter performing a wide variety of relief and civil order functions. 164 The Red Cross had hundreds of First |, shelters ready for thousands of people on the day Sandy hit, and the Salvation Army supplied a huge amount of Samples Format, meals to Job Resume Template | victims in the days after the storm. 165 The United Way, faith-based groups, and corporations also made large efforts in subsequent months during rebuilding. FEMA appeared to do a better job responding to Clearance Poster Template Hurricane Sandy than Katrina. Former mayor Rudy Giuliani (R-NY) claimed that FEMA’s response to Sandy was “as bad as Katrina,” but that does not seem to be the case. 166 However, FEMA is still a troubled agency. A recent study by the Partnership for Public Service, for First Job Resume |, example, ranked it one the worst places to work in the federal government. 167. A September 2014 report by & Competitor Analysis Template In Ppt, the Inspector General (IG) of DHS reviewed FEMA’s new logistics system—a system that Congress required FEMA to build after the many supply failures of Katrina.

The new FEMA system is First, expected to cost $556 million, up from the original estimate of $325 million, and it is far behind schedule. 168 After DHS spending of $247 million on the system so far, the IG concluded that the system “may not be effective during a catastrophic disaster” and Jquery Event Calendar Plugin For Designers “may not ever meet critical performance requirements.” 169 The IG said that it attributes the deficiencies to “inadequate program management and First Job Resume Template oversight.” 170. A June 2013 Associated Press poll of the region affected by Sandy found that “families and communities—not the government—were the most helpful source of In Word Format | Resume Format And Resume Maker, assistance and Job Resume | support.” 171 Only 19 percent of those who sought help from the government said that it was helpful, and Oceania | Australia | New almost 40 percent said that FEMA was of no help. 172. FEMA spends roughly $2.5 billion a year on Template, a dozen grant programs that provide ongoing funding for Market & Competitor Analysis In Ppt, state and local first responders. Nine of these programs are “preparedness” grants, which the DHS says “strengthen our nation’s ability to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies.” 173.

Most of the First Job Resume preparedness grants were either created or expanded after the September 11, 2001, attacks, and they have distributed almost $40 billion to state and local governments since then. 174 The grants are mainly for local governments to pay for such things as vehicles, equipment, planning, conferences, training, and public awareness campaigns. Here is a list of the & Competitor preparedness grants with the First | 2014 spending amounts: 175. Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI)—$587 million for urban preparedness against terrorism. State Homeland Security Program (SHSP)—$401 million for preparedness in urban and Calendar | Free Web Resources For Designers rural areas. Emergency Management Performance Grants (EMPG)—$350 million for First Job Resume |, all-hazards emergency management. Operation Stonegarden—$55 million to enhance coordination between government agencies for border security. Tribal Homeland Security—$10 million to Clearance Poster Template tribal governments for Template |, security enhancements. Nonprofit Security—$13 million to nonprofit groups for security enhancements. Port Security—$100 million for seaport security. In Word Format | Resume Format Maker. Transit Security—$90 million for transit system security.

Intercity Passenger Rail—$10 million for Amtrak security. A fundamental problem with such grants is that federal funding of local activities is less efficient than local funding of local activities. In part, that is because federal politicians focus on maximizing spending in their states, not on |, program effectiveness. In a 2012 report on FEMA grants, Senator Tom Coburn of Resume In Word And Resume, Oklahoma said that Congress is preoccupied with the amount of money spent, not “how the money is spent, or whether it is needed in the first place.” 176. The expansion of the UASI program illustrates the importance of politics.

UASI originally provided funds to the 7 U.S. Template. cities with the Jquery Event Plugin | Free highest terrorism risks. But cities that did not receive funds—and their members of Congress—immediately started lobbying for First Job Resume Template |, inclusion, and over time Congress added more cities. 177 In due course, Congress expanded the program to 64 cities, although it has recently been cut back to 37. 178. The political pressure to How To Develop Marketing - Salesforce Uk Blog spread spending widely is also evident with SHSP funding. It is distributed by a formula that takes disaster risks into account, but that is undermined because a minimum amount must be spent on First Job Resume |, every state. 179 Wyoming, for Program - Hope | Australia | New Zealand, example, has just one-fifth of one percent of the First Template | U.S. population and a low risk of terrorism, but it receives almost 1 percent of Event Calendar Plugin | Free For Designers, SHSP funding.

180 Similarly, for the EMPG program, spending does not depend on terrorism risk, and small states receive a disproportionate share. Looking at the big picture, there are two types of FEMA grant, but neither makes sense. Job Resume Template | Coburn’s report says that some grants “subsidize expenditures that would otherwise have been made by Develop Strategy - Salesforce Uk Blog, state and local governments.” 181 His report finds that FEMA aid often pays for such things as office supplies, camera systems, athletic equipment for fire and police departments, and wages for local first responders. Funding such items federally rather than locally just creates unneeded paperwork. Alternately, federal aid can induce local governments to purchase low-value items that they would not otherwise purchase. FEMA money is “free” to local governments, so they tend to squander it.

Coburn’s report provides examples of cities using preparedness grants to buy hovercrafts, underwater robots, and First | other fancy equipment that is little used. Knox County, Ohio—population 54,000—spent a $100,000 FEMA grant on a hazardous materials truck. The truck sat unused, and Market Analysis Template In Ppt a local official admitted that it had been “a total waste of taxpayer dollars from the federal government on down.” 182. FEMA’s aid has raised civil liberties concerns. Numerous cities have purchased license plate reader systems and video surveillance systems with FEMA grants, for example. Job Resume Template. 183 And many cities have used FEMA grants to purchase military-style equipment for their police forces, such as militarized vehicles, aerial drones, and sound cannons. 184.

The Wall Street Journal noted that “six-figure grants from the Department of Homeland Security have been funding BearCats and other heavily fortified vehicles in towns and cities nationwide.” 185 A BearCat is an armored personnel carrier. Concord, New Hampshire, received a $258,000 FEMA grant to Analysis buy a BearCat, and other small cities, such as Fargo, North Dakota, have received similar grants. 186 It makes no sense for the federal government to pay for such controversial items. If the leaders of a town think that they face a major threat and need new security equipment, they should make the case to Template | their own taxpayers for the funding. Aside from the grants listed above, FEMA also provides firefighter assistance grants of about $600 million a year.

187 These grants aid local fire departments in paying salaries and buying trucks, protective gear, and other items. Having well-funded fire departments is important, but local governments have traditionally paid these costs without federal aid. Indeed, firefighting is the archetypal local service that traces back to at least the Union Fire Company organized by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in Jquery Event | Free Web Resources, 1736. 188 Cities and towns have long been proud of their local firefighters, who are either paid employees or volunteers. It is Job Resume Template, a service that citizens everywhere demand from their local governments, and they are supportive of the local taxes needed to fund it.

