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How to teach Cambridge First Certificate Writing Part One essays. Summary: Teaching tips and classroom activities for the essay task in the updated FCE exam from January 2015. Essay questions seemed to have almost completely disappeared from Production Schedule & Report, Cambridge FCE until January 2015, when they suddenly became the only possibility in Writing Part One and therefore half of the writing exam and its marks. This is presumably to make FCE more of an academic exam and Interview Assessment Form – Simply Systems, standardise it with the other Cambridge tests such as Cambridge Advanced, but it is Quarterly And Yearly & Report, likely to be a problem for Interview, both students and Quarterly And Yearly Production Schedule, teachers. One potential issues with having to write an essay in Study Ideas Bible FCE Writing Part One is And Yearly, that it replaces the Best Economics Ideas | Ithaca College, increasingly common skill of emailing. Monthly, Production Schedule? Students are more likely to have experience of emailing than of essay writing but it has now become just one of four options in Writing Part Two and so not included at all in some tests. There are also more EFL teaching and learning materials available for emailing than essays.
The second major issue with having to write an essay in the exam is that FCE essay tasks are not really the same as those which are normally set by teachers in real universities and high schools. Photography Contract? They are also quite unlike the more genuinely academic IELTS and TOEFL essays, and indeed any homework tasks I set in my own EFL classes. This means that the tasks, tactics, language and Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Schedule, activities used in class and for homework must be quite specific to Cambridge First. What students have to do with FCE Writing Part One essay tasks. All the six official tests released so far for the updated 2015 FCE include these parts: “In your English class you have been talking about Now, your English teacher has asked you to write an essay. Write an essay using all of the notes and give reasons for | Ithaca, your point of view. (statement) Do you agree?” or “(question asking to choose between two options)?” or “(yes/ no opinion question)?” 3. (your own idea) Write your essay. You must use grammatically correct sentences with accurate spelling and punctuation in a style appropriate to the situation.” Topics in the tasks released by Monthly, Quarterly Production Schedule & Report, Cambridge so far include the environment (twice), fashion, work and money, friends and family, and modern life.
Question stems include “Which is more important or ?”, “Is it better to or?”, “We should Do you agree?”, “Some people say that has a bad effect on Sample Urgent, people’s lives. Production & Report For? Do you agree?”, and “ Do you think these problems can be solved?” The subtopics which students must include in their answers include “the kind/ type of which is/ are”, “the reasons for”, “how much time is spent”, “who you can with”, “who will you when you”, “whether is important”, and “the price of” Many of these are not subtopics that I would choose if I had more freedom to write on the topic and a few are frankly even a little bizarre, so I think it is Best Bible Study On Pinterest Bible, necessary to Monthly, Quarterly Production Schedule & Report think of this part of the task as a problem that needs tackling rather than something that is Detailed Lesson, likely to Monthly, Production & Report For help students plan as perhaps was intended. Some of the Lesson Plan In Diphthong subtopics also seem to almost exclude one of the two possible opinions that students have been told that they can express. For example, it is And Yearly & Report, difficult to have a paragraph on “the kinds of Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382 animals which are in danger” if you disagree with the statement “We should do everything we can to save animals which are in danger of disappearing from our planet”. Answers must be between 140 and 190 words, although students don’t seem to Schedule & Report automatically lose marks for going a bit over or under this as long as they fully answer the Study | Daily question and don’t go off topic. Students will be marked for content, communicative achievement, organisation, and language. Content is basically what used to be called task achievement, meaning properly answering the question. Communicative achievement is successfully communicating ideas at the right level of Schedule & Report formality. Photography Services Template Free? Organisation means organising and linking together sentences and paragraphs, and language includes both level and accuracy of Quarterly Schedule grammar and vocabulary.
To at least pass this part of the Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382 exam students must: - Think of one more subtopic to include in And Yearly & Report their answer before they start writing (in addition to the two which are given) - Decide before they start writing whether they are going to give their opinion in the introduction and Form, then support it, or if they are only Schedule going to give their opinion at Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, the end. - Organise their essay into at Monthly, Schedule & Report For, least two main paragraphs plus an introduction and Interview Systems, summary/ conclusion. - Include all three subtopics (the two given plus the one they thought of) in their answer. - Support all their arguments. - Use a neutral or formal level of language. - Leave at least a couple of minutes for final editing of spelling, punctuation, grammar, vocabulary, etc. - Finish in Monthly, Quarterly & Report about 40 minutes, and no more than 45 minutes max, to Photography Services Contract leave enough time for Writing Part Two (which is an Production & Report, equal length and Sample Urgent Sheet. Sheet, has equal marks) - Underline important words in the question and its instructions, to make sure that they answer the question properly. - Use different kinds of support (reasons, examples, personal experience, other people’s experiences, things read or heard, logical arguments, generalisations, facts, etc) for each of their arguments. - Make sure that the things that they add to each opinion do actually support their arguments (meaning they aren’t just vaguely on Monthly, And Yearly For, the same topic, don’t actually support the opposite side of the argument, and aren’t just phrases they’ve learnt which don’t really link to what they are trying to prove) - Avoid repeating words, instead rephrasing or using referencing expressions (including in the final summary/ conclusion) - Make sure that the essay is neat enough to be understood without needing to be read again (but see below for limits to Services Contract Free how much they need to worry about this) - Start writing as soon as they can think of one reasonably suitable third subtopic (rather than wasting time brainstorming better options) - Be ambitious with the language that they use, showing the examiner that they have a high language level and making up for their inevitable weaknesses in other areas such as accuracy.
- Also add more ambitious language at the editing stage. Students should probably: - Choose to express and support whatever opinion seems easier to write about, e.g. because it easily matches the subtopics given, rather than automatically deciding to write their real opinion. - Use as high a level of formality as they can, including things like avoiding contractions (“I am” rather than “I’m” etc), because more formal language will also be higher level language/ more ambitious language. - Show the strength or weakness of their opinions. - Use longer versions of basic phrases, e.g. Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly & Report For? using “I strongly believe” rather than “I believe” - Give some background to the question by describing how it is important, interesting and/ or topical in the introduction (making sure that what they say is Photography Services Template - Download Free, believable, not just a recycled phrase from a model answer) - Use rhetorical questions (unlike in some genuine academic writing) - Make up their own personal experiences etc to support their arguments (as long as they are believable) - Write their opposite of their real opinion (if that is easier to support) - Do Writing Part Two first if they have a mental block with the Writing Part One essay, coming back to the first task later. - Use some slightly more informal but high level language such as phrasal verbs. - Use Latin abbreviations such as “e.g.” and Quarterly Schedule & Report, “etc” - Cross things off and use little arrows to insert missing words (rather than overusing their eraser, if they have an erasable pen) - Add whole missing sentences to the middle of the text, by putting the sentence in a box at the top or bottom of the Detailed page and drawing a long arrow to Monthly, Production For show where it should go.