So there is no reason for the federal government to intervene in this activity. Currently, local governments in America spend more than $42 billion annually on firefighting. How To A B2b. 189 FEMA firefighting grants amount to just 1.5 percent of this total, so it is a small share. Job Resume | The problem is that along with federal grants come top-down regulations from Washington. Few people would want federal politicians controlling their local fire departments, but that will be a growing problem if the money keeps flowing. A 2010 news article in San Antonio on a FEMA grant illustrates the Program Church problem:

The city was poised to spend its own money to First Job Resume Template build two new fire stations and already had hired a contractor, Bartlett Cocke. Then the Develop A B2b Strategy - Salesforce Uk Blog Federal Emergency Management Agency awarded the city $7.3 million from the Template | stimulus program in September 2009 to pay for the stations and speed up response times by firefighters to keep residents safe. But San Antonio hit a bureaucratic snag at FEMA that could delay the project by a year. Meeting the federally mandated environmental standards could increase the & Competitor Analysis Template project’s cost by First |, $2.2 million. And the city decided to rebid the construction contract to make sure it met FEMA’s requirements, which meant Bartlett Cocke was out of a job. In San Antonio, Councilman Reed Williams, whose district includes the site for fire station 51, complained at Thursday’s City Council meeting that the Menu | Restaurant stations are getting more expensive. First Job Resume | The council approved a motion to increase the design costs of Resume Format | Resume Format And Resume Maker, both stations by First Job Resume |, nearly $200,000 so the structures will be certified under standards set by the U.S. Green Building Council. “This thing’s going to be a year late, and it’s going to cost us more money,” Williams said. Williams asked how much more the stations were going to cost in the stimulus program, compared to the original costs when the city planned to build the stations without federal assistance. City staffers didn’t have an answer at Jquery Event Calendar | Free, the ready, but Walsh said in an interview that federal requirements could add an estimated $2.2 million to the price tag.

190. Federal aid programs not only impose costly regulations, they also consume state and local time on paperwork. You can see some of the firefighter paperwork at There are three different grants, each with different rules. Local officials must fill out First, federal grant paperwork explaining why they need the money and how they will spend it. Recipients have to fill out regular financial reports, “Investment Justifications,” “Biannual Implementation Reports,” and other reports. The FEMA funding announcement for Clearance Poster - Word, the firefighter grants is 75 pages long, and a workshop presentation is |, 94 pages.

FEMA has a “Get Ready Guide,” a “Self Evaluation Sheet,” and a “Vehicle Acquisition Guide” for Churches Zealand, the firefighter grants. Even after all the paperwork, there is no guarantee that a local government will receive funding. The key is to have a skilled representative on your side. Here is a 2013 press release from Rep. Patrick Maloney (D-NY)indicating how the Job Resume | process works: Earlier this year, Rep.

Maloney secured an investment for $2,400,000 to hire fifteen new firefighters through the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program— Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER). Although their grant application was initially denied, Rep. Maloney worked closely with the Newburgh Fire Department and DHS personnel to ensure the Department received this SAFER award. 191. The SAFER grant pays for Program Oceania | Australia | New Zealand, firefighter salaries for Template |, a fixed period of Best Ideas Only On Pinterest, time.

After the First Template grant money runs out, the town of Newburgh will have to find another funding source to keep its 15 new firefighters. So the federal aid did not really solve any problem, it simply delayed the town from finding a stable long-term funding source. America would be better off without FEMA grants for firefighters and other local emergency services. Ending FEMA aid would cut paperwork, regulations, and pork barrel politics. Decisionmaking about local emergency services would be more efficient if the services were funded locally.

Americans know that police and firefighter services are vital to Event their communities—and that is exactly why we do not need federal intervention. Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in 1968 to help property owners in flood-prone areas purchase government-backed insurance. Job Resume. The NFIP provides coverage against flooding from overflowing rivers and Oceania Churches Church | New Zealand from storms on the seacoasts. Flooding is Job Resume Template, “the most frequent and costly natural hazard in the United States. More than 90 percent of Tag Sale Poster Template, all natural disasters in the nation involve flooding.” 192. The NFIP was supposed to save taxpayers money by alleviating the need for Congress to pass emergency aid packages after floods. Job Resume Template | Taxpayers were also not supposed to be burdened by the program itself because insurance premiums were to cover the system’s costs.

Also, the NFIP included floodplain regulations that are imposed on Program Oceania | Australia Zealand, communities adopting the program. First Template. These regulations were supposed to mitigate the harm from floods. None of the promises panned out. Congress continues to Market & Competitor Analysis In Ppt pass large disaster aid bills after floods. The NFIP has become hugely indebted, and will probably need a taxpayer bailout as payouts have far exceeded premiums in recent years.

Most importantly, rather than reducing the nation’s flooding problems, the Job Resume | NFIP has likely made flood damage worse by encouraging more development in Format Maker, hazardous areas. Since 1970, the estimated number of Americans living in coastal areas designated as Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHAs) by FEMA has increased from 10 million to more than 16 million. 193 Subsidized flood insurance has backfired by helping to draw more people and development into First, flood zones. Flood insurance is available to homeowners and businesses in the roughly 20,000 jurisdictions across the nation that have decided to Program - Hope | New Zealand participate in the NFIP. 194 In return for the benefit of subsidized insurance, communities become subject to federal floodplain regulations. People who live in SFHAs and have a federally backed mortgage are required to have flood insurance. However, compliance with this mandate is very low. 195. There are currently 5.6 million flood insurance policies in place with a combined insured value of $1.2 trillion.

196 Policies are serviced by private insurance companies, but the insurance risks fall on federal taxpayers. Job Resume | 197 Many insurance companies do not participate in the NFIP, apparently because of the political instability that surrounds the system. 198. FEMA has trouble administering the NFIP. The GAO has had the NFIP on its “high-risk” list of Samples In Word | Resume And Resume, troubled programs for years. One problem is that flood claims are handled by Job Resume, an outdated computer system, and FEMA has had major problems installing a new one called NextGen. The GAO reported in 2010 that “despite having invested roughly $40 million over 7 years, FEMA has yet to implement NextGen … as a result, use of NextGen was halted.” 199. FEMA collects about $3.5 billion in annual NFIP premiums. - Word. 200 When the premiums are insufficient to pay claims, FEMA borrows from the U.S. Treasury. In recent years, the program has accumulated more than $24 billion in debt because payouts have far exceeded premiums.

201 Today, the program is in financial crisis and taxpayers will likely bear the burden of Job Resume Template |, its large debt. The NFIP’s financial shortcomings are typical of government-run businesses. Unlike private insurance, the NFIP charges artificially low rates, does not build capital surpluses, and Market does not purchase reinsurance to cover catastrophic losses. 202 Furthermore, the Template NFIP cannot reject applicants in order to manage the system’s risk, and Tag Sale Poster Template - Word & Publisher it is legally constrained in its ability to raise rates. The GAO says that “by design, NFIP is Job Resume Template |, not an Poster, actuarially sound program.” 203. About one-fifth of NFIP policyholders pay “subsidized rates,” while the other four-fifths pay “full-risk” rates. First Job Resume Template. 204 But even the full-risk rates are below what market rates would be.

A 2011 insurance industry study found that overall NFIP premiums are only half the level needed to cover the system’s full costs, and property owners in Samples In Word Format And Resume Maker, high-risk areas pay just one-third of full market rates. 205 These artificially low rates subsidize people to live in high-risk flood areas. One problem is that “FEMA generally lacks information needed to establish full-risk rates.” 206 Rates are based on Flood Insurance Rate Maps, but FEMA’s maps have long been criticized as not being up to date. FEMA maps often do not reflect changes in the landscape caused by factors such as ongoing development and erosion. 207. Another problem with the NFIP is that it undermines federalism. First Job Resume Template. If a jurisdiction is in Template, the NFIP, it must comply with FEMA-approved building standards, land-use controls, and other regulations. The NFIP runs essentially a top-down local planning system called the Community Rating System (CRS). Under the Template | CRS, communities receive discounts on flood insurance rates based on 25+ Food Menu Only, how many of 19 “creditable activities” or federal mandates they comply with.

208. The Congressional Research Service says that with the NFIP, the First Job Resume | federal “government became a de facto regulator of certain economic activity in Program - Hope Church | New Zealand, flood-prone areas.” 209 However, local governments have been hesitant to enforce the tougher zoning rules and building standards because they are eager to Job Resume Template | receive the higher tax revenues that stem from - Hope, new development. The broader policy issue is that the NFIP undermines federalism by First Template |, extending Washington’s regulatory power into what should be local decisionmaking. The most serious problem with NFIP is that it has encouraged development in hazardous areas. As Duke University coastal geologist Orrin Pilkey puts it, “we are subsidizing, even encouraging, very dangerous development.” 210 Federal flood insurance has incentivized individuals and developers to build in hazardous areas they would otherwise not build in. Local governments have an incentive to approve development in hazardous areas because they are eager to increase their property tax bases. As more of the U.S. population has moved to 25+ Food Menu Ideas Only | Restaurant Website flood-prone areas, more lives and property are put in harm’s way.

211 As development expands in seacoast areas it shrinks wetlands. Job Resume Template. Wetlands provide habitats for Menu Ideas On Pinterest Website, wildlife and form a defense against hurricanes along the seacoast. “The financial costs of the Job Resume | NFIP are considerable,” one study observed, “but they are likely dwarfed by the ecological damages that the program encourages.” 212 That is why cutting the NFIP is one policy area where environmentalists and pro-market economists see eye to eye. The NFIP creates “moral hazard,” which is when people take risks that they would not otherwise take because they do not bear the full costs of failure. Government subsidies reduce individual costs and thus induce excessive risk-taking. The Congressional Research Service noted of the NFIP: “the assurance of Menu Ideas Only On Pinterest Website, federal assistance in the event or repeated disaster-related losses may create a ‘moral hazard’ by lowering the Job Resume Template | incentives to How To Develop Strategy take appropriate steps to mitigate loss.” 213. The moral hazard problem is clear when you consider the NFIP’s large payouts to property owners who have made multiple claims.

The NFIP cannot charge market rates, must accept all applicants, and First Job Resume | is not allowed to Event | Free For Designers cut off properties that suffer repeated damage. 214 Furthermore, unlike with private insurance, FEMA does not increase insurance rates after claims. Not surprisingly then, some property owners repeatedly rebuild in hazardous locations knowing that the government will bail them out after each flood. Repetitive loss properties account for only about 1 percent of all policies, but are responsible for about one-third of all NFIP claims. 215.

USA Today reviewed FEMA records in 2010 and found thousands of homes that had collected multiple insurance payouts that added up to Job Resume much more than what the properties were worth. One Mississippi home valued at $69,900 has flooded 34 times since 1978, and the owner has received $663,000 in NFIP payments over the years. 216 Any private insurance company would cancel coverage on individuals like this who are taking high risks, but the NFIP does not. Fox News anchor John Stossel has discussed his personal experience with flood insurance. 217 He built a beach house in a risky location along the ocean on Long Island in 1980. His architect told him that the government would pay for a new one if a disaster struck, so he went ahead. Sure enough, the ocean destroyed his house, and Stossel received the government-funded bailout. As Stossel has noted, the How To A B2b Marketing Uk Blog NFIP is welfare for the well-to-do. Template | A 2010 study looked at claims data over a 10-year period and concluded that “the benefits of the NFIP appear to accrue largely to wealthy households concentrated in Ideas On Pinterest | Restaurant Website, a few highly-exposed states.” 218 One reason is |, that many properties along U.S. seacoasts are vacation residences for Oceania Churches Zealand, well-heeled individuals. The NFIP is not the only federal program encouraging Americans to live in |, flood-prone areas.

Since the 19th century, the Army Corps of Engineers has built levees, flood walls, and Tag Sale Poster - Word other flood protection structures. These projects are supposed to create an engineering solution to flooding. But, to an extent, the huge investment in these projects has backfired because they have encouraged more Americans to live in flood-prone areas, believing that they are protected. The increase in perceived safety created by the Corps’ projects has also created a disincentive for individuals to buy flood insurance and thus undermined the development of a private flood insurance market. 219. Rutherford Platt observed that “structural flood control and shore protection projects often induce a false sense of security leading to new investment in the area thought to be protected by the project.” 220 The result is that areas ostensibly protected by flood control projects “experienced greater losses when floods exceeded the design capacity of dams, levees, and First Job Resume sea walls than would have occurred without the Market Analysis Template In Ppt projects.” 221. These days, there are many federal agencies involved variously in subsidizing and regulating flood-prone areas, and First the interventions often work at Jquery Calendar | Free For Designers, cross purposes. 222 The Army Corps of Engineers builds flood-control structures and subsidizes seacoast beach replenishment.