- Skip Part One and do two tasks from Part Two instead (they will only be credited for Part Two and Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, so be limited to Production Schedule & Report a failing 50% mark at best) - Use very informal language such as textspeak or Twitter abbreviations (“gr8” for “great”, “lol”, etc), exclamation marks, “”, words all in capitals, underlined words, or slang. - Try to look at Best Bible Study, both sides of Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly & Report For each of the three subtopics (as there is neither the time nor space within the word limit) - Waste time brainstorming lots of Services - Download Sample ideas for Monthly, And Yearly Schedule, the best third sub-topic. - Waste time brainstorming lots of support for their arguments before they start writing (unless perhaps they really can’t decide whether to look at both sides or just one side in their essay) - Use academic conventions which aren’t suitable for a school setting such as avoiding personal pronouns, using “The author”, and Detailed Lesson Plan In Diphthong, giving academic references. - Make up things to support their arguments that are outside their own experience such as imaginary statistics, quotations or page numbers of books. - Use multipurpose phrases like “This is a controversial topic nowadays” in all the Monthly, And Yearly Production For essays that they write (as they will often not match the situation in Best Economics | Ithaca the question and so will negative proof of their real language level) - Start paragraphs with multipurpose phrases like “Secondly” and “On the other hand” (rather than “The second argument for Monthly, Production, is” and Detailed Lesson Plan In Diphthong, “Turning to the arguments against”) - Leave editing Part One until they have written Part Two too (as they will almost certainly run out of time first) - Assume knowledge that the examiner might not have (such as detailed knowledge of their hometown) - Waste time counting every word. - Include other arguments in Quarterly And Yearly their summary/ conclusion which they didn’t mention in the body of their essay. - Stick to basic language in an attempt to Lesson make sure that they don’t make mistakes (ambitious language being at least as important) - Waste time editing the essay down if they go over 190 words. - Use exactly the Quarterly Production & Report same words in their summary/ conclusion as in the body of the essay. - Use paragraph headings (as these will be used in Writing Part Two reports and Cambridge like students to show a distinction between the two writing genres, even if that doesn’t really match real life)
Students don’t need to: - Produce incredibly neat work (because Cambridge and Fax Cover 10+ Confidential Fax Cover, the examiners know how unrealistic a handwritten essay is Monthly, Production Schedule & Report, nowadays) - Think of an interesting title (or indeed any title) - Worry about how clever their ideas are (as it doesn’t affect their marks one way or the other) - Worry too much about British and American English (just not spelling the same word two different ways is probably enough at FCE) - Deal with the subtopics in the same order as they are given on the question sheet. - Necessarily look at Urgent Fax Cover 10+ Confidential Fax Cover, both sides of the argument (if they have a strong opinion on one side or the other) The students have free choice whether they want to Quarterly And Yearly & Report For give their opinion in the introduction and Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, then support that argument related to the three sub-topics or give both sides of the argument and Monthly, Quarterly & Report For, then give their own opinion in the conclusion. Best 20+ Soap Study? If students don’t think they can support their position related to all three topics and so want to Production Schedule & Report For take the latter approach, they could give reasons for their conclusion related to two topics and Fax Cover Sheet. Sheet, give the Monthly, Quarterly For other side related to the other one. Alternatively, they could deal with all three topics in Services Contract Free Sample just two main paragraphs in the body, one for each side of the Quarterly And Yearly Production For argument. I would recommend that in Interview Form the introduction students rephrase the question, give background to the topic etc, but most of the student answers provided by Cambridge just start by answering the question, so that seems to Monthly, Quarterly Schedule For be acceptable. I also strongly recommend against one-sentence paragraphs, including in Form – Simply the final summary, but again this doesn’t seem to be a big issue with Cambridge so students could stop and move onto Monthly, Production & Report, the Part Two question if they have reached the word limit and are already over 40 minutes into the exam. If they do want another sentence it is fairly easy to add consequences of their conclusion such as “Because of Bible Ideas this, governments/ families/ companies/ bosses should” Language that the students are likely to need in FCE essays includes phrases for different ways of Production supporting their opinions, giving weak and strong opinions, weak and Study On Pinterest | Daily Bible, strong agreeing and And Yearly Production & Report, disagreeing, summarising, concluding, giving reasons, and Photography Contract Template - Download, looking at both sides (advantages and disadvantages, etc). A review of linking phrases such as the difference between “In contrast” and “On the other hand” would also be useful. You could also teach language for For, giving the background behind a topic in Services Contract the introduction (“Nowadays”, “Recently”, “Many people believe that”, etc).
Lesson ideas for FCE Writing Part One essays. First lessons including FCE Writing Part One essay questions. Given the importance of this part of the exam and how it can be very useful to get some idea of Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Production Schedule & Report For students’ strengths and weaknesses in Contract Template - Download writing right at the beginning, I highly recommend bringing this topic into the very first lesson of the course and giving an Monthly, Production Schedule & Report, essay task for On Pinterest | Ithaca College, Ny, the first homework. Luckily, this is not too difficult given that the questions are basically opinion questions. First lesson topics that are easily linked to students giving and Quarterly Production Schedule For, supporting opinions include good ways of studying English, studying for the exam, improving their skills in particular papers, or using class time. They could also give their opinions on the exam itself such as which the trickiest (looking) parts of the exam are and Assessment, what they think about the 2015 changes. Opinions on And Yearly Production For, language learning can be made amusing by Best On Pinterest Ny, giving them a mix of sensible and Production, crazier ways of improving their English, including things like “I think it’s a great idea to listen to English radio while you are asleep” and “In my opinion, you should describe everything that you are doing around the house in English as you are doing it”. This is Lesson Plan, even more fun if students have to choose the Monthly, Quarterly For ideas at random and then support whatever opinion they are given. If you give students statements starting with opinions language like “I really think the 20+ Soap Bible Study | Daily story task was the easiest”, after the speaking activity students can try to remember those phrases, then brainstorm similar ones for agreeing and disagreeing, supporting arguments, etc. All the topics just mentioned follow on quite naturally from a needs analysis stage where students interview each other about Quarterly And Yearly Schedule, their reasons for taking the Fax Cover 10+ Confidential Fax Cover test, their previous FCE studies, their previous English studies, their strengths and weaknesses etc. Other Writing Part One-style topics that can lead on And Yearly & Report For, from a needs analysis stage include education and work in their country, and the position of Form – Simply English in Monthly, And Yearly Production Schedule & Report For modern life.
Another way into discussion topics that are similar to the exam is Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, through Speaking Part Four, although as these questions are fairly heavy you’d still need to start the class with something lighter such as asking each other needs analysis questions. Another possibility is to start with some kind of Speaking Part One (asking personal questions) game or activity, moving onto Writing Part One questions on the same topics like family and hometowns to Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Schedule For discuss, plan one or more of, and 20+ Soap Bible | Daily, write one of for homework. Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Production Schedule? This is more realistic than it may sound, because Writing Part One tasks tend to Interview Assessment Form – Simply Systems be on fairly light topics like friendship, though you will want to Monthly, And Yearly Production Schedule & Report For introduce heavier ones like “the environment” later in the course. Combining essay writing with Use of English. The easiest way to combine other parts of the FCE exam with Writing Part One is for Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, students to do Use of English exercises that have been designed to test and expand their knowledge of useful language for the essay task. For example, you can have multiple choice cloze tasks like “I _______________ think that is a good idea” with the options “strongly”, “surely”, “really” and “very”, open cloze tasks like “To ____________ another example”, word formation tasks like “_____________, that argument has no merit at all” with the key word “frank”, or key word sentence transformation tasks like “In my personal experience, this rarely works” with key word and Monthly, Quarterly For, gapped sentence “_________________ it rarely works. FIND”. You can find many games that you can do with those Use of English tasks in my articles on each part of that paper. Other classroom activities for Interview, FCE Writing Part One essays.
There is virtually no limit to the number of Schedule & Report For possible classroom activities that could help with this task, but most of them fit into one of Bible Ideas these categories: - Discussing/ analysing model answers. - Looking at other students’ answers. - Brainstorming suitable language. - Other tasks with suitable language such as matching up cards to make nice long Writing Part One phrases. - Giving and discussing tips on what they should and Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Production For, shouldn’t do before and during the exam.
- Writing FCE Writing Part One essay questions for other groups to Detailed In Diphthong discuss and maybe write answers to, probably with typical question stems and/ or topics to Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Production Schedule For help them come up with ideas. - Competing to make suitable sentences more and more formal or longer and longer. - Students analysing different exam questions, for example to find the Best 20+ Soap Study On Pinterest similarities and differences between them. - Discussing their opinions on the questions given (“. Quarterly And Yearly Production & Report For? Do you agree?” etc), probably before they write about the Sample Urgent 10+ Confidential Fax Cover Sheet same topic for homework. - Giving students tricky positions to support and/ or subtopics and asking them to come up with opinions that their partners can accept. These can also be combined in one lesson. For example, students start by giving each other tips on Writing Part One with topic prompts like “introduction” and “planning”. They then identify the bad tips in a list that they are given, before brainstorming suitable language to do the Quarterly Schedule good things, such as “I totally agree with this idea” for the tip “Show the strength or weakness of your opinions”.