Those activities encourage more seaside development. Template. A FEMA study after Hurricane Frederic in 1979 on Best 25+ Food Ideas On Pinterest, the Gulf Coast found that “the federal government had originally encouraged development on First Template, such coastal barriers through flood insurance, sewer and water grants, beach nourishment, and other development incentives.” 223. In the Resume Format And Resume 1990s, Topsail Island, North Carolina, was repeatedly hit by hurricanes, and each time FEMA came in to rebuild infrastructure, which encouraged more development. 224 And then there is First Job Resume, New Orleans, where for decades massive flood control infrastructure built by Template - Word, the Corps encouraged development in dangerous, low-lying areas around the city. Job Resume Template | That greatly magnified the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. In his book, Platt discusses the tension between some government agencies subsidizing people to live in risky places and Market & Competitor Template other agencies imposing regulations to First Job Resume prevent people living in those places. He looks at Fire Island along the coast of Long Island, New York, which is vulnerable to hurricanes. | New. Local activist groups “have each lobbied intensely to Job Resume | win government benefits for Market & Competitor Analysis Template, Fire Island while opposing any limits on the freedom of private owners to build or rebuild along the oceanfront.” 225. People want to live on this dangerous island, but they also want subsidized beach nourishment projects, flood insurance, and disaster aid. Platt concludes that the current patchwork of regulations and subsidies from federal programs has “proved futile in achieving a safe and sensible balance of human presence and nature.” 226 But part of the solution is straightforward: governments should repeal programs that subsidize development in hazardous places.

People who choose to live in flood-prone areas should purchase insurance from private insurance carriers, which would charge premiums based on the actual risk. If companies will not offer flood coverage, that is a market signal that it is not a safe place to live. It is First, not a “market failure” if private flood insurance is not available for dangerous locations, as some commentators have suggested. 227. Before the Analysis In Ppt creation of the NFIP in 1968, little private flood insurance existed. First Job Resume Template. There were marketplace reasons for that, but government interventions also created a hurdle for private flood insurance.

228 Today, however, numerous experts think that flood insurance could be privatized. For one thing, private insurers today have more sophisticated computer models than in the past, and much more is known about flood risks on a detailed basis throughout the nation. Jquery Event | Free Web Resources For Designers. There is Job Resume Template, currently a very small but growing market for Poster - Word, private flood insurance. Template | 229. Federal and Develop A B2b - Salesforce Uk Blog state governments can encourage the development of private flood insurance by getting out First |, of the way. Cutting disaster aid would increase individual and business demand for insurance.

Eliminating federal and state regulations that interfere with insurance pricing would increase the supply of insurance, as would reforming income taxes, which are biased against insurance companies holding capital to cover large but infrequent losses. 230 GAO has discussed steps toward partial privatization of flood insurance. 231 And a report by Deloitte noted that “flood insurance theoretically presents a tremendous growth opportunity for Market In Ppt, private carriers,” but only if reforms are made to federal policies. 232. Congress enacted modest NFIP reforms in 2012, but then took steps backward in 2014. Under the First Template 2012 Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act, FEMA was to gradually increase premiums to better reflect actual risk for more of NFIP’s policyholders. 233 Then in response to complaints about premium increases from constituents, Congress in 2014 passed changes to cap premium increases and to reverse other reforms.

234. Congress should revisit this issue. Market & Competitor Analysis In Ppt. The NFIP should be phased out Job Resume, as barriers to private insurance are repealed. Rep. Jeb Hensarling (R-TX) calls the NFIP “ineffective, inefficient and & Competitor In Ppt indisputably costly to hardworking American taxpayers.” 235 He says that he is considering “legislation to transition to a private, innovative, competitive, sustainable flood insurance market. 236. Rep. Candice Miller (R-MI) has introduced legislation to end the NFIP.

237 She summarizes some of the reasons for repeal: It is ridiculous that the federal government remains in the flood insurance business. With no end in sight for the NFIP in racking up new debt, continuing subsidized rates for those who live in Template, flood prone areas, skyrocketing rates for many who live in Tag Sale Poster Template, areas that never flood and 40 years of history showing clearly that the federal government is a very bad insurance company; it is time to take decisive action to wind down the NFIP instead of offering up more bailouts… . I believe in the 10th Amendment and our nation must stop centralizing power in Washington on a wide variety of issues… . It is time to stop looking to Washington for one size fits all solutions and allow states to provide real and affordable solutions to residents who require flood insurance protection. It is time to remove the Job Resume federal government from the Tag Sale Poster Template flood insurance business, end the unfair debt liability being placed upon all taxpayers by Job Resume |, this unsound federal program, stop the In Word Format Format And Resume Maker practice of forcing unjustly high rates on those living in areas under little risk of flooding, stop the Template politically motivated subsidizing of people who live in highly flood prone areas and restore power to - Hope Church the states. 238. One of the Job Resume Template rules that every doctor learns is “first, do no harm.” That rule should be applied to Resume Format Format And Resume Maker policymaking on First, natural disasters.

This essay focuses mainly on Churches Church | New Zealand, floods and hurricanes, which are the nation’s most costly and First Job Resume Template | prevalent natural disasters. The number of 25+ Food Menu Ideas | Restaurant Website, Americans living in |, risky locations on floodplains and seacoasts has grown in recent decades, and numerous federal policies have encouraged that trend. 239. Those policies should be repealed, starting with subsidized flood insurance. The NFIP has fallen deep into debt, and the program amounts to welfare for the well-to-do. Congress created the How To Develop Marketing - Salesforce NFIP in 1968 partly in the belief that private sector could not provide flood coverage. Today, however, the insurance industry is more sophisticated and in First, a better to position to provide private coverage. Congress should phase out the NFIP in combination with regulatory and tax reforms encouraging private participation in the flood insurance market. Congress should repeal Army Corps spending—such as beach replenishment and new flood control structures—that encourages development of flood-prone areas.

240 Army Corps spending is supposed to protect communities, but as we have seen in New Orleans and elsewhere, the agency’s projects can encourage development in dangerous, low-lying areas. 241 The Corps’ infrastructure has also depleted coastal wetlands, which are a natural defense against hurricanes. “First, do no harm” also applies to growing federal intervention in Program - Hope Oceania Churches | Australia Church, disaster preparedness, response, and First Template | relief. That intervention will backfire if it reduces the efforts of state and local governments and the private sector. If federal efforts continue to expand, “the result will be the displacement of the very things that make the system work most of the time—state, local, and Jquery Event Calendar | Free Web Resources private sector preparedness and initiative.” 242. Unfortunately, the federal urge to spend has triumphed in recent years.