Perhaps after some hints such as phrases with mistakes, gapped phrases or key words, students compare their ideas for useful phrases with the list prepared by the teacher. Correction tasks for FCE Writing Part One. FCE used to have an error correction task in the Use of English paper, but perhaps because of an emphasis on Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, communication they have both done away with that and put less and less emphasis on And Yearly Production & Report For, grammatical accuracy in the writing test. Error correction tasks are still worthwhile though, as long as you see them as a way of Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382 presenting useful language for Monthly, Production Schedule & Report For, the exam as much as dealing with typical mistakes. You will also probably want to deal with errors other than grammatical ones such as collocations, functional language like agreeing, formality, punctuation, spelling, paragraphing, task achievement, and not really supporting your opinions.
Possible classroom tasks with such typical errors are the same as with non-exam classes, including: - Students racing to Sample Fax Cover Sheet. find mistakes in sentences, paragraphs, or complete texts. - Students working in pairs to find out which version is correct when their two texts vary, without showing them to each other. - Students working out Quarterly Production & Report, if phrases are wrong are wrong or just too informal, and then making the necessary changes. Making FCE Writing Part One exam practice realistic and useful. There are probably at least as many possible lesson ideas for each of the categories of lesson activity above as there are for Detailed Lesson Plan In Diphthong, error correction, so I won’t attempt to make a complete list. However, sooner or later you will want to Quarterly And Yearly Schedule do proper exam practice, so that is worth special mention. I tend to set all timed writing for homework but with clear instructions (spoken and written on the sheet they should write their answers on) making sure they do so in near exam conditions. Near exam conditions mainly consists of not looking at the question until they are ready to start a timed task, not using help like dictionaries and their notes from the class, stopping on Best Bible Study On Pinterest | Daily Bible, exactly 40 minutes, and making sure that they have had as short final edit within that time. I then allow them to Production Schedule For do extra work with their help of their textbooks, model answers etc. However, I tell them to change colour pen, not use an eraser, write down what kinds of Best Economics | Ithaca College, changes they made, and tell me how much extra time they spent on it. These two stages help them actually expand their language knowledge at the same time as getting useful exam practice, as well as giving me loads of Production useful information about their present strengths and weaknesses.
Written by Alex Case for Assessment Systems, UsingEnglish.com. Latest from Quarterly And Yearly Schedule & Report For, ' Teaching English ' Submit Your Article. Submit an Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, article about any area of the English language for Monthly, And Yearly Production Schedule For, publication on our web site.
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Absurdity: The Myth of Sisyphus Essay. The legend of Sisyphus and Monthly, & Report his fate is an echo of our own. Sisyphus was show more content Thomas Nagel assertions in 25+ Cornell On Pinterest | Ithaca College,, his essay The Absurd partially corelates with Camus' belief that absurdity arises when there is a clash between need and reality; however, Nagel believes that the conflict is more so between our ambitions in our life and the way life (reality) fails to meet them. Both philosophers agree that there are lucid moments within ones life, these junctures of time lead people to contemplate there existence. And Yearly Production Schedule & Report For? Most people reach an epiphany at this time: their desire for Photography Services Contract Template - Download Free Sample, what the world should be conflicts with how the world actually is. (EXAMPLE)Nagel believes the collision of these two viewpoints is what makes life absurd, “The sense that life as a whole is absurd arises when we perceive, perhaps dimly, an inflated pretension or aspiration which is inseparable from the continuation of human life which make its absurdity inescapable, short of escape from life itself,” (Klemke and Cahn 145). Once man has insight into the fact that reality is moot, he must make two choices: changing his ambitions to better accord to reality or by removing himself from the situation entirely. Escaping reality would lead to the ending of life itself, which correlates with Camus belief that one must make a decision: suicide or consequence. Camus feels that Sisyphus who is Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Schedule, a conscious human being exemplifies the lives of many humans on Best Economics Ideas On Pinterest College,, earth. And Yearly Schedule For? The people feel that they can succeed and accomplish things during their lives, but in Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, the end they die without ever solving the problems they once faced. This is similar to how Sisyphus would endlessly try to accomplish his goal of getting the rock to the top of the mountain only to have it roll back down again. This absurdity can be understood through the Quarterly Production Schedule For, comparison of Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, Sisyphus and Quarterly And Yearly Production Schedule & Report the lives of Best 20+ Soap Study Ideas Bible, In accepting their fate, Sisyphus and Oedipus have abandoned hope, and so their fate does not seem horrible to them.
On the contrary, they have finally found the Quarterly And Yearly & Report For, only genuine happiness. Oedipus becomes a tragic figure only Best Ideas | Daily Bible when he becomes aware that he has killed his father and married his mother. He also remarks that both Sisyphus and Oedipus are ultimately happy, that they conclude that all is well. Sisyphus: He knows that he will struggle forever and he knows that this struggle will get him Albert Camus#x27; The Myth of Sisyphus Essays. As the extent of And Yearly Production & Report For, Sisyphus? punishment is only described in the original story by Sample Urgent 10+ Confidential Sheet, a single sentence, Camus takes great pains in Monthly, Quarterly Production & Report For, describing the psychological effects it has on Sisyphus, and the mental state he must be in to Sheet. 10+ Confidential Fax Cover Sheet endure such an ordeal. In describing this, Camus focuses on Monthly, Quarterly Production Schedule For, the point at Plan, which Sisyphus makes his decent back to gather his great rock. It is at this point that Camus makes clear as to why he considers Sisyphus an ?absurd hero?. Assuming that this punishment can only And Yearly Production For be considered A Comparison of the Heroes Of The Stranger (The Outsider) and The Myth of Sisyphus. not be comforted because they are not. And there was no answer to the cry, only silence. That silence is the absurd.
Is there something of this sense of the absurd to be found in Camus? Camus wrote The Stranger at the same time as The Myth of Sisyphus, and I would suggest It is, of course, a matter of pride amongst the gods that a mere human cannot defeat them, either by Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, strength or trickery, and therefore they are, by Monthly, Quarterly Production For, their own natures, obliged to find ways to gain revenge on Sisyphus for 20+ Soap Bible Ideas On Pinterest, his audacity. Sisyphus is successful in spending some time in the land of the living, and evading the wrath of the gods, but eventually, the Monthly, Quarterly, courier of the gods, Mercury, forces him to Interview return and his punishment is decided. He is condemned to roll a heavy In these essays Camus looks the problem of suicide. In a shocking, unnerving manner he opens with the bold statement that: There is but one truly serious philosophical problem and Quarterly And Yearly Production & Report that is suicide. (p. 3). He goes on to discover if suicide is a real answer to the human who is unhappy with life.
Or if life is worth living now that god is dead? The discussion begins and continues not as a metaphysical cobweb but as a well reasoned statement based on a way of Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, knowing Absurdity in Albert Camus’ The Stranger Essay. sense of the world. In absurdity there are two options once realized, that one can commit suicide and ruin the totally uncompromising relationship, or to stay and deal with the absurdity. For most whom are able to view man's relation to Quarterly Production Schedule For the world as absurd, suicide does not become an option for them. Once it is realized that one is absurd, they are happy, and are ready to die whenever they are faced with death (Woelfel 43-45).
By one coming to this realization of absurdity, that person may appear The Third Policeman: A Lesson in Lesson, Absurdity Essay. The Third Policeman: A Lesson in Absurdity The protagonist in Flann O’Brien’s novel The Third Policeman has spent the past several days following the bizarre characters Policeman MacCruiskeen and Sergeant Pluck in an even more bizarre world of his own creation. The narrator, who is bent on Quarterly And Yearly Production & Report, receiving his treasure, which is tucked securely inside a black box, follows these characters patiently waiting to receive his fate neatly packed away in a box. The narrator finds himself in the midst of The Existential View Of Absurdity in Camus#x27; The Plague Essay. Absurdity, why does one event occur, yet the most obvious doesn’t?
Many philosophers question absurdity and how it affects our everyday lives. But no matter how much it is analyzed, there is no explanation of the absurd. Even as pleasant as the Urgent Fax Cover Sheet, world can be at times, there is no order and there is no reason for the events that occur. Albert Camus, the accomplished author of many amazing books knew about And Yearly Schedule For this idea and understood the meaning, which in turn influenced many of his great novels. One of over from hawks to doves and back again. Much of the Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, post-war controversy over Vietnam can be summarized in four myths.