Most of the huge $60 billion Sandy aid package passed in 2013, for example, was for long-term infrastructure projects, not for short-term emergency relief. Template. 243 There is no reason why state and Develop Strategy - Salesforce Uk Blog local governments could not issue bonds and First Template | build rainy day funds to finance disaster response and rebuilding. In Word Format | Resume. Indeed, an advantage in ending federal aid would be to create a strong incentive for states to prepare in advance for Job Resume Template |, disasters, both by putting resources aside and by pursuing mitigation projects to - Hope Churches | Australia Church | New reduce the harm of disasters. State and local governments and the private sector are in a much better position to Template | handle most disaster response. Clearance Tag Sale Poster Template & Publisher. Federal bureaucracies are typically poor at trying to First centrally manage large and complex problems. FEMA is In Word Format Maker, no exception: it is slow, risk averse, subservient to politics, and | it does not have the local knowledge needed to effectively handle many disasters. First responders and - Hope Oceania Churches | Australia | New Zealand their assets are mainly owned and managed locally, and so a bottom-up structure makes sense. As noted, FEMA intervention can slow state and local relief and rebuilding after disasters because of all the extra paperwork required on Template, each project. By reducing the federal role, we would reduce ambiguity in the system.

As we saw with Katrina, decisionmaking was hampered by the uncertainly over Tag Sale Poster Template - Word & Publisher, bureaucratic rules and responsibilities. Our disaster relief system has become “too complex for its own good.” 244 The federal government has made it that way. When you read FEMA and DHS reports, it is striking the Template huge number of goals, plans, strategies, frameworks, agencies, systems, directives, offices, and Calendar Plugin Web Resources other structures that are supposed to come together during disasters. A better approach than such top-down planning would be to greatly cut the federal role and let state, local, and private institutions perform their specialized functions and coordinate among themselves. The disaster response systems in Canada and Australia are more decentralized than ours. Job Resume. 245 The federal emergency management agencies in those countries do not have operational roles. They do provide disaster aid to lower governments, but the thresholds for aid are more objective than in the United States. Miskel argues that a similar more decentralized approach in How To Develop Marketing - Salesforce Uk Blog, the United States would “give a stronger incentive for states to take emergency preparedness seriously because that helps reduce costs and to manage their disaster relief expenditures carefully.” 246. One encouraging U.S. Job Resume Template | development is the Clearance Tag Sale expansion of horizontal relationships between the First states in disaster response.

All the Develop A B2b Strategy - Salesforce state governments have joined the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC), which was created in 1996. 247 EMAC expedites the legal process of states aiding other states with manpower and resources during a disaster. During Hurricane Katrina, for example, Florida provided stockpiled commodities to Mississippi under EMAC procedures. First Job Resume Template. 248. Over the past two decades, there has also been an Best 25+ Food Ideas Only | Restaurant Website, expansion in mutual aid agreements between local governments to share police and fire assets during emergencies. 249 And, as discussed, private electric utilities across the country routinely aid each other with crews and First | equipment to Jquery Calendar Plugin | Free Web Resources speed repairs after storms. Such horizontal relationships make more sense than officials trying to vertically plan everything from Washington. Miskel argues, “the very last thing that the federal government should do is crowd initiative at nonfederal levels out First |, of the system in the name of improving the federal response to Program Churches | Australia | New catastrophic disasters.” 250. There are other ideas to help improve state disaster response. First. One is to reform Good Samaritan laws to ensure that emergency workers do not stay away from Jquery Event Plugin For Designers, disasters in other states for fear of civil liability.

251 Another is to expand State Defense Forces (SDFs). 252 Currently, 22 states have SDFs, which are voluntary, part-time militaries under state command. SDFs often consist of retired military service members and Job Resume professionals such as doctors and engineers, who have disaster-relevant skills. Clearance Poster - Word. During the Sandy recovery, SDFs from New York, Maryland, and other states played important roles. FEMA disaster aid to individuals and state and local governments should be eliminated. FEMA aid has often been wasteful, and the federal government has no unique skill in providing aid. Ending federal aid would have the positive effect of increasing the First Job Resume demand for private insurance and in stimulating greater state, local, and private disaster preparation. Also, removing FEMA intervention would prevent the damaging situation that occurred during Katrina of FEMA repeatedly blocking private aid efforts. Since the 19th century, private donations have poured into American cities hit by disasters.

In recent decades, charitable groups such as the Red Cross and Salvation Army have channeled donations to victims. Historically, businesses have also played a large role in Clearance Template - Word, relief, such as after the San Francisco Earthquake of First Job Resume |, 1906 and the Dayton Flood of 1913. More recently, the efforts of Jquery Web Resources, Walmart and other companies after hurricanes show that businesses are ready to Job Resume Template use their logistical skills to aid communities when calamities strike. If private donations are not sufficient for the largest of disasters, state governments using their own funds are likely to 25+ Food Menu Only Website provide more efficient disaster aid than the First Template | federal government. Clearance - Word & Publisher. Besides, all federal aid ultimately comes from the taxpayers who live in the 50 states.

So it makes more sense for the states to raise their own funding and to plan ahead for the financial demands of future emergencies and disasters. In sum, FEMA funding for disaster aid to states and First individuals should be ended and flood insurance privatized. Those activities represent more than 90 percent of FEMA’s current budget. Some of the remaining activities include flood mapping, continuity of operations, the public alert system, training programs, and technological and radiological hazards preparedness. Those activities should be moved to other agencies, and FEMA closed down. Outside of In Word Format Maker, FEMA, numerous federal agencies would continue to play crucial roles in disaster response. Those include the Coast Guard, the First Job Resume Template | active duty military, the agencies that prepare for pandemics and Samples In Word Format Format And Resume Maker other health threats, and the agencies that handle such threats as terrorism, cyber attacks, and biological and chemical agents. The problem with federal disaster activities is a common one: the government tries to do too much, and it ends up doing little well. | In government, less is nearly always more. Samples In Word Format | Resume Maker. The federal government should be tasked with only those roles for which it can provide added value not provided by state and First local governments or the Template In Ppt private sector. But FEMA’s large and growing budget consists mainly of counterproductive and inefficient aid programs that should be eliminated.

1 Budget of the U.S. First. Government, Fiscal Year 2015, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), Table 4.1. 25+ Food | Restaurant Website. Updated to the final 2014 figure. 2 Calculated from the Office of Management and Budget’s “Public Budget Database,” 3 Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and First Emergency Assistance Act, P.L. 93-288. For a discussion, see Francis X. McCarthy, “FEMA’s Disaster Declaration Process: A Primer,” Congressional Research Service, May 18, 2011. 4 James F. Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008), chap. Program Oceania Churches Church | New. 3.

5 Henry Hogue and Keith Bea, “Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options,” Congressional Research Service, June 1, 2006, pp. 4–5. 6 Rutherford H. Platt, Disasters and Democracy (Washington: Island Press, 1999), p. Job Resume Template. 1. Platt is citing research by Clearance Tag Sale Template - Word & Publisher, Peter May. 8 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” November 2010, p. 3, 9 Janet Sharp Hermann, “Disaster Relief Then and Now,” The Freeman , May 1, 2000. 11 Patrick S. Roberts, Disasters and the American State: How Politicians, Bureaucrats, and the Public Prepare for First Job Resume |, the Unexpected (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), pp. 24–25. And see Judy G. Russell, “A Matter of Debate,”August 20, 2012, 12 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. Tag Sale Poster Template - Word. 3,

14 Emily C. Sharbek, “The Chicago Fire of 1871: A Bottom-Up Approach to Disaster Relief,” Public Choice 160 (2014): 155–80. 16 For a discussion, see Miskel, p. 49. 17 Jennifer K. Elsea and R. Chuck Mason, “The Use of Federal Troops for Disaster Assistance: Legal Issues,” Congressional Research Service, November 28, 2008. 18 Quoted in Robert Higgs, “Why Grover Cleveland Vetoed the Texas Seed Bill,” Independent Institute, July 1, 2003. 19 Christoph Strupp, “Dealing with Disaster: The San Francisco Earthquake of 1906,” German Historical Institute, (Washington), March 22, 2006, p. Job Resume. 8. 20 Morgan O’Rourke, “The Big Shake Up: Revisiting the Great San Francisco Earthquake,” Risk Management , April 2006. 21 Douglas Coate, “Disaster and Recovery: The Public and Private Sectors in Market & Competitor, the Aftermath of the 1906 Earthquake in San Francisco,” Working Paper, Rutgers University, July 2010. 23 Margaret Gurowitz, “The Origins of Our Disaster Relief: The San Francisco Earthquake of Job Resume Template |, 1906,” Kilmer House, Johnson and Johnson, August 20, 2008. 24 O’Rourke. Generally, the policies covered fire, not earthquakes. 26 Dalit Baranoff, “Fire Insurance in the United States,”, March 16, 2008.

27 The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco, “The Great 1906 Earthquake and Fire,” 33 Edward Epstein, “The Great Quake: 1906-2006,” San Francisco Chronicle , April 18, 2006. 35 The actions of Gen. Frederick Funston were controversial for numerous reasons. First, he acted without checking with his superiors in Washington. Program - Hope | Australia. Second, he acted to send regular troops into the city for Job Resume Template |, policing purposes. Third, his command of the city was very aggressive, and apparently led to the deaths of Samples | Resume And Resume, numerous people. 36 Christopher Klein, “The Superstorm That Flooded America 100 Years Ago,”, March 25, 2013. 37 Trudy E. Bell, “Aid and Ambivalence,” 2009,

Bell is a former editor of Scientific American and her website is devoted to the 1913 disaster. 38 Trudy E. Bell, “Our National Calamity: The Great Easter 1913 Flood,” December 9, 2012, 42 Trudy E. Bell, “Aid and Ambivalence.” 43 Miskel, pp. 8, 9, 41,and 45. 44 Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Job Resume Template Army Corps of Engineers,” Cato Institute, March 2012, 45 Arthur E. Morgan, Dams and Other Disasters: A Century of the Army Corps of Engineers in Civil Works (Boston: Porter Sargent, 1971), p. Program - Hope | New. 233.

46 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 5. 48 Jim Sam, “Herbert Hoover and the Great Mississippi Flood,” Behind the Scenes blog, Hoover Institution, May 19, 2011. 49 Platt, pp. 12–18. 51 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 6. 53 The law’s full title is the First Job Resume Template | Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of 1988, P.L. 93-288.

See Bruce R. Lindsay and Justin Murray, “Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations,” Congressional Research Service, April 2011 , p. 4. And see Francis X. McCarthy and - Hope Churches | Australia Jared T. Brown, “Congressional Primer on First Job Resume Template, Responding to Major Disasters and Emergencies,” Congressional Research Service, May 2013. 54 Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of Marketing Strategy, 1988, P.L. 93-288. For a discussion, see McCarthy. 55 This figure is for 2004–2011. See Government Accountability Office (GAO), “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to First | Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Market & Competitor Template In Ppt Respond and Recover on First Job Resume |, Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012.

56 Calculated from the Program - Hope Churches | Australia Church | New Zealand Office of Management and Budget’s “Public Budget Database,” 57 These figures are for DRF spending 2004–2011. See GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Job Resume, Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. 19. 58 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance,”: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. 34. 61 Matt Mayer, “New York Times: A Big Storm Requires a Big Government,” Heritage Foundation, October 30, 2012. 62 Matt Mayer, “States: Stop Subsidizing FEMA Waste and Jquery Plugin | Free For Designers Manage Your Own Local Disasters,” Heritage Foundation, September 29, 2009, p. Template. 7. 63 President George W. Bush, “The Department of Homeland Security,” June 2002,, pp. 1, 7, 16. 64 Budget of the U.S.

Government, Fiscal Year 2014, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2013), Table 4.1. 65 Jerry Markon, “DHS Headquarters Funding in Menu On Pinterest | Restaurant, Jeopardy,” Washington Post , July 4, 2014. 66 Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers.” And see Thomas Birkland and Sarah Waterman, “Is Federalism the Template Reason for Policy Failure in Hurricane Katrina?” Publius: The Journal of Jquery Plugin | Free For Designers, Federalism 38, no. First Job Resume Template | 4 (2008): 692–714. 67 Daniel Hoople, “The Budgetary Impact of the Federal Government’s Response to Disasters,” Congressional Budget Office, September 23, 2013. 68 FEMA’s Sandy response is Calendar Plugin Web Resources For Designers, discussed in Steven P. First Template. Bucci, et al., “After Hurricane Sandy: Time to Learn and Implement the Lessons in Preparedness, Response, and Resilience,” Heritage Foundation, October 24, 2013. 69 Ibid., p. 10.

About $10 billion of the spending was for the NFIP. 70 James W. Fossett, “Let’s Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery,” Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, July 2013. 71 McCarthy and Brown, p. 5. 72 Bureau of the Census, Government Employment and How To A B2b Strategy Payroll, 73 Quoted in Bucci, et al., p. 6. 75 House of Representatives, Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the First Job Resume Preparation for and Response to Resume Samples | Resume Format Katrina, “A Failure of Initiative,” February 15, 2006, p. 13.

78 FEMA keeps a count at First Job Resume Template, Clearance Poster Template - Word & Publisher. I am including “major disasters,” “emergencies,” and “fire management assistance declarations.” 79 Thomas A. Garrett and Russell S. Sobel, “The Political Economy of FEMA Disaster Payments,” Economic Inquiry 41, no. 3 (July 2003): 496–509. See also Russell S. Sobel and First Template | Peter T. Leeson, “Flirting with Disaster: The Inherent Problems with FEMA,” Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. Resume Samples In Word | Resume. 573, July 19, 2006, pp.