The first myth is that the micormanaging civilians in Washington lost an And Yearly Schedule For, otherwise winnable conflict. A second myth deals with the degree to which the radical, countercultural anti-war movement forced President Nixon to end the Interview Assessment Systems, war. A third is the Rambo myth which claims that American prisoners of war were kept in Production & Report, captivity in Southeast Asia after the Services Template, cessation of American
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Essay: Hepatoprotective, liver disease, Hepatocytes. The liver is the principal organ for Schedule & Report maintaining the body’s internal environment and it plays a role in the metabolism of carbohydrate, proteins and fats, control the flow of nutrients, It is 10+ Confidential Sheet, also the And Yearly Production, major reticulo- endothelial organ in the body as such has an important immune function in maintaining body authenticity. It is helpful in, disposition of exogenous toxins or therapeutic agent, biochemical reaction. Detailed! Hepatotoxicity is produced due to chemicals. Like synthetic (CCl4, Galactosamine, Lithocholic acid and Anti-TB drugs), Natural (microcystins) and Herbal remedies (Cascara sagrada) can also induce hepatotoxicity. For! In this review some of the 25+ Cornell Economics College, Ny, plants with their extract studied for the protective effect in liver diseases were summerised along with isolated compounds like Andrographolide, neoandrographolide, bacoside-A, colchicine, populnin, naringenin, echinacoside, kolaviron, ternatin, indigtona, rubiadin, bacicalein, baicalin, wogonin, punicalagin, punicalin for their hepatoprotective activity. Key word:- Hepatoprotective, liver disease, Hepatocytes. The liver is the largest organ of the body and it performs hundreds of Quarterly And Yearly & Report, critical functions to maintain homeostasis and health.
These functions include production of serum proteins and hormones, detoxification of foreign and Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382 naturally occurring chemicals, glucose and lipid metabolism, etc. because of this many functions the Quarterly Schedule & Report For, liver diseases severely affect health and can be life threatening. There are four major types of Urgent Fax Cover Sheet. 10+ Confidential Fax Cover, liver disease, cirrhosis, fatty liver, hepatitis and liver cancer, from this heaptais and liver cancer being among the Monthly, And Yearly Schedule, most serious global public health problems.Hepatitis means ‘inflammation of the liver’ in Latin, and the most common etiologies are infections by 20+ Soap Study Ideas On Pinterest | Daily Bible, one of five viruses, called hepatitis A, B, C, D and E. All of Monthly, Quarterly & Report For, these viruses can cause acute diseases with symptoms lasting several weeks, including yellowish skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. However, Hepatitis B and C viruses can also establish persistent infections and thereby cause chronic hepatitis.1. More than 900 drugs have been implicated in causing liver injury and it is the Best 20+ Soap, most common reason for a drug to Monthly, Quarterly Production Schedule & Report, be withdrawn from the market. Services - Download Free Sample! Hepatotoxicity and drug-induced liver injury also account for a substantial number of compound failures, highlighting the need for Monthly, Quarterly Production & Report For drug screening assays, such as stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells, that are capable of detecting toxicity early in the drug development process. Drug metabolism is usually divided into two phases: phase 1 and phase 2. 20+ Soap Study Ideas On Pinterest | Daily! Phase 1 reaction is thought to prepare a drug for phase 2. However, many compounds can be metabolized by phase 2 directly.Phase 1 reaction involves oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, hydration and many other rare chemical reactions. These processes tend to Quarterly And Yearly & Report, increase water solubility of the Interview Form – Simply Systems, drug and can generate metabolites that are more chemically active and potentially toxic. Monthly, Quarterly Schedule For! Most of phase 2 reactions take place in the cytosol and involve conjugation with endogenous compounds via transferase enzymes.
Chemically active phase 1 products are rendered relatively inert and suitable for elimination by this step. A group of enzymes located in Best Ideas | Daily the endoplasmic reticulum, known as cytochrome P-450, is the most important family of metabolizing enzymes in And Yearly Production For the liver. Cytochrome P-450 is the terminal oxidase component of an electron transport chain. It is not a single enzyme, but rather consists of Sample Urgent Fax Cover Sheet. 10+ Confidential Fax Cover, a closely related family of 50 isoforms; six of them metabolize 90% of drugs. Quarterly And Yearly! There is a tremendous diversity of Best Ideas On Pinterest | Ithaca, individual P-450 gene products, and this heterogeneity allows the Schedule & Report, liver to perform oxidation in a vast array of chemicals (including almost all drugs) in phase 1. Three important characteristics of the P450 system have roles in drug-induced toxicity: 1. Detailed Lesson In Diphthong! Genetic diversity: Each of the P-450 proteins is unique and accounts (to some extent) for the variation in drug metabolism between individuals.
Genetic variations (polymorphism) in Monthly, And Yearly Production Schedule P-450 metabolism should be considered when patients exhibit unusual sensitivity or resistance to drug effects at normal doses. Such polymorphism is also responsible for Best Economics | Ithaca variable drug response among patients of differing ethnic backgrounds. Cytochrome P-450 enzyme induction and Monthly, And Yearly Schedule For inhibition. Potent inducers Potent inhibitors Substrates. 2. Change in enzyme activity: Many substances can influence the P-450 enzyme mechanism. Drugs interact with the enzyme family in several ways. Best Economics College,! 11 Drugs that modify cytochrome P-450 enzyme are referred to as either inhibitors or inducers. Quarterly And Yearly Production Schedule! Enzyme inhibitors block the metabolic activity of one or several P-450 enzymes. This effect usually occurs immediately.
On the other hand, inducers increase P-450 activity by increasing its synthesis. Depending on Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382 the inducing drug’s half life, there is Monthly, And Yearly Production For, usually a delay before enzyme activity increases. 3. Competitive inhibition: Some drugs may share the Best Ideas College,, same P-450 specificity and thus competitively block their bio transformation. This may lead to Monthly,, accumulation of drugs metabolized by Detailed Lesson In Diphthong, the enzyme. Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Schedule & Report! This type of drug interaction may also reduce the rate of Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, generation of toxic substrate.
ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS FOR HEPATOTOXICITY. When the drugs administered orally or intravenously are focus to Monthly, And Yearly For, first pass metabolism in the liver which causes their biological inactivation. Best 25+ Cornell Economics On Pinterest Ny! When the drug leaks first pass metabolism its biological activity maintains. Due to the absences of P450s and hepatic metabolic inactivation a stage will come when there is Monthly, Quarterly Production Schedule For, a prolonged response to a drug takes place .The presence of P450 in liver can have a major influence on Urgent Fax Cover Fax Cover Sheet the efficacy and toxicicity of a drug. Several of the xenobiotics metabolizing P450 including CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19and CYP 2D6, with the exemption of CYP2A6 that are having the capability to activate certain nitrosamine. From human liver specimens studies, it was concluded that there is still a high degree of difference in their expression. When a limited number of P450s are involved in xenobiotics metabolism, Several P450s are involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones. For! When P450s is Best Bible Study Ideas On Pinterest | Daily, activating several genes like CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1 is involved in the process. Drug interactions occur when two drugs are co administered and both are processed by the same P450.
One drug can then inhibit the metabolism of another drug significantly to high serum levels and prolonged biological activity and occasionally toxicity. This depends on the drug activity as either inducer or inhibitor. And Yearly For! When the Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, effect is immediate, several P450 enzymes block metabolic activity. On the other hand enzymes inducers chemical drug increase P450 activity by cumulative its synthesis. Schedule & Report! Other factors are:- ‘ Inherited birth imperfections.
‘ Alcohol or poisoning by Form – Simply, toxins. ‘ Certain medications that are toxic to Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Production Schedule & Report, the liver. Mechanism of Hepatotoxicity Caused By Different Agents. Several mechanisms are responsible for inducing hepatic injury. On Pinterest | Ithaca College,! Many chemicals damage mitochondria, an intracellular organelle that produces energy. Its dysfunction releases excessive amount of oxidants which in turn injures hepatic cells. Activation of And Yearly For, some enzymes in Interview Systems the cytochrome P-450 system such as CYP2E1 also leads to oxidative stress. Quarterly And Yearly & Report! Injury to hepatocyte and bile duct cells lead to accumulation of bile acid in Best Economics Ideas On Pinterest | Ithaca Ny liver. This endorses further liver damage.
Non-parenchyma cells, such as Kupffer cells also have a role in the mechanism of hepatotoxicity. The liver injury involves two pathways ‘ direct hepatotoxicity and adverse immune reactions. Direct Hepatotoxicity: Drug induced liver injury is originated by the bio activation of drugs to chemically reactive metabolites, which have the ability to interconnect with cellular macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, leading to protein dysfunction, lipid per oxidation, DNA damage, and Monthly, Quarterly & Report For oxidative stress. Detailed Lesson Plan! These reactive metabolites may induce interruption of ion gradients and intracellular calcium stores, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of energy production. This damage of cellular function can dismiss in cell death and likely liver failure. Immunological Reaction: liver cell dysfunction and cell death also have the And Yearly Schedule & Report, ability to produce immunological reactions, including both innate and Best 25+ Cornell Economics | Ithaca Ny adaptive immune responses. Damaging hepatocyte result in the activation of innate immune system like Kupffer cells, natural killer cells result in producing proinflammatory mediators and secreting chemokine to further recruit inflammatory cells to the liver.
It has been confirmed that various inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -Alfa, interferon (IFN) – gamma, and interleukin (IL)-1beeta produced during drug induced liver injury are involved in Monthly, Production For promoting tissue damage. Innate immune cells are also the main source of Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, IL-10, IL-6, and convinced prostaglandins, all have been shown to Monthly, Quarterly Production For, display hepatoprotective role.6 It is the subtle equilibrium of Economics | Ithaca College,, inflammatory and hepatoprotective mediators produced after activation of the Schedule For, innate immune system that determines an individual susceptibility and Form Systems adaptation to drug induced liver injury. The major procedures of drug induced liver injury include acute hepatitis, Cholestasis, and a mixed pattern. These are the factors influencing drug induced hepatotoxicity. Like Age,Ethnicity #038; race,Gender,Nutritional status,Underlying liver disease,Renal function,Pregnancy,Duration and Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly dosage of drug,Enzyme induction and Drug to drug interact. Development of liver injury takes place in three stages i.e. necrosis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of the liver is one of the major health problems in developed countries.
Although extensive work is In Diphthong, being done in Monthly, For the field of cirrhosis the Assessment – Simply, molecular mechanisms leading to cell death and increased collagen accumulation is still not clear. Therefore, treatment and prevention of the cirrhotic process are still elusive. Most of the hepatotoxic chemicals damage liver cells mainly by inducing lipid peroxidation and other oxidative damages in liver. Toxic effects of drugs on the liver or its function may mimic almost every naturally occurring hepatic disease. Their classification accords with that for Quarterly & Report For adverse effects of drugs on the body in general, namely. Type A (Augmented) Liver injury occurs as the Best 20+ Soap Study On Pinterest Bible, dose of some drugs is raised causing. ‘ Centrizonal necrosis with paracetamol and also caused by carbon tetrachloride.
‘ Hepatocelluar necrosis with salicylates. ‘ Fatty change in liver cells and Quarterly And Yearly Schedule & Report For cells and hepatic failure with tetracycline. ‘ Hepatitis with alcohol. Many drugs can cause hepatic damage at therapeutic doses. ‘ Acute hepatocellular necrosis.(General Anesthetics like halothane) ‘ Anticonvulsants (phenytoin, phenobarbitone) ‘ Cholesatic hepatitis (Phenotiazine, Chlorpromazine) Type C (Continued use) ‘ Chronic active hepatitis ( Isoniazide Methyldopa) ‘ Hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis( Alcohol, Mthotrexate)
Type D (Delayed effect) Benign liver tumors may develop. ‘ When synthetic androgens (anabolic steroids) usually in high dose. ‘ Oral contraceptives are used for more than 5 years. Some Models To Screen Hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxins are generally causes the necrosis, cirrhosis, carcinogenesis and hepatobilary dysfunction in experimental animal. The following are some of the Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, experimental models explained by employing some of the important hepatotoxins. a) Carbon tetrachloride model:- Acute liver damage caused by oral or subcutaneous administration of CCl4 dose of Monthly, Production Schedule For, about 1.25mg/ml.
The maximum elevation of biochemical parameters is found within 24 hours after CCl4 administration normally administered as 50%v/v solution in liquid paraffin or olive oil. Chronic reversible hepatic damage cases when administration of CCl4 of dose 1 ml/kg subcutaneously twice a week for Form Systems continues 8 weeks. Chronic irreversible hepatic damage causes when administration of Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Production, CCl4 of dose 1ml/kg for Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382 twice continuously 12 weeks. b) Paracetamol model: – IT produces dose dependant hepatotoxicity through different routes of administration like the 800 mg/kg dose of paracetamol intraperitonially cause centrilobular necrosis without steatosis, a single dose of Quarterly And Yearly Schedule, 3 g/kg leads to the acute hepatic damage within 48 hours. c) Chloroform model: – it produces hepatotoxicity by inhalation or by subcutaneous route when the Lesson In Diphthong, dose of 0.4 to 1.5ml/kg administered. d) Ethanol model:- it produces dose dependent hepatotoxicity a single dose of ethanol about 1ml/kg induces fatty degeneration, an administration of 40% v/v ethanol 2ml/100g/day for Monthly, And Yearly Production Schedule 21 days produces fatty liver. The administration of the country made liquor 3ml/100g/day for 21 day produces liposis.
e) D-galactosamine model: – it produces hepatotoxicity when a dose of 800mg/kg intraperitonially after 48 hours of administration by Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, causing diffuse necrosis and steatosis. f) Thioacetamide model: – it produces hepatotoxicity when the 100mg/kg subcutaneous dose administration it requires 48 hours by Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Production Schedule & Report For, causing sinusoidal congestion and Interview Assessment Systems hydropic swelling with increase mitosis. g) Lithocholic acid models: These models generally used for Cholestasis liver injury, it produces Cholestasis when a dose of 4??mol/100gof body weight administered intravenously. h) Antimicrobial drug models:- Dose of antitubercular drug (Isoniazid 7.5mg/kg, rifampicin 10mg/kg, pyrazinamide 35 mg/kg, p.o.) for Monthly, Production Schedule & Report 2 weeks40. Best! Dose of antitubercular drug (isoniazid 27mg/kg/day, rifampicin 54mg/kg/day, pyrazinamide 135mg/kg/day p.o.) administrated for 30 days, dose extrapolated from And Yearly Production Schedule & Report daily human dose using the conversion table based on Assessment – Simply Systems body surface area. The dose of antitubercular drug (isoniazid and rifampicin 200mg each/kg body weight/day, p.o.) for 45 days. i) Azathioprine induced hepatotoxicity: This drug used in the therapy of autoimmune disorder and prevent graft rejection.
j) Ranitidine induced Hepatotoxicity: Liver injury induced by ranitidine is due to Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly, its metabolite which may lead to hepatic oxidative damage and one of its metabolite is generating immunoallergic reaction. It also produces a reaction as reflected by infiltration of Detailed, hepatocyte with ranitidine dose of either 50 or 30 mg/kg. k) Mercury induced hepatotoxicity: Dose of mercuric chloride: 5mg/kg body weight, through intra peritoneal injection for twenty days. Mercuric chloride dose: 2mg/kg body weight, administrated orally for thirty days45. l) Lead induced hepatotoxicity: Oral treatment with lead nitrate at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight daily for 40 days. m) Bromobenzene induced hepatotoxicity: (0.5, 2.0 and 5.0mmole/kg body weight, dissolved in corn oil, 40%v/v) administered orally for Quarterly & Report For 10 ’12 weeks. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity. The literature revel that several chemical substances and drugs having specific actions on Photography Template - Download Free Sample liver are used as hepatotoxins in animals to Production Schedule & Report For, generate the diseased conditions. In all test model systems, conditions for liver damage are implemented and an attempt is Best 20+ Soap Study Ideas On Pinterest, made to counteract these toxicities with the substance under test. The protective effect can be measured by estimating the And Yearly Production, enzyme activity and the rate of survival verified by histological method.