8–9. First Job Resume. And see Gene Healy, “Obama’s Disaster-Prone Presidency,” Washington Examiner , July 2, 2012. 80 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” p. 22. 83 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to & Competitor Template Respond and Recover on Template, Its Own,” p. Oceania | Australia Church. 49. 84 Matt Mayer, “States,” p. 9. 85 James W. Fossett, “A Tale of Two Hurricanes: What Does Katrina Tell Us About Sandy?” Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, January 2013. 86 James W. Fossett, “Let’s Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery.” . 87 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Job Resume Template | Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” pp. 16, 20. 89 Bucci, et al., p. 3. 90 Matt Mayer, “States,” p. 7.

91 These issues are discussed in McCarthy. 92 Quoted in Miskel, p. 127. 93 Quoted in Platt, p. 58. 94 Quoted in Platt, p. 89. 96 Jeb Bush, “Think Locally on Relief,” op-ed, Washington Post , September 30, 2005.

97 Quoted in House of Representatives, , p. Marketing Strategy - Salesforce. 322. 98 Matt Mayer, “Five Lessons from Hurricane Sandy,” November 29, 2012, p. 1. 99 Quoted in ibid., p. 1. 101 Miskel, p. 15. 102 Brad Plumer, “Is Sandy the Second-Most Destructive U.S. Hurricane Ever,” Washington Post , November 5, 2012. 104 GAO, “Disaster Management: Improving the Nation’s Response to Catastrophic Disasters,” GAO/RCED-93-186, July 1993, p. 3.

105 Miskel, p. 81. 107 This was a report by the National Academy of First Template, Public Administration, which is discussed in Miskel, p. 87. 108 Quoted in Miskel, p. 85. 109 Miskel, pp. 41, 83–85. 112 House of Representatives, p. 1. 114 Senate Committee on & Competitor Analysis Template In Ppt, Homeland Security and Job Resume Template Government Affairs, “Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared,” March 1, 2006, chap. 14. 115 Miskel, p. 15.

116 House of Representatives, pp. 1, 11. 120 Miskel, p. How To A B2b. 136. 123 Scott Shane, “Stumbling Storm-Aid Effort Put Tons of Ice on Trips to Nowhere,” New York Times , October 2, 2005. 124 John Cochran, “85M Pounds of Ice Growing Down the First Job Resume Drain,, July 15, 2007. And see Rep.

Bennie G. Thompson and Democratic Staff of the House Committee on Homeland Security, “One Year Later: Katrina’s Waste,” August 28, 2006, p. 14. 125 Abbie Boudreau and Scott Zamost, “FEMA Gives Away $85 Million of Supplies for Katrina Victims,”, June 12, 2008. 126 Rep. Bennie G. Thompson and Democratic Staff of the Menu Ideas On Pinterest | Restaurant Website House Committee on Homeland Security, p. First. 3. 127 House of Representatives, pp.

300–302. 128 House of Representatives, p. 299. 129 GAO, “Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Disaster Relief,” GAO-06-844T, June 114, 2006. And see Brad Heath, “Katrina Fraud Swamps System,” USA Today , July 6, 2007. 130 Associated Press, “Abuse Could Push Katrina Costs to $2 Billion,” December 25, 2006. 131 Frank Bass and Clearance Tag Sale Poster Template - Word Eileen Sullivan, “Scammers Scooped Up $500M in Katrina Aid,” Associated Press, December 4, 2007. 132 Eric Lipton, “Breathtaking Waste and Fraud in Job Resume Template |, Hurricane Aid,” New York Times , June 27, 2006. 133 House of Representatives, p. 286. 136 Sobel and Leeson. 137 House Select Bipartisan Committee to Clearance Poster & Publisher Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina, Rep.

Jefferson questioning of Michael Brown, September 27, 2005. 138 Ann Rodgers, “Homeland Security Won’t Let Red Cross Deliver Food,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette , September 3, 2005. 139 Scott Shane, “After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game,” New York Times , September 5, 2005. 140 Elizabeth Williamson, “Offers of Aid Immediate, but U.S. Approval Delayed for Days,” Washington Post , September 7, 2005. 141 Scott Shane, “After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game.” 142 Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), p. 6.

144 Associated Press, “Agency ‘Beyond Repair’ and Must Be Replaced, Republican Chairwomen Says,” April 27, 2006. 145 Platt, p. 277. 146 Platt, p. 277. 147 Chris Edwards, “Department of |, Homeland Bureaucracy,” Cato Institute, June 12, 2014. 148 Miskel, p. 83. 150 Gregory J. Sanial, “The Response to Hurricane Katrina: A Study of the Coast Guard’s Culture, Organizational Design and Leadership in Crisis,” masters degree thesis, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2007. 151 Steven Horwitz, “Making Hurricane Response More Effective,” Mercatus Center, George Mason University, March 2008.

152 Sanial, p. Market & Competitor In Ppt. 26. 154 Ibid., pp. 71, 70. 155 Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, p. 10. See also James F. Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), pp. 40, 96, 97. 156 House of Representatives, p. 343. 157 Ibid., pp.

312, 344. 158 Miskel, p. 25. 159 House of Representatives, p. 328. 161 Michael Barbaro and Justin Gillis, “Wal-Mart at the Forefront of Hurricane Relief,” Washington Post , September 6, 2005, p. D1. 163 House of First, Representatives, pp. xi, 2. 164 Bucci, et al., 166 Quoted in ibid., p. 4. 167 Partnership for Public Service, “The Best Places to Work in Jquery Event Plugin For Designers, the Federal Government,” 2013, 168 Department of Homeland Security, Office of Inspector General, “FEMA’s Logistics Supply Chain Management System May Not Be Effective During a Catastrophic Disaster,” September 2014, p. 5.

171 Meghan Barr, “AP-NORC Poll: Friends, Kin Key to Sandy Survival,” Associated Press, June 24, 2013. 173 Department of Homeland Security, “DHS Announces Grant Allocation for Fiscal 2013 Preparedness Grants,” press release, August 23, 2013. 175 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin,” no. 393, March 10, 2014. And see Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin,” no.

394, March 18, 2014. 176 Office of Senator Tom Coburn, “Safety at First Job Resume |, Any Price: Assessing the Impact of Tag Sale Template - Word & Publisher, Homeland Security Spending in U.S. Cities,” December 2012, p. 5. 177 Ibid., pp. 14, 15, 19, 20, 21.

178 Department of First, Homeland Security, “Funding Opportunity Announcement: Homeland Security Grant Program,” DHS-14-GPD-067-000-01, 2014. 179 Matt A. Best Only. Mayer, Homeland Security and Federalism: Protecting America from Outside the Beltway (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Security International, 2009), p. 64. 180 Department of Homeland Security, “Funding Opportunity Announcement,” Appendix A. 181 Coburn, p. 23. 182 Melissa Raines, “Hazmat Trailer, Truck to Be Sold,” Mount Vernon News , Au­gust 26, 2008. 183 Coburn, p. 26. 184 The Department of First |, Defense has also been giving excess military equipment to local police forces. See Matt Apuzzo, “Officer Friendly, In a Tank? War Gear Flows to Local Police,” New York Times , June 9, 2014. 185 Jennifer Levitz, “Towns Say No Tanks to Militarized Police,” Wall Street Journal , February 7, 2014. 186 Coburn, pp.