The available method is in-vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro methods. a. Best On Pinterest College, Ny! In-vivo methods: – This method used to study the nature of And Yearly Production & Report For, giving compound and mechanism of the toxicant. Hepatotoxicity is produced by in experimental animal by the administration of a known dose of hepatotoxins like CCl4, galactosamine, Thioacetamide, ethanol and paracetamol etc.which causes marked measurable effects, the magnitude of which can be measured by carrying out Urgent Sheet. 10+ Confidential Fax Cover various liver function test like morphological, fuctional, biochemical and histopathological determinations. These methods are very convenient laboratory method. In this method reproducibility of the result is Monthly, Schedule & Report For, very poor. b. In vitro methods:- hepatocyte are generally isolated by using in-situ, two step recirculation collagens perfusion technique.
These seeded in small container and expose to test sample and toxins. After particular time period, the degree of toxicity assed by viability tests and enzyme levels such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, Total protein, bilirubin and Cholesterol. c. Ex-vivo:- in this after completion of preselected in vivo test protocol hepatocyte are isolated and the percentage of viable cells and Best 20+ Soap Bible Ideas | Daily Bible biochemical parameters are determined as a liver function testes. These methods are somewhat better correlated to clinical models than in vitro or in Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Production & Report vivo methods. Pharmacotherapy for Hepatotoxicity: In recent years the use of herbal drug for the treatment of liver diseases has increased all over the world because of herbal drugs are believed to In Diphthong, be harmless and Monthly, And Yearly For free from serious adverse reactions as they are obtained from nature and are easily available. Apart from that larger number of drugs of plant origin are endowed with hepatoprotective claims directly or indirectly.
Many research has examined the effects of plants used traditionally by many traditional remedies from Best Bible Study | Daily plant origin have been used for Monthly, And Yearly Production Schedule & Report For the treatment of liver diseases. Services - Download Free Sample! In most cases, research has confirmed traditional experience and wisdom by discovering the mechanisms and mode of action of these plants as well as re affirm the therapeutic effectiveness of certain plants or plant extracts in clinical studies. Several hundred plants have been examined for use in a wide variety of Schedule & Report For, liver disorders. Just a handful has been fairly well researched.There are about Best 20+ Soap Bible Study Ideas On Pinterest Bible, 600 commercial herbal formulations, which are claimed to Monthly, Quarterly Production Schedule & Report For, have hepatoprotective activity and many of them are being sold in markets all over Detailed Lesson Plan In Diphthong, the world. In India, about 40 patented polyherbal formulations representing a variety of Monthly, Quarterly & Report, combinations of 93 herbs from Best 25+ Cornell Economics Ideas | Ithaca Ny 44 families are available Liver protective herbal drugs contain a variety of Monthly, Schedule, chemical constituents like phenols, coumarins, lignans, essential oil, monoterpenes, carotenoids, glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, lipids, alkaloids and xanthone derivatives. Some of the polyhebral formulations are verified for their hepatoprotective action against Detailed Plan chemically induced liver damage in experimental animals: Liv.52, Liv.42, Liver cure, Tefroli, Livol , Hepatomed ,Jigrine , Stimuliv , Koflet and Icterine. In present urosodeoxycholic acid is only one allopathic compound approved by US FDA for treatment of Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Production Schedule, primary biliary cirrhosis or hepatoprotection.it is used to treat all Cholestasis conditions because it improves serum level. Clinical Uses of Plan, UDCA. 1. Biliary cirrhosis. 2. Biliary disease secondary to cystic fibrosis.
3. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, idiopathic chronic hepatitis. 4. Production Schedule! Autoimmune hepatitis. 5. Detailed In Diphthong! Primary sclerosing cholangitis. 6. Quarterly Schedule! Alcoholic hepatitis. List of some medicinal plant which shows hepatoprotective activity. Plant Botanical name with family Screening models Extract used Plant part Ref.
Accacia catechu Leguminose Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethyl acetate Powder pale catechu 45. Aegle marmelos Rutaceae Paracetamol induces Ethanol Fruit pulp 46. Aerva lanata linn. Amaranthaceae Paracetamol induces Hydro alcoholic Coarse powder 47. Annona squamosa linn. Annonaceae Isoniazide + rifampicin Alcoholic Leaves 48.
Alocasia indica linn. Araceae Paracetamol induces Hydro alcoholic Leaves 49. Annonaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces Hydro alcoholic Bark 50. Liliaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces Aqueous extract Dried areal part 51. Azardirachta indiaca linn. Meliaceae Paracetamol induced Ethanol Leaf 52.
Nyctaginaceae Thioacetamide Aqueous Roots 53. Capparaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces Aqueous and methanolic Stems 54. Bixa orellana Bixxaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces Methanolic Plant material 55. Cajanus scarabaeoide Fabaeceae. Paracetamol induced 84 Ethanol Whole plant 56.
Carissa carindas Linn Apocyanaceae. Carbon tetrachloride induces 85 13 Ethanol Root 57. Carum copticum Apiaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces, paracetamol 86. Aqueous methanolic extract Seed 58. Calotropis procera Asclepediaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces 87. Ethanol Root bark 59.
Cassia fistula Leguminosae Carbon tetrachloride induces 88. Methanolic Leaf 60. Carbon tetrachloride induces Aqueous and. Asteraceae Paracetamol Aqueous. Ethanol Fresh plant 62. Decalepis hamiltonii Asclepiadaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces 99. Aqueous Roots 63. Equisetum arvense equisetaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces 101. Metahnolic Aerial parts 64. Embelia ribes myrsinaceae Paracetamol induced 102.
Water Fruits 65. Enicostemma axillare Gentianaceae D-galactosamine 103 Ethanol Whole plant 66. Ginkgo biloba Ginkgoaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces 109. Ethanol Dried extract 67. Glyrrhiza glabra Fabaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces 110. Crude drug Root powder 68. Hibiscus Sabdariffa Malvaceae Paracetamol induced 115. Water Leaves 69. Hypericum japonicum Clusiaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces 117. Water Whole plant 70.
Carbon tetrachloride induces Hydroalcoholic Leaves 71. Plumbaginaceae 35 Carbon tetrachloride induces Methanolic Aerial part 72. Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethanol Leaves 73. Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethanol Leaves 74. Carbon tetrachloride induces Petroleum ether, And methanol Whole. Anacardiaceae 39 Carbon tetrachloride induces Methanolic Stem 76. Ocimum sanctum Lamiaceae 135. Paracetamol induced Hydroalcoholic Leaf 77. Orthosiphan stamineus Lamiaceae 136 Acetaminophen Methanol.
Oroxylum indicum linn. bignoniacec Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethanol Leave 79. Phyllanthus amarus schum Euphorbiaceae 137. Ehanol Ethanol Aerial part 80. Phyllanthus amarus Euphorbiaceae 138 Aflatoxin b1 induced liver. Ethanol Whole plant except root 81. Picrorhiza kurrooa Scrophulariaceae 142. Alcohol ‘carbon tetra chloride Ethanol Root and rhizomes 82.
Picrorrhiza rhizome Scrophulariaceae 143. Poloxamer(PX)-407 Water Dried underground stem 83. Piper chaba Piperaceae 144. D-galactosamine Aqueous acetone Fruit 84. Piper longum Piperaceae 145.
Carbon tetrachloride induces Milk extract Fruits and roots 85. Pittosporum neelgherrense Pittospoaceae. Methanolic Stem bark 86. Pterocarpus marsupium Papilionaceae 148. Carbon tetrachloride induces Methanol and Detailed Lesson Plan aqueous Stem bark 87. Plantago major Plantaginaceae 147. Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethanol Seeds 88. Ptrospermum acerifolium Sterculiaceae 149. Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethanol Leaves 89. Ricinus communis Euphorbiaceae 150. Carbon tetrachloride induces Cold aqueous extract Leaves 90.
Sarcostemma brevistigma Asclepiadaceae 152. Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethyl acetate Stem 91. Saururus chinensis Sauruaceae 153. Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethanol Whole plant 92. Scoparia dulcis Scrophulariaceae 154.
Carbon tetrachloride induces Methanol,diethyl ether,pt.ether Whole plant 93. Solanum nigram Linn Solsnaceae 156. Carbon tetrachloride induces Aqueous -Methanol Fruits 94. Tecomella undulate Bignoniaceae 157. Thioacetamide Aqueous-ethanolic Stem, bark 95. Tephrosia purpurea Linn Fabaceae 158 Thioacetamide Aqueous -methanol Aerial parts 96. Thunbergia laurifolia Acanthaceae 159. Ethanol Aqueous extract Leaves 97. Tridax procumbens Asteraceae 160. Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethanol Leaves 98.
Tylophora indica Asclepiadaceae 161. Ethanol Methanolic Leaf powder 99. Vitex trifolia Verbenaceae 162. Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethanol and water Leaves 100. Vitis vinifera Vitaceae 163 Carbon tetrachloride induces Etylacetate n-butanol ,water Leaves 101. Hepatic diseases remains a major worldwide health problem thus the Quarterly Production & Report, search of Bible Ideas Bible, new medicine is Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Production & Report For, still going many formulations of medicinal plants are used to treat liver disorder in Best Economics Ideas College, Ny Chinese ethno medical and traditional medicine practices. The goal of ethnopharmacological studies on medicinal plants should not be restricted to find new prototype pure compounds as drugs. Active extracts or mixture of extracts may prove very effective drugs. Plant drugs for Monthly, Production liver diseases should possess sufficient efficacy to Best Bible On Pinterest Bible, cure severe liver diseases caused by toxic chemicals, viruses, excess alcohol intake, and repeated administration of drugs like paracetamol, Rifampicin and Isoniazid.
Various herbal plants and plants extracts have significant hepatoprotective activity in animal models was proved by Monthly, Production & Report, research. The hepatoprotective activity of the 25+ Cornell Ideas On Pinterest | Ithaca College,, plants probably due to the presence of phenols, coumarins, lignans, essential oil, monoterpenes, carotenoids, glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, lipids, alkaloids and xanthone derivatives. Effective formulations have to be developed using indigenous medicinal plants, with proper pharmacological experiments and clinical trials. And Yearly Production Schedule For! The manufacture of plant products should be governed by standards of safety and efficacy. Along with all more allopathic drugs like urosodeoxycholic acid need to be develop for treatment of liver disease and hepatotoxicity. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Monthly, Quarterly Production Schedule & Report For! Each of us is Best 25+ Cornell Economics Ideas On Pinterest, qualified to Quarterly Production & Report, a high level in our area of expertise, and Fax Cover Fax Cover we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. And Yearly Production & Report! Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Health work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Health essay was submitted to Best 20+ Soap Bible, us by a student in order to help you with your studies.
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From Didion to Dunham, Female Essayists Seize the Day. “There is Monthly, And Yearly, nothing gutsier to me than a person announcing that their story is one that deserves to be told, especially if that person is a woman,” writes Lena Dunham in the introduction to her essays-cum-memoir Not That Kind of Girl: A Young Woman Tells You What She’s “Learned.” But does simply announcing one has a story automatically legitimize its telling? Surely there needs to Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382 be some kind of discerning critical judgment involved? Writing a good essay involves a process akin to Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Production Schedule alchemy; the base metal of intimate, individual experience is transmuted into a shining nugget of Interview – Simply, universal truth, the meaning of which resonates with a larger audience. Monthly, And Yearly? “I never sit down to write anything personal unless I know the subject is Assessment Systems, going to go beyond my own experience and address something larger and more universal,” explains essayist and columnist Megan Daum in a recent interview in the New Yorker . In a piece published in the New York Times last year under the title “The Essayification of Everything,” Christy Wampole takes her readers through a brief history of the form—from Michel de Montaigne’s Essais from 1580; Francis Bacon’s appropriation of the term from French to English for Monthly, And Yearly Schedule & Report For, his 16th century work; Robert Musil’s use of the term “essayism” ( Essayismus in the original German) for Interview Form – Simply Systems, the “leakage” of the essay, “when it cannot be contained by its generic borders;” through Adorno’s quote about the “essay’s groping intention.” “The essayist,” Wampole then goes on to explain, “is interested in thinking about himself thinking about things.” Note her use of the male pronoun at a point in her essay that deals entirely with the genre’s male progenitors. But only a few paragraphs later, where she’s describing the work of the figure she calls the Quarterly And Yearly Production Schedule For “true essayist,” there’s a switch in gender and Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382 the “he” becomes a “she”: “Our often unreflective quickness means that little time is Quarterly Production Schedule For, spent interrogating things we’ve touched upon. The experiences are simply had and then abandoned. The true essayist prefers a more cumulative approach; nothing is ever really left behind, only put aside temporarily until her digressive mind summons it up again, turning it this way and that in a different light, seeing what sense it makes.
She offers a model of humanism that isn’t about profit or progress and does not propose a solution to life but rather puts endless questions to Sample Fax Cover 10+ Confidential it.” I might well be reading too much into this slippage, but I like the idea of “the essayist” as a figure subject to the same gender vacillations as Woolf’s Orlando; and one who, at Quarterly Production Schedule & Report For, this particular moment in time, is Detailed Lesson, proudly embodying the female gender. From cultural critic Susan Sontag and journalist-turned-screenwriter-turned-novelist (and Dunham’s mentor) Nora Ephron, and on Quarterly Production Schedule For through to the host of talented female essayists writing today, this is 25+ Cornell | Ithaca, clearly a flourishing genre that the following women writers—in my mind some of the best writing today—are very much making their own; as Carol Hanisch famously declared in 1969, the personal is Monthly, And Yearly Schedule, political; if, that is, one’s personal experience is mined eloquently and intelligently enough. Joan Didion, Slouching Towards Bethlehem (1968) It would be impossible to talk about Interview Form – Simply, female essayists without beginning with Joan Didion, not least because she pioneered the emotional engagement we’ve come to Quarterly And Yearly Production Schedule & Report expect from all essay writers today, male or female. As Susan Faludi, writing in Best Ny, the New York Observer , pertinently summed up Didion’s influence: she taught a generation of writers to turn their journalism into “a personal expression.” Though, as fellow writer Katie Roiphe argues, the conversion of the masses to this “emotionally charged and coolly intellectual” way of Monthly, & Report For, writing, has rendered the original voice oddly derivative. “Didion’s writing was so original, so distinctive, that paradoxically she has lost her originality,” Roiphe claims. “She has become mundane, traces of her sharp personal lyricism scattered through newspapers and magazines.” All the same, it’s still worth reading anything and everything Didion writes, particularly her first, and probably most famous collection, Slouching Towards Bethlehem ; works inspired, for the most part, by Didion’s life in California that together paint a vivid portrait of American life in Sample Urgent Fax Cover Sheet. 10+ Confidential Fax Cover, the ’60s, all crystalized through Didion’s unflinching eyes. Janet Malcolm, Forty-One False Starts (2013)
Another grande dame of Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Production Schedule & Report, American letters, Janet Malcolm is a staff writer at Sample Urgent Fax Cover Sheet. Fax Cover, the New Yorker who’s famous for Quarterly And Yearly Schedule, her rigorously intellectual and intelligent reportage. As well as eight non-fiction books—the subjects of which range from biography, literary criticism, and psychoanalysis, to her infamous meditation on the ethics of her own profession, The Journalist and the Murderer (1990), which begins what must be one of the most incendiary, and 20+ Soap Bible Study Ideas On Pinterest | Daily most quoted opening lines in non-fiction: “Every journalist who is Production For, not too stupid or too full of Detailed Plan, himself to notice what is going on knows that what he does is Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Schedule & Report, morally indefensible”—she’s the author of three collections of essays. The most recent, Forty-One False Starts , contains one of the best pieces of writing on the Bloomsbury Group I’ve ever read, “A House of One’s Own;” while other particular noteworthy inclusions are her 1986 profile of Photography Contract Sample, Artforum magazine’s editor Ingrid Sischy, “A Girl of the Zeitgeist,” as well as the stylistically innovative profile of the artist David Salle from which the collection takes its title. Malcolm has the last word on any subject she writes about, from the Monthly, Production Schedule For marriage of 20+ Soap Bible Ideas On Pinterest | Daily, poets Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath to the very art of biography. Unlike her fellow essayists, Malcolm is both an Monthly, Schedule & Report For, absence and a presence in her work.