4, 36–41. 187 Budget of the U.S. Government, FY2015, Appendix (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), p. 548. For general information, see 188, “ Citizen Ben : Firefighter,” 2002, 189 Bureau of the Census, State and Jquery Event Plugin For Designers Local Government Finances, Table 1,

The 2011 total is $42 billion. 190 Sandra Santos, “Red Tape Delays Some Stimulus Projects,”, June 29, 2010. 191 Office of First Job Resume |, Representative Sean Patrick Maloney, “Maloney Joins New Newburgh Firefighters at Live Burn,” press release, December 20, 2013. 192 FEMA, Congressional Budget Justification, FY2013, Flood Hazard Mapping and Risk Analysis, 193 National Oceanic and & Competitor Analysis Template Atmospheric Administration, “NOAA’s State of the Coast,” 2012, 194 GAO, “Flood Insurance: More Information Needed on Subsidized Properties,” GAO-13-607, July 2013, p. 4. 195 Rawle O. King, “The National Flood Insurance Program: Status and First Job Resume | Remaining Issues for Congress,” Congressional Research Service, February 6, 2013, p. 3. 197 GAO, “Flood Insurance: Opportunities Exist to Improve Oversight of the WYO Program,” GA0-09-455, August 2009, p. 1.

198 Annmarie Geddes Baribeau, “The National Flood Insurance Program Is Under Water: Can the Private Sector Help?” Contingencies , July/August 2013, p. 30. 199 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. Market Template In Ppt. 12. 200 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Attention Needed to Address Challenges,” GAO-13-858T, September 18, 2013, p. 1. 202 For some of the Template | differences between NFIP and private insurance, see Property Casualty Insurers Association of Poster Template & Publisher, America, “True Market-Risk Rates for Flood Insurance,” June 2011. And see American Academy of Actuaries, “The National Flood Insurance Program: Past, Present, and Future?” July 2011. 203 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. 5. 205 Property Casualty Insurers Association of America, p. 4. 206 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continue Attention Needed to Address Challenges,” p. 9.

207 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. 7. 210 Quoted in The Week , “After Hurricane Sandy: Is Flood Insurance Bad for Taxpayers?” editorial,, December 8, 2012. 211 National Oceanic and First Job Resume Template Atmospheric Administration. 212 J. Scott Holladay, “Flooding the Jquery Web Resources For Designers Market,” Institute for Policy Integrity, New York University School of Law, April 2010, p. 3. 214 Property Casualty Insurers Association of First, America. 215 King, p. 20. And see GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Template In Ppt Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. 8. Repetitive loss properties are those with two or more claims payments of $1,000 or more over 10 years. 216 Thomas Frank, “Huge Losses Put the Federal Flood Insurance Plan in the Red,” USA Today , August 26, 2010. 217 John Stossel, “Taxpayers Get Soaked by Government’s Flood Insurance,”, September 20, 2009. 218 Holladay, p. 6.

219 Eli Lehrer, “Watery Marauders,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, August 2007, p. 8. 221 Ibid., p. First Job Resume Template. xvii. 224 James Bovard, “Uncle Sam’s Flood Machine,” The Freeman , January 1, 2006. 225 Platt, pp. How To A B2b Marketing Strategy - Salesforce. 194, 199. 227 Some commentators have suggested that the market failure of “adverse selection” is First Template |, a barrier to & Competitor private flood insurance.

But adverse selection is based on the idea that insurance buyers have hidden information not available to First Job Resume Template insurance companies. That is not the case with flood insurance because flood risks are public knowledge. 229 Andrew G. Simpson, “Private Flood Insurance Agency Now Selling in 15 States,”, February 10, 2014. 230 Scott E. Best Ideas | Restaurant Website. Harrington, “Rethinking Disaster Policy,” Cato Institute, Regulation 23, no 1. And see Scott E. Harrington and First Job Resume Template Tom Miller, “Insurance Regulation and Government Insurance,” Cato Handbook for How To Strategy - Salesforce, Congress, 108th Congress . 231 GAO, “Flood Insurance: Strategies for Increasing Private Sector Involvement,” GAO-14-127, January 22, 2014. 232 Deloitte Center for Financial Services, “The Potential for Flood Insurance Privatization in the U.S.,” 2014, p. 3. 233 For a discussion, see King. 234 Nedra Pickler, “President Obama Signs Flood Insurance Relief Bill,”, March 24, 2014. The 2014 law was the Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act. 235 Mark A. Hofmann, “Congress to Consider Privatizing the NFIP,”, January 27, 2013. 237 Office of Rep.

Candice S. Miller, “Rep. Job Resume Template. Miller: Eliminate the National Flood Insurance Program,” press release, April 8, 2013. 239 For data on the seacoasts, see National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This is the population in Best 25+ Food Only On Pinterest | Restaurant, Special Flood Hazard Areas. 240 I’ve argued that most of the functions of the Corps should be privatized. First Job Resume | See Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers.”

241 Ibid. And see Michael Grunwald, “The Threatening Storm,” Time , August 2, 2007, and Michael Grunwald, “Setting the Stage for More Katrinas,” Time , August 2, 2007.

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Sources de donnees (JDBC, JNDI, LDAP, OLAP, fichier) Securite Comment delivrer les rapports La maintenance du systeme Configuration generale des rapports Integration. Oracle Fusion Middleware Security : C’est le niveau de securite par defaut. | BI Publisher Security : Permet de controles les acces aux rapports et sources de donnees. Best? LDAP : Met en place les roles LDAP. First | Oracle E-Business Suite : Upload un fichier DBC pour reconnaitre les utilisateurs Oracle E-Business Suite. Jquery | Free Web Resources? Oracle BI Server: You can still leverage the First Job Resume legacy BI Server authentication method if you choose not to Menu Website upgrade to First | Oracle Fusion Middleware Security. Template - Word? Oracle Siebel Security: Set up the First Job Resume | BI Publisher roles as Siebel CRM responsibilities and Program Oceania | Australia then configure BI Publisher to Template use Siebel Security. How To A B2b Marketing - Salesforce Uk Blog? Oracle Database: Set up the First Job Resume Template BI Publisher roles in Ideas Only your Oracle Database and Job Resume Template then configure the A B2b Strategy - Salesforce integration with BI Publisher.

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VII- Conclusion: Fiches de revision: Resume base sur le cour de BI dispense a Supinfo en master 2.