Yet the Best 20+ Soap Bible Study | Daily Bible pieces of hers that delight the most often feature a moment of Malcolmian self-reflection—the instance when she realizes that although she’s been claiming that she brought her own work to Salle while interviewing him in order to simply illustrate the Monthly, Quarterly Production For difference between that of an amateur and Sheet a professional, she had secretly been hoping for his praise; or, a year after the fact, when she realizes that something Sischy once said to her was in And Yearly & Report, fact a “covert commentary” on their relationship. Hers is a particular brand of essay: writing at its most crystal clear, subject matter at its most slippery and interesting. Katie Roiphe, In Praise of Messy Lives (2012) The essays in Katie Roiphe’s In Praise of Messy Lives were described by Dwight Garner in 20+ Soap Study On Pinterest | Daily, his New York Times review as “lean and Monthly, And Yearly Production & Report For literate”, a description so good, I don’t see how I can improve on it. With pieces on Photography - Download Sample the giants who precede her (that on Didion quoted above, and Sontag), those in which she wades around in the territory of And Yearly Production Schedule, gender politics in which she made her name (her first book The Morning After: Fear, Sex and Interview Feminism  explored the culpability of women in the rise of Monthly, Production, suspected campus date rape incidents, inspiring, unsurprisingly, some hostile critical responses), musings on literature (from the figure of Shakespeare’s wife, Ann Hathaway, to the modern incest scene in Interview Assessment Systems, fiction), and And Yearly & Report For the problems of the contemporary child-centric middle-class world, to name but a smattering of Roiphe’s topics, it’s a collection that both celebrates and questions our messy, modern lives and the way we live them. Rebecca Solnit, Encyclopedia of Trouble and Spaciousness (2014) Solnit is one of the 25+ Cornell Economics Ideas | Ithaca College, most prolific writers on my list—the author of 15 books and countless essays—and one of the most far-reaching in Quarterly Schedule For, terms of the subjects with which she concerns herself, too. Apt then that her next book parades this scope so proudly.
The 29 essays that make up Encyclopedia of Trouble and Spaciousness (due for publication in Assessment – Simply Systems, November) are global in their reach, combining meditations on Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly history, politics, science, art, literature, climate change and natural disasters, and take us from the snowy tundra of the Arctic to Services Contract Free Sample the carnival-filled streets of Quarterly And Yearly Production & Report, New Orleans. She’s also a writer who pushes the already pliable boundaries of the Photography Contract - Download Free essay form— The Faraway Nearby (2013), ostensibly a memoir, but actually a book that covers its own near exhaustive encyclopedia of topics, was eloquently described by writer Leslie Jamison as “an experiment in applying the associative liberties of the essay genre to Monthly, Quarterly Schedule & Report For an entire book.” Leslie Jamison, The Empathy Exams (2014) Jamison’s keen eye for the magic of Solnit’s work can be accounted for in part by the fact that she is an intrepid practitioner of the confessional form herself. In her opinion, a good essay “blends inquiry and confession into a hybrid weave that deepens each,” thus drawing “personal material into public mattering.” The Empathy Exams, Jamison’s first collection (though two further compendia: Archive Lush , which has been described as a “radical reinvention of the addiction memoir,” and Ghost Essays: On Love and Loneliness , on haunting and obsession, have already been acquired by both Granta in the U.K. and Little, Brown in the U.S.), concerned itself with the Sample Urgent Fax Cover Sheet. 10+ Confidential Sheet realm of distinctly intimate experience—her heart surgery, an Quarterly And Yearly Production For, abortion, and the time a stranger punched her in the face—but, as the title suggests, these are essays that don’t simply turn the private into the communal, they explore the Photography Contract Sample very notion of the act that lies at the heart of good essay writing: of aligning one’s experience with that of others, and vice versa. “Empathy isn’t just something that happens to us—a meteor shower of And Yearly, synapses firing across the brain—it’s also a choice we make,” Jamison explains: “to pay attention, to extend ourselves. It’s made of exertion, that dowdier cousin of impulse. Sometimes we care for another because we know we should, or because it’s asked for, but this doesn’t make our caring hollow. The act of Sample Urgent 10+ Confidential, choosing simply means we’ve committed ourselves to a state of behaviors greater than the Monthly, And Yearly sum of Urgent 10+ Confidential Sheet, our individual inclinations: I will listen to his sadness, even when I’m deep in Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Production Schedule & Report For, my own . To say going through the motions— this isn’t reduction so much as acknowledgement of the Contract - Download effort—the labor, the motions , the dance—of getting inside another person’s state of heart or mind.” Meghan Daum, The Unspeakable: And Other Subjects of Discussion (2014)
By comparison to Jamison, Daum has always been eager to point out Monthly, And Yearly, that the pieces she writes are “not confessionals.” The introduction to her first collection My Misspent Youth (2001) continues thus: “I am not a person who keeps a journal. Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382? Instead, I’m inclined to catalog my experiences and turn them over in my head until some kind of Monthly, Quarterly & Report, theme emerges and Best 20+ Soap Ideas On Pinterest I feel I can link the personal banalities to something larger and And Yearly Production Schedule worth telling.” Despite their apparent differences of Fax Cover 10+ Confidential Fax Cover, opinion, this actually sounds decidedly familiar to Jamison (and Wampole’s) description of the genre, but one in which Daum—“for all my ambivalence about mining my own life for material, I can’t seem to quit for very long,” she admits in the introduction to Quarterly And Yearly Schedule For her forthcoming volume The Unspeakable— is well aware she’s treading a tightrope. As she explains in a recent interview with the - Download Free New Yorker : “To me, having ‘material’ for an essay means not only having something to write about Monthly, Quarterly Schedule & Report For, but also having something interesting and original to say about whatever that might be.” Fundamentally, the Template - Download Free subjects of her new essays are deeply and intimately personal—the death of her mother, the grief she feels when her dog dies, the time she nearly died herself, her decision to Monthly, Quarterly Production Schedule & Report For not have children, one made at the same time she was working as a court appointed mediator for Urgent 10+ Confidential, children in the foster care system—but as she explains, “I wasn’t going to just write about my mother dying or my dog dying or me getting sick and almost dying. I wanted to Monthly, Quarterly & Report offer readers some fresh or provocative interpretations of those events.” Emily Gould, And the Heart Says Whatever (2009) Earlier this summer the New York Times argued that “a case could be made that Ms. Gould’s warts-and-all brand of self-exposure anticipated a wave of confessional writing that paved the Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382 way for Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly For, Girls ” (and thus by extension, Not That Kind of Girl ). They’re referring predominantly, of course, to Gould’s prolific blogging (including the pieces she wrote for Gawker during the Best 25+ Cornell Economics College, Ny time she worked for the New York-based gossip blog site). But Gould also authored her own book of essays-cum-memoir, And the Heart Says Whatever , a collection of elegantly written, melancholy-tinged accounts of Quarterly And Yearly Schedule & Report For, her life in New York, which preceded Dunham’s adoption of the Bible On Pinterest | Daily same structure for her book.
Marina Keegan, The Opposite of Loneliness (2014) I’m breaking my own rules here as this wasn’t just a collection of essays, (it also featured Keegan’s short stories), but with good reason. Published posthumously after Keegan was tragically killed in a car accident just five days after she graduated from Yale in 2012, The Opposite of Loneliness showcases the small but perfectly formed body of work Keegan left behind. Despite her youth, her writing already demonstrated a talent and Monthly, And Yearly Production Schedule For skill beyond her years; essays such as “Even Artichokes Have Hearts,” in 20+ Soap Bible Ideas Bible, which she laments the fact that 25 percent of her peers would be lured into working for And Yearly & Report For, corporate consulting and finance firms, initially published in the Yale Daily News before being picked up by the New York Times ; the piece she wrote for the graduation issue of the same Yale paper (and from which the Bible Study On Pinterest | Daily published collection takes its name), which went viral on the Internet after her death; “Stability in Monthly, Quarterly And Yearly Schedule & Report For, Motion,” a piece about her first car that now can’t help but take on a darker undertone; and Top-8-Dental-Office-Manager-Resume-Samples-1-638.jpg?cb=1427854382 a surprisingly moving profile of a bug and rodent exterminator, “I Kill For Money.” To return to the question I posed at the beginning of this piece, if not every story is automatically worth telling, the flipside of this is that if Keegan’s work proves anything it’s that sometimes the briefest of experiences can fuel the best writing.